Jet engine design point performance

Design point performance calculation

In fixed-wing aircraft driven by one or more jet engines, the performance of the jet engine is important to the operation of the aircraft. Strictly speaking, the performance of the jet engine includes among other parameters the measurement/estimation of thrust, fuel consumption, noise and engine emissions. This article addresses mainly the calculation of thrust.

Suggested reading is the topic Jet Engine Off-Design and Transient Performance .

TS diagram
A reciprocating engine, such as the petrol or diesel unit in a vehicle, has a Constant Volume (during combustion) Cycle. Similarly a Jet Engine (and gas turbine engines in general) has a Constant Pressure (during combustion) Cycle. Also, the Jet Engine has a continuos flow process, whereas the reciprocating engine cycle is intermittent.

Typical temperature vs. entropy (TS) Diagram for a single spool turbojet. Note that 1 CHU/(lbm K) = 1BTU/(lb °R) = 1 w:BtuBTU/(lb °F) = 1 kcal/(kg °C) = 4.184 kJ/(kg·K).

Temperature vs. entropy (TS) diagrams (see example RHS) are usually used to illustrate the cycle of gas turbine engines. Entropy represents the degree of disorder of the molecules in the fluid. It tends to increase as energy is converted between different forms, i.e. chemical and mechanical.

The TS diagram shown on the RHS is for a single spool turbojet, where a single drive shaft connects the turbine unit with the compressor unit.

Apart from stations 0 and 8s, stagnation pressure and stagnation temperature are used. Station 0 is ambient. Stagnation quantities are frequently used in gas turbine cycle studies, because no knowledge of the flow velocity is required.

The processes depicted are: Freestream (stations 0 to 1) In the example, the aircraft is stationary, so stations 0 and 1 are coincident. Station 1 is not depicted on the diagram. Intake (stations 1 to 2) In the example, a 100% intake pressure recovery is assumed, so stations 1 and 2 are coincident. Compression (stations 2 to 3) The ideal process would appear vertical on a TS diagram. In the real process there is friction, turbulence and, possibly, shock losses, making the exit temperature, for a given pressure ratio, higher than ideal. The shallower the positive slope on the TS diagram, the less efficient the compression process. Combustion (stations 3 to 4) Heat (usually by burning fuel) is added, raising the temperature of the fluid. There is an associated pressure loss, some of which is unavoidable \Turbine (stations 4 to 5) The temperature rise in the compressor dictates that there will be an associated temperature drop across the turbine. Ideally the process would be vertical on a TS diagram. However, in the real process, friction and turbulence cause the pressure drop to be greater than ideal. The shallower the negative slope on the TS diagram, the less efficient the expansion process. Jetpipe (stations 5 to 8) In the example the jetpipe is very short, so there is no pressure loss. Consequently, stations 5 and 8 are coincident on the TS diagram. Nozzle (stations 8 to 8s) These two stations are both at the throat of the (convergent) nozzle. Station 8s represents static conditions. Not shown on the example TS diagram is the expansion process, external to the nozzle, down to ambient pressure.

we have: A simplyfying assumption sometimes made is for the addition of fuel flow to be exactly offset by an overboard compressor bleed. ISA). pump. Top-of-Climb. however. the Design Point corresponds to the highest corrected flow at inlet to the compression system (e. any combination of flight condition/throttle setting can be nominated as the engine performance Design Point.000 ft. friction and shock losses in the intake system must be accounted for: Compressor The actual discharge temperature of the compressor. step by step. 35. Usually. The design point net thrust of any jet engine can be estimated by working through the engine cycle. etc).85. so mass flow remains constant throughout the cycle. The pressure ratio across the turbine can be calculated.g. Below are the equations for a single spool turbojet. assuming a polytropic efficiency is given by: Normally a compressor pressure ratio is assumed. assuming a turbine polytropic efficiency: Obviously: .Design point performance equations In theory. derived from the Steady Flow Energy Equation: The corresponding freestream stagnation (or total) pressure is: Intake Since there is no work or heat loss in the intake under steady state conditions: However. so: Combustor A turbine rotor inlet temperature is usually assumed: The pressure loss in the combustor reduces the pressure at turbine entry: Turbine Equating the turbine and compressor powers and ignoring any power off take (e. Mach 0.g. Freestream The stagnation (or total) temperature in the freestream approaching the engine can be estimated using the following equation. to drive an alternator.

Jetpipe Since.0. under Steady State conditions. the nozzle static pressure is equal to ambient pressure: The nozzle static temperature is calculated from the nozzle total/static pressure ratio: . the nozzle static temperature is calculated as follows: Similarly for the nozzle static pressure: The nozzle throat velocity (squared) is calculated using the Steady Flow Energy Equation: The density of the gases at the nozzle throat is given by: Nozzle throat effective area is estimated as follows: Gross thrust There are two terms in the nozzle gross thrust equation. if the nozzle happens to be unchoked. If then the nozzle is UNCHOKED. Once unchoked. This occurs when the nozzle pressure ratio reac hes or exceeds a critical level: If then the nozzle is CHOKED. Assuming the nozzle is choked. there is no work or heat loss in the jetpipe: However. Choked Nozzle The following calculation method is only suitable for choked nozzles. ideal momentum thrust and ideal pressure thrust. The latter term is only non-zero if the nozzle is choked: Unchoked nozzle The following special calculation is required. the jetpipe pressure loss must be accounted for: Nozzle Is the nozzle choked? The nozzle is choked when the throat Mach number = 1.

if working with degrees Rankine) Design component performance assumptions: Intake pressure recovery factor. Frozen Chemistry and Equilibrium Chemistry. Most engine manufacturers use a more exact method.The nozzle throat velocity (squared) is calculated. doubles the thrust and the fuel flow. High pressures and temperatures at elevated levels of supersonic speeds would invoke the use of even more exotic calculations: i. ramjet. as before. ISA. using the steady flow energy equation: Gross thrust The nozzle pressure thrust term is zero if the nozzle is unchoked. there is a ram drag penalty for taking air onboard via the intake: Net thrust The ram drag must be deducted from the nozzle gross thrust: The calculation of the combustor fuel flow is beyond the scope of this text. so only the Momentum Thrust needs to be calculated: Ram drag In general. using Imperial units for illustration purposes: Key design parameters: Intake air mass flow. assuming scale effects are neglected.g. The method of calculation shown above is fairly crude. known as True Specific Heat.8. but is basically proportional to the combustor e ntry airflow and a function of the combustor temperature rise. Turbine rotor inlet temperature. Note that mass flow is the sizing parameter: doubling the airflow. (use 45. Overall pressure ratio. the specific fuel consumption (fuel flow/net thru is st) unaffected. etc. turbofan. . but is useful for gaining a basic understanding of aeroengine performance. (factor-up by 1.359 kg/s if working in SI units) Assume the gasflow is constant throughout the engine.e. turboprop. However. Similar design point calculations can be done for other types of jet engine e. Worked example Question Calculate the net thrust of the following single spool turbojet cycle at Sea Level Static.

6 6 W ·s/ ·K en orking it SI units and use . so t e combustor pressure ratio etpipe pressure loss %. Note: this is an absolute temperature i.e.Compressor pol tropi effi iency. use .67 ° . Constants: atio of specific eats for air. 7 kN·m/ kg·K) hen orking    §  echanical equivalent of heat. Combustor pressure loss %. Specific eat at constant pressure for air. are zero ©   ¤ ¤  ¤   Gas constant. Standar d ay) imply the following: and the flight ¤  § §  Ambient pressure. so t e jetpipe pressure ratio ozzle t r ust coefficient. kN/m² if working in SI units) ) ach number. Freestream So: ! Since the engine is static. ISA conditions i . ft·lbf/ lb·° ) if ¥ ¥    Specific eat at constant pressure for combustion products . © orking ith American units including degrees ankine) assume . © §¤ se . use hen orking    ¥ ¥ §  Acceleration of gravity. both the flight velocity. use . atio of specific eats for combustion products. Answer Am ient onditions A sea level pressure altitude implies the following: Ambient temperature.e. 6 kW·s/ kg·K) en orking    §§  ¥ ©  ¥ ¤  ¥   ¥     use . p·s/ lb·° if orking    ¥  ¥  ¡ ¤ § ¡ ¥ ¥    §   ¥ ¥ ¥ " £ % ! ¨ © ©  ¦ ¢   it American units) it SI units and . if working with American units) $ Sea level. 7 6 p·s/ lb·° ) if orking it American units) it SI units) ith SI units) ith SI units and use . use en orking    ¥ ©   ¥   #   use . r bine polytropic efficiency.

Intake Compressor Combustor Turbine Jetpipe Nozzle .

the second term. Net thrust . NOTE: inclusion of 144 in²/ft² to obtain area in in². Ram Drag The ram drag in this particular example is zero. Because the nozzle is choked (which is the norm on a turbojet). is non-zero. the pressure thrust.Since . Gross Thrust The first term is the momentum thrust which contributes most of the nozzle gross thrust. because the engine is stationary and the flight velocity is therefore zero. the nozzle is CHOKED Choked Nozzle NOTE: inclusion of 144 in²/ft² to obtain density in lb/ft³.

In a sophisticated model. However. does not require a shaft speed increase. If the some of the cooling air is bled from part way along the compressor (i. but also increasing its mass flow: i. The bleed air negotiates a complex set of passageways within the aerofoil extr acting heat before being dumped into the gas stream adjacent to the blade surface. Although the higher temperature rise across the compression system implies a larger temperature drop over the turbine system. Therefore. The rotor cooling bleed air is extracted from compressor delivery and passes along narrow passage ways before being injected into the base of the rotating blades.To retain accuracy.e. but it reduc es core size and requires a smaller flow size turbine. reducing its as temperature. associated with acid rain. because turbine expansion ratio increases more slowly than the overall pressure ratio (which is inferred by the divergence of the constant pr essure lines on the TS diagram). The usual assumption is that the low energy disc cool ng air cannot contribute to the engine cycle i until it has passed through one row of blades or vanes. Cooling Bleeds The above calculations assume that the fuel flow added in the combustor completely offsets the bleed air extracted at compressor delivery to cool the turbine system. Increasing the latter may also require better compressor materials. Adding a rear stage to the compressor. the nozzle temperature is unaffected. higher combustion temperatures can potentially lead to greater emissions of nitrogen oxides. the cooling air for the first row of (static) turbine nozzle guide vanes (immeditely downstream of the combustor) can be safely disregarded. However. implying a specific fuel consumption (fuel flow/net thrust) decrease. This is pessimistic. only the final answer should be rounded-off. the turbine rotor cooling air must be included in such a model. front) stage to the compressor. interstage). however. the power absorbed by the unit must be adjusted accordingly.e. will require an increase in shaft speed (to maintain the same blade tip Mach number on each of the original compressor stages. So turbojets can be made more fuel efficient by raising overall pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature in unison. Naturally any bleed air returned to the cycle (or dumped overboard) must also be deducted from the main air flow at the point it is bled from the compressor. which is expensive to change. the turbine rotor cooling air is assumed to quench the main g stream emerging from turbine. Alternatively. better turbine materials and/or improved vane/blade cooling are required to cope with increases in both turbine inlet temperature and compressor delivery temperature. The bleed air cooling the turbine discs is treated in a similar manner. there is an increase in turbine inlet temperature.e. Consequently. to raise overall pressure ratio. There is. Cycle improvements Increasing the design overall pressure ratio of the compression system raises the combustor entry temperature. The increase in shaft speed . because the same amount of heat is being added to the total system. at a fixed fuel flow and airflow. a rise in nozzle pressure. since the bleed air is assumed to be dumped directly overboard (thereby bypassing the propulsion nozzle) and unable to contribute to the thrust of the engine. to increase overall pressure ratio. net thrust increases. since for a given (HP) rotor inlet temperature it has no effect upon either the combustor fuel flow or the net thrust of the engine. adding a zero (i. Also. since the delivery temperature of each of these stages will be higher than datum). In a more sophisticated performance model.

the other for the LP urbine. which has an impact on blade/disc stresses and component lives/material. hub) and a n uter (i. here is also two turbine calculations. he power uct pressure loss/Bypass i xer calculation & 0 he design point calculation for a two spool turbojet. ther gas turbine engine types esign point calculations for other gas turbine engine types are similar in for mat to that given above for a single spool tur bojet. his together with increases in the hot gas and cooling air(from the compressor) temperatures impl a ies decrease in component lives and/or an upgrade in component materials. thereby increasing net thr ust.e. an increase in shaft speedwill still probably be required. tip) compression calculations. without adding stage/s). except the Bypass Nozzle calculation is replaced by a ( 2 3 absorbed by these two "components" is taken as the load on the LP tur bine. one for the HP urbine. Compressor. has two compression cal ulations. Net thrust is obtained by deducting the intake ram drag from the sum of the Core Nozzle and Byp Nozzle gross thrusts. Nomenclature                     flow area calculated nozzle effective throat area design point nozzle effective throat area nozzle geometric throat area shaft angular acceleration arbitrary lines which dissect the corrected speed lines on a compressor characteristic specific heat at constant pressure for air specific heat at constant pressure for combustion products calculated nozzle discharge coefficient thrust coefficient ambient pressure/Sea Level ambient pressure turbine enthalpy drop/inlet temperature change in mechanical shaft speed excess shaft power excess shaft torque compressor polytropic efficiency turbine polytropic efficiency acceleration of gravity gross thrust net thr ust 4 A two spool mixed turbofan design point calculation is very similar to that for anunmixed engine.raises the centrifugal stresses in both the turbine blade and disc. After the an uter compression calculation. If the increase overall pressure ratio is obtained aerodynamically ( i. ass (where the static pressures of the core and bypass streams at the mixing plane are usually assumed to be equal) followed by a i nal ( Mixed) Nozzle calculation. one for the o w Pressure (LP) Compressor. the other for the c 2 ) & 2 2 & & 1 & ' ( & i gh Pressure (HP) . the LP Compressor calculati n is usually replaced by a n Inner (i. Adding a zero stage also induces more airflow into theengine. thereis a Bypass 3 o In a two spool unmi ed tur bofan. Nozzle expansion calculation.e.e.

ambient temperature 5 a y.                                 ram drag ratio of specific heats for air ratio of specific heats for combustion products spool inertia mechanical equivalent of heat constant constant constant flight Mach number compressor mechanical shaft speed compressor corrected shaft speed turbine corrected shaft speed static pressure stagnation (or total) pressure compressor pressure ratio intake pressure recovery factor gas constant density specific fuel consumption (turbine) rotor inlet temperature static temperature or time stagnation (or total) temperature intake stagnation temperature compressor delivery total temperature ambient temperature/Sea Level. Standard total temperature/Sea Level. ambient temperature 5 . Standard velocity mass flow calculated tur bine entry corrected flow compressor corrected inlet flow design point turbine entry corrected flow corrected entry flow from turbine characteristic (or map) combustor fuel flow ay.

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