Introduction 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Evolution of PDS 1.3 Revamped Public Distribution System (RPDS) 1.4 Targeted PDS 1.

5 Identification of BPL families under TPDS 1.6 Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) 1.7 Identification of Antyodaya families and allocation of food grains 1.8 Scale of Issue of food-grains under TPDS 1.9 Central Issue Price (CIP) 1.10 Achievements of TPDS 1.11 Measures taken to strengthen TPDS 1.12 Review of literature 1.13 Objectives of the study 1.14 Hypothesis to be tested 1.15 Tools for data collection 1.16 Statement of the problem 1.17 Methodology and Data Sources 1.18 Limitations of the study

I. Introduction 1.1 Introduction The Public Distribution System evolved as a system of management of scarcity and for distribution of food grains at affordable prices. PDS means distribution of essential commodities to a large number of people through a network of fair price shops on a recurring basis. Over the years, PDS has become an important part of government’s policy for management of food economy in the country. PDS is supplemental in nature and is not intended to make available the entire requirement of any of the commodities distributed under it to a house hold or a section of the society. PDS is operated under the joint responsibility of the central and state governments. The central government through FCI has assumed the responsibility for procurement, storage, transportation and bulk allocation of food grains to the state governments. The operational responsibility including allocation within the state, identification of families below the poverty line, issue of ration cards and supervision of the functioning of FDS rest with the state governments. Under the PDS, presently the commodities namely wheat, rice, sugar and kerosene are being allocated to the states/UTs for distribution. Some states/UTs also distribute additional items of mass consumption through PDS outlets run as cloth, exercise books, pulses, salt and tea etc.

1.2 Evolution of Public Distribution System Public Distribution of essential commodities had been in existence in India during the inter-war period. PDS with its focus on distribution of food grains in urban scarcity areas had from the critical food shortages in 1960. PDS had substantially contributed to the containment of rise in food grain prices and ensured access of food to urban consumers. As the rational agriculture production had grown in the aftermath of Green Revolution, the outreach of PDS was extended to tribal blocks and areas of high incidence of poverty in the 1970s and 1980s. PDS till 1992 was a general entitlement scheme for all consumers without any specific target. Ravamped Public Distribution System (RPDS) was launched in June 1992 in 1775 blocks throughout the country. The Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) was introduced with effect from June 1997. 1.3 Revamped Public Distribution System (RPDS) The Revamped PDS was launched in June 1992 with a view to strengthen and streamline the PDS as well as to improve its reach in the far-flung, hilly remote and inaccessible areas where a substantial section of the poor live. It covered 1775 blocks wherein area specific program such as the Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDP), Desert Development Programme (DDP) and certain Designated Hill Areas (DHA) identified in consultation with State Governments for special focus with respect to improvement of the PDS infrastructure. Food grains for distribution in RPDS areas were issued to in the States at 50 paise below the Central Issue Price. The scale of issue was up to 20kg per card. The RPDS included area approach for ensuring effective reach of the PDS commodities, their delivery by State Governments at the doorstep of FPSs in the identified areas, additional ration cards to the left out families, infrastructure requirements like additional Fair Price Shops, storage capacity, etc and additional commodities such as tea, salt, pulses, soap etc for distribution through PDS outlets. 1.4 TARGETED PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (TPDS) In June 1997, the Government of India launched the Targeted Public Administration (TPDS) with focus on the poor. Under the TPDS, States are required to formulate and implement foolproof arrangements for identification of the poor for delivery of food grains and for its distribution in a transparent and accountable manner at the FPS level. The scheme, when introduced, was intended to benefit about 6 crore poor families for whom a quantity of about 72 lakh tones of food grains was earmarked annually. The identification of the poor under the scheme is done by the States as per State-wise poverty estimates of the Planning. Commission for 1993-94 based on the methodology of the “Expert Group on estimation of proportion and number of poor” chaired by Late Prof Lakdawala. The allocation of food grains to the States/UTs was made on the basis of average consumption in the past i.e. average annual off-take of food grains under the PDS during the past ten years at the time of introduction of TPDS.

The total number of BPL households so determined was 596.The quantum of food grains in excess of the requirement of BPL families was provided to the State as ‘transitory allocation’ for which a quantum of 103 lakh tones of food grains was earmarked annually.3.f. levies.f.12. black-smith. local taxes etc.5 IDENTIFICATION OF BPL FAMILIES UNDER TPDS To work out the population below the poverty line under the TPDS. 1.e. The BPL households were determined on the basis of population projections of the Registrar General of India for 1995 and the State wise poverty estimates of the Planning Commission for 1993-94.2000 by shifting the base to the population projections of the Registrar General as on 1. weavers. With this increase the total number of BPL families is 652. The transitory allocation was issued at prices.03 lakh as against 596. 1.2000. Above the Poverty Line (APL) as any sudden withdrawal of benefits existing under PDS form them was not considered desirable.2000 instead of the earlier population projections of 1995. 2002 for APL. additional allocation to States was also given. . Keeping in view the consensus on increasing the allocation of food grains to BPL families. Under the TPDS.23 lakh families originally estimated when TPDS was introduced in June 1997.4. Over and above the TPDS allocation. 1.23 lakh. Government of India increased the allocation to BPL families from 10kg to 20kg of food grains per family per month at 50% of the economic cost and allocation to APL families at economic cost w. While doing so the thrust should be to include the really poor and vulnerable sections of the society such as landless agricultural labourers. the CIPs fixed in July and December.e. The end retail price is fixed by the State/UTs after taking into account margins for wholesalers/retailers. The number of BPL families has been increased w. Guidelines for implementing the TPDS were issued in which the State Governments had been advised to identify the BPL families by involving the Gram Panchayats and Nagar Palikas.2/a kg for wheat and Rs3/a kg for rice. tappers. has been given in the matter of fixing the retail issue prices by removing the restriction of 50 paise per kg over and above the CIP for distribution of food grains under TPDS except with respect to Antyodaya Anna Yojana where the end retail price is to be retained at Rs. have not been revised since then even though procurement costs have gone up considerably. for adopting the methodology used by the expert groups set up by the Planning Commission under the Chairmanship of Late Prof. 2000 for BPL & AAY respectively and in July. marginal farmers. The allocation of APL families was retained at the same level as at the time of introduction of TPDS but the Central Issue Prices (CIP) for APL were fixed at 100% of economic cost from that date so that the entire consumer subsidy could be directed to the benefit of the BPL population. which were subsidized but were higher than the prices for the BPL quota of food grains. rural artisans/craftsmen such as potters. Flexibility to States/UTs. and to better target the food subsidy. the states were requested to issue food-grains at a difference of not more than 50 paise per kg over and above the CIP for BPL families. The transitory allocation was intended for continuation of benefit of subsidized food grains to the population. transportation charges. Lakadawala. there was a general consensus at the Food Minister’s conference held in August 1996. However.

fruit and flower sellers on the pavement etc. inter alia. In order to identify these households. In order to make TPDS more focused and targeted towards this category of population. The scale of issue that was initially 25kg per family per month has been increased to 35 kg per family per month with effect from 1st April 2002. cobblers. A National Sample Survey Exercise points towards the fact that about 5% of the total population in the country sleeps without two square meals a day. cartpullers. marginal farmers. such as potters. the AAY has been further expanded by another 50 lakh BPL families by including.6 ANTYODAYA ANNA YOJANA (AAY) AAY is a step in the direction of making TPDS aim at reducing hunger among the poorest segments of the BPL population. coolies. AAY contemplates identification of one crore poorest of the poor families from amongst the number of BPL families covered under TPDS within the States and providing them food grains at a highly subsidized rate of Rs. on daily basis in the informal sector like porters. SECOND EXPANSION OF AAY As announced in the Union Budget 2004-05. Orders to this effect have been issued on 3rd August 2004. tanners. rickshaw pullers. 2000 for one crore poorest of the poor families. rural artisans/craftsmen. Thus the entire food subsidy is being passed on to the consumers under the scheme. This section of the population can be called as “hungry”. including margin to dealers and retailers as well as the transportation cost. FIRST EXPANSION OF AAY The AAY scheme has been expanded in 2003-2004 by adding another 50 lakh BPL households headed by widows or terminally ill persons or disabled persons or persons aged 60 years or more with no assured means of subsistence or societal support. snake charmers. The Gram Panchayats and Gram-Sabhas should also be involved in the identification of eligible families. weavers.5 crore (i. . 1. The States/UTs are required to bear the distribution cost. rickshaw-pullers. all households at the risk of hunger. the guidelines stipulate the following criteria: Landless agriculture labourers. fruit and flower sellers. the “Antyodaya Anna Yojana” (AAY) was launched in December. rag pickers. in the rural areas and slum dwellers and persons earning their livelihood on daily basis in the informal sector like potters. 1.carpenters etc.2/per kg for wheat and Rs. hand cart pullers. blacksmiths.e 23% of BPL) families have been covered under the AAY. in urban areas. carpenters. slum dwellers and persons earning their livelihood.3/per kg for rice. With this increase. destitute and other similar categories irrespective of rural or urban areas.

50 lakh tons per month.7 IDENTIFICATION OF ANTYODAYA FAMILIES AND ALLOCATION OF FOOD GRAINS The identification of the Antyodaya families and issuing of distinctive Ration Cards to these families is the responsibility of the concerned State Governments. Detailed guidelines were issued to the States/UTs for identification of the Antyodaya families under the AAY and additional Antyodaya families under the expanded AAY. to 20kg. . As on 30.2009.5 crore households. per family per month with effect from 1. (i.Households headed by widows or terminally ill persons or disabled persons or persons aged 60 years or more with no assured means of subsistence or societal support. 30. 38% of BPL). THIRD EXPANSION OF AAY As announced in the Union Budget 2005-06. of food grains per family per month at the time of launching of the scheme in December.e. 1. Widows or terminally ill persons or disabled persons or persons aged 60 years or more or single women or single men with no family or societal support or assured means of subsistence. the number of AAY families has been increased to 2 crore (i. The allocation of food grains for the BPL families was further increased from 20kg to 25kg.2002 with a view to enhancing the food security at the household level. Initially.66% of BPL families). With this increase. All primitive tribal households.04. per family per month with effect from July.2000.e. The present monthly allocation of food grains under AAY is around 8. 2000.75 lakh AAY families have been covered by the States/UTs under this scheme. The scale of issue to BPL families was increased from 10kg. per family per month.4. 1. the scale of issue of the BPL families has been gradually increased from 10kg. the Antyodaya families were provided 25kg. BPL and AAY has been revised to 35kg per family per month with effect from 1.4. to 35kg. 242. the AAY has further been expanded to cover another 50 lakh BPL households thus increasing its overage to 2. Allocation of food grains under the scheme is being released to the States/UTs on the basis of issue of distinctive AAY Ration Cards to the identified Antyodaya families.8 SCALE OF ISSUE OF FOOD-GRAINS UNDER TPDS Since 1997. The scale of issue of foodgrains under APL. 2001.

00 1.2000. 2005. The urban bias has been completely eliminated as a larger proportion of BPL families are living in rural areas.07.00 2.65 4. (iii) Scale and issue price. Rs2/-kg for wheat and Rs. The number of AAY households have been increased to 2.10 5. PDS has now become pro-poor. The order mainly contains provisions with regard to the following issues:(i) Identification of families below the poverty line. (ii) Ration cards.15 3.30 6. In accordance with the commitment of the Government to create a hunger free India and to reform the PDS so as to serve the poorest of the poor.5 crores.11 MEASURES TAKEN TO STRENGTHEN TPDS Citizen’s Character A revised Citizen’s Charter has been issued in July.per kg) Commodity APL BPL AAY Rice Wheat 8. but now the enhanced allocation of food grains fulfils around 50% of the monthly cereal requirement of an average BPL household.2000 and that for AAY since Dec. 2007 for adoption and implementation by the State/UT Governments for facilitating its use by citizens as per provisions of Right to Information Act. (iv) Distribution of food grains. 2001 has been notified on August31. . Though PDS is supplemental in nature. in relation to functioning of the TPDS. Public Distribution System (Control) Order. (v) Licensing. The CIP of food grains for BPL families has not been revised since 25. 2001.kg for rice. the AAY scheme was launched in December 2000. The CIP for AAY category was kept lowest i.3/. 1.e.10 ACHIEVEMENTS OF TPDS After June 1997.1. PDS (Control) Order. 2001 In order to maintain supplies and securing availability and distribution of essential commodities.9 CENTRAL ISSUE PRICE (CIP) The present Central Issue Price (CIP) of food grains being supplied under TPDS is as under:(Figure in Rs.

The broad features of the Scheme are as under:i. clearly bringing out important issues. 2000 in the Department of Food and Public Distribution with the objective to provide a mechanism to coordinate with the State Governments and UT Administrations for regular and effective review and monitoring of the Targetted Public Distribution System in the States/UTs. An offence committed in violation of the provisions of this order shall invoke criminal liability under the Essential Commodities Act. The State Governments/UTs are also to ensure issue of Utilisation Certificates confirming that the food grains have been lifted and distributed to the intended beneficiaries under the TPDS. Meetings/Conferences A meeting of all State and UT Food Secretaries was held under the Chairmanship of Union Food Secretary at Hyderabad on 8. Director and equivalent are nominated as Area Officers for different States/UTs from time to time. The report of the Area Officers are sent to the Food Secretaries of the concerned States/UTs for taking remedial action towards smooth functioning of TPDS. The Area Officer is required to visit two districts of their allotted territories once in a quarter and review the functioning of TPDS as per the instructions/guidelines and as a set of questionnaire.(vi) Monitoring. 1955. It further devolves on the State Governments/UTs to conduct periodical checking of ration cards to weed out ineligible and bogus ration cards. . iii.2.2008 to discuss the measures for reforming PDS. Area Officer’s Scheme The Area Officer’s Scheme was launched on 21st February. ii. It also requires the State Governments/UTs to get the lists of BPL and Antyodaya families reviewed every year for the purpose of deletion of ineligible families and inclusion of eligible families. Officers of the rank of Deputy Secretary. The order requires all State Governments/UTs to ensure that the BPL and Antyodaya families identified are really the poorest of the poor. findings along with recommendations on actionable points. They are also required to submit their visit report within 10 days. The minutes of said meeting were sent to all concerned for taking necessary action thereon. State wise estimated number of AAY families and the families identified and ration cards issued under AAY by the State/UTs.

H.George attempted to analyze public distribution of food grains and their income distribution effects in Kerala. Important studies are presented here. (ii) M. . (i) In 1974 P.S.1. He tried to estimate the possible impact of rationing on incomes of the consumers using the relationship. Suryanarayana undertook a study on “PDS in India – with reference to Andhra Pradesh” during 1985.12 Review of literature A number of studies have been done on PDS in India.

000 crore to about 16 crore families. 4) To offer suggestions to improve the working of PDS. 2) To study the problems relating to the implementation of the PDS.(iii) A detailed study was published on “Food Security and Targeted PDS in UP”. Current study is undertaken to answer some of the questions such as:(i) Its urban and neglect of rural areas. The study was undertaken by Ravi Srivastava and was published in 2000.16 Statement of the Problem With a network of more than 4. PDS is said to distribute each year commodities worth Rs 15. 4) Measures and weights are not accurate in PDS article. To find a solution to the above problem of the PDS present study is devoted. 5) PDS has created overall benefits to poor people. Survey method was followed for this study.14 Hypothesis to be tested 1) People below poverty line do not have income to purchase PDS goods. accountability and supervision) (v) Frequent stock out situations. (ii) Its failure to serve the population below poverty line (iii) Lack of transparent and accountable arrangement for delivery. 1.13 Objectives of the Study 1) To study the socio-economic conditions of rural population brought under PDS. (vii) Exclusion of APL population from the PDS. (vi) Malpractices such as under weighing of commodities. 1. 1.17 Methodology and Data Sources Present study was studied using primary data. 1. 00. 2) Very old stocks are allowed for PDS.000 FPS the PDS in India are perhaps the largest distribution machinery of its type in the world.15 Tools for data collection An interview schedule covering all aspects of PDS was administered among the respondents to elict the needed information. (iv) The effectiveness of delivery machinery (coordination. 1. 3) To study the benefits derived out of PDS. The primary data required for the study was collected from a sample of 100 respondents selected through random sampling method from the urban and rural . 3) Monitoring of the scheme is ineffective. (iv) The Tata Economic Consultancy Service conducted a study in 2000 to know how much PDS supplies were diverted from the system.

it was not possible to cover a wider area.18 Limitations of the Study Some of the limitations of the study are:1) Due to limitation of time. The sampling frame is as follows: No of respondents selected from Below Poverty Line (BPL) Category: 50 No of respondents selected from Above Poverty Line (APL) Category: 50 The area selected for the study was Thrikkadavoor Panchayath which represented rural population and a ward from Kollam Corporation which represented urban population.area of Kollam District. For the purpose of the study 50 respondents from the category of Below Poverty Line (BPL) and 50 respondents from the category of Above Poverty Line (APL) was selected. 2) All limitations of primary data may possibly affect the results of the study. The respondents were cardholders of BPL and APL schemes. The ward selected was Thevally. The respondents dealing with their respective fair price shops (FPS) is studied. The data collected are analysed by using proper statistical tools like percentages. 1. Sampling was done in such a way that the respondents from both BPL and APL are randomly selected from the Panchayat as well as ward. .

PDS was launched in the State with effect from 01-07-1965 with the implementation of Kerala Rationing Order. rolled-back. because of various schemes and the different prices under the TPDS scheme certain distortions are created – consumers have information problems when PDS prices are frequently changed. It would be better if the TPDS scheme had remained unchanged for a few years at least. then the PDS allocation to Kerala.298 card holders in the state. after the switch. 1966. as will account for 3. Kerala was rated among the best performers in raising rural household consumption and reducing rural poverty. If the allocation to the APL is stopped. it is estimated. TPDS has changed the share of the PDS in the total grain requirements of Kerala. partly because of its effective system of public administration. there is evidence that ration shops are becoming unviable and are closing down. the PDS accounted for 32 per cent and the rest came from private trade. The Kerala government has identified 42 per cent of households as BPL households and is providing the BPL subsidy to these households from the state budget. as opposed to the 32% the PDS was providing earlier. Under the scheme the households are classified as Above Poverty Line (APL) and Below Poverty Line (BPL).8 per cent of the grain requirements of the state. the Kerala government has continued to provide additional grain to BPL households as well as maintained its entitlements for APL households.70. Distinctive ration cards are issued to them and food grains are distributed at the prices fixed by the Government out of the 66.PDS in Kerala It is well known that Kerala had one of the best run and most effective PDS networks in India. ration shops have lost their advantage in relation . there is confusion among consumers as to the appropriate prices to be paid. Thirdly. Thus. With the higher APL prices. Given that Kerala is a food deficit state. the guaranteed and subsidized allocation of grain for BPL households under the TPDS accounts for only 10 per cent of the previous PDS (“lifting”) supply.8 per cent of the grain requirements of the state. the state own production accounted for 20 per cent of grain requirements. The TPDS has affected Kerala’s PDS in several ways: First as 25 per cent of Kerala’s population has been termed BPL by the Planning Commission. as the constant change in prices led to information problems among consumers and opened up scope for malpractice by people who made use of the confusion regarding the scheme to charge higher prices. in the pre-TPDS period.(This is according to official data on PDS and not the NSS consumption data).811 families are under APL and 15. 45.775 families are under BPL category.68. 1) The Targeted Public Distribution System in Kerala The TPDS was implemented in the state from 1/06/1997 onwards. Finally.11. Secondly. and differentiated according to the scheme and card. Food grains are allotted by the Government of India for distribution to the card holder at the rate of 35kg per month irrespective of the category. This has had implications on domestic availability of rice and on prices. will account for 3.

After deducting all expenses. such as in the case of transport. 2007 saying that the cost of transferring a rupee of benefit to the poor through the PDS is Rs. many are estimated to be making losses. fair price shops are now selling 1. 711 before March 2000 to Rs. According to most development indicators. the earnings per fair price shop fell from Rs. Since there are some economies in costs. denying food to those who need it most. Programmes to restructure the system should be seriously considered because and enormous amount of public money is being spent without really having much of an impact to improve food security. The government could then narrow down the allocation of grains and reduce its food subsidy bill. because it is more profitable for these owners to sell their stock to the private markets on the side.500 kg of rice and 2. Today there is additional cause for concern however as inflation and spiraling prices have led to a few APL families turning back to the PDS. According to the Government of Kerala.400 kg of rice and 200kg of wheat a month. What is apparent is that Kerala has taken a complete u-turn in utilization of the PDS.65. The Finance Minister P. people in Kerala have a much better standard of living than people in the poorest states in the north of the country. People have chosen to abandon the PDS system altogether. As compared to a monthly sale of 7. Though the TPDS has not achieved anything remarkable in the State.000kg of wheat in early 2000. the distribution of smaller quantities is likely to make many shops unviable. the net income of a fair price shop dealer is now negative. the net profits of fair price shop owners/dealers are lower under the TPDS than before. With a small number of ration cards to serve. Since sales from fair price shops have declined. and for the most part are not ignorant of the schemes initiated by the State on their behalf.3. These families were more or less excluded from the PDS after the price hike in 2000. which makes it quite obvious that a complete restructuring of the food subsidy programme is vital in order to save crores of rupees going waste as futile public expenditure and to help people in a more effective. What the targeted system aims to do is basically provide more subsidies for the poor who need it the most. which led to the prices in the free market. efficient manner. it cannot be said that continuing under the universal PDS would have been better for Kerala. social awareness. In Kerala it has been observed that especially among the coastal fishing regions. people would pledge their ration cards to the ARDs in return for money. and because of education. This explains the fact that 250 to 350 retail stores have become non-functioning.to private stores for the majority of the population and it is reported that people have begun to shift to private traders. . and to reduce subsidies to APLfamilies who are thought to be able to afford to pay more. 3. women’s empowerment and political awareness.1. However in practice the TPDS has its own share of problems such as the unclaimed stock for APL families being sold in the black market and ration shops claiming that they are out of stock. and upper bounds on margins that can be charged to BPL consumers. Kerala is doing extremely well as compared to most Indian states.from a scenario where the majority of the population was dependent on the PDS system to a state where 70% are excluded form the system completely. 493 in late 2001.Chidambaram came on record on 20th December.

10kgs of food grains is distributed per month free of cost to destitute above the age of 65 years with no or meager subsistence.00 N.f 01/2004 and 01/2005.A N.70 3. The working hours of fair price shops are shown below: 8am to 12 noon 4pm to 8pm Quantity of Distribution 35kg Rice on Wheat 75% of 25 kg/card/month 35kg/card/month 10kg/card/month Price – Rs/kg Rice 8.00 Free of cost 6. Since then the scheme was expanded twice w.2) Antyodaya Anna Yojana Under this scheme 35kgs of food grains is distributed to the poorest of the poor families at the rate of Rs. 6) Fair Price Shops There are 14153 fair price shops.e. popularly known as ration shops and termed as ARDs (Authorized Retail Dealers) in official parlor. Central allotment of rice for AAY scheme is 16322 MTS/month. being 20% of the number of persons who are eligible for National old age pension but not getting the pension for some reasons. The scheme is implemented in the State with effect from 14-2-2001. FPS works throughout the month. 3) Annapurna Scheme Under this scheme. The Govt of India fixed the target at 44980. The scheme is implemented in the State from 25-2-2001 onwards.00 2. Now the beneficiaries under the scheme are 471800. At present there are 4942543 APL cardholders and 1490509 BPL cardholders in Kerala. The Taluk Supply Officer/Assistant Taluk Supply Officer is the officer empowered to issue Ration Cards and to make available the food grains for distribution through FPS (Fair Price Shops).3/kg. 4) Price and Rate of Distribution of Rice and Wheat Category of Card Holder APL BPL AAY ANP 5) Ration Cards Ration Card is the basic document for the purchase of rationed articles under the Targeted Public Distribution System. except on Sundays and 15 specified public holidays in a year.A Wheat .90 2.

The field functionaries of the department are Rationing Inspectors working under the Taluk supply officers/City Rationing Officers. sufficient number of kerosene wholesale dealers (KWDs) are appointed by the District Collector concerned and these KWDs lift the stock of kerosene allotted to them every month by the departmental officers from respective companies IOC. enforcement of markets discipline and promotion of consumer awareness and promotion of their interest. Vigilance Officer and three Assistant Secretaries. The director of civil supplies is the functional head of department. The commissioner of civil supplies is the principal Head of the department. PDS (control) order. The primary function of the Civil Supplies Department is to run the PDS efficiently and to ensure distribution of rationed articles to the people at the price fixed by the government. Department Detail with Organizational Structure The civil supplies department discharges the important responsibilities of Public Distribution. There are 63 taluks in the state and the supervision and control of the PDS are carried out in the Taluk by the Taluk supply officers. The second objective is to ensure that it is at price affordable for even the poorest in the state. For administrative convenience the state is divided into two regions and a Deputy Controller of rationing is put in charge of each region. Chief Accounts Officer. The department of civil supplies functions under the department of food. In addition there are two city Rationing Officers each in the municipal corporations of Thiruvananthapuram. the PDS is totally dependent on the food grains supplied by the government of India through FCI. IBP & HPC make it available for distribution to the ARDs who in turn lift the stock allotted to them and distributor to the card holders. As per this order. Since most of food grains in the state come from outside the state. BPC. The secretary to government. Ernakulam and Kozhikode. . black-marketing and artificial price like. The first is to ensure availability of food grains to everyone. Law Officer. civil supplies and consumer affairs of the government of Kerala. Finance Officer.7) Distribution of Kerosene Distribution of Kerosene is governed by the “Kerala Kerosene Control Order. 1968” promulgated by the State governed under the Essential Commodities Act. He exercises the statutory functions entrusted with him under the Kerala Rationing Order 1966. 2001 and other control orders issued by the government of Kerala under the essential commodities Act. The department is also entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring availability of essential commodities in the market at reasonable price and prevention of hoarding. PDS is the country as a whole and particularly in the state of Kerala serves two main objectives. and consumer affairs Dpt holds the post of commissioner of civil supplies concurrently. He is assisted by the Controller of Rationing. In each revenue district there is a District Supply Officer functioning under general supervision and control of the District Collector. food civil supplies.

Organizational Structure Commissioner of Civil Supplies Directorate of Civil Supplies Chief Accounts Officer Statistical Officer Law Officer Controller of Rationing Assistant Secretary Assistant Secretary Vigilance Officer Deputy Controller of Rationing Kollam (Southern Region) Assistant Secretary Deputy Controller of Rationing Kozhikode (Northern Region) District Supply Officers Taluk Supply Officers/ City Rationing Officers .

The BPL card holders are eligible for sugar @ 400 per head/month.2 per kg. All other card holders except BPL. Taluk Supply Office. The card holders get 35kg . BPL (Below Poverty Line):There are 157987 BPL cards in circulation in the district at present. Pathanapuram 4. Kottarakara 3. Taluk Supply Office. Taluk Supply Office. (75% of rice and 25% of wheat). 1. 2. Taluk Supply Office.PDS IN KOLLAM DISTRICT The following Taluk Supply Offices are functioning under the jurisdiction of district supply office. Each card holders get 25kg of food grain @ Rs. Kunnathur Details of Ration Cards and Ration Population in the District Taluk Kollam Kottarakara Pathanapuram Karunagapally Kunnathur Total Total No Cards 215526 136575 106563 98757 46582 604003 of No of Adults 848858 526504 391741 364427 32151 2304759 No of Adults 166480 95358 70614 68257 32151 432860 Non Total Population 1015338 621862 462355 432684 205380 2737619 Details of authorized wholesale Distributors/Kerosene Wholesale Dealers/ Authorized Ration Dealers under PDS. AAY are included in this scheme. Kollam. Taluk Supply Office. Kollam 2. Karunagapally 5. APL (Above Poverty Line):APL scheme included 392840 families through out the district. Taluk Kollam Kottarakara Pathanapuram Karunagapally Kunnathur Total AWDS 03 10 09 10 03 35 KWDS 09 05 05 05 02 20 ARDS 419 352 267 253 130 1421 Scheme wise details of PDS in Kollam 1.

. AAY card holders get 35kg of rice per month @ Rs. There are 52300 AAY cards sanctioned to Kollam district. 3. Rice at free of cost per month.70/kg. The person aged above 65 years and who has not been included in any other pension scheme of government are eligible to get 10kg. Annapoorna scheme:Annapoorna scheme is fully centrally sponsored scheme.90/kg and APL wheat of Rs6. AAY (Antyodaya Anna Yojana):This scheme is launched to help the poorest of the poor.2/kg. The selling price of APL Rice is 8. The sanctioned strength of 52300 AAY cards is sub-allocated to each taluk. 4.(75% rice and 25% wheat) food grain per month.

The recognized fact is that the female members largely influence the purchasing behavior of the family. This is also true in the case of FPS. This shows that the people below poverty line do not have income to purchase PDS goods. Public Distribution System – Effectiveness & Efficiency PDS is involved as an important poverty alleviation programme in India. If there is no work. The effectiveness and efficiency of PDS was measured based on the responses given by the respondents of this study. The respondents were categorized from Below Poverty Line and Above Poverty Line (APL) 1) Classification of respondents on the bias of sex Table 1 Classification according to sex Sl. Hence it becomes necessary to assess the efficiency of PDS from users perspective. No 1 2 Sex Male Females Total 20 30 50 BPL % of responsiveness 40 60 100 22 28 50 APL Percentage of respondents 44 56 100 Source: . no wage and no food. It is perhaps the largest distribution network in the world. The study showed that the percentage of female respondents in both categories (BPL-60 APL-56) were more. Some of the criticisms with regard to PDS are:1) Poor quality of goods supplied 2) Underweight 3) Leakage of PDS articles to the open market 4) Non availability of commodities 5) Whether the commodities are given to the right persons etc. The main opinion of female respondents under BPL category was that the daily wages were the source for their purchase. However PDS is criticized for its inefficiency in achieving its objectives. .Primary Data This classification was made to identify the relative role of males and females in purchasing the commodities from the FPS.A.

obviously it was very low in BPL category . Classification on the basis of occupation Table 3 Classification on the basis of occupation Occupation Salaried Employees Self Employed Labourers Agriculturist Unemployed Total BPL 0 2 26 20 2 50 Percentage 0 4 52 40 4 100 APL 16 18 10 4 2 50 Percentage 32 36 20 8 4 100 Source: . agriculturist and unemployed. labourers. No 1 2 3 Age Group 20-35 35-50 50-65 Total 12 32 6 50 BPL % of respondents 24 64 12 100 APL 12 26 12 50 % of respondents 24 52 24 100 Source: . 3. respondents were classified into salaried employees.Primary Data On the basis of occupation. Classification of respondents on the basis of age Table 2 Classification according to age Sl. self.employed people.Primary Data In the study based on age it showed that the majority of the respondents in both the categories (BPL – 64% & APL -52%) were in the age group 35-50 which showed that the middle age group has been maintaining the relationship with FPS. It was found that in the APL category the percentage of salaried employees (32%) and self employed (36%) was more. Occupation decided the income level of the individual and ultimately his purchasing behaviour.2.

and clearly labourers (52%) and agriculturist (40%) were high in BPL category compared to APL. It was widely opined by the respondents that the goods supplied were inferior in quality and under weighment.Primary Data In this study it was found that majority of respondents from both the category (BPL – 64% and APL – 56%) opined that the commodities were not available in time in FPS. Opinion about the satisfaction of respondents over the quantity and quality of commodities supplied Sl. No 1 2 Response Available Not Available Total BPL 18 32 50 Percentage 36 64 100 APL 22 28 50 Percentage 44 56 100 Source: . Respondents opinion on the availability of commodities in time Table 4 Respondents opinion about the availability of commodities in time Sl. Dissatisfaction was high among the respondents in the rural area (Perinad Panchayat) compared to the urban area ( ). No 1 2 Response Satisfied Not satisfied Total BPL 20 30 50 Percentage 40 60 100 APL 21 29 50 Percentage 42 58 100 Source: . The low prices of commodities supplied by the FPSs were the main reason for their purchase from it. 4.Primary Data 60 % of the respondents from the BPL category and 58% of the respondents from the APL category were not satisfied over the commodities supplied. 6. Reasons for not purchasing commodities during certain times There are many reasons for not purchasing the commodities by the card holders at certain times such as (i) Lack of good quality (ii) Lack of information on the availability of goods (iii) Irregular Supply (iv) Under Weighment (v) Lack of customer relations . 5.

In this analysis very old stocks are allowed for PDS was recognized. B.Table 6 Reasons for not purchasing commodities during certain Sl. NO 1 2 Reasons Lack of good quality Lack of information on the availability Irregular Supply Under Weighment Lack of customer relations Total BPL 11 26 Percentage 22 52 APL 26 12 Percentage 52 24 3 4 5 3 8 2 50 6 16 4 100 8 2 2 50 16 4 4 100 Source: . Underweighing of commodities were quoted a major problem by the majority of the BPL respondents while majority of respondents in the APL category quoted leakages of commodities to open markets as the major problem. Problems faced by the sample respondents in PDS Some of the main problems faced by both the categories of cardholders that was found out under this study were 1) Underweighing of commodities 2) Leakages of commodities to open market 3) Frequent stock-out situations 4) Infrequent opening of the Fair Price Shops & 5) Inferior quality of food grains supplied throughout FPS. Majority of the respondents from the APL category (52%) quoted lack of quality in PDS article was their major reason for not purchasing commodities from FPS.Primary Data Among the reasons mentioned lack of information on the availability of goods was the major reason quoted by the BPL category (52%) of respondents. .

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