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# NMIT, Bangalore

Data Mining Question Bank

Dept of ISE

**NITTE MEENAKSHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
**

(AN AUTONOMOUS INSTITUTION)

(AFFILIATED TO VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, BELGAUM, APPROVED BY AICTE & GOVT.OF KARNATAKA)

**DATA MINING (ISE751)
**

Sem: 7th Dept: ISE

UNIT-I

1. What is Data Mining? Explain the process of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) with a

Credits: 3

diagram

2. What are the different motivating challenges faced by Data Mining Algorithms? Explain each of them 3. Explain the origins of Data Mining with diagram 4. What is predictive modeling? Explain with example 5. Discuss Association Analysis and Cluster Analysis with examples 6. What are the different types of attributes? Explain with a table 7. In case of record data, what is transaction / market based data, Data Matrix and Sparse Data Matrix?

**Explain with examples.
**

8. In case of ordered data, Explain Sequential Data, Sequence Data, Time Series Data and Spatial Data

with examples

9. What do you mean by Data Preprocessing? Explain Aggregation and Sampling in this respect 10. Explain Dimensionality reduction in Data Preprocessing 11. What are the different variations of Graph Data? Explain with diagrams 12. What is Feature Subset Selection? What are the different approaches for doing this? Explain the

**architecture of Feature subset selection with a diagram
**

13. In case of Feature Creation, Explain the following with examples:

**i) Feature Extraction ii) Mapping Data to new space
**

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NMIT, Bangalore

Data Mining Question Bank

Dept of ISE

**iii) Feature Construction
**

14. What do you mean by Binarization? Explain the conversion of a Categorical Attribute to 3 binary

**attributes? What is its drawback? How is it overcome?
**

15. How is Discretization of Continuous Attributes done? In this regard, Explain unsupervised and

supervised Discretization.

16. What is variable transformation? In this regard, explain

i) Simple Functional Transformation ii) Normalization/Standardization

17. Explain the following terms:

i) Outliers

(ii) Precision (iii) Accuracy

(iv) Bias

18. Explain Data Mining Tasks in detail with examples 19. Define and explain the terms:

i) Attribute

(ii) Measurement

(iii) Data Set (iv) Sparsity

20. What are Discrete and Continuous Attributes? Explain the term resolution. 21. What is the curse of Dimensionality? Explain Data Quality issues related to applications

UNIT-II

1. Give the formal definition of classification. What is classification model? Explain with diagram 2. With a diagram, explain the general approach for building a classification model

3. For the Nodes N1 & N2 given below, calculate the Gini Index, Entropy and Classification Error. Based on this, mention which node is suitable for splitting

Node N1 Class=0

Count 0

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Class=1 6

**Data Mining Question Bank
**

Node N2 Class=0 Class=1 Count 1 5

Dept of ISE

4. What is confusion matrix? Explain the confusion matrix for a 2-class problem with an example. In

**this regard, explain Accuracy and error rate of prediction with appropriate formula
**

5. Write Hunt’s Algorithm. Explain it with an example 6. Compare rule-based and class-ordering schemes with examples 7. Explain different methods for expressing Attribute test conditions 8. Explain in detail the characteristics of Decision Tree Induction.

9. Write and explain the algorithm for Decision Tree Induction. 10. What is Gain Ratio? Explain with formula. 11. Calculate the Gini Index for Attributes A and B given below and specify which attribute is better for splitting.

A

B

Node N1 C0: 4 C1: 3

Node N2 C0: 2 C1: 3

Node N1 C0: 1 C1: 4

Node N2 C0: 5 C1: 2

**Where C0, C1 stand for Class 0 and Class 1 respectively.
**

12. What is rule based classifier? Explain how it works with an example. In this regard, also define

**accuracy and coverage
**

13. Consider a training set that contains 60 positive examples and 100 negative examples. Suppose two

rules are given: R1: covers 50 positive examples and 5 negative examples R2: covers 2 positive examples and no negative examples For the above two rules, calculate Laplace, accuracy, coverage and likelihood ratio.

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NMIT, Bangalore Data Mining Question Bank 14. Explain characteristics of Rule-Based classifier

Dept of ISE

15. How can a decision tree be converted into classification rules? Explain with example. 16. Write and explain the k-nearest neighbor classification algorithm

17. What are the characteristics of Nearest-neighbor classifier? Explain 18. Explain 1-nearest-neighbour, 2-nearest-neighbour and 3-nearest neighbour with examples. 19. Consider a training set that contains 100 positive examples and 400 negative examples. For each of

the following candidate rules R1: A -> + (Covers 4 positive and one negative example) R2: B -> + (Covers 30 positive and 10 negative examples) R3: C -> + (Covers 100 positive and 90 negative examples) Determine which is the best and worst candidate rules according to: i) Rule Accuracy (ii) Laplace measure (iii) Likelihood ratio statistic

20. Consider a training set that contains 29 positive examples and 21 negative examples. For each of the following candidate rules R1: A -> + (Covers 12 positive and 3 negative examples) R2: B -> + (Covers 7 positive and 3 negative examples) R3: C -> + (Covers 8 positive and 4 negative examples) Determine which is the best and worst candidate rules according to: i) Rule Accuracy (ii) Laplace measure (iii) Likelihood ratio statistic

21. For the following Confusion matrix , calculate the Accuracy and Error rate:

Predicted Class Class=1 Actual Class Class=1 Class=0 15 20 Class=0 10 11

22. Consider the following table with attributes A, B, C and two class labels +, 4

NMIT, Bangalore

A B C

**Data Mining Question Bank
**

Number of Instances + T F T F T F T F T T F F T T F F T T T T F F F F 5 0 20 0 0 25 0 0 0 20 0 5 0 0 0 25

Dept of ISE

According to the classification error rate, which attribute would be chosen as the best splitting attribute? 23. Explain the measures for selecting the best split

UNIT-III

1. How is market basket data represented in a binary format? Explain with example. In this case explain

**the terms itemset, association rule, support count, support and confidence
**

2. What is use of support and confidence? Explain 3. Discuss association rule mining problem. Explain 4. What is frequent itemset generation? Generate candidate 3 itemsets for the following data by applying

APriori principle taking a minimum support threshold of 60% TID 1 2 3 4 5 Items {Bread, Milk} {Bread, A, B, C} {Milk, A, B, D} {Bread, Milk, A, B} {Bread, Milk, A, D}

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NMIT, Bangalore Data Mining Question Bank 5. Write the algorithm for Frequent itemset generation of the Apriori algorithm 6. How is support counting done using a Hash tree? Explain with example 7. How are candidates generated using Lexicographic ordering ? Explain with example.

Dept of ISE

8. What is candidate generation and pruning? Explain Fk-1 x F1 and Fk-1 x Fk-1 methods of candidate

**generation with examples.
**

9. What are the factors that affect the computation complexity of the Apriori algorithm? Explain 10. Explain rule generation in Apriori algorithm with example. 11. Write the Apriori algorithm for rule generation 12. What is maximal frequent itemset? Explain with example. 13. Discuss closed Frequent itemsets with example 14. What are the alternative methods for generating frequent items? Explain 15. Explain relationships among frequent, maximal frequent and closed frequent itemsets with diagram 16. Explain the DFS and BFS methods of generating frequent itemsets with examples. 17. What are the two ways in which a transaction data set be represented? Explain with example 18. For the following data set:

TransID 0001 0024 0012 0031 0015 0022 0029 0040 0030 0038 Items Bought {a,d,e} {a,b,c,e} {a,b,d,e} {a,c,d,e} {b,c,e} {b,d,e} {c,d} {a,b,c} {a,d,e} {a,b,e}

i)

Compute the support count for itemsets {e}, {b,d} and {b,d,e}

ii) Compute the support and confidence for association rules: {b,d} -> {e} and {e} -> {b, d} Is confidence a symmetric measure?

19. For the market based transactions given below:

Trans ID Items Bought

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 {a,b,d,e} {b,c,d} {a,b,d,e} {a,c,d,e} {b,c,d,e} {b,d,e} {c,d} {a,b,c} {a,d,e} {b,d}

Data Mining Question Bank

Dept of ISE

**i) What is the maximum number of association rules that can be extracted from this data?
**

ii) What is the maximum number of frequent itemsets that can be extracted (including null set)? iii) Generate candidate 1-itemset, 2-itemsets and 3-itemsets assuming a support threshold of 60%

**using Apriori algorithm
**

20. Write short notes on the following:

i. Equivalence classes ii. Breadth First and Depth First Search iii. General-to-Specific Vs Specific-to-General

UNIT-IV

1. What is FP Tree? Explain its construction with example 2. How are frequent itemsets generated using FP-Tree Algorithm? Explain with example. 3. What are contingency tables? Explain its contents. 4. Explain the limitations of Support and Confidence Framework by taking an example. 5. For the following tables, Calculate the Interest Factor, ø-correlation coefficient and IS Measure

p q q 880 50

p 5 0 3 0 930 70

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NMIT, Bangalore

Data Mining Question Bank

Dept of ISE

930

7 0

1000 r s s 2 0 5 0 7 0 r 50 880 930 70 930 1000

6. How can Objective Measures be extended

**beyond pairs of Binary Variables? Explain with contingency table
**

7. What are the properties of Objective Measures? Explain in detail 8. Calculate ø-correlation coefficient, IS Measure, Interest Factor and Confidence for the rule

{Tea} -> {Coffee} for the following table

Coffe e

Coffe e

Tea 880

50

200

Tea 50 800

30 200

800 1000

9. What is Sequence? Explain with examples 10. What is Simpson’s Paradox? Explain with example. 11. For the following contingency tables compute support, the interest measure, and the ø-correlation

coefficient, for the association patterns {A,B}. Also compute the confidence of rules A -> B and B -> A. Is confidence a Symmetric measure?

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NMIT, Bangalore

Data Mining Question Bank

Dept of ISE

B

9 1 1

B A

B

89 1

B

1 9

89

AAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAA

12. What are Subsequences? Explain with example 13. What is meant by Cross-Support Patterns? How is it eliminated? 14. For the following two-way contingency table

Buy HDTV Yes No Buy Exercise Machine Yes No 99 54 153 81 66 147 180 120 300

Calculate: i) Confidence for the rules {HDTV=Yes} -> {Exercise Machine=Yes} and {HDTV=No}-> {Exercise Machine=Yes}

ii)

**ø-correlation coefficient, IS Measure and Interest Factor
**

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NMIT, Bangalore

Data Mining Question Bank

Dept of ISE

c) Explain the inversion and scaling properties of Objective Measures with examples (6)

15. Consider the three-way contingency table below: Customer Group College Students Working Adult Buy HDTV Yes No Yes No Buy Exercise Machine Yes No 1 9 4 30 98 72 50 36 Total 10 34 170 86

Compute:

i) ø-correlation coefficient, IS Measure, Interest Factor when Customer Group=College

Students

ii) ø-correlation coefficient, IS Measure, Interest Factor when Customer Group=Working Adult iii)Calculate Confidence for the rules when {HDTV=Yes} -> {Exercise Machine=Yes},

{HDTV=No} -> {Exercise Machine=Yes} when Customer Group=College Students and {HDTV=Yes} -> {Exercise Machine=Yes}, {HDTV=No} -> {Exercise Machine=Yes} when Customer Group=Working Adult

16. Construct FP-Tree for the following Transaction Data Set:

Transaction ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Items Bought {a,b,d,e} {b,c,d} {a,b,d,e} {a,c,d,e} {b,c,d,e} {b,d,e} {c,d} {a,b,c} {a,d,e} {b,d}

17. Identify the frequent itemsets in the above transactions using FP-Tree Algorithm 18. What is Sequential Pattern Discovery? Explain with example 19. For the following contingency table Compute:

i) ii)

**ø-correlation coefficient, IS Measure, Interest Factor when C=0 ø-correlation coefficient, IS Measure, Interest Factor when C=1
**

10

NMIT, Bangalore C=0 C=1

Data Mining Question Bank A 1 0 B 1 0 15 0 15 30 B 1 5 0 0 0 15

Dept of ISE

**20. What do you mean by Timing Constraints with regard to Sequential Patterns?
**

21. Draw contingency tables for the rules {b} -> {c} and {a} -> {d} using the transactions shown

below:

Transaction ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Items Bought {a,b,d,e} {b,c,d} {a,b,d,e} {a,c,d,e} {b,c,d,e} {b,d,e} {c,d} {a,b,c} {a,d,e} {b,d}

Using these contingency tables from compute ø-correlation coefficient, IS Measure, Interest Factor and Confidence for the two rules (Contingency tables)

22. Write the Apriori-like Algorithm for Sequential Pattern Discovery.

UNIT-V

1. What is Cluster Analysis? Explain 2. What are the different types of Clustering? Explain with diagrams 3. Discuss different types of Clusters 4. Write and explain the basic K-Means Algorithm 5. With respect to K-Means algorithm, explain how points are assigned to closest centroid using

**SSE for centroid calculation
**

6. In K-Means Algorithm, How are initial centroids chosen? Explain with diagram 7. Give a table listing common choices for Proximity, Centroids and Objective Functions with

**respect to K-Means Algorithm
**

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NMIT, Bangalore Data Mining Question Bank 8. Comment on Time and Space Complexity of K-Means Algorithm 9. What are the additional issues in K-Means algorithm? Explain 10. Write and explain the Bisecting K-Means Algorithm 11. What are Strengths and Weaknesses of K-Means Algorithm

Dept of ISE

12. Write and explain Basic Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm. How is proximity

**between clusters defined?
**

13. Comment on the Time and Space Complexity of Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering

algorithm.

14. Discuss the key issues in Hierarchical Clustering 15. What are the Strengths and Weaknesses of Hierarchical Clustering 16. Explain the Single Link or MIN method of Hierarchical Clustering with example 17. Explain Complete Link or MAX method of Hierarchical Clustering with example 18. Discuss Group Average Version of Hierarchical Clustering with example 19. How are points classified according to Centroid Based Density in DBSCAN algorithm? Explain with

**diagrams and example
**

20. Write and Explain DBSCAN algorithm 21. Comment on Time and Space Complexity of DBSCAN algorithm 22. What are strengths and weaknesses of DBSCAN algorithm 23. What is Cluster Evaluation? Explain overview of Cluster Evaluation

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