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Raft

Fault block of allochthonous overburden that have separated to the extent that they no longer rest on their original footwall (the adjoining fault block) and lie entirely on a décollement layer, which typically consists of salt.

This line clearly illustrates the different between raft and pre-rafts. A salt weld and a thick depocenter
induced by a local complete salt evacuation, separates two pre-rafts from a raft. Another pre-raft is recognized seaward. The tectonic disharmony underlining the bottom of the salt is so obvious that, in Angola, the bottom of the salt was erroneously used to separate the stratigraphy into two major intervals: sub-salt strata and post salt strata.

Raft Tectonics
Extreme extension characterized by the opening of deep, synsedimentary grabens and separation of intervening overburden into rafts, which slide downslope on a décollement of thin salt, like a block-glide landslip.

Raft Tectonics was first recognized in Angola onshore by Petrangol's geologists and then by Total's who hypothesize gravity as the main driving mechanism ("Tectonique en Radeau", Burollet, P.F., 1975).

Reactivated Salt Dome
Term generally used to designate a salt dome developed from an allochthonous salt layer.

The stretching faults (probably with radial geometry), on the top of the reactivated diapir, affect the sea floor and so strongly suggest the reactivation still is going on. The sediments overlying the salt show a regional northward thickening, which seems to fit with the salt thickness. The upward reactivation of the salt lengthened the sediments obliging them to accommodate the volume conditions.

Deformation involves local upwelling of salt and sheet segmentation. .Reactivation Deformation of a salt sheet to act as a second-generation diapiric source layer by differential loading or burial below the level of neutral buoyancy. The deformation of the sediments overlying the allochthonous salt created two nice reactivated salt domes as the majority of the salt was evacuated creating a tertiary salt weld.

by inversion. (ii) a salt roller. Some call relic roller the last stage of salt evacuation from a salt roller. . which some call apparent reverse-fault. a normal listric fault in a normal fault with a reverse geometry.Relic Roller A continuous salt evacuation from the upthrown fault block (footwall) can completely or almost completely destroy a salt roller. The salt evacuation progressively creates (i) a faulted diapir. (iii) a relic roller and finally just a primary salt weld and an apparent reverse-fault. changes. The evacuation of the salt from the footwall. as illustrated above.

on the right. a primary salt weld took place after a completely salt evacuation. so a residual high still remains in the core of the structure. Turtle back structures can have a residual salt high or not as illustrated above. the salt evacuation was not total.Residual High An intermodal antiform with a core of salt that may be disconnected or not from the adjacent domes. . On the left. On the contrary.

Rim Syncline Synkinematic synform depocenter located around salt domes. . Rim synclines located around salt domes created very often turtle back structure (inversion) or apparent turtle back (without inversion) as illustrated.

Roho System
Salt induced growth faults looking seaward (Gulf of Mexico). During a progradational loading, allochthonous salt can evacuated in different ways and given two quite different endmembers. One with growth faults looking seaward, roho system, and another, with growth-faults looking landward, known as counter-regional system.

Schematic cross-section showing an allochthonous salt sheet and its ultimate evolution, following depositional loading and salt evacuation, into two end-member structural systems: (i) a stepped counter-regional system, consisting of a large growth fault looking landward, and (ii) a roho system, dominated by a major growth faults looking seaward soling into evacuated salt.

The partial evacuation of the allochthonous salt created successive depocenters, in the overlying sediments, which are limited by a series a growth-faults looking seaward. Such a fault system is call by geologist, particularly those working in the Gulf of Mexico, as a Roho system.

Roller Zone
Name given by some geologists to the zone where pre-raft structures, with associated rollers, are the predominant salt structures. Typically these zones form the up-dip zones of the divergent salt margins such as the West Africa, Brazil, West Yemen, etc.

Root
Base of a diapir stem.

Salt Anticline
A compressional bell-shaped structure with a core of salt. Salt anticline structures are created by a compressional tectonic regime, thereof they are not synonym of salt antiforms, which are created by extensional tectonic regimes.

As illustrated on this seismic line, it is quite obvious the salt and overburden have been shortened (compression still is going on) by a compressional tectonic regime that some associate with ridge pushing forces. The faults in the top of the antiforms are strike-slip and not normal faults. Time slices between 3.0 and 3.2 seconds, strongly suggest that such a faults elongate the anticline axis along the σ 2.

This interpretation takes into account the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. See: Downward Salt Bulge. such structures were 3-4 times thicker than the basin itself). During longtime. With such large salt structures explorationists give up the area due to absence of significant traps (in depth. These coalescence bodies may or may not be connected to their source layer. erroneously large diapiric structures (>30 km wide) were proposed. It is obvious that interpretations with salt canopy structures strongly change the petroleum potential.Salt Bulge A salt protuberance induced by lateral salt flowage. in this area. . Salt Canopy Composite diapiric structure formed by partial or complete coalescence of diapir bulbs or salt sheet. A salt bulge can became a diapir. at least the trapping parameter.

Salt Décollement Tectonic disharmony or detachment surface associated with a salt layer either autochthonous or allochthonous. . The overburden and sub-salt strata show quite different deformations. The primary salt weld recognized in the central part of the the line emphasizes the tectonic disharmony associated with the bottom of the salt layer. Salt roller are recognized on the bottom of pre-raft structures.

On this seismic line. the sub-salt strata are pulled-up. discordant). which may or may not be diapiric (i. The undulations of the sub-salt strata are apparent. the overburden is quite deformed. Synonym of diapir and salt diapir. . while the sub-salt strata is mainly undeformed. They are induced by lateral changes in the velocity of the overburden.Salt Dome Imprecise term for a domal up-welling comprising a salt core. they are separated by primary salt welds. The majority of the salt domes is disconnected of the mother source layer. and an envelope of deformed overburden. In fact. Indeed. at the vertical of each salt dome.e.

Salt Evacuation Surface (Diegel. a salt evacuation induces a lengthening of the the overburden. et al. . Salt expulsion basins may be the expression of spoke circular or may reflect merely random patterns of differential loading. Some intrasalt basins form up-dip of large salt tongues. a salt evacuation of a roller induces a lengthening of the footwall sediments creating an apparent reverse-fault (a normal fault with a reverse geometry).Salt Evacuation A total flowage or withdrawal of the salt layer. F. 1995) Synonym of Salt weld or Salt withdrawal surface. Salt Expulsion Basin Synkinematic basin subsiding into relatively thick allochthonous or autochthonous salt. which act as barriers to down-slope sedimentary transport. A. In absence of significant extensional tectonic regime. Thus.

On this line. it is obvious that the mini-basin above the allochthonous salt sheet. . can only be explained by a local evacuation of the salt. Salt Feeder See: Counter-regional system. Sub-salt strata and particularly two rift-type basins are recognized in the lower right corner. Salt Extrusion General term used to express outcropping salt structures (in surface or bottom of sea). The ramp (or counter-regional fault) along which the autochthonous salt migrated upward is recognized in the central part of the line. Salt extrusions can be due to erosion or piercement (with or without compression).

are quite well recognized on this line.Salt Flat A steeply inclined and gently inclined segments. Conversely. Salt flats cut up stratigraphic section in the direction of emplacement. at the bottom of the allochthonous salt sheet. respectively. Can be a synonym of salt ramp. Ramps form where the ration of aggradation to salt spreading is high. . of the stair-step basal contact of a salt tongue. flats form where this ratio is low. the salt flats. In spite of the stretched horizontal scale. They dip in a direction opposite to the spreading direction of a tongue during the stratigraphic time represented by strata truncated in the basal cutoff adjoining the salt ramp.

Salt Fold Synonym of Salt anticline. density inversion or gravity. The mapping of the faults on the top of the overburden structures shows that they are small strike-slip faults which elongate the axis of the anticline along the 2. The regional geological setting of this line strongly suggests these salt structures were created by a compressional tectonic regime.Salt Flowage Lateral or vertical displacement of a salt layer either by differential loading. .

On this seismic line. it can be considered as a salt laccolith. Taking into account the dimensions of the central salt body as well as the geometry of the upper and lower contacts. whereas its lower contact is commonly slightly discordant. In the upper stratigraphic levels.Salt Laccolith Intrusive salt sheet whose ratio of maximum width to maximum thickness is between 5 and 20. . Its upper part is typically concordant. a deep primary salt weld (around 6 seconds) underlines the evacuation of autochthonous salt. allochthonous salt is quite obvious.

the thickness variations (thin above the bulge and thick above the salt synforms) can only be explain by salt flowage. that is to say. that the geometry of the upper intervals of the overburden suggests a late shortening. . in the lower intervals of the overburden. it induces a compensatory subsidence. in spite of the fact. Indeed. the lateral flowage of the salt is the main responsible for the creation of space available for the sediments.Salt Lateral Flow Lateral displacement of the salt inducing a compensatory subsidence. A salt layer can be an autochthonous or allochthonous. Salt Layer Synonym of salt. As illustrated on this seismic line.

. instead of a buried layer actively upthrusting toward the surface through an overburden already in place. Actually. Since 1933. Barton argued that cores initially tabular salt layers remained passive but emergent near the sea floor while the top of the surrounding salt was buried ever deeper by clastic sediments. Barton introduced the concept of downbuilding to account for salt structures that pierce clastic sediments. See: Molding Models.Salt Molding Syndiapiric deposition of stiff overburden around salt diapir.

Indeed. . i. where the major marine source rocks is in the overburden. In offshore Brazil. as illustrated. Its maximum thickness is around 3 seconds. autochthonous salt overlies the potential source rocks. Contrariwise to West African salt basins. from where this line comes. the source salt layer.. the potential marine source rocks never reached maturation. here.Salt Source Layer Layer supplying salt for the growth of salt structures.e. the overburden is relatively thin. Synonym of mother salt.

shear zone. Seaward. It is quite obvious that the thickness of the salt is apparent and due to thrusting.Salt Nappe Salt tongue whose lower contact is a thrust fault. such a erroneously hypothesis has been systematically falsified. or zone of inverted strata. the salt is allochthonous and forms a salt nappe. It is interesting to notice that in depth. Some argued that the salt being thicker in the ultra deep offshore was the proof of an unique pristine salt basin that was later split in two. Recently. which has been reactivated and shortened probably by ridge push forces. the distal thrust fault corresponds to the seaward limit of a salt basin. .

Indeed. major oil fields have been found around the top of the antiform. recognized in 1968. Salt Pinchout Termination or end of the salt layer or when the salt narrows or thins progressively in a given direction until it disappears. The salt pillow is completely disconnected of the mother source layer. This antiform salt structure. as illustrated on the geological map of Gulf Coast. . became. The up-dip limit of a salt basin is always characterized by a graben structures in the overburden. well known of all explorationists working in West Africa offshores. on Seffel lines.Salt Pillow Sub-circular up-welling of salt with concordant overburden. recently. Notice the slight pull-up of the tectonic disharmony induced by the salt pillow. It is limited by two primary salt welds.

As illustrated above. one can say salt plugs are composed by a stem and a bulb.Salt Plug Synonym of Salt Stock. the salt stock is disconnected from the mother source layer. Salt Pod A small basin. in which the brine starts to deposit salt. On this line. Salt Ramp See: Feeder or Counter-regional system. Two primary salt welds separate the salt stock from the mother salt layer. in fact the agglutination of multitudinous salt pods. . It is often assumed that salt basins. as the South Atlantic salt basins are.

including smearing along décollement faults. . resulting in an obvious change in area of salt in cross section. (3) Isochoric flow within the plane of section but beyond the ends of the cross section. the evacuation of the salt created a primary salt weld and a local depocenters in the overburden. which generated three local but an obvious depocenters in the synkinematic intervals of the overburden. The salt reduction strongly increased the space available for the sediments (accommodation).e.Salt Reduction Mass transfer of salt over time. i. (2) Isochoric flow out of the plane of section. The light blue interval seems prekinematic. The lateral salt flowage or salt reduction. by: (1) Volume loss due to dissolution.

Salt Roller Low-amplitude. where salt rollers are quite obvious. and a shorter. . Salt rollers are an unequivocal sign of regional thin-skinned extension perpendicular to the strike of the salt rollers. asymmetric salt structure comprising two flanks: a longer. gently dipping flank in conformable stratigraphic contact with the overburden. Such an occurrence has important implications for the origin of the high quality calcareous reservoirs. which generally are assumed to be located in upper slope or platform. This line comes from the deepwater of Angola. more-steeply dipping flank in normal-faulted contact with the overburden. Salt rollers are characteristic of pre-raft domain.

which later will become a counter-regional fault. The feeder or the ramp. Notice n the top of the salt sheet several Roho faults. This salt sheet still is connected with the mother source layer. .Salt Sheet Allochthonous salt whose breadth is at least 5 times its maximum thickness. which is partially represent by primary salt welds. is well recognized.

whereas its lower contact is commonly slightly discordant. At the bottom of this salt sill (i) basal cutoffs. . It is typically intruded at depths of only a few hundred meters or less.Salt Sill Intrusive salt sheet whose ratio of maximum width to maximum thickness is >20. Its upper contact is typically concordant. these salt ramps should not be confused with the salt ramps synonym of feeders. (ii) salt flat and (iii) salt ramps are easily recognized. However.

They can be connected or disconnected of the mother source layer. Salt stocks are formed by a stem and a bulb.Salt Step See: Basement Step. Salt Stock Pluglike salt diapir with subcircular planform. . Synonym of salt plug.

The sutures between the different salt stocks to form a salt-stock canopy still are easy recognized on this time slice.5 second below sea floor. . which depth is less than 0.Salt Stock Canopy Salt Canopy formed by coalescence of Salt stocks.

Here. it is obvious that salt-stocks are coalescing to form a salt-stock canopy.Salt Suture Junction between individual salt structures that have coalesced lateral to form a canopy. . Allochthonous salt sheets or salt stocks can gathered to form large salt napes or salt-stock canopies.

i. However. However. However.Salt Swell Generally. . almost all salt structures can be explain just by halokinesis.e. at the scale of a basin. at the scale of the basin. as illustrated on this regional geological cross-section. extensional and compressional tectonic regimes are always present. Some geologists used the Salt Tectonics when an extensional tectonic regime is active. some geologists used this term when the salt structure is induced by a compressional tectonic regime rather than salt flowage. halokinesis plays a secondary if not a meaningless role. Locally. a synonym of Salt Pillow. or other evaporites. at a regional scale. and Halokinesis when salt deformation take place in absence of a significant tectonic stress. Salt Tectonics Any tectonic deformation involving salt. as a mobile layer.

Individual salt tongues are as large as 80 km long and 7 km thick.Salt Tongue Highly asymmetric variety of salt sheet or salt laccolith fed by a single stem. Salt tongues as the one illustrated on this seismic line are quite difficult to distinguish of salt laccoliths or salt sheets. Typically applied to wedgelike bodies with large taper angles and which do not resemble a salt sill. .

seismic interpreters can only recognize on seismic data what they known. .Salt Tongue Canopy Coalescence of salt tongues. Indeed. Salt-tongue canopies are quite difficult to recognize on seismic lines. However.. in seismic interpretation Theory precedes Observation.i.e. they can easily to be recognized on shallow time slices knowing the above geological model.

commonly forming sinuous. Salt Volume Loss Synonym of salt reduction. reefs are often found on dome crests.Salt Upwelling Salt upwelling is generally referred to small vertical salt flowage initiated at shallow depths. The minimum effective stress. and parallel to the shoreline. 3. salt can flow under quite small overburden thickness as suggested by onlaps. is perpendicular to the shoreline. On this map. Salt Wall Ellongated up-welling of diapiric (discordant) salt. the salt structures (in black) are mainly elongated. . parallel rows. Salt walls are easily recognised on time slices or on geological maps. particularly on the southern part. which corresponds roughly to the 2. On the other hand. Indeed. truncations and lateral thickness changes against dome flanks.

which allow easily differentiate salt wall canopies from salt napes.Salt Wall Canopy Coalescence of salt walls. As illustrated above. . salt walls can coalesced and form quite large salt wall canopies. time slices allow to recognize the sutures between the different salt walls or the suture synforms. with time. Often.

by withdrawal of the salt. The depocenter located above the salt weld can only be explained by compensatory subsidence. The weld can consist of brecciated. The weld is a negative salt structure resulting from the complete or nearly complete removal of intervening salt. .Salt Weld Surface or zone joining strata or originally separated by autochthonous or allochthonous Salt. On this line. that is to say. Another distinctive feature of welds is a structural inversion above them. The salt mother layer is recognized in both sides of the salt weld. insoluble residue containing halite pseudomorphs or of salt too thin to be resolved in reflection-seismic data. the salt weld is quite obvious. The weld is usually but not always marked by a structural discordance.

generally. The salt started to flow at quite shallow depth. Sometimes they correspond to salt upwellings. created by salt flowage. as illustrated on this line. .Salt Welt Synonym of salt antiform. what suggests that it is a synkinematic layer. The internal configuration of the lowermost interval of the overburden is divergent toward the synforms. Salt welts are not synonym of salt anticlines. They are extensional salt structures.

et al. A. The geometry. as well as the thickness changes are mainly induced by salt withdrawal. of the light green seismic interval (outcropping just above the salt structure) indicates that the salt diapir was reactivated not longtime ago. Examples are the migration of salt from the flanks of a salt pillow into its core as it evolves into diapir or the flow of salt along a salt wall into local culminations that evolve into salt stocks. and the internal configuration. . In a certain sense salt withdrawal can be considered a salt reduction. what creates a significant differential compensatory subsidence. Salt Withdrawal Mass transfer of salt over time without obvious change in salt area in cross-section. F.Salt Wing (Diegel. 1995) A smaller salt sheet (allochthonous salt) with a subhorizontal top and base and with a demonstrable base. The geometrical relationships between the overburden reflectors and the top of the salt.

1995) Synonym of Roho system.Salt Withdrawal Fault System (Diegel. F. 1995) Synonym of Salt weld. A. Salt Withdrawal Surface (Diegel. . A. et al. et al. F.

On this seismic. where the autochthonous and allochthonous salt layers are easily recognize. second order diapirs are individualized. .Second Generation Diapir Diapirs rising by reactivation of allocthonous Salt.

The center of the cell is the diapir in which the streamlines rise. whereas its lateral margins are defined by the outer limits of the sinking streamlines. Secondary peripheral sinks are often associated with tectonic inversions whether due to a reactivation of the diapir or late regional compression. which accumulates around a diapir withdrawing salt from its precursor pillow and contains strata that thicken toward the salt diapir. Secondary Peripheral Sink Peripheral sink. .Second-Order Cell Cell on the scale of a single diapir.

A primary and a tertiary salt welds are also easily recognized. Secondary salt welds have often a vertical geometry.Secondary Salt Weld Salt weld joining strata originally separated by steep-sided salt diapirs (salt walls or salt stocks). . or undated when late regional compressions take place.

In the Gulf Coast. the majority of the allochthonous salt structure have been inflated mainly due to differential loading.Sheet Inflation Vertical thickening of a laterally injected salt laccolith or sill. . as illustrated above.

Synonym of sheet spreading. unconsolidated. .Sheet Injection Process in which salt laccoliths and salt sills are emplaced as thin sheets between overburden strata a few hundred meters or less below the sediments. it is quite evident that the allochthonous salt structure was created by salt injection under relative thin sedimentary cover (thinner than presently). mud-rich. On this line. Injection is driven by gravity spreading through weak. less dense overburden under low confining pressures.

Sheet Segmentation Partitioning of a salt sheet into separated salt structures during reactivation by subsidence of intrasalt basins or by growth faulting. is the ramp or the feeder of the salt sheet. . Sheet Spreading Synonym of Sheet injection. The counter-regional faults. the original salt sheet is splitting up by a progressive westward development of salt expulsion basins. in the central part of the line. As illustrated on this seismic line.

but relatively easier on time slices at appropriated depth (see mushroom diapir) .Skirt Downward-facing synformal anticline fringing the bulb of a mushroom diapir and made up of deformed evaporites that envelop the stem of the diapir. Skirts are difficult to recognize on seismic lines.

the source layers are different. these Aptian salt basins were always individualized by subaerial and oceanic spreading center. as well as in onshore. Source layer is often taken as a synonym of mother source layer. and contrariwise to an erroneous hypothesis. . stratigraphically speaking. In Angola-Gabon and Brazil. In offshore Angola. still followed by some geologists.Source Layer Layer supplying salt for the growth of salt structures. Indeed. it was deposited above the Cretaceous basal sandstones (yellow. Binga and Pinda formations). Cuvo and Chela formation) of the divergent margin and below the Albian limestones (green. the salt source layer is the Aptian salt which.

and particularly diapirs can be squeezed by compressional tectonic regimes as illustrated on the seismic line below. Ridge push forces seem to be responsible of the shortening of the cover in deep water. . where salt diapirs have been squeezed and backthrusted. The geometrical relationships between the seismic reflectors (seismic surfaces) and the morphology of the seafloor strongly suggest that shortening still is going on..Squeezed Diapir Salt structure. as well as the mini-basins between them.

Indeed. two primary salt welds can be recognized around the diapir. which seems completely disconnected of the mother source layer.Stem Comparatively slender part of a salt diapir below the bulb. . the stem is relatively narrow. in circumference. in proportion to the height of the diapir. On this seismic line.

They are induced by local extension tectonic regimes. On seismic lines they have opposite vergences. Theoretically. the sum of throws with opposite vergence must be zero. Stretching faults are often used as a synonym of radial faults. in which 2 and 3 are equal. . As they elongate the sediments to accommodate them to new volume conditions. Stretching faults strike in all directions.Stretching Faults Normal faults associated with diapiric structures in order to extend the overlying sediments to respect the Goguel's law (volume problem).

the roof of the dome can be washed.Subrosion When a salt dome is not outcropping but covered by a relative thin and permeable sedimentary interval. . The depocenter above the salt dome can be explained as a consequence of a salt collapse following the subsurface erosion due to salt dissolution.

Sub-Salt Strata Sedimentary package underlying a salt layer or a salt weld. . The infrastructure of the sub-salt strata is the Precambrian basement. On this seismic line. sub-salt strata is composed by the basal Cretaceous sandstone of the margin (in yellow) and rift-type basin sediments (in brown).

The substratum may or may not give rise to up-welling structures. . Generally. a Paleozoic fold belt or a Precambrian basement. substratum refers to the ductile layer below a brittle overburden and above the sub-salt strata or basement. In salt tectonics.Substratum An underlying layer.in which the infra-salt margin sediments are under seismic resolution. which overly either a rift-type basin sediments. On this particular example . the substratum is formed by infra-salt margin sediments. in a continental divergent margin. the substratum of the salt is a Precambrian basement. Substratum is a term more general than source layer.

Synkinematic Layer Strata interval. typically overlying the prekinematic layer. The light green and blue intervals are prekinematic. . showing local stratigraphic thickening (above structures such as withdrawal basins that subside faster tan their surroundings) or thinning (above relatively rising structures). Changes in thickness can also be recorded by onlap or truncation at all levels of the synkinematic layer. as those illustrated above. The synkinematic layers. They record sedimentation during salt flow or during any other type of deformation. which are roughly isopach. thickening toward the growth-faults.

More commonly. its base remains at constant depth below the sedimentary surface. Synonym of intrusive diapirism. diapirs grow by a combination of ideal end members of active and passive piercement. This is probably in relatively tall diapirs overlain by relatively thin overburden. it can be considered as prekinematic. Therefore. (yellow and light yellow) have divergent internal configurations. A.1991) A post-depositional diapiric growth (in the most extreme or ideal form) through prekinematic overburden. P. M. . anterior to salt flowage. On the contrary.. C. and its crest rises toward the sedimentary surface. As a diapir increases in relief by growing upward. and Talbot. unless the overburden is being: (i) extended. They are synkinematic. (ii) fluid or (iii) unusually weak. because sediments accumulate while piercement involves forceful intrusion.J. The lower part of the overburden (dark brown package) is roughly isopach. The salt structure had an active piercement during the lower isopach interval and a passive piercement during the upper overburden intervals.Active Piercement (Jackson. the upper intervals. that is to say.

the seaward and upward flowage of allochthonous salt are responsible for sea bottom morphology. in the deep offshore. The Angola escarpment. etc. accumulation or addition upon a preexisting nucleus. as well as the Sigsbee escarpment. are accretionary wedges of allochthonous salt napes.Accretionary Wedge A secondary sedimentary structure produced by overgrowth. such salt sheet. in Gulf of Mexico. the sediments are undisturbed strongly contrasting with the folded geometry of the sediments lying above the salt nappe. illustrated above. Seaward of the Angola escarpment. Indeed. Accretionary wedges are always found in association with salt flowage in allochthonous structures. salt lacolith. .

Autochthonous salt is in its original stratigraphic position while allochthonous salt is not. both salt layers communicate by a vertical salt structure.Allochthonous Salt Salt layer overlying part of its overburden. a sheet like salt body tectonically emplaced at stratigraphic levels overlying the autochthonous salt layer. On this line from deepwater of the Gulf of Mexico. . it is easy to see the difference between allochthonous and autochthonous salt. It lies within stratigraphically younger strata. In this particular line.

the salt flowed upward forcing the overburden to lengthen. which took place longtime after the salt deposition. Later.Antiform (salt) Elongated up-welling of salt with concordant overburden. Anticline is a genetic term to describe a compressional structure. Salt antiform is often erroneously taken as synonym of salt anticline. Under such a regime. All anticlines are antiforms. . the cover (overburden + salt) was slightly shortened by a compressional tectonic regime. but not all antiforms are anticlines. They were developed under an extensional tectonic regime characterized by a vertical maximum effective stress. are extensional. Antiform is a non-genetic term to describe a bell-shaped geometry. with a bell-shaped geometry. These salt structures.

Apparent Diapirism (Arbenz. Prekinematic sediments show significant deformation.. arrives on surface. it growths as sedimentation progresses. When a salt diapir. . if it is connected with the mother layer. that Arbenz called apparent diapirism. Geometrically. J. connected with the mother source rock. apparent diapirism does not deform the synchronous sediments (synkinematic). which is the case in this model. When a diapir arrives on surface. the salt growths upward as sedimentation takes place giving a false impression of diapirism. 1968) Apparent upward movement. K.

characterized by a progradational geometry. Such a deformation can be due whether to differential compaction or a late reactivation of the salt. The salt seems to have arrived at surface (bottom of the sea) at the end of Upper Jurassic. . the upward movement of the Triassic salt (deposited in a rift-type basin) suggests an apparent diapirism during the Cretaceous (bleu intervals). The enhancement of the unconformity (interface yellow-bleu) is due to the salt movement and to the emplacement of a volcanic intrusion. show a slightly deformation at the bottom of the orange interval. The Tertiary sediments. As the Cretaceous sediments are not disturbed by apparent diapirism.On this line of the North Atlantic Continental Margin (Offshore New Jersey). it is logical to hypothesize they are synchronous with salt movement. This period is emphasized by a local enhanced unconformity (bottom of the bleu interval).

4. 4.2.Fault Propagation Fault propagation fold (fig. . 100).Fault-bend Fold Fault-Bend fold (fig. kink method. particularly of a seismic line. the faults of the upthrown block die on a detachment plane. Fig. kink method. 99).2.9. 100.8. 99.In this model. Fig. When an interpretation of this kind is proposed.This model. require to be strongly critised when proposed in a geological interpretation. quite similar to the previous one. geologist must be sure than volume problems are respected.

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