# Jet engine design point performance

Design point performance calculation

In fixed-wing aircraft driven by one or more jet engines, the performance of the jet engine is important to the operation of the aircraft. Strictly speaking, the performance of the jet engine includes among other parameters the measurement/estimation of thrust, fuel consumption, noise and engine emissions. This article addresses mainly the calculation of thrust.

Suggested reading is the topic Jet Engine Off-Design and Transient Performance .

TS diagram
A reciprocating engine, such as the petrol or diesel unit in a vehicle, has a Constant Volume (during combustion) Cycle. Similarly a Jet Engine (and gas turbine engines in general) has a Constant Pressure (during combustion) Cycle. Also, the Jet Engine has a continuos flow process, whereas the reciprocating engine cycle is intermittent.

Typical temperature vs. entropy (TS) Diagram for a single spool turbojet. Note that 1 CHU/(lbm K) = 1BTU/(lb °R) = 1 w:BtuBTU/(lb °F) = 1 kcal/(kg °C) = 4.184 kJ/(kg·K).

Temperature vs. entropy (TS) diagrams (see example RHS) are usually used to illustrate the cycle of gas turbine engines. Entropy represents the degree of disorder of the molecules in the fluid. It tends to increase as energy is converted between different forms, i.e. chemical and mechanical.

The TS diagram shown on the RHS is for a single spool turbojet, where a single drive shaft connects the turbine unit with the compressor unit.

Apart from stations 0 and 8s, stagnation pressure and stagnation temperature are used. Station 0 is ambient. Stagnation quantities are frequently used in gas turbine cycle studies, because no knowledge of the flow velocity is required.

The processes depicted are: Freestream (stations 0 to 1) In the example, the aircraft is stationary, so stations 0 and 1 are coincident. Station 1 is not depicted on the diagram. Intake (stations 1 to 2) In the example, a 100% intake pressure recovery is assumed, so stations 1 and 2 are coincident. Compression (stations 2 to 3) The ideal process would appear vertical on a TS diagram. In the real process there is friction, turbulence and, possibly, shock losses, making the exit temperature, for a given pressure ratio, higher than ideal. The shallower the positive slope on the TS diagram, the less efficient the compression process. Combustion (stations 3 to 4) Heat (usually by burning fuel) is added, raising the temperature of the fluid. There is an associated pressure loss, some of which is unavoidable \Turbine (stations 4 to 5) The temperature rise in the compressor dictates that there will be an associated temperature drop across the turbine. Ideally the process would be vertical on a TS diagram. However, in the real process, friction and turbulence cause the pressure drop to be greater than ideal. The shallower the negative slope on the TS diagram, the less efficient the expansion process. Jetpipe (stations 5 to 8) In the example the jetpipe is very short, so there is no pressure loss. Consequently, stations 5 and 8 are coincident on the TS diagram. Nozzle (stations 8 to 8s) These two stations are both at the throat of the (convergent) nozzle. Station 8s represents static conditions. Not shown on the example TS diagram is the expansion process, external to the nozzle, down to ambient pressure.

we have: A simplyfying assumption sometimes made is for the addition of fuel flow to be exactly offset by an overboard compressor bleed. ISA). pump. Top-of-Climb. however. the Design Point corresponds to the highest corrected flow at inlet to the compression system (e. any combination of flight condition/throttle setting can be nominated as the engine performance Design Point.000 ft. friction and shock losses in the intake system must be accounted for: Compressor The actual discharge temperature of the compressor. step by step. 35. Usually. The design point net thrust of any jet engine can be estimated by working through the engine cycle. etc).85. so mass flow remains constant throughout the cycle. The pressure ratio across the turbine can be calculated.g. Below are the equations for a single spool turbojet. assuming a polytropic efficiency is given by: Normally a compressor pressure ratio is assumed. assuming a turbine polytropic efficiency: Obviously: .Design point performance equations In theory. derived from the Steady Flow Energy Equation: The corresponding freestream stagnation (or total) pressure is: Intake Since there is no work or heat loss in the intake under steady state conditions: However. so: Combustor A turbine rotor inlet temperature is usually assumed: The pressure loss in the combustor reduces the pressure at turbine entry: Turbine Equating the turbine and compressor powers and ignoring any power off take (e. Mach 0.g. Freestream The stagnation (or total) temperature in the freestream approaching the engine can be estimated using the following equation. to drive an alternator.

Jetpipe Since.0. under Steady State conditions. the nozzle static pressure is equal to ambient pressure: The nozzle static temperature is calculated from the nozzle total/static pressure ratio: . the nozzle static temperature is calculated as follows: Similarly for the nozzle static pressure: The nozzle throat velocity (squared) is calculated using the Steady Flow Energy Equation: The density of the gases at the nozzle throat is given by: Nozzle throat effective area is estimated as follows: Gross thrust There are two terms in the nozzle gross thrust equation. if the nozzle happens to be unchoked. If then the nozzle is UNCHOKED. Once unchoked. This occurs when the nozzle pressure ratio reac hes or exceeds a critical level: If then the nozzle is CHOKED. Assuming the nozzle is choked. there is no work or heat loss in the jetpipe: However. Choked Nozzle The following calculation method is only suitable for choked nozzles. ideal momentum thrust and ideal pressure thrust. The latter term is only non-zero if the nozzle is choked: Unchoked nozzle The following special calculation is required. the jetpipe pressure loss must be accounted for: Nozzle Is the nozzle choked? The nozzle is choked when the throat Mach number = 1.

if working with degrees Rankine) Design component performance assumptions: Intake pressure recovery factor. Frozen Chemistry and Equilibrium Chemistry. Most engine manufacturers use a more exact method.The nozzle throat velocity (squared) is calculated. doubles the thrust and the fuel flow. High pressures and temperatures at elevated levels of supersonic speeds would invoke the use of even more exotic calculations: i. ramjet. as before. ISA. using the steady flow energy equation: Gross thrust The nozzle pressure thrust term is zero if the nozzle is unchoked. there is a ram drag penalty for taking air onboard via the intake: Net thrust The ram drag must be deducted from the nozzle gross thrust: The calculation of the combustor fuel flow is beyond the scope of this text. so only the Momentum Thrust needs to be calculated: Ram drag In general. using Imperial units for illustration purposes: Key design parameters: Intake air mass flow. assuming scale effects are neglected.g. The method of calculation shown above is fairly crude. known as True Specific Heat.8. but is basically proportional to the combustor e ntry airflow and a function of the combustor temperature rise. Turbine rotor inlet temperature. Note that mass flow is the sizing parameter: doubling the airflow. (use 45. Overall pressure ratio. the specific fuel consumption (fuel flow/net thru is st) unaffected. etc. turbofan. . but is useful for gaining a basic understanding of aeroengine performance. (factor-up by 1.359 kg/s if working in SI units) Assume the gasflow is constant throughout the engine.e. turboprop. However. Similar design point calculations can be done for other types of jet engine e. Worked example Question Calculate the net thrust of the following single spool turbojet cycle at Sea Level Static.

6 6 W ·s/ ·K en orking it SI units and use . so t e combustor pressure ratio etpipe pressure loss %. Note: this is an absolute temperature i.e.Compressor pol tropi effi iency. use .67 ° . Constants: atio of specific eats for air. 7 kN·m/ kg·K) hen orking    §  echanical equivalent of heat. Combustor pressure loss %. Specific eat at constant pressure for air. are zero ©   ¤ ¤  ¤   Gas constant. Standar d ay) imply the following: and the flight ¤  § §  Ambient pressure. so t e jetpipe pressure ratio ozzle t r ust coefficient. kN/m² if working in SI units) ) ach number. Freestream So: ! Since the engine is static. ISA conditions i . ft·lbf/ lb·° ) if ¥ ¥    Specific eat at constant pressure for combustion products . © orking ith American units including degrees ankine) assume . © §¤ se . use hen orking    ¥ ¥ §  Acceleration of gravity. both the flight velocity. use . atio of specific eats for combustion products. Answer Am ient onditions A sea level pressure altitude implies the following: Ambient temperature.e. 6 kW·s/ kg·K) en orking    §§  ¥ ©  ¥ ¤  ¥   ¥     use . p·s/ lb·° if orking    ¥  ¥  ¡ ¤ § ¡ ¥ ¥    §   ¥ ¥ ¥ " £ % ! ¨ © ©  ¦ ¢   it American units) it SI units and . if working with American units) \$ Sea level. 7 6 p·s/ lb·° ) if orking it American units) it SI units) ith SI units) ith SI units and use . use en orking    ¥ ©   ¥   #   use . r bine polytropic efficiency.

Intake Compressor Combustor Turbine Jetpipe Nozzle .

the second term. Net thrust . NOTE: inclusion of 144 in²/ft² to obtain area in in². Ram Drag The ram drag in this particular example is zero. Because the nozzle is choked (which is the norm on a turbojet). is non-zero. the pressure thrust.Since . Gross Thrust The first term is the momentum thrust which contributes most of the nozzle gross thrust. because the engine is stationary and the flight velocity is therefore zero. the nozzle is CHOKED Choked Nozzle NOTE: inclusion of 144 in²/ft² to obtain density in lb/ft³.