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# 10th Century Arabs solution of Mercury Perihelion

Ibn Al - Haythem

Assume you are looking at a car moving away from you, and then you
would see as if the car is shrinking in size

Not as if the car has shrunk in size but as if the car image shrunk indicating
a different location of the car and not as a different size of the car
Our eyes do not see the car but our eyes see images of the car that
look different at different distances. Meaning if you see a car at a
distance A, then how the car would look like at a distance B?
This visual effect was discussed by ancient Arab physicists as follows:

## This is classical mechanics

This is visual size of the car at A measured from O

## This is visual size of the car at B measured from O

- This difference is relativistic

## Or quantum = classical + relativistic

1 = 1 is self evident
2 = 2 is self evident
A = A is self evident; add and subtract B to get
A = B + (A – B); divide by B to get
A/B = 1 + (A – B)/B distance scale equation
Multiply by C to get r0
(A/B) C = C + [(A – B)/B] C
Or quantum = classical + relativistic
r

A B
Arabs in the 10th century: O

## Explained this visual effect

r0

ωt

rx

With r x = r 0 cosine ω t
And ω t = cosine-1 (r x / r 0)
Then ∆ r = r x - r 0
= r 0 [(cosine ω t) – 1]
And (r x - r 0)/ r 0 = [(1 - 2 sine² ω t/2) – 1]
= - 2 sine ² ω t/2; ω t = cosine-1 (r x / r 0)
Or [- 2sine ² ω t/2] θ' 0; ω t = cosine-1 (r x / r 0)

## This distance visual effect is seeing distance r0

í ω (r) t
As r = r x + i r y = r0 e
With r x = r 0 + (r x - r 0)
And r x/ r 0 = 1 + (r x - r 0)/r 0
And (r x/ r 0) θ0' = θ0' + [(r x - r 0)/r 0] θ0'
Or quantum = classical + relativistic
For planet Mercury:
The distance visual effect Error is: [(r m – re)/re] θ’ m
The quantity: θ’ m = (v m/r m) (180/ π) [36526/Tm (days)] (3600) = 70.75
With v m = 47.9 km/sec; r m = 58.2 x 106 km; Tm = 88 days
With r = 58.2 x 109 m = Sun – Mercury distance
And r e = 149.6 x 109 m = Sun Earth distance
With [(r m – re)/re] = [- 2sine ² ω t/2] = 0.61
And ω t = cosine-1 [r x (θ, t) / r x (θ, 0)] = cosine-1 (r/ r 0)
Or ω t = cosine-1 [r x (θ, t) / r x (θ, 0)] = cosine-1 (r m/ r e)
And [(r m – re)/re] δ θ’ m
= [- 2sine ² ω t/2] (v m/r m) (180/ π) [36526/Tm (days)] (3600)
= [- 2sine ² {[cosine-1 (r m/ r e)]/2}] (v m/r m) (180/ π) [36526/Tm (days)]
(3600)
= 0.61 x 70.75 = 43
For example: Let us apply this trick to planets!
Relativity theory experimental proofs is just a visual trick experiment, that is a
Nobel prize winner conclude a planet orbit from the Sun but measured from
Earth actually.
There is an experimental visual trick of [(A – B)/B] C
Where A = Sun - Planet distance and B = Sun - Earth distance and

Earth

Mercury
Mercury
B A

Sun

## Assume we are measuring angular velocity θ' accumulation per century of

planet mercury then you would see a visual effect of [(A – B)/B] θ' where θ'
is given by:
A = 55,200,000 kilometers and is Sun Mercury distance
B = 149,600,000 kilometers and is Sun earth distance
And θ' = (2 π/T seconds) (180/ π) (t/T days); T = 88 days, t = 1 century =
36526days
Or θ' = (2 π/T seconds) (180/ π) (t/T days) = 360 t/ (T seconds) (T days)
= 360 x 36526/ [88 x 24 hours x 60 minutes x 60 seconds](88) = 70.75 arc second
per century
Or θ' = 70.75; and (A - B)/B = 0.61
This visual effect of 0.61 x 70.75 = 43 seconds of an arc per century visual
effect seen as an axial rotation rate of 43 seconds of an arc per century

Earth

Mercury
Mercury

A
B
43
θ
70.75

Sun

With

## And θ' = (2 π/T seconds) (180/ π) (t/T days); T = 88 days, t = 1 century =

36526days
Or θ' = (2 π/T seconds) (180/ π) (t/T days) = 360 t/ (T seconds) (T days)
= 360 x 36526/ [88 x 24 hours x 60 minutes x 60 seconds] (88) = 70.75 arc second
per century

## Einstein invented time travel and Mysterious forces

Einstein changed Newton's laws of gravity from
F = - G m M/r2 whose Newton's original solution is: r = a (1 - Є2)/ (1 + Є
cosine θ)

## To F = -G m M/r2 + k G m M/r4 adding time travel force

And a (1 - Є2)/ [1 + Є cosine (θ - ω)]
And rigged ω = - 6 π GM/a c² (1 - ε²)

## Einstein greatest achievement in space said time is:

Planet Mercury travel in space at an angular speed of 70.75 arcs second per
century
And in time at angular speed of 43 arcs second per century
The Advance of Planet Mercury’s Perihelion given by Euclid’s Geometry
[2 π/T] [180/π][36526/88] = [2 π /88 x 24x3600] [180/π][36526/88]
= 70.75
Einstein’s time travel space – time formula:
ψ = - 6 π GM/a c² (1 - ε²) [180/ π] [36526/T]  = 43 angular velocity time
travel of planet Mercury
G = 6.673 x 10-11= gravitational acceleration constant
M =2x1030 kilogram = mass of the Sun
Eccentricity of Mercury’s orbit = ε = 0.206
T= 88 days = period of Planet mercury’s rotation around the Sun
And c = 299792.458 kilometer/second =light speed in kilometers/second
And a = 58.2 x 106 km/sec = semi major axis of planet Mercury orbit