I Desalination & Water Purification Technologies

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Desalination &
Water Purification
Technologies
T e c h n i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n D o c u m e n t
Government of India
Department of Atomic Energy
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Chemical Engineering Group
Desalination Division
Trombay, Mumbai 400 085
2010
II
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Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
III Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
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Foreword V
Preface VII
1. Introduction 1
2. Desalination Technologies 2
2.1. Thermal Desalination 2
2.1.1. Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) Process 2
2.1.2. Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) 3
2.1.3. Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) using Waste Heat 4
2.2. Reverse Osmosis (RO) 4
2.3. Hybridization 5
2.4. Cogeneration using Nuclear Energy 5
3. Challenges in Rural Areas 6
4. Role of Department of Atomic Energy in 6
Desalination & Water Purification
5. Technologies & Products Developed by BARC 8
5.1. Membrane Technologies 8
5.1.1. Brackish Water RO 8
5.1.2. Sea Water RO 8
5.1.3. Development of Membrane & Modules 9
5.1.3.1. Backwashable UF Spiral Modules 9
5.1.3.2. Candle Type UF Water Purification Device 10
5.1.4. Spin-off Membrane - Porous Polysulfone Diaphragm as Separator in 11
Electrochemical Processes
5.1.5. UF Assisted Fluoride Removal System 11
5.1.6. UF Assisted Arsenic Removal System 12
5.1.7. UF Assisted Iron Removal System 13
5.1.8. Membrane Pouch for Providing Sterile Water Solution
` from Contaminated Water 13
CONTENTS
IV
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Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
5.2. Thermal Desalination 14
5.2.1. Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) 14
5.2.2. LTE Desalination using Waste Heat 14
5.2.3. Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) 15
6. Desalination using Nuclear Energy 16
6.1. Hybrid System 16
6.2. LTE System utilising Nuclear Waste Heat 17
7. Desalination & Water Purification Systems for Rural areas 17
7.1. Rural Application of UF based Water Purification Technologies 17
7.2. Solar Desalination & Water Purification Systems 18
7.2.1. Solar PV based Water Treatment Systems 18
7.2.1.1. Small Brackish Water RO & UF Units 18
7.2.1.2. Community size RO Plant 19
8. Consultancy 19
9. Recovery of Valuables from Reject Brine of Desalination Plant 20
10. Services 20
11. Transfer of Technical Know-How 20
11.1. Who Can Apply 20
11.2. How to Apply 20
Annexure-I Milestones in Thermal Desalination 21
Annexure- II Milestones in Membrane Technologies 22
Annexure-III Desalination & Water Purification Technologies and Products 23
Developed by BARC- Technical Features
Annexure-IV Application Form for Technology Transfer from BARC 38
V Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
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Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Trombay, Mumbai 400 085
India
Ratan Kumar Sinha, FNAE, D Sc (hc)
Director Government of India
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-|··|ª| /Fax: + (91) (22) 2559 2107, 2550 5151 • s--|-| / E-mail: rksinha@barc.gov.in / director@barc.gov.in
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FOREWORD
About 40 million people (over 75% are children) are affected by water borne diseases every year.
Nearly six million children below 14 years of age suffer from fluorosis due to fluoride contamination
in water. Arsenic is another dangerous contaminant in ground water. putting at risk more than 10
million people in the country. Bacteriological contamination, which leads to diarrhea, cholera, hepatitis
etc., is at alert level in India. Contamination due to Iron, hardness and salinity in water are other
major concern. Medical expenditure on water borne diseases is estimated to be Rs. 2400 crores annualy
in the country.
The need for desalination and water purification is destined to grow in the coming years as the requirment
for water increases. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has been engaged in R&D on desalination
and water purification technologies for several years and has developed indigenous technologies wich
are available for know-how transfer to interested parties.
I hope this technical information document will serve the purpose of creating awareness of and
appreciation for desalination and water purification technologies, among the entrepreneurs, NGOs
and other interested groups, so that safe drinking water can be made available to the needy population
in a reliable, sustainable and affordable manner using the indigenous technologies and supplementing
with market technologies in an accelerated manner on a significant scale. BARC would encourage
entrepreneurs to come forward and make use of the indigenous know-how for wider deployment.
(R. K. Sinha)
VI
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Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
VII Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
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P R E F A C E
Early humans thought that the taste of the water determined its purity. The Sus’ruta Samhita, Sanskrit
writings about medical concerns (2000 BC), gives evidence that water treatment may well be as ancient
as humans are. The Greeks and Romans are well known for their elaborate water systems. These early
water treatment professionals used a variety of methods to control taste and odor problems in their
water supplies. A correlation between water quality and health was made, in mid- 19
th
century in
London, when a decrease in cholera deaths epidemics were noticed where slow sand filters had been
installed.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has set international guidelines for drinking water. Almost all
countries have drinking water quality regulations, often inspired by WHO guidelines. According to the
United Nations, over 1.1 billion people are currently without safe drinking water. It is predicted that a
significant fraction of the global population (over 3.5 billion people) will be living in areas facing severe
water shortages by the year 2025. More than half of the world’s hospital beds are occupied by patients
suffering from water borne diseases. Many of these diseases can be prevented by providing safe drinking
water. The United Nations General Assembly has proclaimed the years 2005-2015 as the International
Decade for Action ‘Water for Life’. Government of India has launched ‘Bharat Nirman’ Yojana which
includes drinking water as an important programme. It is in this context, the role of desalination and
water purification becomes very important.
Desalination of water is one of the key drivers under non-power applications of DAE program. Desali-
nation Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has been engaged in R&D on various as-
pects of desalination and water purification technologies starting from basic research work to develop-
ment and deployment efforts. Dedicated team of scientists and engineers have contributed substan-
tially to the expertise gathered, technologies developed and know how generated in the research centre.
The research work carried out has mainly focused on technological innovations, quality, reliability and
commercialization potential of the product/ technology for deployment over large scale. State-of-the-
art reliable technologies have been developed to address the growing need of good quality water for
industries and human consumption.
We have acquired valuable experience on operation and trouble shooting of desalination and water
purification plants and are equipped to provide consultancy to interested parties on design, installa-
tion, commissioning and operation of these systems. Such consultancies are provided after signing a
Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). Several water technologies developed by Desalination Divi-
sion have been transferred to private parties on non-exclusive basis.
We are thankful to all the scientists and engineers who came forward to share their expertise and
information in the formulation of this Technical Information Document. This document would not
have been materialised, but for the encouragement and support of Director BARC and Chairman AEC
for water technologies.
The document is not intended to provide detailed technical information on various technologies, but
is aimed to provide a glimpse of the technologies for the entrepreneurs, NGOs and other interested
parties. The purpose of bringing out this technical document is to consolidate the work carried out by
Desalination Division (BARC), so that deployment of such technologies could be accelerated through
the participation of private entrepreneurs, NGOs and other interested groups.
(P.K. Tewari)
Head, Desalination Division
VIII
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Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
1 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
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1. I nt r oduc t i on
The world’s water consumption rate is doubling every 20 years, outpacing by two times the rate of
population growth. The availability of good quality water is on the decline and water demand is on the
rise. Worldwide availability of fresh water for industrial needs and human consumption is limited.
Various industrial and developmental activities in recent times have resulted in increasing the pollution
level and deteriorating the water quality. Water shortages and unreliable water quality are considered
major obstacles to achieve sustainable development and improvement in the quality of life. The water
demand in the country is increasing fast due to progressive increase in the demand of water for irriga-
tion, rapid industrialization, population growth and improving life standards. The existing water re-
sources are diminishing (i) due to unequal distribution of rain water and occasional drought, (ii) exces-
sive exploitation of ground water sources and its insufficient recharge, (iii) deterioration of water qual-
ity due to the discharge of domestic and industrial effluents without adequate treatment. This is result-
ing into water stress/ scarcity. Country is currently passing through social and economic transition.
The proportion of the population which is urban has doubled over the last thirty years (and is now
about 30%), agriculture now accounts for about 25% of GDP and the economy has been growing at
around 7-9% a year. Country has a highly seasonal pattern of rainfall, with 50% of precipitation falling
in just 15 days and over 90% of river flows in just four months.
There are areas like Saurashtra and Kutch, Western Rajasthan and the coastal regions of Tamil Nadu
etc. which face perennial water shortage. In addition, a large number of villages in different parts of the
country are known to be suffering from excess salinity, fluoride, iron, arsenic and microbial contamina-
tions of ground water. Desalination is recognized as a possible means to augment the water supply using
natural resources for meeting the growing demand of water.
Seawater, brackish water and fresh water have different levels of salinity, which is often expressed by the
total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration. Water is considered potable when its TDS is below 500
mg/L. Seawater has a TDS of about 35,000 mg/L and brackish water has a TDS between that of
potable water and seawater. Waste water is another category containing dissolved salts mostly in the
low brackish level. The reclaimed water from waste water can be used for irrigation, cooling water and
other industrial applications. Since the projected industrial and irrigation requirements would be far
exceeding that of domestic requirements, recycle and reuse of waste effluents apart from desalination
make enormous sense for future water management.
A holistic approach is therefore required to be considered to deal with water problem. It includes:
• Seawater desalination in coastal areas
• Brackish water desalination
• Water purification
• Water reuse
• Rain water harvesting
• Water supply schemes
Desalination, water purification & water recovery/ reuse schemes are destined to play a major role and
commercially viable indigenous technologies are thus required for deployment to suit local conditions.
2
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Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
Integrated Water Resource Management – A Holistic Approach
2. De s a l i na t i on Te c hnol og i e s
Desalination refers to the process by which pure water is recovered from saline water using different
forms of energy. Saline water is classified as either brackish water or seawater depending on the salinity
and water source. Desalination produces two streams - freshwater and a more concentrated stream
(brine). The two main commercial desalination technologies are those based on thermal and mem-
brane processes.
2. 1. The r ma l De s a l i na t i on
Thermal processes, except freezing, mimic the natural process of producing rain. Saline water is heated,
producing water vapour that in turn condenses to form distilled water. These processes include multi-
stage flash (MSF), multiple-effect distillation (MED), vapour compression (VC) and low temperature
evaporation (LTE). In all these processes, condensing steam is used to supply the latent heat needed to
vapourize the water. Owing to their high-energy requirements, thermal processes are normally used for
seawater desalination. Thermal processes are capable of producing high purity water and suited for
industrial process applications. Thermal processes account for 55% of the total production and their
unit capacities are higher compared to membrane processes.
2. 1. 1. Mul t i St a g e Fl a s h ( MSF) Pr oc e s s
The basic principle involved in the MSF process is to heat the sea water to about 90– 120°C using the
heat of condensation of the vapour produced and supplementing with external steam. The heated sea
water is subsequently flashed in successive stages maintained at decreasing levels of pressure. The vapor
produced is condensed and recovered as pure water. MSF can accept higher contaminant loading
(suspended solids, heavy metals, oil, grease, COD, BOD etc.) in feed sea water. It is capable of
producing distilled quality product water good for power plants, process industries and several other
high purity applications.
3 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
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Schematic Diagram of Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) Process
2. 1. 2. Mul t i Ef f e c t Di s t i l l a t i on ( MED)
MED plant has two or more effects. Each effect operates at a successively lower temperature and
pressure. The first effect is heated by low pressure steam (about 0.3 bar). Vapours are generated from
the feed sea water in the first effect and directed to the second effect. Thus vapours from the previous
effect serve as the heat source to the succeeding effect for evaporating the brine. Vapour from the last
effect is condensed in the final condenser where sea water is used as the coolant. The vapour produced
in each effect is passed through the demisters to next effect. It is condensed inside the tubes transfer-
ring the latent heat to the brine falling outside the tube enabling a portion of the brine to evaporate.
Low temperature MED unit operates at about 65°C and therefore allows the use of cheaper materials
of construction due to less scaling and corrosion problems. MED is capable of producing pure dis-
tilled water similar to MSF. The possibility of low temperature operation, low grade heat and waste
heat utilization, low cooling water requirement and low energy consumption have made MED an
attractive alternative in recent years for sea water desalination.
Efficiency of MED plant can be improved by adding a vapour compressor. Mechanical Vapour
Compressor (MVC) or Thermal Vapour Compressor (TVC) is used for this purpose depending on site
specific conditions.
Schematic Diagram of Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) Process
4
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Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
2. 2. Re v e r s e Os mos i s ( RO)
RO is used for both brackish water and seawater desalination as well as for waste water treatment and
water recovery/reuse. A typical RO desalting plant consists of three sections, namely pretreatment
section, membrane section and post treatment section. Conventional pretreatment section typically
consists of particulate filtration, micron filtration and chemicals additions. Membrane section con-
sists of membrane elements housed in pressure vessels through which pretreated saline water is passed
under pressure in excess of its osmotic pressure with the help of a high pressure pump coupled with
energy recovery device. The post treatment section consists of lime treatment for pH correction and
chlorination for disinfection as required to meet public health standards and to make the water non-
corrosive to the water distribution systems. Energy consumption depends on the salt content of the
feed water. Development of RO membranes of very high rejection, while maintaining high permeabil-
ity, has potential to reduce the energy consumption. Development of better energy recovery devices
can further reduce the energy consumption. As the success of RO desalination hinges on the proper
pre-treatment of the feed water, various membranes could precede RO in order to selectively remove
suspended solids (microfiltration), colloids/turbidity & organics (ultrafiltration) and hardness and
sulphates (nanofiltration).
2.1.3. Low Tempe r a t ur e Ev a por a t i on ( LTE) De s a l i na t i on Us i ng
Wa s t e He a t
As the energy cost component is a major fraction of the desalinated water cost, utilization of waste heat
as energy input for seawater desalination is an attractive option. It is one of the eco-friendly ways to
produce desalinated water as it does not require chemical pretreatment of feed seawater. Ocean ther-
mal energy can also be utilised for sea water desalination.
The desalination unit essentially consists of three portions i.e. heater, separator and condenser. In the
heater shell, vertical tubes are used. Feed sea water enters the unit at the bottom of the tubes and partly
evaporates by the time it comes out from the top. After water and vapour mixture come out of the
tubes, the vapour rises through the vertical shell, enters the horizontal tube bundle kept at the top of
the vertical shell and condenses around the tubes (which are cooled by sea water flowing inside) pro-
ducing desalinated water. The product water is pumped out.
LTE Desalination using waste Heat
5 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
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Reverse Osmosis (RO)
2. 3. Hy br i di z a t i on
Hybrid thermal/membrane combinations offer several advantages including the use of warm seawater
from the thermal plant as feed to RO for having an optimized feed temperature and production of
water of different qualities for different uses such as high quality boiler feed make up water, process
water and potable water. Combined post treatment, use of common seawater system and brine discharge
facility, reduced seawater requirement, sharing the manpower and facilities are other advantages of
hybridization.
2. 4. Co- g e ne r a t i on Us i ng Nuc l e a r Ene r g y
Co-location of desalination and power plants has the benefit of sharing the resources such as common
intake of sea water/ outfall and other infrastructural facilities. Dual purpose (power & water) plants
have inherent design strategies for better thermodynamic efficiency besides economic optimization.
The production of potable water from seawater in a facility in which nuclear reactor is used as the
source of energy for the desalination process is termed as nuclear desalination. Electrical and/or thermal
energy is used in desalination process on the same site.
Hybrid Desalination System Integrated with Nuclear Power Reactor
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Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
3. Cha l l e ng e s i n Rur a l Ar e a s
As water scarcity and contamination problems are more acute in rural areas, implementation of
desalination and water purification technologies will help in a big way in providing safe drinking water.
But, the various constraints normally encountered in rural areas pose certain limitations on the efficiency
and techno-economics of desalination in general.
Power supply in rural areas is a serious concern. Availability of power varies from 8 to 10 hours a day
and even the available power supply is highly erratic with crippling voltage fluctuations and sudden
power cuts. Hence the total requirement of drinking water for the village needs to be produced in a
short span of time when the power is usually available.
Remoteness and inaccessibility of remote areas pose difficulties in case of equipment failure as skilled
manpower and spare parts may not be readily available which results in considerable delay. To deal
with such situations the critical moving parts are installed in standby mode and important spare parts
are always kept ready.
Due to acute summer and over exploitation of the ground water, the water table goes down, thus
affecting the yield and at times rise in salinity. Hence sustenance of the quality and quantity of the
product is difficult. Reject water recirculation in the design is the suitable approach which takes care of
conserving the ground water resource.
Because of the lack of availability of skilled man power in rural areas the design should take care that
minimum human interface is called for. Design should be robust and simple.
4. Rol e of De pa r t me nt of At omi c Ene r g y ( DAE) i n De s a l i na t i on &
Wa t e r Pur i f i c a t i on
As a part of the national program to improve the quality of life in our society, BARC has been engaged
in research, development and deployment of desalination and water purification technologies for a
wide range of applications. It includes sea water RO for coastal areas, brackish water RO in villages for
producing safe drinking water, MSF for seawater desalination using low grade steam, LTE using waste
heat for seawater desalination. Ultra-Filtration (UF) based water purification for domestic and community
use and waste water recycle and reuse. These processes are either used in standalone or hybrid mode to
suit the requirement. The technologies have been demonstrated and deployed in different parts of the
country and transferred to several parties on non-exclusive basis. BARC has been providing guidance
and consultancy to several agencies in this regard. The Department has achieved several milestones in
the field of thermal desalination and membrane technologies as given in Annexure I and II respectively.
7 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
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Deployment of Desalination & Water Purification Technologies by Department of Atomic Energy
(as on June 2010)
In case of membrane technology, the Department has come to a level of having full-fledged facilities for
indigenous development of membranes & membrane devices, capabilities for design, engineering and
consultancy services for installation, commissioning and trouble shooting.
In thermal desalination, efforts are continued to reduce the cost through R&D including technological
innovations such as high heat transfer performance, utilisation of low grade and waste heat etc.
BARC has been engaged in several international collaborations dealing with various aspects of desalination
and water purification. BARC has signed Memorandum of Understandings (MoUs) for providing
consultancy on design, design checkup and trouble shooting of desalination and water recycling plants.
In the larger interest of providing clean water to the people and thereby improving their quality of life,
DAE desires to promote wider deployment of these indigenous desalination and water purification
technologies. The technical knowhow of these technologies are available through Technology Transfer
& Collaboration Division (TTCD) of BARC. The entrepreneur can purchase the appropriate technology
which will be transferred on a non exclusive basis.
Desalination plant
Seawater RO Plant
Brackish water RO Plant
Seawater MSF Plant
Seawater LTE Plant
Effluent Treatment RO
Plant for water recovery
RO Plant for Disaster
management
Technology Transfers
Brackish water RO
Domestic water purifier
Spiral UF Element
Fluoride Removal
Arsenic Removal
8
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Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
5. 1. 2. Se a Wa t e r RO
BARC has developed the design methodology of Seawater Reverse Osmosis (RO) system and based on
the experience gained from the 100 KLD RO plant at Trombay, it has setup a SWRO plant at Kalpakkam
which produces 1.8 Million Litres/ Day (MLD) of potable water. A barge mounted desalination plant
(50 KLD capacity) for producing drinking water from seawater has also been developed. Such
desalination plants are useful for water starved coastal areas. Similar units can also be used for disaster
management to provide drinking water in the coastal areas during emergency. For disaster management,
desalination plants (2 nos., 5 KLD capacity each) were designed and installed in the Tsunami affected
areas of Tamil Nadu. Special care was taken in the design so that the plant can operate under wide range
of feed water quality in terms of physical, chemical and biological contaminants with minimal
pretreatment.
Brackish Water Desalination Plants in Rural Areas (5-30 KLD capacity)
5. Te chnol og i e s a nd Pr oduc t s Deve l ope d by BARC
The features of the products and technologies developed are given in Annexure III.
5. 1. Me mbr a ne Te c hnol og i e s
Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Ultra-Filtration (UF) based systems for different applications have been
developed. Work on exploring the role of nano-technology on desalination and water purification also
has been taken up.
5. 1. 1. Br a cki s h Wa t e r RO
R&D efforts in BARC has resulted in the development of brackish water desalination
technology. Several community level desalination plants of capacities ranging from 5-30
Kilo-Litres/ Day (KLD) have been setup in the rural areas of Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and
Gujarat producing clean water from brackish water. These reverse osmosis plants are not only capable
of desalinating brackish water but are also capable of removing contaminants such as
fluoride, arsenic, nitrate etc.
5.1.3. Development of Membrane and Modules
Indigenous development of membranes for various applications such as brackish water and sea water
desalination and water recovery/ reuse from effluents is pursued. Cellulose acetate based membranes
developed in tubular and f lat sheet configurations were transferred to several parties for
9 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
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100 KLD SWRO Plant at Trombay 1.8 MLD SWRO Plant at Kalpakkam
Barge Mounted Desalination plant (50 KLD capacity)
commercialization. R&D efforts on membrane manufacturing technology have resulted in the
development of Thin Film Composite Polyamide (TFCP) membranes. These are three layered
membranes, prepared in two stages. The membranes thus prepared are rolled in spiral configuration
using the technology developed in-house. The poly sulfone membrane which is in the ultrafiltration
(UF) range, prepared as a precursor for the TFCP has been found to be good for many applications.
5. 1. 3. 1. Ba c k wa s ha bl e UF Spi r a l Modul e s
Backwashable spiral element based on poly sulfone UF membranes for delivering sterile water with six
(6) log reduction of bacteria and four (4) log reduction of virus has been developed. It is a promising
technology for water purification, wastewater treatment and water reuse. These devices with capacity
ranging from about 0.5 LPM to 4 LPM can be deployed for community water purification or small-
scale industries. As RO pretreatment system also, the unit has been perfected in the Department. It
10
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Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
5.1.3.2. Candle Type UF Water Purification Device
A novel idea of coating poly sulfone on a porous candle resulted in the development of a ‘point of use’
water purifier. Unlike other devices available in the market which only deactivates the micro-organisms,
this device physically eliminates them. This device does not require any electricity or any addition of
chemicals. Removal of suspended particulates, color and odor are additional benefits available in these
units. A typical unit provides nearly 40 liters of water per day at 3 meters pressure head and can
withstand up to 40 psig pressure. These water purifiers of low capacity and zero operating cost are
meant to satisfy the domestic need for safe water. The technology has been transferred to eighteen
parties for commercial deployment.
Membrane Casting Machine at BARC
Indigenously Developed Spiral Modules
provides an absolute barrier to the particles present in the raw saline water regardless of the system load,
operational conditions, or the fluctuations and changes. The unit is back washable either manually or
automatic mode. The single step of UF pretreatment can replace the conventional pretreatment system
comprising clarifier, coagulant and flocculent dosing coarse media filter and active carbon filters. The
other advantages are smaller footprint/ layout area, single step process, modular expandability, less
volume of discharged wastes (including sludge and chemicals), simplicity of operation, process automation
etc. The technology has been transferred for wider deployment.
11 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
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Water Purifier Developed by BARC
5. 1. 4. Spi n- of f Me mbr a ne - Por ous Pol y s ul f one Di a phr a g m a s
Se pa r a t or i n El e c t r oc he mi c a l Pr oc e s s e s
The porous polysulfone diaphragms reinforced with non-woven support fabric has been found to be
useful as separator in electrochemical processes involving highly acidic solutions for production of
various chemicals such as ammonium per sulphate (NH
4
)
2
S
2
O
8
.. These diaphragms have very high
porosity (60-70%) with submicron pore sizes resulting in low electrical resistance in electrolyte solu-
tions and are stable up to 30% H
2
SO
4
solution. The production cost of these diaphragms is lower by
an order of magnitude compared to presently used nafion membranes with comparable properties.
The polysulfone diaphragm can be used as a separator in electrolytic cell.
5. 1. 5. UF As s i s t e d Fl uor i de Re mov a l Sy s t em
While the desirable limit of fluoride in water is 1 mg/ litre (ppm), several states in the country have
higher fluoride content in water. It causes dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Treatment of
fluoride contaminated water by use of alumina column and subsequent polishing by ultrafiltration
process ensures efficient removal of fluoride as well as secondary aluminum contamination. A compre-
hensive technology comprising re-generable alumina followed by ultrafiltration is developed in the
Department.
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Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
UF Assisted Arsenic Removal System
UF Assisted Fluoride Removal System
5. 1. 6. UF As s i s t e d Ar s e ni c Re mov a l Sy s t e m
The desirable limit for Arsenic in Drinking water is 10 ppb. Arsenic problem is acute in West Bengal,
Jharkhand, Bihar and parts of Uttar Pradesh. People in the affected areas suffer from skin rashes.
A comprehensive technology comprising iron oxide followed by ultrafiltration is developed in the
Department to get rid of arsenic contamination from water.
13 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
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5. 1. 7. UF As s i s t e d I r on Re mov a l Sy s t em
Iron contamination in water is called aesthetic contamination. The presence of iron in water causes red
colour, bad smell & taste. The oxidation reaction changes the iron from a soluble form into a less
soluble form, thus causing precipitation and accumulation of reddish brown material. The WHO
desirable limit of iron content in drinking water is 0.3 ppm. A comprehensive technique comprising
oxidation followed by ultrafiltration is developed in the Department which achieved upto 0.1 ppm of
iron concentration in product from 20 ppm of feed iron concentration.
UF Assisted Domestic Size Iron Removal System UF Assisted Community Size Iron Removal
System
5. 1. 8. Me mbr a ne Pouc h f or Pr ov i di ng St e r i l e Wa t e r Sol ut i on
f r om Cont a mi na t e d Wa t e r
The technology provides a process for the preparation of Membrane Pouch for Providing Sterile
Drinkable solution from any biological Contaminated Water. A low molecular weight, water soluble,
non-toxic substance having a high osmotic pressure like Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) mixture, milk
powder or any other water soluble and drinkable substance taken inside the pouch. Based on the
Osmosis only pure water permeates through the semi permeable membrane and disolves the nutrient
salts filled in the pouches. These are easily portable devices used in disaster management conditions like
floods, Tsunami, earthquakes etc. and it can be used in any contaminated water.
Water purification through Membrane Pouches
14
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
Next Generation LTE-CT Plant at Trombay
(50 KLD capacity)
MSF Plant at Trombay (425 KLD capacity)
5. 2. 2. LTE De s a l i na t i on us i ng Wa s t e He a t
A 10 KLD LTE desalination plant
using the waste heat of 500 KVA diesel
generator was installed and commis-
sioned in one of the islands of
Lakshadweep under BARC consultancy
for producing desalinated water from sea-
water. Such plants are ideally suitable
for coupling with power plants where
abundant waste heat is available. These
plants can also produce high purity
distilled quality water from high
salinity water or seawater for the rural
areas where waste heat from Diesel
Generator (DG) sets/ solar energy is
available.
5. 2. The r ma l De s a l i na t i on
Thermal desalination processes, except freezing, mimic the natural process of rain. Saline water is
heated producing water vapor that in turn condenses to form distilled water. Thermal processes
include multistage f lash
(MSF), low temperature
evaporation (LTE) multiple-
effect distillation (MED) etc.
Thermal processes are normally
used for seawater desalination.
They are capable of producing
high purity water which is
suited for high end industrial
use.
Salient features of the
different thermal desalination
technologies developed and
demonstrated by BARC are given as follows.
5. 2. 1. Mul t i - St a g e Fl a s h ( MSF)
BARC has developed MSF technology based on long tube design requiring less energy consumption as
compared to conventional MSF. Based on the experience gained from the 15 KLD desalination experi-
mental facility and 425 KLD MSF pilot plant at Trombay, a 4.5 MLD MSF unit was designed and
built as a part of the 6.3 MLD Hybrid MSF-RO plant.
15 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
An LTE system producing 50
KLD distilled water from
seawater with innovative design
features to reduce the raw water
requirement by order of
magnitude is also developed in
BARC.
In order to produce ultra-pure
water (0.1 μS/cm conductivity)
for high end applications,
Electro-De-Ionization (EDI) is
integrated with LTE. EDI is a
combination of Electro dialysis
(ED) and Ion exchange (IE). The
product from the EDI unit (5
KLD capacity) is supplied to the
various facilities in BARC
(Trombay) on demand.
EDI unit (capacity: 5000 LPD)
5. 2. 3. Mul t i - Ef f e c t Di s t i l l a t i on ( MED)
A 1000 litres/ day Horizontal Tube Thin Film (HTTF) desalination unit has been earlier developed and
operated for basic studies on boiling heat transfer and hydrodynamics over a wide range of temperatures
for having data bank for
designing efficient MED
desalination plants. Based on
R&D work, a MED-MVC
desalination plant (50 KLD
capacity) was designed and put
up. The special features of this
type of plant are the HTTF
evaporators having high heat
transfer efficiency, less pumping
power requirement and lower
raw water consumption.
MED-MVC requires only
electrical power for seawater
desalination. This plant also uses
a novel Spray Enhancing
Demisters (SED) to produce
ultra high purity water.
MED-VC Desalination Plant
16
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant (NDDP)
6. De s a l i na t i on us i ng Nuc l e a r Ene r g y
Desalination is an energy intensive process. Production of potable water in a facility in which nuclear
reactor is used as the source of energy for the desalination process is termed as nuclear desalination.
Electrical and /or thermal energy from the reactor is directly used by the desalination plants. An
isolation loop is provided between the nuclear reactor and the desalination plant for ensuring no
radioactive contamination and high protection of desalinated water. Co-location of desalination and
power plants has benefits of sharing the infrastructural facilities as in the case of hybrid plants. Dual
purpose plants generating power & water have inherent design strategies for better thermodynamic
efficiency besides economic optimization. India is among very few countries having experience in differ-
ent coupling aspects of a nuclear desalination plant. Interest in using nuclear energy for producing
desalinated water is growing world wide. This has been motivated by wide varieties of reasons such as
economic competitiveness of nuclear energy to energy-supply diversification etc.
6. 1. Hy br i d Sy s t em
Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant (NDDP) at Kalpakkam based on hybrid technology consists
of a hybrid MSF-RO desalination plant of 6.3 million litres per day (MLD) capacity (4.5 MLD MSF
and 1.8 MLD RO) coupled to Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam. The requirements
of seawater, steam and electrical power for the desalination plant are met from MAPS. It is the largest
nuclear desalination plant based on hybrid technology in the world. MSF section is designed for high
efficiency giving high Gain Output Ratio (GOR). It has 39 flash stages producing distilled quality
water for high end applications in industries. RO section incorporates necessary pretreatment and an
energy recovery system. It operates at relatively lower pressure and employs lesser pretreatment chemicals
because of relatively clean feed seawater from MAPS outfall. RO produces potable quality water. Product
water from MSF and RO can be blended to provide better quality drinking water.
17 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Hybrid RO-MSF Nuclear Desalination Plant at Kalpakkam (6.3 MLD capacity)
6. 2. LTE Sy s t e m ut i l i s i ng Nuc l e a r Wa s t e He a t
In order to demonstrate the utilisation of nuclear waste heat for seawater desalination, a 30 KLD LTE
desalination plant was coupled to a nuclear research reactor for utilizing a part of its waste heat for
producing desalinated water from seawater to meet the make-up water requirement of the reactor.
An intermediate heat exchanger (IHE) is incorporated between nuclear reactor and the desalination
plant to ensure no radioactive contamination and high protection of desalinated water.
7. De s a l i na t i on & Wa t e r Pur i f i c a t i on Sy s t e ms f or Rur a l Ar e a s
Water scarcity and contamination problems are more acute in rural areas along with infrastructural
constraints including less or no electric power supply. These communities are often drinking water of
substandard quality, as they do not possess appropriate technology to purify the water.
7. 1. Rur a l Ada pt a t i on of UF ba s e d Wa t e r Pur i f i c a t i on Te c hnol og i e s
Rural adaptation of UF based water purification technologies for providing safe drinking water in
villages is shown in the picture given below. The required minimum head is created by keeping the tanks
at an elevation and filling the contaminated water in the tanks with the help of hand pumps. Multiple
candles system also is designed for community level water purification.
LTE Desalination Plant Using Nuclear Waste Heat
18
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
Domestic and Community Level Water Purification Units
7. 2. Sol a r De s a l i na t i on & Wa t e r Pur i f i c a t i on Sy s t e ms
Solar desalination becomes an attractive alternative for remote and rural areas where, grid electricity is
not available. It is reported that, there are thousands of Indian villages which cannot be connected to
the grid power network, due to their remoteness. Also, power production utilizing environment friendly
renewable energy sources is the solution for the issue of climate change. The most widely used renew-
able energy source is the sun. The source of solar energy is inexhaustible and it is free. No harmful gases
are emitted such as nitrogen oxide, mercury, carbon dioxide, or sulphur dioxide. In addition, there are
various financial incentives that are offered by the government for the production of solar power.
Electricity is locally produced from sunlight with the help of photovoltaic (PV) panels. Solar PV-
powered desalination systems are suited for small community level plants considering the techno-
economic viability.
7. 2. 1. Sol a r PV ba s e d Wa t e r Tr e a t me nt Sy s t e ms
BARC is engaged in developmental work on desalination systems based on solar energy. Small and
community level RO and UF units are developed for producing safe drinking water.
7. 2. 1. 1. Sma l l br a cki s h wa t e r RO & UF uni t s
The solar RO unit (10 LPH) contains a cartridge pre-filter and a spirally wound RO membrane element.
The feed water is passed through the membrane with the help of a DC pump directly connected to the
PV panels, without any batteries. The unit can be normally operated for 9 to 10 hrs on sunny days. The
UF unit (50–100 LPH) consists of candle and capillary type filters and is operated in the same way.
19 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
PV Based Small Scale RO & UF Units
7. 2. 1. 2 . Communi t y s i z e RO pl a nt
Water conservation becomes an issue when the natural recharge rate of the source is slow as in the case
of ground water. For this reason, a significant fraction of the concentrate stream (which otherwise is
rejected) is recycled back, so that fresh feed as well as discharge volumes can be minimized. In the case
of low saline (1000 ppm) brackish water, the concentrate also can be used for non-potable purposes, if
the product recovery is kept minimum. This would prevent wastage of water by way of reject disposal.
Community Level RO Plant along with PV Panels (250 LPH)
8. Cons ul t a nc y
BARC has expertise in design, engineering, installation, erection, commissioning and troubleshooting
of desalination/ effluent treatment plants and the same is offered to outside parties through consultancy.
Design consultancy has been provided to National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) for a 100
KLD Low Temperature Desalination System utilising ocean thermal energy gradient. It was installed by
NIOT at Lakshadweep. BARC has provided consultancy to Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL)
for large size thermal desalination plants. Consultancy for the troubleshooting of membrane based
effluent treatment plant for recovery of water also has been provided to Bharat Petroleum Corporation
Limited (BPCL).
20
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
9. Re c ove r y of Va l ua bl e s f r om Re j e c t Br i ne of De s a l i na t i on
The concentrated stream (brine) rejected from the desalination plants is a source of many valuable
chemicals. Some of these elements are scarce and expensive. There is thus a strong motivation in
recovering these elements from the reject brine of a desalination plant. This also adds value to a desali-
nation plant apart from making it more environment friendly.
10. Se r v i c e s
Water quality monitoring is an important aspect and has a significant bearing on the design of a
suitable desalination system. The department has a well-equipped laboratory to analyze the quality of
the raw water available to check its potability as well as to identify the specific contaminant present in
the saline water.
11. Tr a ns f e r of Te c hni c a l Knowhow
BARC offers knowhow of the indigenously developed technologies/ products to interested parties on
non-exclusive basis. The details of the technologies offered are mentioned in the website www.barc.gov.in.
11. 1. Who Ca n Appl y
Interested parties with engineering and scientific knowledge, good financial background and
technical and infrastructural capability are preferred.
11. 2. How To Appl y
Send your Technology Transfer Application Form (as per the format given in Annexure IV) duly filled
and signed along with a Demand Draft of Rs. 500 (for Indian Entrepreneurs) and USD 50 (for foreign
entrepreneurs) drawn in favor of ‘Accounts Officer BARC’ as application processing fee to the follow-
ing address.
Technology Transfer & Collaboration Division (TT&CD),
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Trombay, Mumbai 400 085,
India
Phone : +91-22-25593897/ +91-22-25593648
Fax : +91-22-25505151/ +91-22-25519613.
21 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
ANNE XURE - I
Milestones in Thermal Desalination
Technologies & Plants Year
1. 30 kilo-litres/day (KLD) Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE)
seawater desalination plant using waste heat. 1985
2. 425 KLD MSF plant for seawater desalination. 1990
3. 1 KLD Thermocompression (TC) desalination unit for
seawater desalination. 1997
4. 10 KLD LTE desalination plant using waste heat for seawater
desalination at Lakshadweep. 1997
5. 1 KLD Horizontal Tube Thin Film (HTTF) desalination unit for MED. 2002
6. 30 KLD Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) desalination unit using
waste heat of nuclear reactor for seawater desalination. 2004
7. 50 KLD Multi-Effect Distillation-Vapor Compression (MED-VC)
seawater desalination plant. 2006
8. 50 KLD Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) seawater desalination
plant with Cooling Tower. 2007
9. 4.5 MLD MSF plant at Kalpakkam as a part of NDDP. 2008
10. Hybrid LTE-EDI system for producing ultra-pure water from seawater. 2010
22
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
A N N E X UR E - I I
1. Technology Transfer of tubular membrane development for
commercial utilization. 1983
2. 2 x 30 KLD brackish water RO plants for providing drinking water
in villages of Andhra Pradesh & Gujarat. 1984
3. Technology Transfer of plate & frame module development for
commercial utilization. 1985
4. 50 KLD Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit for industrial effluent treatment
at RCF, Mumbai. 1986
5. 15 KLD Reverse Osmosis-Demineralisation (RO-DM) plant at
VECC, Kolkata for production of low conductivity water. 1994
6. 26 KLD NF plant for a pharmaceutical industry. 1998
7. 30 KLD brackish water RO plant for providing drinking water in
village at Barmer, Rajasthan. 1998
8. 100 KLD Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) plant at Trombay. 1999
9. 1.8 MLD SWRO plant at Kalpakkam as a part of NDDP. 2002
10. Technology Transfer of Domestic water purifier. 2002
11. 30 KLD RO plant providing drinking water in a village
at Jodhpur, Rajasthan. 2003
12. 5 KLD BWRO plant for providing drinking water during Tsunami
at Tamil Nadu. 2004-05
13. Development of Thin Film Composite (TFC) Polyamide based
membrane casting assembly. 2006
14. 50 KLD Barge Mounted seawater desalination plant for water scarce
coastal and remote areas. 2007
15. Technology Transfer of Back-washable Spiral element
for commercial utilization. 2008
16. Technology Transfer of Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by
physicochemical process. 2009
17. Technology Transfer of Fluoride Removal from Drinking Water by
physicochemical process. 2009
18. Technology Transfer of Iron Removal from Drinking Water by
physicochemical process. 2010
19. Commissioning of solar RO unit for
brackish water desalination. 2010
20. Technology Transfer for Preparation of Composite Polyamide Reverse
Osmosis (RO) membrane for Brackish Water Desalination. 2010
Milestones in Membrane Technology
Technologies & Plants Year
23 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
A N N E X UR E - I I I
Desalination & Water Purification Technologies and Products
Developed by BARC- Technical Features
24
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
Water quality problems exist nearly in all the parts of our country. It is estimated that about 70 – 80%
of health problems can be traced to deficiency in the water quality. Micro-biological contamination is
a common problem in most of the parts. Specific regions have some predominant geogenic based
contaminants. Iron, a major contaminant, is predominant in north eastern States while arsenic is a
problem in the eastern part. It is disturbing to note that arsenic contamination is spreading across the
gangetic plain extending to Punjab. Fluoride contamination is present in a number of states including
western, south east and northern states. Salinity in the ground water is increasing day by day and
becoming a significant problem in majority of states due to overexploitation of ground water in the
inland areas and seawater ingression in the coastal areas. Technological intervention has become a
necessity for a reliable & sustainable availability of safe drinking water.
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has developed several water purification devices and desalina-
tion technologies, as a part of its research & development efforts towards the betterment of the society.
These technologies or products are backed with robust design concepts and pilot plant studies, which
can cover the needs of households, communities, industries and metropolis. Know how of products/
components/technologies and services available in the field of water treatment can be broadly classi-
fied based on their applications as,
1. Water purification systems for the removal of microorganisms, turbidity & toxic contaminants
such as, As, Fe, F etc for producing safe drinking water.
2. Desalination Units for the removal of salinity using membrane process or thermal desalination
for producing pure water for drinking or industrial uses.
3. Effluent treatment plants based on UF & RO for recovery of water for reuse or for safe disposal.
4. Units which can operate without electricity (domestic UF) or operating on solar power (UF &
RO), which are most suited for remote and rural areas.
The know-how of these technologies/ products has been transferred to several parties for wider deploy-
ment in a commercially viable manner and is available on non-exclusive basis through technology
transfer. Similarly, services in design, engineering, installation, commissioning, operation and trouble-
shooting of brackish water & seawater desalination and effluent treatment plants are available through
consultancy.
An entrepreneur interested in the manufacturing of the point-of-use UF based candle type domestic
water purification device would require an investment of about Rs. 10.00 lakh (Rupees ten lakh only).
Bigger products for community level application, such as back-washable spiral UF element and RO
membrane require higher investment in the order of about Rs. 25 to 50 lakh. The overall cost of water
produced would be about 1-2 paise per litre for water purification, 3-5 paise for brackish water
desalination and 5-10 paise for seawater desalination. It should however be noted that these cost
figures are only indicative and would vary depending on the location, capacity, energy cost, extent of
automation etc.
25 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
S. No Items Specific Information
1 Objective of the Unit For the removal of turbidity, colloids
and microbiological contaminants
2 Name of the process Ultrafiltration (UF)
3 Features of the technology • Suitable for domestic application
• Operated under tap water head
( > 3 m)
• Max. Operable pressure : 2 kg/cm
2
• Filter life: Minimum 3 yrs (typical)
4 Capacity 40-100 litres per day
5 Typical Unit cost Rs. 2000-5000
6 O & M cost
(Rs. per cubic meter of product water) Negligible
7 Any specific pre-requisites for installation
of the unit
a) Open space/shed required for installation Indoor location
of the unit
b) Electrical power requirement None
c) Necessity of specialized manpower Nil. The filter candle can be easily
cleaned physically
The technical features and detailed information with respect to the technologies and products devel-
oped by BARC are given in the following pages. Details include objective, type of process used, fea-
tures, capacity range, indicative unit cost, O&M cost and specific requisites (if any) for deployment
etc.
1. Name of the Technology : UF based Domestic Water Purifier
26
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
2. Name of the Technology : Back-washable Spiral Wound Ultrafiltration (UF)
Element
S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
Items
Objective of the Unit
Name of the process
Features of the technology
Capacity
Approximate Capital cost (Rs./unit)
O & M cost
Any specific pre-requisites for installation
of the unit
a) Open space/shed required for
installation of the unit
b) Electrical power requirement
c) Necessity of specialized manpower
Specific Information
Purification of water for the removal of
suspended/colloidal and biological
contaminants at higher capacities
Ultrafiltration (UF)
• for community or industrial level
applications
• Can replace conventional filtration
systems like sand filter and cartridge
filter
• Back washable in auto/manual mode
Modular in nature. Single unit capacity
varies from 1000-7000 LPD depending
on element sizes
Rs. 6000 – 40,000 depending upon size
and capacity
Less than 1 paise per litre
Require about 2.0 sq.m of footprint area
excluding storage tanks. Small units
require less space.
Only for pumping the water at 2 bar
pressure
Local manpower with training
on O & M
27 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
3. Name of the Technology : Membrane Assisted Fluoride Removal
S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Items
Objective of Technology
Name of the process
Features of the technology
Capacity (range available)
Approximate capital cost ( Rs. /unit)
O & M cost
Any specific pre-requisites for installation
of the unit
a) Open space/shed required for
installation of the unit
b) Electrical Power requirement
c) Necessity of specialized manpower
Specific Information
Treatment of fluoride-contaminated
ground water to obtain safe drinking
water ( below WHO limit of 1 ppm)
Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane assisted
alumina adsorption process
• Fluoride ion in feed that can be
treated 10 ppm (max)
• Regeneration cycle of alumina bed:
10 Nos.
• Product water free from aluminum
(less than 0.1 ppm), biological and
colloidal contaminants
50-5000 litres per day per unit
Rs. 3000 and above
< 1 paise per litre. May vary depending
on the concentration of fluoride in
feed water
Small units up to 100 LPD can be
installed as a wall mounted unit. Bigger
units may require about 2.0 sq.metre of
footprint area excluding storage tank.
< 0.1kW
Local manpower with proper training
28
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
4. Name of the Technology : Membrane Assisted Arsenic Removal
S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Items
Objective of Technology
Name of the process
Features of the technology
Capacity (range available)
Approximate capital cost (Rs./unit)
O & M cost
Any specific pre-requisites for installation
of the unit
a) Open space/shed required for installa
tion of the unit
b) Electrical Power requirement
c) Necessity of specialized manpower
Specific Information
Treatment of Arsenic-contaminated
ground water to obtain safe drinking
water (below WHO limit of 10 ppb)
Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane assisted
sorption process
• Arsenic ion in feed that can be treated :
500 ppb (max)
• Product water contains less than
10 ppb arsenic concentration.
• Product water free from biological and
colloidal contaminants
50-5000 litres per day per unit
Rs. 3000 and above
< 1 paise per litre. May vary depending
on the concentration of arsenic in
feed water
Small units up to 100 LPD can be
installed as a wall mounted unit. Bigger
units may require about 2.0 sq.metre of
footprint area excluding storage tank.
< 0.1kW
Local manpower with proper training
29 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
5. Name of the Technology : Membrane Assisted Iron Removal
S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Items
Objective of Technology
Name of the process
Features of the technology
Capacity
Approximate Capital cost ( Rs./Unit)
O & M cost
Any specific pre-requisites for installation
of the unit
a) Open space/shed required for
installation of the unit
b) Electrical power requirement
c) Necessity of specialized manpower
Specific Information
Treatment of Iron contaminated ground
water to obtain safe drinking water
(below WHO limit of 0.3 ppm)
Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane assisted
oxidation process
• Iron (Ferrous ion) in feed that can be
treated : 20 ppm (max)
• Guaranteed product quality:
Iron below 0.1 ppm
• UF filtered product water is free from
biological and colloidal contaminants
too
50-5000 litres per day / unit
Rs. 3000 and above
< 1 paise per litre
Small units upto 100 LPD can be
installed as a wall mounted unit. Bigger
units may require about 2.0 sq. metre of
footprint area excluding storage tank.
About 0.1kW for 5 KLD.
Local manpower with proper training
30
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
6. Name of the Technology : Membrane Pouch for Providing Sterile Water
Solution from Contaminated Water
S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Items
Objective of Technology
Name of the process
Features of the technology
Capacity
Approximate Capital cost ( Rs./Unit)
O & M cost
Any specific pre-requisites for installation
of the unit
a) Open space/shed required for
installation of the unit
b) Electrical power requirement
c) Necessity of specialized manpower
Specific Information
To provide safe sterile drinkable water
from contaminated water
Osmosis
• Produces complete sterile water.
• Easily portable device that can be used
in disaster management conditions
like floods,Tsunami etc.
• It can be used in any contaminated
water.
A 15cm x 15cm size membrane pouch
containing 5gm of Oral Rehydration
salt (ORS) powder can produce 200ml
sterile water solutions in 3-3.5 hrs. time.
Rs. 25/- per pouch
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
31 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
7. Name of the Technology : Brackish water Reverse Osmosis (BWRO)
S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Items
Objective of the technology
Scope of service
Features of the technology
Capacity
Approximate capital cost ( Rs. /unit)
O & M cost
Any specific pre-requisites for installation
of the unit
a) Open space/shed required for
installation of the unit
b) Electrical Power requirement
c) Necessity of specialized manpower
Specific Information
To desalinate brackish water so as to
produce good water for domestic or
industrial uses.
Process design, system engineering and
commissioning procedures for setting-up
reverse osmosis desalination systems.
• Conserves ground water sources.
• UF pretreatment for reliability.
• Product post treatment for palatability
• Reject management with respect to
harmful contaminants such as fluoride,
arsenic etc.
• Site specific Design
10 – 50 KLD
Depends on feed water quality and local
infrastructure. Approx Rs 50 per LPD
capacity
1 paise per litre (min). Will vary
depending on capacity and power cost.
About 50 sq.m for 10 KLD
1 kWh/ KL of product water (min)
Local manpower with proper training
32
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
8. Name of the Technology : Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO)
S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Items
Objective of the technology
Scope of service
Features of the technology
Capacity
Approximate capital cost (Rs./unit)
O & M cost
Any specific pre-requisites for installation
of the unit
a) Open space/shed required for
installation of the unit
b) Electrical Power requirement
c) Necessity of specialized manpower
Specific Information
To desalinate seawater so as to produce
good water for domestic or industrial
uses.
Process design, system engineering and
commissioning procedures for setting-up
sea water reverse osmosis desalination
systems
• UF pretreatment system for reliability.
• Post treatment system for palatability
and acceptability.
• Site specific Design
1 MLD and above
Depends on feed sea water quality and
local infrastructure and logistics. About
Rs 100 per LPD capacity within the
battery limits
4 paise (min). Will vary depending on
capacity, power cost and local
conditions.
Foot print of about 5000 sq.m for 1
MLD.
5 kWh/ KL of product water (min).
Sensitive to feed quality and other local
design constraints.
Local manpower with proper training
33 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
9. Name of the Technology : Multi-Stage Flash (MSF)
S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Items
Objective of the technology
Scope of service
Features of the Technology
Capacity
Approximate Capital Cost (Rs/unit)
O & M Cost
Any Specific Pre-requisites for installation
of the unit
a) Open Space/shed required for
installation
b) Electrical Power Requirement
c) Steam Requirement
d) Necessity of Specialized Manpower
Specific Information
To produce distilled quality water from
seawater
Know-how and consultancy services
(process design, system engineering, pro-
curement services) in setting up MSF
Desalination Plant
• Uses low grade Steam for producing
distilled quality water
• Specific Energy Consumption : Less
than 3 kWh/m
3
& Steam 0.15T/hr (@
2 bar pressure) per/ m
3
of desalinated
water
Large capacity
About Rs 75 per LPD capacity (Base Year
2007) at battery limits
5-10 paise/lit
30,000 sq. m for 4.5 MLD plant
650 kW for 4.5 MLD plant
21 T/hr @ 2 bar
Local manpower with proper training
34
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
10. Name of the Technology : Multi-Effect Distillation- Mechanical Vapor
Compression (MED-MVC)
S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Items
Objective of the technology
Scope
Features of the Technology
Capacity
Approximate Capital Cost (Rs/unit)
O & M Cost
Any Specific Pre-requisites for installation
of the unit
a) Open Space/shed required for
installation
b) Electrical Power Requirement
c) Necessity of Specialized Manpower
Specific Information
To produce distilled quality water from
seawater
Know how and consultancy services
(process design, system engineering,
procurement services) in setting up
MED-MVC Desalination Plant
• Uses electricity alone for producing
distilled quality water
• High Speed Mechanical Vapor
Compressor is used
• Totally automated PLC-Scada based
System for Startup, shutdown and
normal operation of the plant.
50 KLD – 100 KLD
Rs. 200 per LPD (Base Year 2007) at
battery limits
5-10 paise/lit (approx) depending on site
conditions
150 sqm. for 50 KLD to 200 sqm for
100 KLD
60 - 100kW (Connected Load)
Local manpower with proper training
35 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
11. Name of the Technology : Multi-Effect Distillation-Thermo Vapour Compress
(MED-TVC)
S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Items
Objective of the technology
Scope
Features of the Technology
Capacity
Approximate Capital Cost (Rs/unit)
O & M Cost
Any Specific Pre-requisites for installation
of the unit
a) Open Space/shed required for
installation
b) Electrical Power Requirement
c) Thermal Power
d) Necessity of Specialized Manpower
Specific Information
To produce distilled quality water from
seawater
Know how and consultancy services
(process design, system engineering, pro-
curement services) in setting up
MED-TVC Desalination Plant
• Uses steam for producing distilled
quality water
• High Performance Ratios are obtained
• Reduced Condenser cooling water
requirement
50 KLD onwards (Higher Capacities are
beneficial)
Rs. 200 per LPD (Base Year 2007) at
battery limits
5-10 paise/lit (approx) depending on site
conditions
200 sqm. for 50 KLD
25 kW - Connected Load
Steam of 5 bar & above
Local Manpower can be trained.
36
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
12. Name of the Technology : Low Temperature Evaporation-with Cooling Tower
(LTE-CT)
Specific Information
To produce distilled quality water from
seawater
Know how and consultancy services
(process design, system engineering, pro-
curement services) in setting up
LTE-CT Desalination Plant
• Uses steam / hot water for producing
near distilled quality water
• Reduced Condenser cooling water
requirement
50 KLD – 500 KLD
Rs. 200 per LPD at battery limits
2-10 paise/lit (approx) depending on site
conditions
100 sqm. for 50 KLD to 400 sqm for
500 KLD
20 - 400kW (Connected Load)
Local Manpower can be trained
S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Items
Objective of the technology
Scope
Features of the Technology
Capacity
Approximate Capital Cost (Rs/unit)
O & M Cost
Any Specific Pre-requisites for installation
of the unit
a) Open Space/shed required for
installation
b) Electrical Power Requirement
c) Necessity of Specialized Manpower
37 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
13. Name of the Technology : Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) utilizing
Waste Heat
S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Items
Objective
Scope
Features of the Technology
Capacity
Approximate Capital Cost (Rs/unit)
O & M Cost
Any Specific Pre-requisites for installation
of the unit
a) Open Space/shed required for
installation
b) Electrical Power Requirement
c) Thermal Power
d) Necessity of Specialized Manpower
Specific Information
To produce distilled quality water from
seawater
Know how and consultancy services
(process design, system engineering,
procurement services) in setting up LTE
Desalination Plant
• Uses waste heat in form of hot water/
low quality steam as energy source for
producing near distilled quality water
10 KLD - 500 KLD
Rs. 200 per LPD at battery limits
2-10 paise/lit (approx) depending on site
conditions
50 sqm. for 30 , KLD to 400 sqm for
500 KLD
20 - 400kW (Connected Load)
Process Waste Heat
Local Manpower can be trained
38
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
A N N E X U R E - I V
Government of India
BHABHA ATOMIC RESEARCH CENTRE
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND COLLABORATION DIVISION
Application Form for Technology Transfer from BARC
1. Name of the Technology applied for :
2. Name of the party/legal entity with contact details :
3. Name of the applicant, nationality & contact details :
4. Details of Registration as an industry/legal entity (copy of certificate to be enclosed)
5. Address of works & Registered office premises :
6. State full names and full addresses of persons having direct financial interest
(applicable for proprietary and partnership firm) :
7. Details of the manufacturing experience, qualifications and experience of party
and partners, if any, with details of the technical expertise available to show that the party can
handle technical aspects of production, quality control and marketing (Use separate sheets)
8. Financial background with latest copy of audited annual report attached :
9. Name and address of the Bankers :
10. Production capacity plan & space available for the proposed production work :
11 Marketing plan and estimated market potential :
12. Any other information to substantiate technical and financial competence of the party
13. Details of past interaction / association with DAE/BARC or any Indian Organization
:
(Separate sheets may be enclosed if the space provided is insufficient. Application with incorrect and
incomplete information will not be considered)
39 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
I / We _______________________________________________________________request that
I/We may be considered for granting technical know-how for the production of
___________________________. I / We assure that all the information provided by me /us on
this form is true to best of my/our knowledge, and on the basis of this information any decision taken
by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre shall be accepted by me/us. I / We also undertake to furnish any
further information required in this connection. Please find enclosed a Demand Draft (non-refundable)
/ Bankers cheque No. _________ dated _________ of Rs. 500/- (for Indian entities) or US $50/-
(for foreign entities) drawn in favour of “Accounts officer, BARC” as application processing fee.
Date : ........................................................................ Signature ...................................................
Place : ....................................................................... Name ........................................................
& Office seal
To
Technology Transfer and Collaboration Division,
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay,
Mumbai. - 400085, India.
Tel : +91-22-25593897
Fax : +91-22-25505151 / 25519613
Note:
1. Application Processing Fee
a. Rs. 500/- for Indian entities
b. US $ 50/- for foreign entities
2. Each technology transfer application must be enclosed with the Demand draft/ Banker’s cheque
for application processing fee drawn in favor of “Accounts Officer, BARC” and must be sent to
Head, Technology Transfer and Collaboration Division, BARC.
3. Technology Transfer fee will be charged separately to the selected party accepting the
technology.
4. Applications without processing fee will not be considered for Technology Transfer.
Please note that this is only an application processing fee and does not confer any rights for
Technology Transfer.
5. Foreign applicants may please note that their application will be considered subject to
clearance from statutory bodies.
40
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
For further details please contact:
Prof. (Dr.) P. K. Tewari
Head Desalination Division
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Trombay Mumbai 400 085 (India)
Tel : + 91 22 25594625 / 25594619
Fax : + 91 22 25505151
E-mail : pktewari@barc.gov.in

Desalination & Water Purification Technologies
Technical Information Document

Government of India Department of Atomic Energy Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Chemical Engineering Group Desalination Division Trombay, Mumbai 400 085

2010

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I Desalination & Water Purification Technologies

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies II

CONTENTS

Foreword Preface 1. 2. 2.1. 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.1.3. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 3. 4. Introduction Desalination Technologies Thermal Desalination Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) Process Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) using Waste Heat Reverse Osmosis (RO) Hybridization Cogeneration using Nuclear Energy Challenges in Rural Areas Role of Department of Atomic Energy in Desalination & Water Purification 5. 5.1. 5.1.1. 5.1.2. 5.1.3. 5.1.3.1. 5.1.3.2. 5.1.4. Technologies & Products Developed by BARC Membrane Technologies Brackish Water RO Sea Water RO Development of Membrane & Modules Backwashable UF Spiral Modules Candle Type UF Water Purification Device Spin-off Membrane - Porous Polysulfone Diaphragm as Separator in Electrochemical Processes 5.1.5. 5.1.6. 5.1.7. 5.1.8. ` UF Assisted Fluoride Removal System UF Assisted Arsenic Removal System UF Assisted Iron Removal System Membrane Pouch for Providing Sterile Water Solution from Contaminated Water

V VII 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6

8 8 8 8 9 9 10 11

11 12 13

13

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ III Desalination & Water Purification Technologies

Technical Features 14 14 14 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 21 22 23 Annexure-IV Application Form for Technology Transfer from BARC 38 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies IV .2.1.2. Annexure-I Annexure.1.3. 6.II Annexure-III Thermal Desalination Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) LTE Desalination using Waste Heat Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) Desalination using Nuclear Energy Hybrid System LTE System utilising Nuclear Waste Heat Desalination & Water Purification Systems for Rural areas Rural Application of UF based Water Purification Technologies Solar Desalination & Water Purification Systems Solar PV based Water Treatment Systems Small Brackish Water RO & UF Units Community size RO Plant Consultancy Recovery of Valuables from Reject Brine of Desalination Plant Services Transfer of Technical Know-How Who Can Apply How to Apply Milestones in Thermal Desalination Milestones in Membrane Technologies Desalination & Water Purification Technologies and Products Developed by BARC.5. 9.1.1. 5.2. 7.2.2. 6. 7. 11. 7.1.1. 5.2.2.2.1.2. 6. 7.2. 8. 10. 11.2. 5.1.2. 11. 7. 7.

is at alert level in India. SHeÀSveSF&.400 085 HewÀkeÌme /Fax: + (91) (22) 2559 2107.in ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ V Desalination & Water Purification Technologies . I hope this technical information document will serve the purpose of creating awareness of and appreciation for desalination and water purification technologies.FO R E WO R D jleve kegÀceej efmevne. putting at risk more than 10 million people in the country. 2400 crores annualy in the country. hardness and salinity in water are other major concern. among the entrepreneurs. which leads to diarrhea. so that safe drinking water can be made available to the needy population in a reliable. cholera. [er Smemeer (S®e meer) efveosMekeÀ Ratan Kumar Sinha.. NGOs and other interested groups.in / director@barc. Mumbai 400 085 India Director Government of India About 40 million people (over 75% are children) are affected by water borne diseases every year. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has been engaged in R&D on desalination and water purification technologies for several years and has developed indigenous technologies wich are available for know-how transfer to interested parties.gov. cegbyeF&-400 085 Yeejle Yeejle mejkeÀej Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay.gov. FNAE. Bacteriological contamination. Nearly six million children below 14 years of age suffer from fluorosis due to fluoride contamination in water. 2551 1910 • leej:yeeke&À-cegbyeF& 400 085 • Gram : BARC-MUMBAI . Sinha) otjYee<e / Phone: + (91) (22) 2550 5300. BARC would encourage entrepreneurs to come forward and make use of the indigenous know-how for wider deployment. Arsenic is another dangerous contaminant in ground water. (R. hepatitis etc. D Sc (hc) YeeYee HejceeCeg DevegmebOeeve keWÀê ì^e@cyes. Medical expenditure on water borne diseases is estimated to be Rs. The need for desalination and water purification is destined to grow in the coming years as the requirment for water increases. Contamination due to Iron. K. sustainable and affordable manner using the indigenous technologies and supplementing with market technologies in an accelerated manner on a significant scale. 2550 5151 • F&-cesue / E-mail: rksinha@barc.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies VI .

The United Nations General Assembly has proclaimed the years 2005-2015 as the International Decade for Action ‘Water for Life’. Several water technologies developed by Desalination Division have been transferred to private parties on non-exclusive basis. Desalination Division. but for the encouragement and support of Director BARC and Chairman AEC for water technologies. Dedicated team of scientists and engineers have contributed substantially to the expertise gathered. Almost all countries have drinking water quality regulations.1 billion people are currently without safe drinking water. We have acquired valuable experience on operation and trouble shooting of desalination and water purification plants and are equipped to provide consultancy to interested parties on design. commissioning and operation of these systems. The document is not intended to provide detailed technical information on various technologies. More than half of the world’s hospital beds are occupied by patients suffering from water borne diseases. in mid. The Sus’ruta Samhita. Many of these diseases can be prevented by providing safe drinking water. According to the United Nations.19th century in London.K. State-of-theart reliable technologies have been developed to address the growing need of good quality water for industries and human consumption. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has been engaged in R&D on various aspects of desalination and water purification technologies starting from basic research work to development and deployment efforts. This document would not have been materialised.5 billion people) will be living in areas facing severe water shortages by the year 2025. gives evidence that water treatment may well be as ancient as humans are. over 1. the role of desalination and water purification becomes very important. installation. A correlation between water quality and health was made. Tewari) Head. technologies developed and know how generated in the research centre. It is in this context. Desalination of water is one of the key drivers under non-power applications of DAE program. but is aimed to provide a glimpse of the technologies for the entrepreneurs. often inspired by WHO guidelines. when a decrease in cholera deaths epidemics were noticed where slow sand filters had been installed. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has set international guidelines for drinking water. Sanskrit writings about medical concerns (2000 BC). We are thankful to all the scientists and engineers who came forward to share their expertise and information in the formulation of this Technical Information Document. quality. so that deployment of such technologies could be accelerated through the participation of private entrepreneurs. It is predicted that a significant fraction of the global population (over 3. The research work carried out has mainly focused on technological innovations. NGOs and other interested groups. reliability and commercialization potential of the product/ technology for deployment over large scale. The Greeks and Romans are well known for their elaborate water systems. Desalination Division ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ VII Desalination & Water Purification Technologies . These early water treatment professionals used a variety of methods to control taste and odor problems in their water supplies.PREFACE Early humans thought that the taste of the water determined its purity. NGOs and other interested parties. (P. Government of India has launched ‘Bharat Nirman’ Yojana which includes drinking water as an important programme. Such consultancies are provided after signing a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). The purpose of bringing out this technical document is to consolidate the work carried out by Desalination Division (BARC).

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies VIII .

The proportion of the population which is urban has doubled over the last thirty years (and is now about 30%). (ii) excessive exploitation of ground water sources and its insufficient recharge. which is often expressed by the total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration. brackish water and fresh water have different levels of salinity. Seawater. fluoride. cooling water and other industrial applications. In addition. with 50% of precipitation falling in just 15 days and over 90% of river flows in just four months. arsenic and microbial contaminations of ground water. Water is considered potable when its TDS is below 500 mg/L. outpacing by two times the rate of population growth. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies . This is resulting into water stress/ scarcity. It includes: • • • • • • Seawater desalination in coastal areas Brackish water desalination Water purification Water reuse Rain water harvesting Water supply schemes Desalination. Waste water is another category containing dissolved salts mostly in the low brackish level. A holistic approach is therefore required to be considered to deal with water problem. water purification & water recovery/ reuse schemes are destined to play a major role and commercially viable indigenous technologies are thus required for deployment to suit local conditions. rapid industrialization.000 mg/L and brackish water has a TDS between that of potable water and seawater. The existing water resources are diminishing (i) due to unequal distribution of rain water and occasional drought. Country has a highly seasonal pattern of rainfall. Western Rajasthan and the coastal regions of Tamil Nadu etc. The water demand in the country is increasing fast due to progressive increase in the demand of water for irrigation. Country is currently passing through social and economic transition. The availability of good quality water is on the decline and water demand is on the rise. a large number of villages in different parts of the country are known to be suffering from excess salinity.1. Worldwide availability of fresh water for industrial needs and human consumption is limited. Water shortages and unreliable water quality are considered major obstacles to achieve sustainable development and improvement in the quality of life. Introduction The world’s water consumption rate is doubling every 20 years. Since the projected industrial and irrigation requirements would be far exceeding that of domestic requirements. There are areas like Saurashtra and Kutch. agriculture now accounts for about 25% of GDP and the economy has been growing at around 7-9% a year. (iii) deterioration of water quality due to the discharge of domestic and industrial effluents without adequate treatment. which face perennial water shortage. population growth and improving life standards. recycle and reuse of waste effluents apart from desalination make enormous sense for future water management. Various industrial and developmental activities in recent times have resulted in increasing the pollution level and deteriorating the water quality. iron. The reclaimed water from waste water can be used for irrigation. Seawater has a TDS of about 35. Desalination is recognized as a possible means to augment the water supply using natural resources for meeting the growing demand of water.

multiple-effect distillation (MED). MSF can accept higher contaminant loading (suspended solids. The two main commercial desalination technologies are those based on thermal and membrane processes. 2 . producing water vapour that in turn condenses to form distilled water.freshwater and a more concentrated stream (brine). BOD etc. mimic the natural process of producing rain. 2 . except freezing. The heated sea water is subsequently flashed in successive stages maintained at decreasing levels of pressure. Thermal processes are capable of producing high purity water and suited for industrial process applications. M u l t i S t a g e F l a s h ( M S F ) P r o c e s s The basic principle involved in the MSF process is to heat the sea water to about 90– 120°C using the heat of condensation of the vapour produced and supplementing with external steam. process industries and several other high purity applications. vapour compression (VC) and low temperature evaporation (LTE). condensing steam is used to supply the latent heat needed to vapourize the water.1 . It is capable of producing distilled quality product water good for power plants.1 . In all these processes. D e s a l i n a t i o n Te c h n o l o g i e s Desalination refers to the process by which pure water is recovered from saline water using different forms of energy. grease. Owing to their high-energy requirements. T h e r m a l D e s a l i n a t i o n Thermal processes. These processes include multistage flash (MSF).) in feed sea water. COD. Thermal processes account for 55% of the total production and their unit capacities are higher compared to membrane processes. heavy metals. Saline water is heated. The vapor produced is condensed and recovered as pure water.1 . thermal processes are normally used for seawater desalination.Integrated Water Resource Management – A Holistic Approach 2. Desalination produces two streams . oil. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 2 . Saline water is classified as either brackish water or seawater depending on the salinity and water source.

low grade heat and waste heat utilization. Vapours are generated from the feed sea water in the first effect and directed to the second effect.1. The possibility of low temperature operation. Each effect operates at a successively lower temperature and pressure. 2 . It is condensed inside the tubes transferring the latent heat to the brine falling outside the tube enabling a portion of the brine to evaporate. M u l t i E f f e c t D i s t i l l a t i o n ( M E D ) MED plant has two or more effects. The first effect is heated by low pressure steam (about 0.3 bar). Mechanical Vapour Compressor (MVC) or Thermal Vapour Compressor (TVC) is used for this purpose depending on site specific conditions. The vapour produced in each effect is passed through the demisters to next effect. Thus vapours from the previous effect serve as the heat source to the succeeding effect for evaporating the brine. Efficiency of MED plant can be improved by adding a vapour compressor. Vapour from the last effect is condensed in the final condenser where sea water is used as the coolant. MED is capable of producing pure distilled water similar to MSF. Schematic Diagram of Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) Process ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 3 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies . Low temperature MED unit operates at about 65°C and therefore allows the use of cheaper materials of construction due to less scaling and corrosion problems.Schematic Diagram of Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) Process 2 . low cooling water requirement and low energy consumption have made MED an attractive alternative in recent years for sea water desalination.

heater.1.3. various membranes could precede RO in order to selectively remove suspended solids (microfiltration). Feed sea water enters the unit at the bottom of the tubes and partly evaporates by the time it comes out from the top.e. L o w Te m p e r a t u r e E v a p o r a t i o n ( LT E ) D e s a l i n a t i o n U s i n g Wa s t e H e a t As the energy cost component is a major fraction of the desalinated water cost. A typical RO desalting plant consists of three sections. separator and condenser. Conventional pretreatment section typically consists of particulate filtration.2. As the success of RO desalination hinges on the proper pre-treatment of the feed water. Development of better energy recovery devices can further reduce the energy consumption. while maintaining high permeability. It is one of the eco-friendly ways to produce desalinated water as it does not require chemical pretreatment of feed seawater. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 4 . The desalination unit essentially consists of three portions i. utilization of waste heat as energy input for seawater desalination is an attractive option. Energy consumption depends on the salt content of the feed water. LTE Desalination using waste Heat 2. Development of RO membranes of very high rejection. vertical tubes are used. After water and vapour mixture come out of the tubes. Reverse Osmosis (RO) RO is used for both brackish water and seawater desalination as well as for waste water treatment and water recovery/reuse. micron filtration and chemicals additions. enters the horizontal tube bundle kept at the top of the vertical shell and condenses around the tubes (which are cooled by sea water flowing inside) producing desalinated water. colloids/turbidity & organics (ultrafiltration) and hardness and sulphates (nanofiltration). The product water is pumped out. Membrane section consists of membrane elements housed in pressure vessels through which pretreated saline water is passed under pressure in excess of its osmotic pressure with the help of a high pressure pump coupled with energy recovery device. In the heater shell.2. the vapour rises through the vertical shell. namely pretreatment section. membrane section and post treatment section. Ocean thermal energy can also be utilised for sea water desalination. The post treatment section consists of lime treatment for pH correction and chlorination for disinfection as required to meet public health standards and to make the water noncorrosive to the water distribution systems. has potential to reduce the energy consumption.

process water and potable water. Dual purpose (power & water) plants have inherent design strategies for better thermodynamic efficiency besides economic optimization. Electrical and/or thermal energy is used in desalination process on the same site. Hybrid Desalination System Integrated with Nuclear Power Reactor ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 5 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies . reduced seawater requirement. sharing the manpower and facilities are other advantages of hybridization. Co-generation Using Nuclear Energy Co-location of desalination and power plants has the benefit of sharing the resources such as common intake of sea water/ outfall and other infrastructural facilities. use of common seawater system and brine discharge facility. The production of potable water from seawater in a facility in which nuclear reactor is used as the source of energy for the desalination process is termed as nuclear desalination. 2.Reverse Osmosis (RO) 2.3. Combined post treatment. Hybridization Hybrid thermal/membrane combinations offer several advantages including the use of warm seawater from the thermal plant as feed to RO for having an optimized feed temperature and production of water of different qualities for different uses such as high quality boiler feed make up water.4.

development and deployment of desalination and water purification technologies for a wide range of applications. LTE using waste heat for seawater desalination. But. Remoteness and inaccessibility of remote areas pose difficulties in case of equipment failure as skilled manpower and spare parts may not be readily available which results in considerable delay. R o l e o f D e p a r t m e n t o f At o m i c E n e r g y ( DA E ) i n D e s a l i n a t i o n & Wa t e r P u r i f i c a t i o n As a part of the national program to improve the quality of life in our society. 4 . Hence the total requirement of drinking water for the village needs to be produced in a short span of time when the power is usually available. The technologies have been demonstrated and deployed in different parts of the country and transferred to several parties on non-exclusive basis. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 6 . thus affecting the yield and at times rise in salinity. Reject water recirculation in the design is the suitable approach which takes care of conserving the ground water resource. These processes are either used in standalone or hybrid mode to suit the requirement.3. brackish water RO in villages for producing safe drinking water. Availability of power varies from 8 to 10 hours a day and even the available power supply is highly erratic with crippling voltage fluctuations and sudden power cuts. MSF for seawater desalination using low grade steam. To deal with such situations the critical moving parts are installed in standby mode and important spare parts are always kept ready. Design should be robust and simple. BARC has been providing guidance and consultancy to several agencies in this regard. It includes sea water RO for coastal areas. Due to acute summer and over exploitation of the ground water. Power supply in rural areas is a serious concern. Because of the lack of availability of skilled man power in rural areas the design should take care that minimum human interface is called for. Challenges in Rural Areas As water scarcity and contamination problems are more acute in rural areas. Hence sustenance of the quality and quantity of the product is difficult. the water table goes down. the various constraints normally encountered in rural areas pose certain limitations on the efficiency and techno-economics of desalination in general. Ultra-Filtration (UF) based water purification for domestic and community use and waste water recycle and reuse. implementation of desalination and water purification technologies will help in a big way in providing safe drinking water. The Department has achieved several milestones in the field of thermal desalination and membrane technologies as given in Annexure I and II respectively. BARC has been engaged in research.

the Department has come to a level of having full-fledged facilities for indigenous development of membranes & membrane devices. utilisation of low grade and waste heat etc. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 7 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies . BARC has signed Memorandum of Understandings (MoUs) for providing consultancy on design.Desalination plant Seawater RO Plant Brackish water RO Plant Seawater MSF Plant Seawater LTE Plant Effluent Treatment RO Plant for water recovery RO Plant for Disaster management Technology Transfers Brackish water RO Domestic water purifier Spiral UF Element Fluoride Removal Arsenic Removal Deployment of Desalination & Water Purification Technologies by Department of Atomic Energy (as on June 2010) In case of membrane technology. efforts are continued to reduce the cost through R&D including technological innovations such as high heat transfer performance. BARC has been engaged in several international collaborations dealing with various aspects of desalination and water purification. In thermal desalination. The technical knowhow of these technologies are available through Technology Transfer & Collaboration Division (TTCD) of BARC. In the larger interest of providing clean water to the people and thereby improving their quality of life. engineering and consultancy services for installation. DAE desires to promote wider deployment of these indigenous desalination and water purification technologies. capabilities for design. design checkup and trouble shooting of desalination and water recycling plants. commissioning and trouble shooting. The entrepreneur can purchase the appropriate technology which will be transferred on a non exclusive basis.

Work on exploring the role of nano-technology on desalination and water purification also has been taken up. 5 .. 5 KLD capacity each) were designed and installed in the Tsunami affected areas of Tamil Nadu.8 Million Litres/ Day (MLD) of potable water. A barge mounted desalination plant (50 KLD capacity) for producing drinking water from seawater has also been developed. desalination plants (2 nos. Special care was taken in the design so that the plant can operate under wide range of feed water quality in terms of physical.1 .1. 2 . chemical and biological contaminants with minimal pretreatment. Brackish Water Desalination Plants in Rural Areas (5-30 KLD capacity) 5 . Similar units can also be used for disaster management to provide drinking water in the coastal areas during emergency. nitrate etc. Development of Membrane and Modules Indigenous development of membranes for various applications such as brackish water and sea water desalination and water recovery/ reuse from effluents is pursued. For disaster management. S e a Wa t e r R O BARC has developed the design methodology of Seawater Reverse Osmosis (RO) system and based on the experience gained from the 100 KLD RO plant at Trombay. 5 . Such desalination plants are useful for water starved coastal areas. it has setup a SWRO plant at Kalpakkam which produces 1. M e m b r a n e Te c h n o l o g i e s Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Ultra-Filtration (UF) based systems for different applications have been developed. Several community level desalination plants of capacities ranging from 5-30 Kilo-Litres/ Day (KLD) have been setup in the rural areas of Rajasthan. 5. Te c h n o l o g i e s a n d P r o d u c t s D e v e l o p e d b y B A R C The features of the products and technologies developed are given in Annexure III. These reverse osmosis plants are not only capable of desalinating brackish water but are also capable of removing contaminants such as fluoride. 1 . Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat producing clean water from brackish water.1 .5 .3. arsenic.1 . B r a c k i s h Wa t e r R O R&D efforts in BARC has resulted in the development of brackish water desalination technology. Cellulose acetate based membranes developed in tubular and f lat sheet configurations were transferred to several parties for ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 8 .

R&D efforts on membrane manufacturing technology have resulted in the development of Thin Film Composite Polyamide (TFCP) membranes. prepared in two stages. The poly sulfone membrane which is in the ultrafiltration (UF) range. These devices with capacity ranging from about 0.5 LPM to 4 LPM can be deployed for community water purification or smallscale industries. prepared as a precursor for the TFCP has been found to be good for many applications.1 . the unit has been perfected in the Department. B a c k w a s h a b l e U F S p i r a l M o d u l e s Backwashable spiral element based on poly sulfone UF membranes for delivering sterile water with six (6) log reduction of bacteria and four (4) log reduction of virus has been developed. These are three layered membranes. The membranes thus prepared are rolled in spiral configuration using the technology developed in-house. As RO pretreatment system also. 3 . It Barge Mounted Desalination plant (50 KLD capacity) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 9 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies .100 KLD SWRO Plant at Trombay 1. wastewater treatment and water reuse. 5 . It is a promising technology for water purification.1.8 MLD SWRO Plant at Kalpakkam commercialization.

1. These water purifiers of low capacity and zero operating cost are meant to satisfy the domestic need for safe water.2. modular expandability.3. simplicity of operation. operational conditions. or the fluctuations and changes. The technology has been transferred to eighteen parties for commercial deployment. coagulant and flocculent dosing coarse media filter and active carbon filters. this device physically eliminates them. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 10 . The unit is back washable either manually or automatic mode. Removal of suspended particulates. The technology has been transferred for wider deployment. Candle Type UF Water Purification Device A novel idea of coating poly sulfone on a porous candle resulted in the development of a ‘point of use’ water purifier. This device does not require any electricity or any addition of chemicals. less volume of discharged wastes (including sludge and chemicals). A typical unit provides nearly 40 liters of water per day at 3 meters pressure head and can withstand up to 40 psig pressure. The other advantages are smaller footprint/ layout area. Membrane Casting Machine at BARC Indigenously Developed Spiral Modules 5. The single step of UF pretreatment can replace the conventional pretreatment system comprising clarifier.provides an absolute barrier to the particles present in the raw saline water regardless of the system load. color and odor are additional benefits available in these units. process automation etc. single step process. Unlike other devices available in the market which only deactivates the micro-organisms.

1 . U F A s s i s t e d F l u o r i d e R e m o v a l S y s t e m While the desirable limit of fluoride in water is 1 mg/ litre (ppm). several states in the country have higher fluoride content in water. 5 .Water Purifier Developed by BARC 5 .Po r o u s Po l y s u l f o n e D i a p h r a g m a s Separator in Electrochemical Processes The porous polysulfone diaphragms reinforced with non-woven support fabric has been found to be useful as separator in electrochemical processes involving highly acidic solutions for production of various chemicals such as ammonium per sulphate (NH4)2S2O8.o f f M e m b r a n e . It causes dental. skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. These diaphragms have very high porosity (60-70%) with submicron pore sizes resulting in low electrical resistance in electrolyte solutions and are stable up to 30% H2SO4 solution. A comprehensive technology comprising re-generable alumina followed by ultrafiltration is developed in the Department. The polysulfone diaphragm can be used as a separator in electrolytic cell. The production cost of these diaphragms is lower by an order of magnitude compared to presently used nafion membranes with comparable properties. Treatment of fluoride contaminated water by use of alumina column and subsequent polishing by ultrafiltration process ensures efficient removal of fluoride as well as secondary aluminum contamination. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 11 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies . 5 .. 4 . S p i n .1.

Bihar and parts of Uttar Pradesh. A comprehensive technology comprising iron oxide followed by ultrafiltration is developed in the Department to get rid of arsenic contamination from water.1. Jharkhand.UF Assisted Fluoride Removal System 5 . Arsenic problem is acute in West Bengal. 6 . U F A s s i s t e d A r s e n i c R e m o v a l S y s t e m The desirable limit for Arsenic in Drinking water is 10 ppb. People in the affected areas suffer from skin rashes. UF Assisted Arsenic Removal System ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 12 .

The WHO desirable limit of iron content in drinking water is 0. M e m b r a n e Po u c h f o r P r o v i d i n g S t e r i l e Wa t e r So l u t i o n f r o m Co n t a m i n a t e d Wa t e r The technology provides a process for the preparation of Membrane Pouch for Providing Sterile Drinkable solution from any biological Contaminated Water.1. Based on the Osmosis only pure water permeates through the semi permeable membrane and disolves the nutrient salts filled in the pouches. Tsunami. water soluble. and it can be used in any contaminated water. earthquakes etc.1. UF Assisted Domestic Size Iron Removal System UF Assisted Community Size Iron Removal System 5 . A low molecular weight.1 ppm of iron concentration in product from 20 ppm of feed iron concentration. U F A s s i s t e d I r o n R e m o v a l S y s t e m Iron contamination in water is called aesthetic contamination. 7. A comprehensive technique comprising oxidation followed by ultrafiltration is developed in the Department which achieved upto 0. The oxidation reaction changes the iron from a soluble form into a less soluble form. Water purification through Membrane Pouches ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 13 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies . thus causing precipitation and accumulation of reddish brown material. non-toxic substance having a high osmotic pressure like Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) mixture. bad smell & taste.5 .3 ppm. milk powder or any other water soluble and drinkable substance taken inside the pouch. These are easily portable devices used in disaster management conditions like floods. 8 . The presence of iron in water causes red colour.

Next Generation LTE-CT Plant at Trombay (50 KLD capacity) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 14 . Salient features of the MSF Plant at Trombay (425 KLD capacity) different thermal desalination technologies developed and demonstrated by BARC are given as follows. LT E D e s a l i n a t i o n u s i n g Wa s t e H e a t A 10 KLD LTE desalination plant using the waste heat of 500 KVA diesel generator was installed and commissioned in one of the islands of Lakshadweep under BARC consultancy for producing desalinated water from seawater. Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) BARC has developed MSF technology based on long tube design requiring less energy consumption as compared to conventional MSF.3 MLD Hybrid MSF-RO plant.5. mimic the natural process of rain. Such plants are ideally suitable for coupling with power plants where abundant waste heat is available. These plants can also produce high purity distilled quality water from high salinity water or seawater for the rural areas where waste heat from Diesel Generator (DG) sets/ solar energy is available. 2 . a 4.1 . low temperature evaporation (LTE) multipleeffect distillation (MED) etc. Thermal Desalination Thermal desalination processes. Based on the experience gained from the 15 KLD desalination experimental facility and 425 KLD MSF pilot plant at Trombay. 2 . 5 . They are capable of producing high purity water which is suited for high end industrial use. Thermal processes are normally used for seawater desalination. except freezing.5 MLD MSF unit was designed and built as a part of the 6. 2 .2. 5 . Saline water is heated producing water vapor that in turn condenses to form distilled water. Thermal processes include multistage f lash (MSF).

An LTE system producing 50 KLD distilled water from seawater with innovative design features to reduce the raw water requirement by order of magnitude is also developed in BARC.1 μS/cm conductivity) for high end applications. The special features of this type of plant are the HTTF evaporators having high heat transfer efficiency. Based on R&D work. a MED-MVC desalination plant (50 KLD capacity) was designed and put up. MED-VC Desalination Plant ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 15 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies . This plant also uses a novel Spray Enhancing Demisters (SED) to produce ultra high purity water. In order to produce ultra-pure water (0. 5.2.3. The EDI unit (capacity: 5000 LPD) product from the EDI unit (5 KLD capacity) is supplied to the various facilities in BARC (Trombay) on demand. Electro-De-Ionization (EDI) is integrated with LTE. EDI is a combination of Electro dialysis (ED) and Ion exchange (IE). MED-MVC requires only electrical power for seawater desalination. Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) A 1000 litres/ day Horizontal Tube Thin Film (HTTF) desalination unit has been earlier developed and operated for basic studies on boiling heat transfer and hydrodynamics over a wide range of temperatures for having data bank for designing efficient MED desalination plants. less pumping power requirement and lower raw water consumption.

Dual purpose plants generating power & water have inherent design strategies for better thermodynamic efficiency besides economic optimization. Product water from MSF and RO can be blended to provide better quality drinking water. An isolation loop is provided between the nuclear reactor and the desalination plant for ensuring no radioactive contamination and high protection of desalinated water. The requirements of seawater. steam and electrical power for the desalination plant are met from MAPS. RO produces potable quality water. This has been motivated by wide varieties of reasons such as economic competitiveness of nuclear energy to energy-supply diversification etc. RO section incorporates necessary pretreatment and an energy recovery system. Co-location of desalination and power plants has benefits of sharing the infrastructural facilities as in the case of hybrid plants. Electrical and /or thermal energy from the reactor is directly used by the desalination plants.8 MLD RO) coupled to Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS).5 MLD MSF and 1.6. Kalpakkam. It has 39 flash stages producing distilled quality water for high end applications in industries. Interest in using nuclear energy for producing desalinated water is growing world wide. MSF section is designed for high efficiency giving high Gain Output Ratio (GOR). Desalination using Nuclear Energy Desalination is an energy intensive process. Production of potable water in a facility in which nuclear reactor is used as the source of energy for the desalination process is termed as nuclear desalination. 6 .3 million litres per day (MLD) capacity (4.1 . H y b r i d S y s t e m Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant (NDDP) at Kalpakkam based on hybrid technology consists of a hybrid MSF-RO desalination plant of 6. It operates at relatively lower pressure and employs lesser pretreatment chemicals because of relatively clean feed seawater from MAPS outfall. India is among very few countries having experience in different coupling aspects of a nuclear desalination plant. Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant (NDDP) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 16 . It is the largest nuclear desalination plant based on hybrid technology in the world.

7. a 30 KLD LTE desalination plant was coupled to a nuclear research reactor for utilizing a part of its waste heat for producing desalinated water from seawater to meet the make-up water requirement of the reactor. These communities are often drinking water of substandard quality.1. LTE Desalination Plant Using Nuclear Waste Heat 7. 2 . as they do not possess appropriate technology to purify the water. Multiple candles system also is designed for community level water purification. The required minimum head is created by keeping the tanks at an elevation and filling the contaminated water in the tanks with the help of hand pumps. D e s a l i n a t i o n & Wa t e r P u r i f i c a t i o n S y s t e m s f o r R u r a l A r e a s Water scarcity and contamination problems are more acute in rural areas along with infrastructural constraints including less or no electric power supply. R u r a l A d a p t a t i o n o f U F b a s e d Wa t e r P u r i f i c a t i o n Te c h n o l o g i e s Rural adaptation of UF based water purification technologies for providing safe drinking water in villages is shown in the picture given below.Hybrid RO-MSF Nuclear Desalination Plant at Kalpakkam (6. LT E S y s t e m u t i l i s i n g N u c l e a r Wa s t e H e a t In order to demonstrate the utilisation of nuclear waste heat for seawater desalination. An intermediate heat exchanger (IHE) is incorporated between nuclear reactor and the desalination plant to ensure no radioactive contamination and high protection of desalinated water. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 17 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies .3 MLD capacity) 6 .

Also. there are various financial incentives that are offered by the government for the production of solar power.1 . In addition. The most widely used renewable energy source is the sun.1 . Electricity is locally produced from sunlight with the help of photovoltaic (PV) panels. Solar PVpowered desalination systems are suited for small community level plants considering the technoeconomic viability.Domestic and Community Level Water Purification Units 7. 2 . The feed water is passed through the membrane with the help of a DC pump directly connected to the PV panels. 7. 2 . 7. The unit can be normally operated for 9 to 10 hrs on sunny days. without any batteries. power production utilizing environment friendly renewable energy sources is the solution for the issue of climate change. carbon dioxide. The UF unit (50–100 LPH) consists of candle and capillary type filters and is operated in the same way. grid electricity is not available. or sulphur dioxide. No harmful gases are emitted such as nitrogen oxide. Small and community level RO and UF units are developed for producing safe drinking water. S m a l l b r a c k i s h w a t e r R O & U F u n i t s The solar RO unit (10 LPH) contains a cartridge pre-filter and a spirally wound RO membrane element. there are thousands of Indian villages which cannot be connected to the grid power network. 2. The source of solar energy is inexhaustible and it is free. S o l a r D e s a l i n a t i o n & Wa t e r P u r i f i c a t i o n S y s t e m s Solar desalination becomes an attractive alternative for remote and rural areas where. It is reported that.1 . S o l a r P V b a s e d Wa t e r Tr e a t m e n t S y s t e m s BARC is engaged in developmental work on desalination systems based on solar energy. mercury. due to their remoteness. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 18 .

Community Level RO Plant along with PV Panels (250 LPH) 8. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 19 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies . commissioning and troubleshooting of desalination/ effluent treatment plants and the same is offered to outside parties through consultancy. For this reason. installation. engineering.PV Based Small Scale RO & UF Units 7. erection. the concentrate also can be used for non-potable purposes. Consultancy for the troubleshooting of membrane based effluent treatment plant for recovery of water also has been provided to Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL). 2 . 2 .1 . BARC has provided consultancy to Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL) for large size thermal desalination plants. In the case of low saline (1000 ppm) brackish water. It was installed by NIOT at Lakshadweep. a significant fraction of the concentrate stream (which otherwise is rejected) is recycled back. This would prevent wastage of water by way of reject disposal. if the product recovery is kept minimum. so that fresh feed as well as discharge volumes can be minimized. Design consultancy has been provided to National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) for a 100 KLD Low Temperature Desalination System utilising ocean thermal energy gradient. Consultancy BARC has expertise in design. C o m m u n i t y s i z e R O p l a n t Water conservation becomes an issue when the natural recharge rate of the source is slow as in the case of ground water.

11 . 10 . S e r v i c e s Water quality monitoring is an important aspect and has a significant bearing on the design of a suitable desalination system. Some of these elements are scarce and expensive. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 20 . Trombay. There is thus a strong motivation in recovering these elements from the reject brine of a desalination plant.in. This also adds value to a desalination plant apart from making it more environment friendly.barc. The department has a well-equipped laboratory to analyze the quality of the raw water available to check its potability as well as to identify the specific contaminant present in the saline water. 11 . 2 . Mumbai 400 085. W h o C a n A p p l y Interested parties with engineering and scientific knowledge. good financial background and technical and infrastructural capability are preferred.gov.1 . H o w To A p p l y Send your Technology Transfer Application Form (as per the format given in Annexure IV) duly filled and signed along with a Demand Draft of Rs. Tr a n s f e r o f Te c h n i c a l K n o w h o w BARC offers knowhow of the indigenously developed technologies/ products to interested parties on non-exclusive basis. Technology Transfer & Collaboration Division (TT&CD). R e c o v e r y o f Va l u a b l e s f r o m R e j e c t B r i n e o f D e s a l i n a t i o n The concentrated stream (brine) rejected from the desalination plants is a source of many valuable chemicals. 11 . India Phone : +91-22-25593897/ +91-22-25593648 Fax : +91-22-25505151/ +91-22-25519613. 500 (for Indian Entrepreneurs) and USD 50 (for foreign entrepreneurs) drawn in favor of ‘Accounts Officer BARC’ as application processing fee to the following address.9. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The details of the technologies offered are mentioned in the website www.

4. 2006 8. Hybrid LTE-EDI system for producing ultra-pure water from seawater. 1 KLD Thermocompression (TC) desalination unit for seawater desalination. 50 KLD Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) seawater desalination plant with Cooling Tower. 2004 7. 2010 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 21 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies . 1997 5. 1990 3.ANNEXURE .I Milestones in Thermal Desalination Technologies & Plants 1. 1997 4. Year 1985 2. 50 KLD Multi-Effect Distillation-Vapor Compression (MED-VC) seawater desalination plant. 30 kilo-litres/day (KLD) Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) seawater desalination plant using waste heat. 1 KLD Horizontal Tube Thin Film (HTTF) desalination unit for MED. 30 KLD Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) desalination unit using waste heat of nuclear reactor for seawater desalination.5 MLD MSF plant at Kalpakkam as a part of NDDP. 10 KLD LTE desalination plant using waste heat for seawater desalination at Lakshadweep. 425 KLD MSF plant for seawater desalination. 2008 10. 2007 9. 2002 6.

50 KLD Barge Mounted seawater desalination plant for water scarce coastal and remote areas. 10. Mumbai. 15 KLD Reverse Osmosis-Demineralisation (RO-DM) plant at VECC. Technology Transfer of Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by physicochemical process. 12. 30 KLD RO plant providing drinking water in a village at Jodhpur. Technology Transfer of Iron Removal from Drinking Water by physicochemical process. 30 KLD brackish water RO plant for providing drinking water in village at Barmer. 18. 1. Commissioning of solar RO unit for brackish water desalination. Rajasthan. Technology Transfer of Back-washable Spiral element for commercial utilization. 100 KLD Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) plant at Trombay. 50 KLD Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit for industrial effluent treatment at RCF. Technology Transfer of tubular membrane development for commercial utilization. 5. 8.8 MLD SWRO plant at Kalpakkam as a part of NDDP. 17. Year 1983 1984 1985 1986 1994 1998 1998 1999 2002 2002 2003 2004-05 2006 2007 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 22 . 15. Kolkata for production of low conductivity water. Technology Transfer of plate & frame module development for commercial utilization. 3. 20. 11.II Milestones in Membrane Technology Technologies & Plants 1. 26 KLD NF plant for a pharmaceutical industry. Development of Thin Film Composite (TFC) Polyamide based membrane casting assembly. 4. 2. Technology Transfer of Fluoride Removal from Drinking Water by physicochemical process. 16. 6. 2 x 30 KLD brackish water RO plants for providing drinking water in villages of Andhra Pradesh & Gujarat. 9. 5 KLD BWRO plant for providing drinking water during Tsunami at Tamil Nadu. Rajasthan.ANNEXURE . 14. 19. Technology Transfer of Domestic water purifier. 13. 7. Technology Transfer for Preparation of Composite Polyamide Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane for Brackish Water Desalination.

Technical Features ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 23 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies .ANNEXURE .III Desalination & Water Purification Technologies and Products Developed by BARC.

It should however be noted that these cost figures are only indicative and would vary depending on the location. is predominant in north eastern States while arsenic is a problem in the eastern part. 2. 1. a major contaminant. Specific regions have some predominant geogenic based contaminants. capacity. extent of automation etc. turbidity & toxic contaminants such as. 4. Water purification systems for the removal of microorganisms. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has developed several water purification devices and desalination technologies. Micro-biological contamination is a common problem in most of the parts. which are most suited for remote and rural areas. Similarly. F etc for producing safe drinking water. engineering. It is disturbing to note that arsenic contamination is spreading across the gangetic plain extending to Punjab. 25 to 50 lakh. industries and metropolis. Units which can operate without electricity (domestic UF) or operating on solar power (UF & RO). These technologies or products are backed with robust design concepts and pilot plant studies. communities. Know how of products/ components/technologies and services available in the field of water treatment can be broadly classified based on their applications as. which can cover the needs of households. It is estimated that about 70 – 80% of health problems can be traced to deficiency in the water quality. services in design. south east and northern states. As. Technological intervention has become a necessity for a reliable & sustainable availability of safe drinking water. The overall cost of water produced would be about 1-2 paise per litre for water purification. Salinity in the ground water is increasing day by day and becoming a significant problem in majority of states due to overexploitation of ground water in the inland areas and seawater ingression in the coastal areas. The know-how of these technologies/ products has been transferred to several parties for wider deployment in a commercially viable manner and is available on non-exclusive basis through technology transfer. Fluoride contamination is present in a number of states including western. Desalination Units for the removal of salinity using membrane process or thermal desalination for producing pure water for drinking or industrial uses. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 24 . Fe. 10. operation and troubleshooting of brackish water & seawater desalination and effluent treatment plants are available through consultancy. commissioning. as a part of its research & development efforts towards the betterment of the society. Iron. 3-5 paise for brackish water desalination and 5-10 paise for seawater desalination. 3.00 lakh (Rupees ten lakh only). Effluent treatment plants based on UF & RO for recovery of water for reuse or for safe disposal. installation. such as back-washable spiral UF element and RO membrane require higher investment in the order of about Rs. energy cost. An entrepreneur interested in the manufacturing of the point-of-use UF based candle type domestic water purification device would require an investment of about Rs.Water quality problems exist nearly in all the parts of our country. Bigger products for community level application.

Operable pressure : 2 kg/cm2 Filter life: Minimum 3 yrs (typical) 4 Capacity 40-100 litres per day 5 Typical Unit cost Rs. 1. O&M cost and specific requisites (if any) for deployment etc. Name of the Technology : UF based Domestic Water Purifier S.The technical features and detailed information with respect to the technologies and products developed by BARC are given in the following pages. 2000-5000 6 O & M cost (Rs. colloids and microbiological contaminants 2 Name of the process Ultrafiltration (UF) 3 Features of the technology • • • • Suitable for domestic application Operated under tap water head ( > 3 m) Max. type of process used. Details include objective. features. per cubic meter of product water) Negligible 7 Any specific pre-requisites for installation of the unit a) Open space/shed required for installation of the unit b) Electrical power requirement c) Necessity of specialized manpower Indoor location None Nil. capacity range. The filter candle can be easily cleaned physically ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 25 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies . indicative unit cost. No Items Specific Information 1 Objective of the Unit For the removal of turbidity.

/unit) O & M cost Rs. Small units require less space. No 1 Items Objective of the Unit Specific Information Purification of water for the removal of suspended/colloidal and biological contaminants at higher capacities Name of the process Features of the technology Ultrafiltration (UF) • for community or industrial level applications • Can replace conventional filtration systems like sand filter and cartridge filter • Back washable in auto/manual mode 2 3 Capacity Modular in nature. 6000 – 40. Name of the Technology : Back-washable Spiral Wound Ultrafiltration (UF) Element S. b) Electrical power requirement Only for pumping the water at 2 bar pressure c) Necessity of specialized manpower Local manpower with training on O & M ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 26 .2.000 depending upon size and capacity 5 Any specific pre-requisites for installation of the unit Less than 1 paise per litre 6 a) Open space/shed required for installation of the unit Require about 2.m of footprint area excluding storage tanks.0 sq. Single unit capacity varies from 1000-7000 LPD depending on element sizes 4 Approximate Capital cost (Rs.

Name of the Technology : Membrane Assisted Fluoride Removal S.1 ppm). < 0. /unit) Rs. • Product water free from aluminum (less than 0. May vary depending on the concentration of fluoride in feed water 7 Any specific pre-requisites for installation of the unit a) Open space/shed required for installation of the unit Small units up to 100 LPD can be installed as a wall mounted unit. 3000 and above 6 O & M cost < 1 paise per litre.metre of footprint area excluding storage tank.0 sq.1kW Local manpower with proper training b) Electrical Power requirement c) Necessity of specialized manpower ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 27 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies . Bigger units may require about 2.3. No 1 Items Objective of Technology Specific Information Treatment of fluoride-contaminated ground water to obtain safe drinking water ( below WHO limit of 1 ppm) 2 Name of the process Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane assisted alumina adsorption process 3 Features of the technology • Fluoride ion in feed that can be treated 10 ppm (max) • Regeneration cycle of alumina bed: 10 Nos. biological and colloidal contaminants 4 Capacity (range available) 50-5000 litres per day per unit 5 Approximate capital cost ( Rs.

Bigger units may require about 2.4./unit) Rs. No 1 Objective of Technology Treatment of Arsenic-contaminated ground water to obtain safe drinking water (below WHO limit of 10 ppb) 2 Name of the process Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane assisted sorption process 3 Features of the technology • Arsenic ion in feed that can be treated : 500 ppb (max) • Product water contains less than 10 ppb arsenic concentration.metre of footprint area excluding storage tank. Name of the Technology : Membrane Assisted Arsenic Removal Items Specific Information S. May vary depending on the concentration of arsenic in feed water 7 Any specific pre-requisites for installation of the unit a) Open space/shed required for installa tion of the unit Small units up to 100 LPD can be installed as a wall mounted unit. 3000 and above 6 O & M cost < 1 paise per litre.0 sq.1kW Local manpower with proper training b) Electrical Power requirement c) Necessity of specialized manpower ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 28 . • Product water free from biological and colloidal contaminants 4 Capacity (range available) 50-5000 litres per day per unit 5 Approximate capital cost (Rs. < 0.

Bigger units may require about 2. Name of the Technology : Membrane Assisted Iron Removal S. About 0./Unit) Rs.0 sq. Local manpower with proper training b) Electrical power requirement c) Necessity of specialized manpower ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 29 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies .1kW for 5 KLD.3 ppm) 2 Name of the process Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane assisted oxidation process 3 Features of the technology • Iron (Ferrous ion) in feed that can be treated : 20 ppm (max) • Guaranteed product quality: Iron below 0. metre of footprint area excluding storage tank. 3000 and above 6 O & M cost < 1 paise per litre 7 Any specific pre-requisites for installation of the unit a) Open space/shed required for installation of the unit Small units upto 100 LPD can be installed as a wall mounted unit.1 ppm • UF filtered product water is free from biological and colloidal contaminants too 4 Capacity 50-5000 litres per day / unit 5 Approximate Capital cost ( Rs.5. No Items Specific Information 1 Objective of Technology Treatment of Iron contaminated ground water to obtain safe drinking water (below WHO limit of 0.

time. No 1 Objective of Technology To provide safe sterile drinkable water from contaminated water 2 Name of the process Osmosis 3 Features of the technology • Produces complete sterile water.Tsunami etc.per pouch 6 O & M cost Nil 7 Any specific pre-requisites for installation of the unit a) Open space/shed required for installation of the unit Nil b) Electrical power requirement Nil c) Necessity of specialized manpower Nil ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 30 . • Easily portable device that can be used in disaster management conditions like floods.5 hrs. 4 Capacity A 15cm x 15cm size membrane pouch containing 5gm of Oral Rehydration salt (ORS) powder can produce 200ml sterile water solutions in 3-3. 25/.6./Unit) Rs. 5 Approximate Capital cost ( Rs. Name of the Technology : Membrane Pouch for Providing Sterile Water Solution from Contaminated Water Items Specific Information S. • It can be used in any contaminated water.

/unit) Depends on feed water quality and local infrastructure. UF pretreatment for reliability. 7 Any specific pre-requisites for installation of the unit a) Open space/shed required for installation of the unit b) Electrical Power requirement c) Necessity of specialized manpower About 50 sq. 2 Scope of service Process design. system engineering and commissioning procedures for setting-up reverse osmosis desalination systems. • Site specific Design 4 Capacity 10 – 50 KLD 5 Approximate capital cost ( Rs. Product post treatment for palatability Reject management with respect to harmful contaminants such as fluoride. arsenic etc.m for 10 KLD 1 kWh/ KL of product water (min) Local manpower with proper training ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 31 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies . 3 Features of the technology • • • • Conserves ground water sources. Will vary depending on capacity and power cost. No 1 Objective of the technology To desalinate brackish water so as to produce good water for domestic or industrial uses. Approx Rs 50 per LPD capacity 6 O & M cost 1 paise per litre (min).7. Name of the Technology : Brackish water Reverse Osmosis (BWRO) Items Specific Information S.

8./unit) Depends on feed sea water quality and local infrastructure and logistics. system engineering and commissioning procedures for setting-up sea water reverse osmosis desalination systems 2 Scope of service 3 Features of the technology • UF pretreatment system for reliability. Name of the Technology : Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) S. Process design. No Items Specific Information 1 Objective of the technology To desalinate seawater so as to produce good water for domestic or industrial uses. • Post treatment system for palatability and acceptability.m for 1 MLD. 7 Any specific pre-requisites for installation of the unit a) Open space/shed required for installation of the unit b) Electrical Power requirement Foot print of about 5000 sq. • Site specific Design 4 Capacity 1 MLD and above 5 Approximate capital cost (Rs. About Rs 100 per LPD capacity within the battery limits 6 O & M cost 4 paise (min). 5 kWh/ KL of product water (min). Sensitive to feed quality and other local design constraints. Local manpower with proper training c) Necessity of specialized manpower ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 32 . power cost and local conditions. Will vary depending on capacity.

m for 4.000 sq. system engineering. Name of the Technology : Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) Items Specific Information S. procurement services) in setting up MSF Desalination Plant 3 Features of the Technology • Uses low grade Steam for producing distilled quality water • Specific Energy Consumption : Less than 3 kWh/m3 & Steam 0.5 MLD plant b) Electrical Power Requirement 650 kW for 4.5 MLD plant c) Steam Requirement 21 T/hr @ 2 bar d) Necessity of Specialized Manpower Local manpower with proper training ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 33 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies .9. No 1 Objective of the technology To produce distilled quality water from seawater 2 Scope of service Know-how and consultancy services (process design.15T/hr (@ 2 bar pressure) per/ m3 of desalinated water 4 Capacity Large capacity 5 Approximate Capital Cost (Rs/unit) About Rs 75 per LPD capacity (Base Year 2007) at battery limits 6 O & M Cost 5-10 paise/lit 7 Any Specific Pre-requisites for installation of the unit a) Open Space/shed required for installation 30.

200 per LPD (Base Year 2007) at battery limits 6 O & M Cost 5-10 paise/lit (approx) depending on site conditions 7 Any Specific Pre-requisites for installation of the unit a) Open Space/shed required for installation b) Electrical Power Requirement c) Necessity of Specialized Manpower 150 sqm. No Items Specific Information 1 Objective of the technology To produce distilled quality water from seawater 2 Scope Know how and consultancy services (process design. for 50 KLD to 200 sqm for 100 KLD 60 .Mechanical Vapor Compression (MED-MVC) S. system engineering.100kW (Connected Load) Local manpower with proper training ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 34 . shutdown and normal operation of the plant. 4 Capacity 50 KLD – 100 KLD 5 Approximate Capital Cost (Rs/unit) Rs. procurement services) in setting up MED-MVC Desalination Plant 3 Features of the Technology • Uses electricity alone for producing distilled quality water • High Speed Mechanical Vapor Compressor is used • Totally automated PLC-Scada based System for Startup.10. Name of the Technology : Multi-Effect Distillation.

system engineering. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 35 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies . procurement services) in setting up MED-TVC Desalination Plant 3 Features of the Technology • Uses steam for producing distilled quality water • High Performance Ratios are obtained • Reduced Condenser cooling water requirement 4 Capacity 50 KLD onwards (Higher Capacities are beneficial) 5 Approximate Capital Cost (Rs/unit) Rs. Name of the Technology : Multi-Effect Distillation-Thermo Vapour Compress (MED-TVC) S.Connected Load Steam of 5 bar & above Local Manpower can be trained. for 50 KLD 25 kW . 200 per LPD (Base Year 2007) at battery limits 6 O & M Cost 5-10 paise/lit (approx) depending on site conditions 7 Any Specific Pre-requisites for installation of the unit a) Open Space/shed required for installation b) Electrical Power Requirement c) Thermal Power d) Necessity of Specialized Manpower 200 sqm.11. No Items Specific Information 1 Objective of the technology To produce distilled quality water from seawater 2 Scope Know how and consultancy services (process design.

200 per LPD at battery limits 6 O & M Cost 2-10 paise/lit (approx) depending on site conditions 7 Any Specific Pre-requisites for installation of the unit a) Open Space/shed required for installation b) Electrical Power Requirement 100 sqm.400kW (Connected Load) c) Necessity of Specialized Manpower Local Manpower can be trained ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 36 . procurement services) in setting up LTE-CT Desalination Plant 3 Features of the Technology • Uses steam / hot water for producing near distilled quality water • Reduced Condenser cooling water requirement 4 Capacity 50 KLD – 500 KLD 5 Approximate Capital Cost (Rs/unit) Rs.12. No Items Specific Information 1 Objective of the technology To produce distilled quality water from seawater 2 Scope Know how and consultancy services (process design. Name of the Technology : Low Temperature Evaporation-with Cooling Tower (LTE-CT) S. system engineering. for 50 KLD to 400 sqm for 500 KLD 20 .

Name of the Technology : Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) utilizing Waste Heat S. procurement services) in setting up LTE Desalination Plant 3 Features of the Technology • Uses waste heat in form of hot water/ low quality steam as energy source for producing near distilled quality water 4 Capacity 10 KLD . 200 per LPD at battery limits 6 O & M Cost 2-10 paise/lit (approx) depending on site conditions 7 Any Specific Pre-requisites for installation of the unit a) Open Space/shed required for installation b) Electrical Power Requirement c) Thermal Power d) Necessity of Specialized Manpower 50 sqm.500 KLD 5 Approximate Capital Cost (Rs/unit) Rs.400kW (Connected Load) Process Waste Heat Local Manpower can be trained ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 37 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies . for 30 . KLD to 400 sqm for 500 KLD 20 .13. No Items Specific Information 1 Objective To produce distilled quality water from seawater 2 Scope Know how and consultancy services (process design. system engineering.

qualifications and experience of party and partners. with details of the technical expertise available to show that the party can handle technical aspects of production. 9. 10. 5. : Financial background with latest copy of audited annual report attached Name and address of the Bankers : : Production capacity plan & space available for the proposed production work Marketing plan and estimated market potential : : Any other information to substantiate technical and financial competence of the party Details of past interaction / association with DAE/BARC or any Indian Organization (Separate sheets may be enclosed if the space provided is insufficient. quality control and marketing (Use separate sheets) 7. if any. 11 12. 2. Application with incorrect and incomplete information will not be considered) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 38 . 8. 3. nationality & contact details Details of Registration as an industry/legal entity (copy of certificate to be enclosed) Address of works & Registered office premises : State full names and full addresses of persons having direct financial interest (applicable for proprietary and partnership firm) : Details of the manufacturing experience.ANNEXURE-IV Government of India BHABHA ATOMIC RESEARCH CENTRE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND COLLABORATION DIVISION Application Form for Technology Transfer from BARC 1. 6. 4. 13. Name of the Technology applied for : : : Name of the party/legal entity with contact details Name of the applicant.

Please note that this is only an application processing fee and does not confer any rights for Technology Transfer....... b......(for Indian entities) or US $50/(for foreign entities) drawn in favour of “Accounts officer... 5.. Rs........ Name .... Tel : +91-22-25593897 Fax : +91-22-25505151 / 25519613 Note: 1... Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.... 500/.. Please find enclosed a Demand Draft (non-refundable) / Bankers cheque No.... and on the basis of this information any decision taken by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre shall be accepted by me/us.... BARC....... _________ dated _________ of Rs............ Applications without processing fee will not be considered for Technology Transfer...400085. Foreign applicants may please note that their application will be considered subject to clearance from statutory bodies................. I / We also undertake to furnish any further information required in this connection. Mumbai................ BARC” as application processing fee............. 3. Application Processing Fee a........................ Place : ........I / We _______________________________________________________________request that I/We may be considered for granting technical know-how for the production of ___________________________......................................... & Office seal To Technology Transfer and Collaboration Division... Signature ..... . 4........ Technology Transfer and Collaboration Division. 500/........... ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 39 Desalination & Water Purification Technologies ..................... 2... India...........for foreign entities Each technology transfer application must be enclosed with the Demand draft/ Banker’s cheque for application processing fee drawn in favor of “Accounts Officer. I / We assure that all the information provided by me /us on this form is true to best of my/our knowledge...............for Indian entities US $ 50/...... Technology Transfer fee will be charged separately to the selected party accepting the technology. Date : . BARC” and must be sent to Head. Trombay.....

Tewari Head Desalination Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay Mumbai 400 085 (India) Tel : + 91 22 25594625 / 25594619 Fax : + 91 22 25505151 E-mail : pktewari@barc. (Dr.gov.) P. K.For further details please contact: Prof.in ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Desalination & Water Purification Technologies 40 .

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