OPERATI ONAL GUI DELI NES

AND

STANDARDI ZED
TRAI NI NG RECOMMENDATI ONS
contents
S
W
A
T
California POST
P
O
S
T
2
0
0
5
T
P
S
-
0
3
6
9
.
1
OPERATI ONAL GUI DELI NES
AND

STANDARDI ZED
TRAI NI NG RECOMMENDATI ONS
contents
SWAT
California POST
POST2005TPS- 0369.1
C a l i f o r n i a C o m m i s s i o n o n P e a c e O f f i c e r S t a n d a r d s a n d T r a i n i n g
contents
COPYRIGHT
„
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT Operational Guidelines
and Standardized Training Recommendations
Copyright 2005
íalifornia íommission on Peace Ofncer Standards and Training (POST)
PnIlished 1nl· 2005
Je·ised Angnst 2006
All rights reser·ed. This pnIlication ma· not Ie reprodnced. in whole
or in part. in an· form or I· an· means electronic or mechanical or I·
an· information storage and retrie·al s·stem now Lnown or hereafter
in·ented. withont prior written permission of the íalifornia íommission
on Peace Ofncer Standards and Training (POST). with the following
exception:
íalifornia law enforcement agencies in the POST peace ofncer program
and POST-certined training presenters are hereI· gi·en permission I·
POST to reprodnce an· or all of the contents of this mannal for internal
nse within their agenc·/school.
All other indi·idnals. pri·ate Insinesses and corporations. pnIlic and
pri·ate agencies and colleges. professional associations. and non-POST law
enforcement agencies in-state or ont-of-state. ma· print or download this
pnIlication for non-commercial nse.
Questions about this copyright information or about obtaining permission
to nse POST-de·eloped pnIlications ma· Ie addressed to the PnIlications
Manager at publications@post.ca.gov.
POST2005TPS-0369.1
contents
THE MISSION
„
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . of the &DOLIRUQLD&RPPLVVLRQ2Q3HDFH2IÀFHU6WDQGDUGVDQG7UDLQLQJ
is to continnall· enhance the professionalism of íalifornia Law
Enforcement in serving its communities.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST i
contents
COMMISSIONERS
„
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anthony W. Batts íhief. Long Leach Police Department
Ron Lowenberg Dean/Director. Colden West íollege
John Avila Narcotics Detecti·e. Jresno íonnt·
Lai Lai Bui Detecti·e. Sacramento Police Department
Collene Campbell Public Member
Robert Doyle Sheriff. Ji·erside íonnt·
Bonnie Dumanis District Attorne·. San Diego íonnt·
Deborah Linden íhief. San Lnis OIispo Police Department
Nelson Lum Sergeant. San Jrancisco Police Department
Henry Perea íonncilman. íit· of Jresno
Laurie Smith Sheriff. Santa ílara íonnt·
Michael Sobek Sergeant. San Leandro Police Department
Bill Lockyer J× Ofncio HemIer. Attorne· Ceneral`s Ofnce
Ken O’Brien J×ecnti·e Director. POST
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST ii
contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
„
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . This mannal conld not ha·e Ieen de·eloped withont the comIined
efforts of a great nnmIer of dedicated indi·idnals and interested parties.
POST wonld liLe to e×tend its gratitnde to the man· law enforcement
ofncers. snper·isors. managers. and snpport staff who contriInted to the
success of this project.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST iii
contents
FOREWORD
„
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Penal íode Section 18511.1 directs the íommission to de·elop and
disseminate gnidelines and standardized training recommendations
for law enforcement ofncers. snper·isors. and administrators. who are
assigned to perform. snper·ise. or manage Special Weapons and Tactics
(SWAT).
The operational gnidelines address legal and practical issnes of SWAT
operations. personnel selection. ntness recommendations. planning.
tactical issnes. safet·. after-action e·alnation of operations. logistical and
resonrce needs. nniform and nrearms recommendations. risL assessment.
polic· considerations. and mnlti-jnrisdictional SWAT operations.
POST assemIled o·er 180 law enforcement practitioners. managers. and
e×ecnti·es to de·elop these gnidelines. SWAT snIject matter e×perts
met thronghont 2001 to pro·ide inpnt regarding the highl· specialized
components of SWAT operations and training. The SWAT J×ecnti·e
íommittee. comprised of law enforcement chief e×ecnti·es. administrators.
and SWAT practitioners. met to re·iew recommendations of snIcommittees.
The íalifornia Attorne· Ceneral`s Llne JiIIon SWAT Jeport 2002 has
Ieen considered at each step in the process and nsed as a gniding docnment
in de·eloping these operational gnidelines and standardized training
recommendations. The íommission appreciates the efforts of the POST
Special Weapons and Tactics committee memIers who de·eloped and
re·iewed the gnidelines.
These SWAT gnidelines redect recent law changes and contemporar·
thinLing concerning tactical law enforcement operations. The· are
deliIeratel· Irief and are intended to Ie elaIorated npon I· law
enforcement administrators and training presenters.
Jor qnestions concerning the gnidelines. please contact Training Program
Ser·ices at (916) 22¯-1885. Jor qnestions concerning Iasic or npdate
training. please contact ·onr area consnltant in Training Deli·er· at (916)
22¯-1868 or ·ia the Jegional Hap on onr weIsite at www.post.ca.gov.
KJNNJTH 1. O`LJJJN
J×ecnti·e Director
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST iv
CONTENTS
Joreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
Jntrodnction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.0 Dennition of SWAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.0 SWAT Team íomponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8.0 Polic· íonsiderations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.0 JisL Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5.0 Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯
6.0 Logistical and Jesonrce Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
¯.0 Legal and Practical Jssnes of SWAT Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8.0 Jniforms. Jqnipment. and Jirearms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
9.0 Personnel Selection. Ph·sical Jitness and íore SLills Proncienc·. . . . 12
10.0 SWAT Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
11.0 Hnlti-1nrisdictional SWAT Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
12.0 After-Action J·alnation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
18.0 Specialized Jnnctions and Snpporting Jesonrces . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Appendices
A Lasic SWAT Team Operational íomponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
L Lasic SWAT íonrse Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
C SWAT íore íompetencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
D SWAT/Tactical íommanders` íonrse Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
E íore íompetencies for SWAT K-9 Teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
J Lasic írisis Negotiator íonrse Jecommended íonrse Topics . . . . . . 12
C Crisis Negotiations Core Competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1¯
H Long Jide/OIser·er Team íonrse Topic Jecommendations . . . . . . . 19
J Tactical WaterIorne íore íompetencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST v
contents
INTRODUCTION
„
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The following are gnidelines and standardized training
recommendations for managing. operating. and training law
enforcement SWAT teams in the State of íalifornia in accordance
with Penal íode Section 18511.1. The intent of these gnidelines is to
pro·ide helpfnl gnidance to law enforcement agencies in the formation.
o·ersight. operation. and training of effecti·e SWAT teams. To the
e×tent possiIle. Iest practices¨ ha·e Ieen identined and incorporated
into these gnidelines. While these gnidelines enconrage some degree
of standardization of SWAT. it is recognized that local conditions and
needs ·ar· consideraIl· and therefore de×iIilit· is afforded agencies.
These gnidelines pa· particnlar attention to the SWAT aspects that
focns on effecti·eness. safet· and pre·ention of proIlematic critical
incidents.
NOTE: Jn the following sections. operational gnidelines and
standardized training recommendations are identined in regular type
with e×planator· information in italicized type.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 1
contents
1.0 DEFINITION OF SWAT
1 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) team is an· designated gronp of
law enforcement ofncers who are selected. trained. and eqnipped to worL
as a coordinated team to resol·e critical incidents that are so hazardons.
comple×. or nnnsnal that the· ma· e×ceed the capaIilities of nrst
responders or in·estigati·e nnits.
X The primary characteristic of SWAT that distinguishes it from the other
units is the focus of effort. SWAT teams are focused on tactical solutions, as
opposed to other functions, such as investigation. The purpose of SWAT is to
increase the likelihood of safely resolving critical incidents. Nothing in these
guidelines is intended to preclude agencies from utilizing specially trained units
in areas such as narcotics investigations, felony apprehension, and other tasks.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 2
contents
2.0 SWAT TEAM COMPONENTS
2 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT teams shonld de·elop snfncient resonrces to perform the three
basic operational functions:
1. íommand and íontrol
2. Containment
8. Jntr· / Apprehension / Jescne
X Appendix A provides a suggested listing of activities for each operational
component.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 3
contents
3.0 POLICY CONSIDERATIONS
8 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . A needs assessment shonld Ie condncted to determine the t·pe and
e×tent of SWAT missions and operations appropriate to the particnlar
agenc·. This assessment shonld consider the team`s capaIilities and
limitations and shonld Ie re·iewed periodicall·.
8 . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Policies and procednres specinc to SWAT organization and operations
shonld Ie estaIlished and maintained I· the agenc·. These policies and
procednres shonld address. at a minimnm:
„The locall· identined specinc missions the team is capaIle of per-
forming
„Team organization and fnnction
„Personnel selection and retention criteria
„Training and reqnired competencies
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 4
contents
3.0 continued POLICY CONSIDERATIONS POLICY CONSIDERATIONS
„Procednres for acti·ation and deplo·ment
„íommand and control issnes. inclnding a clearl· denned command
structure
„Hnlti-agenc· response
„Ont-of-jnrisdictional response
„Specialized fnnctions and snpporting resonrces
X These policies and procedures should take into consideration POST
guidelines and standardized training recommendations.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 5
contents
4.0 RISK ASSESSMENT
1 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agencies shonld condnct a threat assessment to determine the
appropriate response and resonrces necessar·. inclnding the nse of
SWAT.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 6
contents
5.0 PLANNING
5 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hission Irienngs shonld Ie condncted prior to an operation. nnless
circnmstances reqnire immediate deplo·ment.
X When possible, briefings should include the specialized units and
supporting resources.
5 . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT teams shonld designate personnel responsiIle for de·eloping an
operational or tactical plan prior to and dnring SWAT operations.
5 . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . All SWAT team memIers shonld ha·e an nnderstanding of operational
planning.
X Skill redundancy in knowledge of planning procedures for SWAT team
members improves performance in rapidly developing scenarios.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 7
contents
5.0 continued PLANNING PLANNING
5 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT team policies and training shonld consider planning for Ioth
spontaneons and planned e·ents.

5 . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT teams shonld incorporate medical emergenc· contingenc·
planning as part of the SWAT operational plan.
X Where resources allow, consideration should be given to integrating
Tactical Emergency Medical Support (TEMS) personnel within the structure of
the SWAT team.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 8
contents
6.0 LOGISTICAL AND RESOURCE NEEDS
6 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT teams that anticipate angmentation I· specialized resonrces
shonld incorporate nse of those resonrces into their planning and
training.
X Refer to section 13.0 for further guidelines on Specialized Functions and
Supporting Resources.

SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 9
contents
LEGAL AND PRACTICAL ISSUES OF
7.0 SWAT OPERATIONS

¯ . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agencies shonld de·elop protocols to maintain snstained operations.
which ma· inclnde relief. rotation of personnel. and angmentation of
resources.
¯ . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agencies shonld de·elop procednres for post-incident scene management.
inclnding docnmentation and transition to in·estigations and other
units.
¯ . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agencies shonld consider the nse of tacticall· trained personnel for
commnnications and record Leeping dnring SWAT operations.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 10
contents
8.0 UNIFORMS, EQUIPMENT, AND FIREARMS
8 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT teams shonld wear nniforms that clearl· identif· team memIers
as law enforcement ofncers.
X It is recognized that certain tactical conditions may require covert
movement. Attire may be selected appropriate to the specific mission.
8 . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT teams shonld Ie adeqnatel· eqnipped to meet the specinc mission
identined I· the agenc·.
8 . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Within the respecti·e agenc·. weapons and eqnipment nsed I·
SWAT. the specialized nnits. and the snpporting resonrces shonld Ie
agenc·-issned or appro·ed. inclnding an· modincations. additions. or
attachments.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 11
contents
PERSONNEL SELECTION, PHYSICAL FITNESS
9.0 AND CORE SKILLS PROFICIENCY
9 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hinimnm reqnirements for Ioth initial selection and fnll deplo·ment
with the SWAT team shonld Ie estaIlished I· the agenc· Iased npon
resonrces a·ailaIle and identined local needs. POST gnidelines. and
sonnd risL management practices.
X Agencies should ensure that the SWAT selection process is reasonable, job
related, and unbiased.
9 . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agencies shonld estaIlish ph·sical ntness standards for the selection and
retention of SWAT team memIers.
X Agencies should consider conducting physical fitness assessment at
least annually. Policies should be established for failure to comply with these
standards.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 12
contents
PERSONNEL SELECTION, PHYSICAL FITNESS
9.0 continued AND CORE SKILLS PROFICIENCY
9 . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agencies shonld estaIlish SWAT core sLills proncienc· le·els for SWAT
team members.
X Agencies should consider conducting core skills proficiency assessment
at least annually. Policies should be established for failure to maintain these
proficiencies.
X See Guideline 10.2 and Appendix C for a listing of core competencies
and elements.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 13
contents
10.0 SWAT TRAINING
10 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initial Training
10 . 1 . 1 . . . . . . SWAT team Operators and SWAT Snper·isors/team leaders shonld not
Ie deplo·ed nntil snccessfnl completion of the POST-certined Lasic
SWAT íonrse or its eqni·alent as determined I· the agenc·.
X Appendix B provides the training recommendations for the POST Basic
SWAT Course.
10 . 1 . 2 . . . . . . Appropriate training. prior to fnll deplo·ment. shonld also Ie
incorporated into agenc· polic· for the specialized SWAT fnnctions and
other supporting resources.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 14
contents
10.0 continued SWAT TRAINING SWAT TRAINING
10 . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recurrent Core Competency Training
10 . 2 . 1 . . . . . . SWAT teams shonld participate in docnmented and ·erinaIle monthl·
training to maintain indi·idnal and team core competencies as
determined I· the t·pe and e×tent of SWAT missions and operations
performed.
X SWAT core competencies fall within three general categories:
„Weapons. mnnitions. and eqnipment training
„Jndi·idnal and team mo·ement and tactics
„Decision-maLing
X Appendix C provides a listing of SWAT operator core competencies and
elements for each competency.
X Ongoing training in the respective core competencies should also be
incorporated into policy for the specialized SWAT functions and supporting
resources.
10 . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Update and Refresher Training
10. 8 . 1 . . . . . . . SWAT team Operators and SWAT Snper·isors/team leaders shonld
attend 21 honrs of POST-certined SWAT npdate or refresher training. or
its eqni·alent (as determined I· the agenc·). e·er· 21 months.
X Appendix C provides a listing of SWAT operator core competencies and
elements for each competency.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 15
contents
10.0 continued SWAT TRAINING SWAT TRAINING
10 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supervision and Management
10 . 1 . 1 . . . . . . íommand and e×ecnti·e personnel who pro·ide acti·e o·ersight at
the scene of SWAT operations shonld nnderstand the pnrpose and
capaIilities of the team(s).
X Command and executive personnel are encouraged to attend training for
managing the SWAT function at the organizational level.
10 . 1 . 2 . . . . . . íommand personnel who ma· assnme incident command responsiIilities
shonld attend a SWAT or critical incident commander conrse. or its
eqni·alent.
10 . 1 . 8 . . . . . . SWAT command personnel shonld attend a POST-certined SWAT
commander or tactical commander conrse. or its eqni·alent.
X Appendix D provides the training recommendations for the POST
Tactical Commander Course.
10. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Approval of Prior Training
10 . 5 . 1 . . . . . . Agencies with SWAT teams shonld estaIlish procednres to recognize
pre·ions training of memIers so as to preclnde nnnecessar·. rednndant
training.
X As a general rule, previously completed training may be considered
equivalent when the hours and content (topics) meet or exceed agency
requirements or POST’s standardized training recommendations.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 16
contents
10.0 continued SWAT TRAINING SWAT TRAINING
10 . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Training Safety
10. 6 . 1 . . . . . . . Jse of a designated safet· ofncer shonld Ie considered for tactical
training.
X Refer to POST Cnidelines for Stndent Safet· in íertined íonrses for
further training safety information.
10 . ¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scenario-Based Training
10 . ¯ . 1 . . . . . . SWAT teams shonld participate in scenario-Iased training.
X Scenario-based training that simulates the tactical operational
environment is an established method of improving performance during an
actual deployment.

10 . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annual Training Plan
10 . 8 . 1 . . . . . . SWAT teams shonld de·elop an annnal training plan Iased on a training
needs assessment.
X An annual training plan helps SWAT teams to identify and prioritize
training needs and schedule accordingly.
10 . 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Training Documentation
10 . 9 . 1 . . . . . . Jndi·idnal and team training shonld Ie docnmented and records
maintained I· the agenc·.
X Documentation of individual and team training/performance can
contribute to long-term reduction of liability and aid in investigations.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 17
contents
11.0 MULTI-JURISDICTIONAL SWAT OPERATIONS
11 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . The SWAT team. inclnding rele·ant specialized nnits and snpporting
resonrces. shonld de·elop protocols. agreements. or worLing
relationships to snpport mnlti-jnrisdictional or regional responses.
11 . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT mnlti-agenc· and mnlti-disciplinar· joint training e×ercises are
enconraged. Specialized SWAT nnits and snpporting resonrces shonld
also participate.
X Some agencies may choose to consolidate resources into a regional SWAT
team concept.
X Samples of initial suggested protocols and multi-jurisdictional agreements
can be obtained through the POST clearinghouse, upon request.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 18
contents
12.0 AFTER-ACTION EVALUATION
12 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . After-action team deIrienngs shonld Ie condncted.
X Evaluation and analysis of critical incidents affords opportunity for
individual and team assessment, helps to identify training needs, and reinforces
sound risk management practices. When appropriate, the debriefings should
include specialized units and resources.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 19
contents
SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS
13.0 AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES
18 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT K-9 Teams

X These guidelines are intended as helpful guidance for agencies who utilize
K-9 teams on a recurrent basis for deployment with a tactical team.
Dennition of a SWAT K-9 Team
X A SWAT K-9 team is a designated unit, consisting of a handler and dog,
which is specifically selected, trained, and equipped to work in conjunction with
SWAT /tactical teams to assist in tactical incidents.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 20
contents
SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS
13.0 continued AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES
Jormation and Polic· íonsiderations
„Agencies shonld estaIlish procednres for Ioth initial selection and
fnll deplo·ment of canine handlers with the SWAT team. which are
consistent with POST K-9 gnidelines.
„Agencies shonld estaIlish procednres for the selection of dogs nsed
as part of the SWAT K-9 team.
„Not all police canines are snitaIle for SWAT operations.
Planning
„SWAT K-9 handlers shonld Ie pro·ided with appropriate SWAT-
specinc safet· and commnnications eqnipment appropriate to the
assigned tactical mission. consistent with department polic·.
„SWAT K-9 teams shonld participate in mission Irienngs prior to a
tactical operation. after-action e·alnations and team deIrienngs.
Training
„Agencies shonld estaIlish SWAT K-9 core sLills proncienc· le·els for
K-9 tactical teams.
„Agencies shonld condnct core sLills proncienc· assessment on an
ongoing basis.
„Appendi× E pro·ides a snggested listing of core competencies for
SWAT K-9 teams.
„SWAT teams and SWAT K-9 teams shonld jointl· participate in
docnmented qnarterl· scenario-Iased training to maintain SWAT
K-9 team core competencies. consistent with the t·pe of SWAT
missions performed.
„Jt is recommended that the K-9 handler and K-9 snccessfnll·
complete a SWAT orientation program that emphasizes Iasic SWAT
procednres. practices. and eqnipment.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 21
contents
SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS
13.0 continued AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES
„íommand personnel who ma· assnme SWAT K-9 Team command
responsiIilities and SWAT K-9 handlers shonld remain cnrrent on
legal issnes pertaining to law enforcement K-9 deplo·ment.

Safet· íonsiderations
„Jescne procednres for the SWAT K-9 team (i.e. handler down)
shonld Ie de·eloped. trained. and practiced prior to deplo·ment.
„Hedical emergenc· contingenc· planning shonld Ie incorporated as
part of the rescne procednres.
Legal and Practical Jssnes
„SWAT K-9 Teams shonld Ie e·alnated as to their snitaIilit· for
deplo·ment with a tactical team prior to deplo·ment and on an
ongoing basis.
18.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . írisis Negotiations Team
Dennition of a írisis Negotiations Team
X A Crisis Negotiations Team (CNT) is a designated group of personnel
specifically selected, trained, and equipped to assist in the resolution of critical
incidents by means of communication and negotiation with criminal suspects
and other persons, often in conjunction with the SWAT/tactical unit.
Jormation
„Agencies that neld a SWAT team. or who participate in a regional
or mnlti-jnrisdictional team. shonld de·elop a írisis Negotiations
component for response to identined critical incidents.
„A írisis Negotiations Team ma· Ie de·eloped as an integral part of
the SWAT team/nnit. or as a separate entit· with its own command
structure.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 22
contents
SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS
13.0 continued AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES
Polic· íonsiderations
X Agencies should organize CNT with regard to the following policy
considerations:
„De·elopment of written operating procednres.
„Jdentincation of personnel responsiIle for operations. training. and
eqnipment maintenance.
„De·elopment of written criteria for the acti·ation and deplo·ment
of a írisis Negotiations Team.
„Jnstitntion of procednres for estaIlishing and rnnning the
Negotiations Operations íenter in coordination with the Tactical
íommander and the Jncident íommander.
íNT Operational Jnnctions
X Agencies should develop resources sufficient to perform the four CNT
operational functions:
„íommnnications/Negotiations
„Jntelligence
„Tactical Liaison
„Logistics.
Jnitial Training
„íNT memIers shonld snccessfnll· complete a POST-certined Lasic
írisis Negotiator conrse or its eqni·alent.
„Appendi× J contains a listing of recommended topics for the Lasic
Crisis Negotiator course.
Jecnrrent íore íompetenc· Training
„íNT memIers shonld participate in docnmented qnarterl· training
that maintains proncienc· in core competencies. consistent with
the t·pe of SWAT missions identined I· agenc· polic·. Periodic
scenario-Iased training. in conjnnction with the SWAT team. is
enconraged.
„Appendi× C pro·ides a snggested listing of íNT core competencies.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 23
contents
SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS
13.0 continued AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES
íNT Snper·ision and Hanagement
„íommand personnel who ma· assnme íNT command
responsiIilities shonld attend a SWAT or critical incident
commander conrse. or its eqni·alent. which inclndes cnrricnlnm
regarding crisis negotiations protocols.
18 . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Long Jide/OIser·er Teams
Dennition of a Long Jide/OIser·er Team
X A Long Rifle/Observer Team is a designated unit of law enforcement
officers who are selected, trained, and equipped to work as an element of the
SWAT team in the resolution of critical incidents by providing observation, cover,
and the employment of precision fire.
„Long Jide/OIser·er Teams are most often a component of SWAT.
Howe·er. it is recognized that some agencies train and deplo· Long
Jide/OIser·er Teams in coordination with. Int distinct from. the
SWAT team.
Jormation and Polic· íonsiderations
„Agencies shonld de·elop snfncient training and resonrces to perform
the Iasic fnnctions of the Long Jide/OIser·er Team.
„A Long Jide/OIser·er Team shonld consist of two ofncers. cross-
trained as Ioth Long Jide Operator and OIser·er.
Jnitial Training
„Long Jide Operators shonld not Ie deplo·ed nntil snccessfnl
completion of a POST-íertined Lasic Long Jide íonrse. or its
eqni·alent.
„Appendi× H pro·ides information aIont the Lasic Long Jide
Course.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 24
contents
SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS
13.0 continued AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES
Jecnrrent íore íompetenc· Training
„Long Jide Operators shonld participate in docnmented and
·erinaIle training on a monthl· Iasis that maintains indi·idnal
and team core competencies consistent with the t·pe of SWAT
missions performed.
Long Jide/OIser·er core competencies fall within three general
categories:
„Jnndamentals of Precision Shooting
„Tactics
„OIser·ation/íommnnication
Long Jide Operators shonld demonstrate proncienc· on at least a
qnarterl· Iasis with assigned nrearms.
Safet· íonsiderations
„Appropriate safet· precantions shonld Ie incorporated into Long
Jide/OIser·er Team training.
„The nse of a safet· ofncer is recommended.

X Refer to POST Guidelines for Student Safety in Certified Courses for further
training safety information.
18.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT Operations in a Weapons of Hass Destrnction (WHD)/Terrrorism
Event
X SWAT teams may be tasked with preparing the tactical component of
the governmental response to a potential exposure to chemical, biological,
radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE) hazards. Agencies should recognize
that tactical operations in a CBRNE environment are highly specialized. SWAT
teams may not be prepared to handle these incidents alone, and should consider
a coordinated regional response by local, state, and federal agencies.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 25
contents
SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS
13.0 continued AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES
18.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT WaterIorne Operations
X Definition
For the purposes of this section, waterborne operations refer to the deployment
of specially trained SWAT Operators to engage in tactical operations associated
with the waterborne environment.
Needs Assessment
„A needs assessment shonld Ie condncted to determine the t·pe and
e×tent of SWAT waterIorne missions and operations appropriate to
the agency.
Training
„SWAT teams who anticipate ntilizing waterIorne snpport in
recnrrent missions shonld complete initial ·essel orientation and
training prior to deplo·ment.
„SWAT Teams who anticipate ntilizing waterIorne snpport for
recnrrent missions shonld incorporate maritime training in the
annual training plan.
„Appendi× J pro·ides a listing of SWAT operator core competencies
associated with the maritime en·ironment.
Planning
„íonsideration shonld Ie gi·en to the proper selection of eqnipment
related to locall· identined mission pronles.
„Vessel operators shonld participate in the de·elopment phase of
mission planning to ensure appropriate assets are in place for the
identined mission pronle.
„Prior to commencing nnderwa· operations. the ·essel operators and
crew shonld condnct a safet· Irienng. inclnding ·essel safet· and
emergenc· procednres.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 26
contents
SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS
13.0 continued AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES
Hnlti-jnrisdictional Jssnes
„Agencies in·ol·ed in waterIorne tactical operations shonld de·elop
protocols. agreements. and/or worLing relationships with other
agencies that ma· Ie operationall· affected dne to statntor·. cross
jnrisdictional. or mnlti-jnrisdictional reqnirements.
18.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT AJJLOJNJ OPJJATJONS
X Definition
For the purposes of this section, a tactical airborne operation refers to the use of
air support as a resource in coordination with SWAT to resolve critical incidents.
„Jormation and Polic· íonsiderations
A needs assessment shonld Ie condncted to determine the t·pe and
e×tent of SWAT air snpport missions and operations appropriate to
the particular agency.
„The agenc·. in coordination with SWAT and the air snpport
pro·ider. shonld de·elop procednres for the tactical nse of the
aircraft.
Planning
„Aircrews shonld participate in the de·elopment phase of mission
planning and risL assessment to ensnre appropriate assets are in
place for the identined mission parameters.
„Aircrews shonld participate with SWAT in after-action e·alnation of
operations and deIrienngs.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 27
contents
SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS
13.0 continued AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES
Safet· íonsiderations
„Prior to commencing operations. a designated air crew memIer
shonld condnct a safet· Irienng. inclnding aircraft safet· and
emergenc· procednres.
Training
„SWAT teams who ntilize air snpport for recnrrent missions shonld
incorporate airIorne training with the aircraft and air crew
members in the annual training plan.
Jirearms
„Agencies shonld de·elop policies regarding nse of nrearms and
nrearms training in an airIorne en·ironment.
„Weapons safet· is of e×treme importance in airIorne operations.
SWAT teams in·ol·ed in airIorne weapons ntilization shonld
condnct periodic training nsing the aircraft as a shooting platform.
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 28
contents
BASIC SWAT TEAM
APPENDIX A OPERATIONAL COMPONENTS
„
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT teams shonld de·elop resonrces snfncient to fnlnll the following
three minimum operational components:
1. Command and Control Element
a. Planning. organizing. stafnng. and directing the o·erall SWAT
operation
I. íoordination with the írisis Negotiations Team
c. Liaison with allied agencies
d. Hission docnmentation
e. Communications
f. Hedical snpport
g. Hission deIrienngs
2. Containment Element
a. Control of inner perimeter
b. Evacuation
c. Tactical deli·eries (chemical mnnitions. eqnipment. etc.)
d. Precision long ride/oIser·er deplo·ment and snpport
8. Entry/Apprehension/Rescue Element
a. Sconting missions
I. Lreaching
c. Jnter. search. and secnre oIjecti·e(s)
d. Jescne operations
e. SnIject/snspect detention
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 29
contents
APPENDIX B BASIC SWAT COURSE TOPICS
„
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . These conrse topic recommendations are designed for ofncers who
are assigned to a SWAT/tactical team. The topics address the Iasic
concepts of SWAT. and inclnde practical application and proIlem sol·ing
simnlations as effecti·e learning methods. T·pical scenarios wonld
inclnde Iarricaded snIjects. hostage sitnations. warrant ser·ice. acti·e
shooters. and other high-risL sitnations. The conrse shonld inclnde the
following topics:
1. Introduction
a. Course Objectives
I. POST SWAT Project and Cnidelines
c. Historical Perspecti·e of the SWAT íoncept
2. Performance Evaluation of Team Members
a. íore íompetenc· Training and íompliance
8. Policy Issues
a. Legal Jssnes/íi·il LiaIilit·
I. Jse of Jorce
c. Hntnal Aid Procednres
d. SWAT Policies and Procednres
e. Jmportance of íorrect Terminolog·
1. Basic SWAT Concepts
a. íommon SWAT Jesponses
I. Jncident íommand and Direct Snper·ision of the SWAT team
c. SWAT Acti·ation íriteria
d. Team íomposition and Dnties
5. Psychological Considerations
a. Post-Tranma Stress
I. Stress Hanagement
c. Hental íonditioning for íonfrontations
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 30
Appendix B continued Basic SWAT Course Topics
contents
6. Physical Considerations
a. Jitness Standards for SWAT Team HemIers
I. Lifetime Jitness Jecommendations
c. Ph·sical Training for SWAT Team HemIers
d. Jmergenc· Hedical Procednres
¯. Overview of Individual and Team Equipment
a. Jniform Jqnipment
I. Weapons and Jirearms
c. íommnnications De·ices
d. Snpport Jqnipment and Technolog·
8. Operational Planning
a. Jmportance of Planning
I. Strnctnred Planning Jormat
c. Principles of Containment
d. Jntelligence Cathering
e. Pre-J·ent Planning
f. Contemporaneous Planning
g. Jmplementation/Jesolntion
h. Jncident De-Lrienng
9. Overview of Specialized SWAT Functions
a. Canines
I. AirIorne
c. Crisis Negotiations
d. J×plosi·e Lreaching
e. Long Jide/OIser·er
f. Rescue Operations
g. HoIile Assanlts
h. SWAT Jesponse to WHD-related incidents
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 31
Appendix B continued Basic SWAT Course Topics
contents
10. Command Post Operations
a. Jield íommand Post
I. Tactical Operations íenter
c. Hedia íonsiderations
11. Individual and Team Movement
a. ío·er and íoncealment
I. Team íommnnications
c. Overcoming Obstacles
d. Practical Application
12. Basic Entry and Search Techniques
a. SWAT Arrest and íontrol
I. Lnildings and Strnctnres
c. Hechanical Lreaching
d. Open Area Searches
e. Practical Application
18. Chemical Agents in SWAT Operations
a. O·er·iew of íhemical Agents
b. Less Lethal Munitions
c. Practical Application
11. Diversionary Devices
a. O·er·iew of Di·ersionar· De·ices
I. Practical Application
15. Crisis Negotiation
a. Negotiation íoncepts and Strategies
I. Jelationship Letween SWAT and írisis Negotiation Teams
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 32
Appendix B continued Basic SWAT Course Topics
contents
16. Individual and Team Firearms Training
a. Handgnns
I. Shonlder-nred Weapons
c. Practical Application
1¯. Training Scenarios and Problem-Solving Simulations
a. TaIle Top J×ercises
I. Jealit·-Iased J×ercises
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 33
contents
APPENDIX C SWAT CORE COMPETENCIES
„
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . This list is intended to assist agencies in determining areas of
responsiIilit· for indi·idnal SWAT teams and in de·eloping an annnal
SWAT training plan.
1. Weapons, Munitions, and Equipment
a. Armored Vehicle Operations
I. Jqnipment Jamiliarization and Haintenance
c. Jirearm SLills (li·e nre)
(1) Handgnn
(2) Low light/night training
(8) Shonlder-nred weapons
d. Jndi·idnal Operator`s Jniform Haintenance and Wear
e. Ladder and Other High Angle Access
f. Lighting S·stems (personal. weapons. other)
g. Hechanical Lreaching
(1) 12-gange shotgnn Ireaching
(2) Jams. picLs. pnllers. etc.
h. Munitions
(1) íhemical agents: Options and deli·er· s·stems
(2) Less lethal impact mnnitions and deli·er·
(1) Light/sonnd di·ersionar· de·ices
(5) Other less lethal de·ices
i. Night Vision Jqnipment
j. Jse of Lallistic Shields
L. Weapons Haintenance
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 34
Appendix C continued SWAT Core Competencies
contents
2. Individual and Team Movement/Tactics
a. Acti·e Shooter Jesponse
I. Aircraft Jnter·ention
c. Larricaded SnIject Operations
d. LooI· Traps
e. íamondage Techniqnes
f. íondncting J·acnations
g. íontainment Techniqnes
h. ío·er and Ho·ement
i. Covert Clearing
j. Downed Ofncer/íitizen Jescnes
L. D·namic ílearing
l. Jmergenc· Deplo·ment Techniqnes
m. Entries
n. High JisL Warrant Ser·ice
(1) íontain & call-onts
(2) D·namic
(8) Jemote taLedowns
(1) Jnses. etc.
o. Homicide LomIers
p. Jmmediate Action Drills
q. Long Jide Jnitiated Assanlts
r. Night Movement
s. Jappelling (rnral and/or nrIan)
(1) AirIorne
(2) Static
t. Reactionary Responses
n. Jescne Operations - Lasic
v. Rural Operations
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 35
Appendix C continued SWAT Core Competencies
contents
w. Sconting
×. Searching Techniqnes
·. Small Jnit Tactics
z. Tactical Operation íenter
aa. Vehicle Assanlts
(1) Lns assanlts
(2) íar/·an/trncL assanlts
8. Decision-HaLing
a. Hission and Tactical íontingenc· Planning
I. Training Simnlations (scenario-Iased training)
c. Larricaded snIject/snspect
d. High JisL Warrant (d·namic. contain & call-onts. etc.)
e. Hostage sitnations
(1) Snicide inter·ention
(2) Other
f. Warrant Ser·ice WorL-nps and Planning
1. Specialized Jnnctions and/or Snpporting Jesonrces
a. AirIorne Operations
I. íonnter-Terrorism
c. Executive Protection
d. J×plosi·e Lreaching
e. Long Jide/OIser·er
f. Harijnana Crow Operations
g. Jescne Operations - Ad·anced
h. Riot Response
i. Snr·eillance
j. SWAT íanine Jntegration
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 36
Appendix C continued SWAT Core Competencies
contents
L. Tactical Jmergenc· Hedical Snpport
l. Team Leader Training
m. Train/Trolle· Assanlts
n WaterIorne Operations
o. WHD Jesponse
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 37
contents
SWAT/TACTICAL
APPENDIX D COMMANDERS’ COURSE TOPICS
„
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . These conrse topic recommendations are designed for snper·isor· and
command le·el ofncers who ha·e SWAT/tactical team responsiIilit·.
The topics address the emplo·ment of SWAT teams. long rides. and
oIser·ers. negotiators. containment. command posts. and other
special operations resonrces. T·pical training scenarios wonld inclnde
Iarricaded snIjects. hostage sitnations. warrant ser·ice. acti·e shooters.
and other high-risL sitnations. The conrse shonld inclnde the following
topics:
1. Introduction
a. Course Objectives
I. POST SWAT Project and Cnidelines
2. 'HÀQLWLRQRID&ULWLFDO,QFLGHQW
a. Histor· of Tactical Operations
8. Administrative Duties and Responsibilities
a. Personnel Selection and Jetention
I. íore íompetenc· Training and íompliance
c. Docnmentation
d. Polic· and Procednres Jpdate and íompliance
e. Jqnipment/New Technolog·
1. Legal Issues
a. íi·il LiaIilit·/íase Law
I. Jse of Jorce
5. Mutual Aid Procedures
a. Policy
I. HOJ`s
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 38
Appendix D continued SWAT/Tactical Commanders’ Course Topics
contents
c. Communications
6. Deployment Guidelines
a. Snspect Jnitiated J·ents
I. Department Jnitiated J·ents
¯. Tactical Team Operations
a. Warrant Ser·ice
I. Hostage Jescne
c. Larricaded Snspect/SnIject
d. HoIile Snspect Jnterdiction
e. Open Area ílearing
f. Specialt· Tactics
g. Protection Details
8. Command and Control
a. Jncident íommand
I. Tactical íommand
9. Command Post Operations
a. Dennition and Jnnctions
I. Dnties and JesponsiIilities
c. Communications
10. Tactical Operation Procedures
a. Sitnation Assessment
b. Operational Planning
c. Jorce Options
d. Hedical Snpport
e. Lrienng
f. Post Operational DeIrienng
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 39
Appendix D continued SWAT/Tactical Commanders’ Course Topics
contents
11. Tactical Components/Capabilities
a. SWAT Team
I. Long Jide/OIser·er Team
c. írisis Negotiations Team
d. Tactical Dispatch
12. Tactical Considerations/Missions
a. íontainment team (SWAT or Patrol)
I. Tactical Jmergenc· Hedical Snpport (TJHS)
c. Air Snpport
d. J·acnation
e. Arrest/Jeaction Team
f. íhemical Agents
g. Less Lethal Munitions
h. Lreaching
i. Throw Phone/Jood Deli·er·
j. Hostage Jescne
L. LomI Sqnad
l. WHD
18. Training Scenarios and Problem-Solving Simulations
a. TaIle Top J×ercises
I. Jealit·-Iased J×ercises
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 40
contents
CORE COMPETENCIES
APPENDIX E FOR SWAT K-9 TEAMS
„
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT K-9 handler:
1. Jirearms qnalincation with assigned weapon(s) at least twice per
·ear with K-9 in close pro×imit· to handler.
2. Team and stealth mo·ement techniqnes (tactical oIedience)
8. Team approach to oIjecti·e
1. Team entr· into oIjecti·e
5. Directed and non-directed tactical searches
6. íonnned space and limited access insertion and e×traction
¯. Limited access searching (connned spaces - attics. crawlspaces.
·ehicle interiors. etc.)
8. Long-line ntilization
9. AIilit· to recall K-9 dnring tactical searches
10. Anditor· alert I· K-9 npon locating inaccessiIle snspect
11. Hand and/or andiIle down commands for K-9 dnring tactical search
12. íalm/controlled Ieha·ior I· K-9 dnring search e×ercises.
18. íalm/controlled Ieha·ior I· K-9 with team dnring li·e nre
exercises.
11. Operating in a chemical agent and smoLe en·ironment
15. Operating in conjnnction with di·ersionar· de·ice deplo·ment
16. Tactical ont and team arrest procednres.
1¯. Tactical tracLing consistent with agenc· procednres
18. Snspect containment
19. Snspect apprehension
20. Snspect distraction
21. ílearing high-risL areas (entr·wa·s. stairwells. hallwa·s. etc.)
22. J×traction of a non-compliant high-risL snIject
28. Other sLills consistent with agenc· mission pronle. Iased on local
needs
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 41
contents
BASIC CRISIS NEGOTIATOR COURSE
APPENDIX F RECOMMENDED COURSE TOPICS
„
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . These conrse topic recommendations are designed for personnel who are
assigned to a írisis Negotiation Team (íNT.) These topics address the
Iasic concepts of crisis negotiations. and inclnde practical application
and proIlem sol·ing simnlations as effecti·e learning methods. The
conrse shonld inclnde the following topics:
1. Historical Perspecti·e
a. Signincant J·ents Affecting Jarl· Negotiations
I. Hodern Da· Negotiations
c. íentralized ·s. Decentralized Team íoncepts
2. Lasic Negotiations Theor·
a. Three ís¨ of Negotiations
(1) íontainment
(2) íontrol
(8) íommnnication
8. írisis Negotiations Team Strnctnre
a. Varions Agenc· Standards
(1) íommand Post Operations
(2) JíS
(8) Tactical Jlement
(1) Positions. Joles. JesponsiIilities
b. Logistics
(1) On Site Snpport - íNT
(2) On Site Snpport - Tactical
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 42
Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics
contents
c. Jntelligence
(1) Jnter·iew
(2) SnIject Pronle
(8) Jnformation Sharing
1. Jncident T·pes
a. Hostage Sitnations
I. Non-Hostage Sitnations
c. Special íircnmstances
(1) ínstodial/íorrections Jncidents
(2) Snicide I· íop
(8) Jepeat Offenders
(1) Law Jnforcement Personnel
5. SnIject T·pes
a. Hental Health Jssnes
(1) Ps·chological Disorders and Diagnosis
I. Snicide
c. Jnterrnpted írimes
d. Domestic Violence
e. Terrorism
f. íhemical Jndnence
6. Jesponse Protocol
a. Team Acti·ation
(1) Jirst Jesponder J·alnation
(2) Department Polic· Jssnes
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 43
Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics
contents
¯. íritical Jncident Assessment
a. JisL Assessment
(1) T·pe of Jncident
(2) Appropriate Action to Jesol·e
I. WalL awa· assessment
(1) To Negotiate or Not to Negotiate
c. StocLholm S·ndrome
d. Victimolog·
e. Hostage Leha·ior
8. Jqnipment
a. íNT Specialized Jqnipment (Jse and Haintenance)
I. Technolog·
9. Negotiation Techniqnes
a. Verbal Communications
(1) Jace to Jace
(2) Jlectronic íommnnications
(8) Third Part· íommnnications
10. Negotiation Strategies
a. íommnnication SLills
(1) Acti·e Listening
I. Jndicators of Progress / Violence
c. Time íonsiderations
11. Snrrender Phase
a. Tactical / íNT íoordination
I. Transfer of íommnnications
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 44
Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics
contents
12. DeIrienng
a. Jncident Je·iew
(1) Jndi·idnal
(2) Team
(8) Tactical / íNT 1oint DeIrienng
I. íritical Jncident Stress DeIrienng
(1) Jncident Dri·en
(2) Jndi·idnal Assessment
18. Hedia Jelations
a. Hedia Hanagement
(1) 109.5 Pí / Hedia Access
(2) No Jl· Zones
11. Post Jncident íonsiderations
a. írime Scene
(1) J·idence
(2) Secnring from the Scene
I. HOLAS / LJO
c. Docnmentation
(1) Jeports and Jecorded Haterial
15. Legal Aspects
a. JisL Hanagement
b. Ethics
c. íase Law
d. Jndi·idnal Negotiators` Jesnmes
(1) J×pert Witness
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 45
Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics
contents
16. Training Scenarios / Jole-Pla·ing
a. Safet·
I. Cronp Scenarios
c. DeIrienng of Scenarios
(1) Stndent Performance J·alnations
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 46
contents
CRISIS NEGOTIATIONS
APPENDIX G CORE COMPETENCIES
„
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . íNT core competencies will diminish nnless maintained throngh
meaningfnl. recnrrent training. Lased npon a needs assessment.
department polic·. and sonnd risL management practices. írisis
Negotiators shonld maintain proncienc· in the core competencies
deemed necessar· for their local area or region:
1. íore íompetencies:
a. Knowledge of incident management. team roles and
responsibilities
I. Jqnipment and technical Lnowledge
c. íommnnications sLills
(1) Acti·e listening
(2) Tactical commnnications
(8) Jnter·iew and Jnterrogation sLills
d. JisL assessment/incident e·alnation
(1) Leha·ioral/emotional factors
(2) Diminished capacit·
e. Homicide/Snicide indicators
2. J×panded Listing - Knowledge of:
a. Drng/alcohol/medication interactions
I. Third-part· intermediar· sLills
c. 1n·enile issnes
d. Jaith-Iased negotiations
e. Extremist groups
f. Hedia indnences and effects
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 47
Appendix G continued Crisis Negotiations Core Competencies
contents
g. íritical incident assessment (feedIacL to Jncident íommander)
h. Snicidolog· (Snicide I· íop`)
i. Hental disorders
j. Special circnmstances (negotiation w/Lnown persons. agenc·
personnel. etc.)
L. Hntnal aid protocols
l. Linguistics
m. Socio-cnltnral awareness
n. Legal issnes and case law regarding crisis negotiations
o. Prison/jail/holding facilit· issnes
p. After action/incident reporting
q. Jmerging technolog· issnes
r. 1oint training with tactical nnits and other gronps
s. Other high risL incidents
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 48
contents
LONG RIFLE/OBSERVER TEAM
APPENDIX H COURSE TOPIC RECOMMENDATIONS
„
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . These conrse topic recommendations are designed for ofncers who are
assigned to a Long Jide/OIser·er Team. These topics address Iasic
concepts of Long Jide Team fnnctions and inclnde practical application
and proIlem sol·ing simnlations as effecti·e learning methods. The
conrse shonld inclnde the following topics:
1. Safet· Jssnes
a. Classroom
b. Range
c. Operational
2. Weapons and Jqnipment íonsiderations
8. Joles and Dnties
1. íommon Hission Pronles
5. Legal Jssnes
a. Use of force – policy issues
I. íase stndies
c. Docnmentation
(1) Training records
6. Jnndamentals of Precision Shooting
a. Hental and ph·sical preparedness
b. Optics
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 49
Appendix H continued /RQJ5LÁH2EVHUYHU7HDP&RXUVH7RSLF5HFRPPHQGDWLRQV
contents
c. Low-light shooting
d. Jnndamentals of shooting a scoped ride
(1) Zeroing
(2) íold Iore zeroing
f. Wind and range estimation
g. Position shooting
h. Jide care
i. Data IooLs
¯. Lallistics
a. Jnternal Iallistics
b. External ballistics
(1) Jn·ironmental factors
(2) Angle shooting
c. Terminal Iallistics
(1) Jntermediate Iarrier shooting
8. Lasic Jieldcraft - JrIan and Jnral
a. íamondage
I. ío·er and concealment
c. Hides
d. Ho·ement
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 50
Appendix H continued /RQJ5LÁH2EVHUYHU7HDP&RXUVH7RSLF5HFRPPHQGDWLRQV
contents
9. OIser·ation/íommnnication SLills
a. OIser·ation/retention e×ercises
I. Jntelligence gathering
c. Reporting
(1) OIser·ation log
d. Diagramming
(1) Jange cards
(2) Jield sLetching
e. Team memIer commnnications
10. Practical application and e·alnation
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 51
contents
TACTICAL WATERBORNE
APPENDIX I CORE COMPETENCIES
1. Jf limited to Ioat operations:
a. Jse and maintenance of a Personal Jlotation De·ice
I. Lasic water safet· techniqnes
c. Night and low light conditions
d. Jamiliarization with ·essel operations. inclnding safet·
Irienng
e. Small Ioat tactics
f. Loarding techniqnes and tactics
2. Jf condncting snrface swimmer operations:
a. Agenc·-appro·ed swim test. to inclnde water tread
I. Self-rescne techniqnes
c. Loarding and ofdoading techniqnes
8. Jf condncting snI-snrface operations:
a. íertincation from a recognized certif·ing agenc·. inclnding
NAJJ. PADJ. the militar· or eqni·alent.
I. Hedical e×am and certincation for SíJLA as per íal OSHA
gnidelines
c. íal OSHA regnlations pertaining to nnderwater operations
SWAT
Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations
POST 52

contents

California POST

SWAT
O PERATIONAL G UIDELINES S TANDARDIZED
AND

T RAINING R ECOMMENDATIONS
POST2005TPS- 0369.1

Cali fo r ni a Co m mi s si o n o n Peac e O f f ic e r St a nd a rd s a nd Tr a ining

contents

COPYRIGHT
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT Operational Guidelines
and Standardized Training Recommendations

Copyright 2005

exception:

Questions about this copyright information or about obtaining permission Manager at publications@post.ca.gov.

POST2005TPS-0369.1

POST i . . . . . . of the Enforcement in serving its communities. . . . . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations THE MISSION . . . .

. . . . . . . . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations COMMISSIONERS . . . Batts Ron Lowenberg John Avila Lai Lai Bui Collene Campbell Robert Doyle Bonnie Dumanis Deborah Linden Nelson Lum Henry Perea Laurie Smith Michael Sobek Bill Lockyer Ken O’Brien Public Member POST ii . . . . Anthony W. . . . .

. . . . . . success of this project. . . . POST iii . . . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . POST iv . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations FOREWORD . v. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 2 0 POST v . . . . . . . . Crisis Negotiations Core Competencies . . 20 2 0 . . . 2 . . . . . .0 Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E . . . . . . . . . .

.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations INTRODUCTION . POST 1 . . NOTE: regular type italicized type. . . . . . . . . . . .

. such as investigation. . . DEFINITION OF SWAT The primary characteristic of SWAT that distinguishes it from the other units is the focus of effort. The purpose of SWAT is to increase the likelihood of safely resolving critical incidents. . Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude agencies from utilizing specially trained units in areas such as narcotics investigations. .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 1. . . POST 2 . . felony apprehension. SWAT teams are focused on tactical solutions.0 . . and other tasks. . . as opposed to other functions. .

. . Containment SWAT TEAM COMPONENTS basic operational functions: Appendix A provides a suggested listing of activities for each operational component. . .0 . . . . . . 2. POST 3 . . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 2. .

. POLICY CONSIDERATIONS . .0 . forming POST 4 . . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

POST 5 .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 3.0 continued POLICY CONSIDERATIONS structure These policies and procedures should take into consideration POST guidelines and standardized training recommendations.

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 4. . . .0 . . RISK ASSESSMENT POST 6 . . . . . . . . .

. . planning. briefings should include the specialized units and supporting resources. PLANNING When possible. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POST 7 . 5. . . .0 . Skill redundancy in knowledge of planning procedures for SWAT team members improves performance in rapidly developing scenarios. . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 5. . . . .

. . . consideration should be given to integrating Tactical Emergency Medical Support (TEMS) personnel within the structure of the SWAT team. .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 5. . . . . . . . . . POST 8 . . . . Where resources allow.0 continued . PLANNING 5. . . . . . .5 . . .

contents

SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations

6.0
. . . . . . . . . . . . .

LOGISTICAL AND RESOURCE NEEDS
training. Refer to section 13.0 for further guidelines on Specialized Functions and Supporting Resources.

POST 9

contents

SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations

7.0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . units. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LEGAL AND PRACTICAL ISSUES OF SWAT OPERATIONS
resources.

POST 10

contents

SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations

8.0
. . . . . . . . . . . . .

UNIFORMS, EQUIPMENT, AND FIREARMS
It is recognized that certain tactical conditions may require covert movement. Attire may be selected appropriate to the specific mission.

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

attachments.

POST 11

. and unbiased. . . POST 12 . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 9. . .0 PERSONNEL SELECTION. . . . . . . Policies should be established for failure to comply with these standards. . . . . . PHYSICAL FITNESS AND CORE SKILLS PROFICIENCY Agencies should ensure that the SWAT selection process is reasonable. . . . . . job related. . . Agencies should consider conducting physical fitness assessment at least annually. . .

2 and Appendix C for a listing of core competencies and elements. POST 13 . . . .0 continued . Policies should be established for failure to maintain these proficiencies. PERSONNEL SELECTION.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 9. PHYSICAL FITNESS AND CORE SKILLS PROFICIENCY Agencies should consider conducting core skills proficiency assessment at least annually. team members. . . . See Guideline 10. . . . . . .

POST 14 . . . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 10. . Initial Training . . . other supporting resources. . . .0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT TRAINING Appendix B provides the training recommendations for the POST Basic SWAT Course. .

. . . . . . . . Recurrent Core Competency Training .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 10. . . Appendix C provides a listing of SWAT operator core competencies and elements for each competency. . . . Ongoing training in the respective core competencies should also be incorporated into policy for the specialized SWAT functions and supporting resources. Update and Refresher Training . . . . . . . . . . . SWAT TRAINING SWAT core competencies fall within three general categories: Appendix C provides a listing of SWAT operator core competencies and elements for each competency. . .0 continued . . . . . POST 15 . . . . . . . .

Appendix D provides the training recommendations for the POST Tactical Commander Course. . . . . . . . training. . . . . . . . . . Approval of Prior Training . . SWAT TRAINING Command and executive personnel are encouraged to attend training for managing the SWAT function at the organizational level. . . . . . . . . . . . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 10. . . . . . Supervision and Management . . . POST 16 . . . . . . . . . previously completed training may be considered equivalent when the hours and content (topics) meet or exceed agency requirements or POST’s standardized training recommendations. As a general rule.0 continued . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . Annual Training Plan . . . . . . . . . An annual training plan helps SWAT teams to identify and prioritize training needs and schedule accordingly. . . . POST 17 . . . . SWAT TRAINING for Scenario-based training that simulates the tactical operational environment is an established method of improving performance during an actual deployment. . . . . . . Training Documentation . . . Refer to further training safety information. . . . . . .0 continued . Training Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scenario-Based Training . training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Documentation of individual and team training/performance can contribute to long-term reduction of liability and aid in investigations. . . . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 10. .

. . . . . . . . . . Some agencies may choose to consolidate resources into a regional SWAT team concept. . upon request. . Samples of initial suggested protocols and multi-jurisdictional agreements can be obtained through the POST clearinghouse. . . . . . POST 18 . . . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 11.0 MULTI-JURISDICTIONAL SWAT OPERATIONS . . . . . also participate. .

. and reinforces sound risk management practices. AFTER-ACTION EVALUATION Evaluation and analysis of critical incidents affords opportunity for individual and team assessment.0 . . . . . . . . POST 19 . . the debriefings should include specialized units and resources. helps to identify training needs. .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 12. When appropriate. . .

. POST 20 . . .0 . . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13. . . A SWAT K-9 team is a designated unit. which is specifically selected. consisting of a handler and dog. . . . trained. . and equipped to work in conjunction with SWAT /tactical teams to assist in tactical incidents. . SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES These guidelines are intended as helpful guidance for agencies who utilize K-9 teams on a recurrent basis for deployment with a tactical team.

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13. E POST 21 .0 continued SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES Planning ongoing basis.

.0 continued SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES ongoing basis. . . trained. . often in conjunction with the SWAT/tactical unit. .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13. . . . A Crisis Negotiations Team (CNT) is a designated group of personnel specifically selected. . structure. and equipped to assist in the resolution of critical incidents by means of communication and negotiation with criminal suspects and other persons. . . . POST 22 . .

POST 23 .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13. Crisis Negotiator course.0 continued SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES Agencies should organize CNT with regard to the following policy considerations: Agencies should develop resources sufficient to perform the four CNT operational functions: Logistics.

cover. . . . . and the employment of precision fire. A Long Rifle/Observer Team is a designated unit of law enforcement officers who are selected. . . . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13. and equipped to work as an element of the SWAT team in the resolution of critical incidents by providing observation. . . . POST 24 . .0 continued SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES . trained. Course.

nuclear. . . radiological.0 continued SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES categories: Refer to POST Guidelines for Student Safety in Certified Courses for further training safety information.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13. Agencies should recognize that tactical operations in a CBRNE environment are highly specialized. . . state. and should consider a coordinated regional response by local. . and federal agencies. POST 25 . . Event SWAT teams may be tasked with preparing the tactical component of the governmental response to a potential exposure to chemical. . . biological. . . SWAT teams may not be prepared to handle these incidents alone. . . or explosive (CBRNE) hazards. .

. . . . . Planning mission planning to ensure appropriate assets are in place for the POST 26 . . . . . SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES Definition For the purposes of this section. .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13. .0 continued . annual training plan. the agency. waterborne operations refer to the deployment of specially trained SWAT Operators to engage in tactical operations associated with the waterborne environment. .

0 continued SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES . . a tactical airborne operation refers to the use of air support as a resource in coordination with SWAT to resolve critical incidents. . . . . . aircraft. . . Planning POST 27 . . . . the particular agency.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13. Definition For the purposes of this section. .

POST 28 .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13.0 continued SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS AND SUPPORTING RESOURCES members in the annual training plan.

. . . . Evacuation Entry/Apprehension/Rescue Element POST 29 . Containment Element a.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations APPENDIX A . . . . . . . . BASIC SWAT TEAM OPERATIONAL COMPONENTS three minimum operational components: Command and Control Element operation e. . . Communications 2. Control of inner perimeter b.

. . BASIC SWAT COURSE TOPICS Introduction a. . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations APPENDIX B . Course Objectives 2. . Performance Evaluation of Team Members Policy Issues Basic SWAT Concepts 5. . . . . Psychological Considerations POST 30 . . . . .

Canines c. Rescue Operations POST 31 . Principles of Containment f. Contemporaneous Planning Overview of Specialized SWAT Functions a.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix B continued Physical Considerations Basic SWAT Course Topics Overview of Individual and Team Equipment Operational Planning c. Crisis Negotiations f.

Less Lethal Munitions Diversionary Devices Crisis Negotiation POST 32 .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix B continued Command Post Operations Basic SWAT Course Topics Individual and Team Movement c. Overcoming Obstacles Basic Entry and Search Techniques Chemical Agents in SWAT Operations b.

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix B continued Basic SWAT Course Topics Individual and Team Firearms Training Training Scenarios and Problem-Solving Simulations POST 33 .

. . Munitions POST 34 . . . Munitions. . . . . . and Equipment h. . . SWAT CORE COMPETENCIES Weapons.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations APPENDIX C . . .

v. Entries r. Covert Clearing m. Night Movement t. Reactionary Responses Rural Operations POST 35 .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix C continued 2. SWAT Core Competencies Individual and Team Movement/Tactics i.

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix C continued SWAT Core Competencies c. Riot Response POST 36 . Executive Protection h.

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix C continued SWAT Core Competencies POST 37 .

Course Objectives 2. . . Administrative Duties and Responsibilities Legal Issues 5. . . . . SWAT/TACTICAL COMMANDERS’ COURSE TOPICS topics: Introduction a. Policy POST 38 . Mutual Aid Procedures a. . . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations APPENDIX D . . . . .

Communications Tactical Operation Procedures b. Operational Planning POST 39 .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix D continued c. SWAT/Tactical Commanders’ Course Topics Communications Deployment Guidelines Tactical Team Operations Command and Control Command Post Operations c.

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix D continued SWAT/Tactical Commanders’ Course Topics Tactical Components/Capabilities Tactical Considerations/Missions g. Less Lethal Munitions Training Scenarios and Problem-Solving Simulations POST 40 .

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations APPENDIX E . . CORE COMPETENCIES FOR SWAT K-9 TEAMS exercises. . POST 41 . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . Logistics POST 42 . . . . . . . . BASIC CRISIS NEGOTIATOR COURSE RECOMMENDED COURSE TOPICS b.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations APPENDIX F . . . .

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics POST 43 .

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics a. Verbal Communications POST 44 .

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics b. Ethics POST 45 .

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics POST 46 .

. . . . . Extremist groups POST 47 . . . . . . . CRISIS NEGOTIATIONS CORE COMPETENCIES responsibilities e. . .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations APPENDIX G .

Linguistics POST 48 .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix G continued Crisis Negotiations Core Competencies l.

.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations APPENDIX H . . . . . Optics POST 49 . Range c. Use of force – policy issues b. . . . LONG RIFLE/OBSERVER TEAM COURSE TOPIC RECOMMENDATIONS a. . Operational a. . Classroom b. . . .

External ballistics POST 50 .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix H continued g. Position shooting b.

Reporting POST 51 .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix H continued c.

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations APPENDIX I TACTICAL WATERBORNE CORE COMPETENCIES POST 52 .