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Volcano-tectonic interactions at Sabancaya

volcano, Peru (2013-2018): Eruptions, magmatic


inflation, moderate earthquakes, and aseismic slip
Patricia MacQueen1, Francisco Delgado1, Kevin Reath1, Matthew E Pritchard1,
Paul Lundgren2, Pietro Milillo2, Orlando Macedo3, Victor Aguilar3,
Ivonne Alejandra Lazarte Zerpa4, Roger Machacca4, Rafael Miranda4

1CornellUniversity, 2Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology,


3Universidad Nacional de San Agustin, 4INGEMMET Volcano Observatory (OVI)

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How do we interpret tectonic earthquakes in
volcanic areas?
Static stress transfer vs. Fluid pressure pulses through aquifer

Slip promoted

Slip discouraged

King et al (2014)
Favored mechanism for “distal Vts” 2
(White & McCausland , 2016)
Are recent tectonic earthquakes at Sabancaya
related to magmatic intrusion?
Talk Overview:
1.  Sabancaya as a
test case for vt
mechanism
2.  Static stress
transfer
promotes 2017
From PhotoVolcanica earthquakes
3.  Both static stress
transfer and fluid
pressure may
promote fault
creep, early 3
earthquakes
Thermal and
200
Degassing
Emissions (kt)
Annual SO2

seismic unrest after


0
a long repose
120
°C Above Background

Thermal
•  Unrest and eruption
after >10 yrs repose
•  Strong tectonic
2000 2006 2012
0
seismicity before
20 2014 eruption
# Earthquakes

Local earthquakes >4 Mw

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2002 2006 2012 2018


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August 2014 phreatic eruption
Figures from Kevin Reath, Orlando Macedo
Magmatic deformation detected prior to 2014 eruption
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Hualca Hualca TerraSAR-X
Hualca Hualca Sentinel-1 Fase 1 Fase 2 Inflation detected between
Line of Sight (cm)(cm)

Sabancaya TerraSAR-X ! 
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Sabancaya Sentinel-1
2013 and 2018
Line of Sight Displacement

20 !  Start time TBD

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Can intrusion drive earthquakes
through static stress changes,
Desplazamiento

or is increased fluid pressure


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required?

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Continuous ash plumes begin
0
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Year
Año

August 2014 phreatic eruption 5


Figure from Francisco Delgado
Ground
Earthquake:
Apr. 30, 2017
displacement at
Creeping fault
Sabancaya
Net displacement (LOS)
Earthquake:
(Mw. 5.9, July 2013) Jan. 10, 2017 Mar. 2015 to Jan. 2018
Hualca Hualca
Sentinel 1A/B
Track 47, Ascending

Sabancaya

Ampato

LOS
Inflation

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Modeling
Earthquake:
Apr. 30, 2017 earthquakes from
Dip: 50.7°
InSAR data
Depth: 2 km Net displacement (LOS)
Mw: 5.2 Earthquake:
Jan. 10, 2017 Mar. 2015 to Jan. 2018
Hualca Hualca
Sentinel 1A/B
Dip: 88.7° Track 47, Ascending
Depth: 1.6 km
Mw: 5.1
Sabancaya
Date InSAR Local NEIC
Ampato 10 January Depth 1.6 12 3.9
2017
LOS Mw 5.1 4.4 4.5

30 April Depth 2 6.1, 8.7, 13, 10, 10,


2017 13.6, 12.1 10
Mw 5.2 5.2, 4.1, 4, 7
5.1,
4, 4.5 4.6, 4.4
Recent
earthquakes are
consistent with
regional faulting
Net displacement (LOS)
Hualca Hualca
Mar. 2015 to Jan. 2018
Sentinel 1A/B
Track 47, Ascending
Sabancaya

Ampato

LOS

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Faults and lineaments from Jay et al., (2015) and Antayhua et al. (2002)
Modeling the Inflation Source

Best fit point source:


ΔV = 30 x 106 m3/yr
Range: ~40-70 x 106 m3/yr
Depth = 13 km
Range: ~11-15 km

~12 km west of
1992-1996 inflation,
similar depth
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Inflation promotes earthquakes
Predicted Coulomb static stress change from inflation source (1 year)

Apr. Apr.

Jan. Jan.

Strike: 293 Strike: 295


Dip: 88.7 Dip: 50.7
Rake: -114 Rake: -118
Receiver: Jan. 10, 2017 earthquake Receiver: Apr. 30, 2017 earthquake
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Creep not just afterslip from July 2013 earthquake
~ 6 months after (Jay et al., 2015)
~ 1.5 to 4 years after (this study)

11/2013 to 05/2014: ~2.6 cm/yr

•  Expected afterslip should be <2 yrs


(Lienkaemper and McFarland, 2017) 03/2015 to 01/2018: ~0.8 cm/yr
•  2015-2018 slip rate ~30% of prev.
observed afterslip – too large! 11
Inflation
promotes slip on
creeping fault

•  Why aseismic creep July 2013


and not seismic slip? Mw 5.8
•  Only instance of fault
creep on a volcano not
related to flank
instability?

Predicted Coulomb static stress change from inflation source (1 year)


Receiver fault: Strike = 90°, Dip = 62°, Rake= -90°

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Degassing
200 Fluid pressure may
Emissions (kt)

promote creep, early


Annual SO2

earthquakes

Known inflation
0
120
°C Above Background

Thermal !  Increased degassing,


thermal beginning 2012
!  Increased pore pressure
0 promotes fault creep
2000 2006 2012 (e.g., Avouac 2015)
20
!  Inflation start time
# Earthquakes

Local earthquakes >4 Mw


undetermined
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2002 2006 2012 2018


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Figures from Kevin Reath, Orlando Macedo Fluid pressure?
Summary
!  Sabancaya offers excellent test case for probing interaction between
magmatic inflation and tectonic seismic activity
!  Large tectonic earthquakes
!  Significant local, active faults
!  Deep-seated inflation
!  Are recent earthquakes at Sabancaya related to magmatic inflation?
!  Yes - Static stress change from inflation promotes slip on 2017
earthquake fault planes
!  Both static stress change and fluid pressure may promote fault creep,
early seismicity

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