Karate ( )

Hanashiro Ch mo

Olympic sport Not voted in 2005 (for 2012) or in 2009 (for 2016)

? Karate ( ) (Japanese pronunciation: [ka ate] ( listen), English: /k r ti /) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Islands in what is now Okinawa, Japan. It was developed from indigenous fighting methods called te ( ?, literally "hand"; Tii in Okinawan) and Chinese kenp .[1][2] Karate is a striking art using punching, kicking, knee and elbow strikes, and openhanded techniques such as knife-hands (karate chop). Grappling, locks, restraints, throws, and

2 Kata o 2.[5] the name was changed from ("Chinese hand") to ("empty hand") ± both of which are pronounced karate ± to indicate that the Japanese wished to develop the combat form in Japanese style.[7] The martial arts movies of the 1960s and 1970s served to greatly increase its popularity and the word karate began to be used in a generic way to refer to all striking-based Oriental martial arts.depict karate as a mysterious way of fighting capable of causing death or injury with a single blow. major Japanese universities had karate clubs.4 Dojo Kun o 2.[12] Contents [hide] y y 1 History o 1.. in the 117th IOC (International Olympic Committee) voting.. In 1924 Keio University established the first university karate club in Japan and by 1932.[6] After the Second World War.5 Conditioning ¡   3 A t titi i ll karateka .Movies and television. karate is a deeply philosophical practice. In 1922 the Japanese Ministry of Education invited Gichin Funakoshi to Tokyo to give a karate demonstration.. Karat was devel ed i t e R It was brought to the Japanese mainland in the early 20th century during a time of cultural exchanges between the Japanese and the Ryukyuans. t ti t l Ki dom prior to its 19t cent ry annexation by Japan. for self-defense and as a sport. Karate-do teaches ethical principles and can have spiritual significance to its adherents. hard training and one's own creative efforts.1 Kihon o 2.[4] In this era of escalating Japanese militarism.2 Japan 2 Practice o 2. karate did not receive the necessary two thirds majority vote to become an Olympic sport.[11] Web Japan (sponsored by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs) claims there are 50 million karate practitioners worldwide..the mass media present a pseudo art far from the real thing.vit l i t ti ? ). catering to those with casual interest as well as those seeking a deeper study of the art.3 Kumite o 2..1 Okinawa o 1.[8] Karate schools began appearing across the world. In 2005. Shigeru Egami." [10] For many practitioners. Chief Instructor of Shotokan Dojo. for cultural reasons. Okinawa became an important United States military site and karate became popular among servicemen stationed there.."[9] Shoshin Nagamine said "Karate may be considered as the conflict within oneself or as a life-long marathon which can be won only through self-discipline. Gichin Funakoshi ("Father of Modern Karate") titled his autobiography Karate-Do: My Way of Life in recognition of the transforming nature of karate study. opined "that the majority of followers of karate in overseas countries pursue karate only for its fighting techni ues. Today karate is practiced for self-perfection.

[15] Further . One surviving example is the Motobu-ry school passed down from the Motobu family by Seikichi Uehara. and Gangrou-quan (Hard Soft Fist. Traditional karate kata bear a strong resemblance to the forms found in Fujian martial arts such as Fujian White Crane.5 United States o 5. some forms of Chinese martial arts were introduced to the Ryukyu Islands by the visitors from China. are also factors that furthered the development of unarmed combat techni ues in Okinawa.[13] Early styles of karate are often generalized as Shuri-te. pronounced "G j ken" in Japanese).' enforced in Okinawa after the invasion of the Shimazu clan in 1609. particularly Fujian Province. named after the three cities from which they emerged. techni ues.3 Soviet Union o 5.[14] Each area and its teachers had particular kata. and principles that distinguished their local version of te from the others. but rather many practitioners with their own methods. The political centralization of Okinawa by King Sh Hashi in 1429 and the 'Policy of Banning Weapons.7 Rank 2. including the Chinese martial arts.1 Canada o 5.[2] There were few formal styles of te.4 United Kingdom o 5. and Tomari-te. Five Ancestors. where they established the community of Kumemura and shared their knowledge of a wide variety of Chinese arts and sciences.y y y y y y y y 2.8 Dishonest practice 3 Philosophy 4 Etymology 5 Karate and its influence outside Japan o 5. Members of the Okinawan upper classes were sent to China regularly to study various political and practical disciplines.6 France 6 Film and popular culture 7 Karate in mixed martial arts 8 See also 9 References 10 External links o o o [edit] History [edit] Okinawa See also: Okinawan martial arts Karate began as a common fighting system known as te (Okinawan: ti) among the Pechin class of the Ryukyuans. A large group of Chinese families moved to Okinawa around 1392 for the purpose of cultural exchange.2 Korea o 5. Naha-te.6 Sport 2. The incorporation of empty-handed Chinese Kung Fu into Okinawan martial arts occurred partly because of these exchanges and partly because of growing legal restrictions on the use of weaponry. After trade relationships were established with the Ming dynasty of China by King Satto of Ch zan in 1372.

In 1806 he started teaching a fighting art in the city of Shuri that he called "Tudi Sakukawa. Java. In addition to the three early te styles of karate a fourth Okinawan influence is that of Kanbun Uechi (1877±1948). Ch jun Miyagi taught such well-known karateka as Seko Higa (who also trained with Higaonna). to escape ¦¦ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ . including Gichin Funakoshi. Ch jun Miyagi." This was the first known recorded reference to the art of "Tudi. Miyazato Ei'ichi. These are kusa ku and chia g a [citatio eeded]. Sakukawa Kanga (1782±18 8) had studied pugilism and staff (bo) fighting in China (according to one legend. ¤ ££ ¢ Ank Itosu Grandfather of Modern Karate Matsumura taught his art to Itosu nk (18 1±1915) among others. t the age of 20 he went to Fuzhou in Fujian Province. His students became some of the most well known karate masters.influence came from Southeast sia² particularly Sumatra. and nunchaku may have originated in and around Southeast sia. Itosu is sometimes referred to as "the Grandfather of Modern Karate. China. Itosu's influence inkarate is broad. Many Okinawan weapons such as the sai. These forms were taught to children at the elementary school level." written as . and for a very brief time near the end of his life. Meitoku Yagi. and Seikichi Toguchi. originator ofkusa ku kata). and Melaka[cit tio eeded]. Matsumura's style would later become the Sh rin-ry style. tonfa. One of his students was the founder of Goj -ry . Itosu adapted two forms he had learned from Matsumara. under the guidance of Kosokun."[16] In 1881 Higaonna Kanry returned from China after years of instruction with Ryu Ryu Ko and founded what would become Naha-te. In 1901 Itosu helped to get karate introduced into Okinawa's public schools. Kenwa Mabuni. round the 1820s Sakukawa's most significant student Matsumura S kon (1809±1899) taught a synthesis of te (Shuri-te and Tomari-te) and Shaolin (Chinese ) styles. He created the pi g'a forms ("heia " or "pi a " in Japanese) which are simplified kata for beginning students. and Motobu Ch ki. n'ichi Miyagi (a teacher claimed by Morio Higaonna). The forms he created are common across nearly all styles of karate." which meant "Sakukawa of China Hand.

Japan was invading China at the time." suffix implies that karated is a path to self knowledge.Japanese military conscription. Ch jun Miyagi. and Shinken Taira (from left to right) Gichin Funakoshi. and Funakoshi knew that the art of Tang/China hand would not be accepted. is generally credited with having introduced and popularized karate on the main islands of Japan. and Sanseiryu kata that he had studied in China. . This was a turbulent period in the history of the region. karate made its transition fromjutsu to -d around the beginning of the 20th century. (May 2010) See also: Japa ese martial arts § Masters of karate in Tokyo (c. While there he studied under Shushiwa.Motobu Ch ki. Gichin Funakoshi. and the rise of Japanese militarism (1905±1945). the Russo-Japanese War (1904±1905). Like most martial arts practiced in Japan.[17] He later developed his own style of Uechi-ry karate based on the Sanchin. Kenwa Mabuni. 19 0s) Kanken Toyama. founder of Shotokan karate. Seisan. kendo from kenjutsu and iaido from iaijutsu. as aikido is distinguished from aikijutsu. Kanken T yama. the annexation of Korea. It includes Japan's annexation of the Okinawan island group in 1872. thus the change of the art's name to "way of the empty han The d d. Funakoshi was a student of both sato nk and Itosu nk (who had worked to introduce karate to the Okinawa Prefectural School System in 1902). In addition many Okinawans were actively teaching. judo from jujutsu. The "d " in "karate-d " sets it apart from karate-jutsu. and Kanbun Uechi. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Genwa Nakasone. not just a study of the technical aspects of fighting. Takeshi Shimoda. During this time period. the First Sino-Japanese War (1894±1895).[18] [edit] Japan This section needs additional citations for verification. Motobu Ch ki. Hironori Ohtsuka. and are thus also responsible for the development of karate on the main islands. He was a leading figure of Chinese Nanpa Shorin-ken at that time.prominent teachers who also influenced the spread of karate in Japan included Kenwa Mabuni.

the founder of judo and one of the men Funakoshi consulted in his efforts to modernize karate. He always referred to what he taught as simply karate. and agreed to teach him. Ohtsuka set up a medical practice dealing with martial arts injuries. the three aiha chi forms became known as tekki. and an assistant instructor in Funakoshi's dojo. incorporating some ideas about distancing and timing into his style. Chi t as ga kaku. impressed by Ohtsuka's enthusiasm and determination to understand karate. In the following years. These were mostly political changes. Both of these innovations were originated and popularized by Jigoro Kano. doing so to get karate accepted by the Japanesebud organization Dai Nippon Butoku Kai. Hironori Ohtsuka attended the Tokyo Sports Festival. Ohtsuka was so impressed with this that he visited Funakoshi many times during his stay. but in 19 6 he built a dojo in Tokyo and the style he left behind is usually calledShotokan after this dojo. The modernization and systemization of karate in Japan also included the adoption of the white uniform that consisted of the kimono and the dogi or keikogi²mostly called just karategi²and colored belt ranks. Shorin ry and Sh rei-ry . Funakoshi was. In 1922. in turn. His prowess in martial arts led him to become the Chief Instructor of Shind Y shin-ry jujutsu at the age of 0. In Japan he was influenced by kendo. ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ . rather than changes to the content of the forms. although Funakoshi did introduce some such changes. Funakoshi also gave Japanese names to many of the kata. wa shu as empi. The fivepi a forms became known as heia .Gichin Funakoshi Founder of Shotokan Karate Funakoshi changed the names of many kata and thename of the art itself (at least on mainland Japan). Funakoshi had trained in two of the popular branches of Okinawan karate of the time. seisa as ha getsu. where he saw Funakoshi's karate. and so on.

physical toughness. Kyokushinkai. or free fighting. They were so impressed with his style and commitment that they acknowledged him as a high-ranking instructor. and full contact sparring. Because of its emphasis on physical. G j -ry . Ohtsuka registered the name Wad -ry . which concentrates on defence and attack. [20] y y y y y y y y Sh t kan-ry . Ohtsuka thought that the full spirit of bud . The World Union of Karate-do Federations (WUKF) recognizes these styles of karate in its kata list. more combative styles such as judo. Wad -ry . Uechi-ry . in karate. Bud kan. Ohtsuka was registered as a member of the Japan Martial Arts Federation. Ohtsuka's personalized style of Karate was officially registered in 1938 after he was awarded the rank of Renshi-go. Many schools would be affiliated with. A new form of karate called Kyokushin was formally founded in 1957 by Masutatsu Oyama (who was born a Korean. G j -ry . The next year the Japan Martial Arts Federation asked all the different styles to register their names. Shit -ry . Shit -ry . It teaches a curriculum that emphasizes aliveness. Okinawan karate at this time was only concerned with kata. He blended the practical and useful elements of Okinawan karate with traditional Japanese martial arts techniques from jujitsu and kendo. and that kata techniques did not work in realistic fighting situations. Kyokushin is now often called "full contact karate". and he decided to leave Funakoshi to concentrate on developing his own style of karate: Wad -ry . He presented a demonstration of Wad -ry karate for the Japan Martial Arts Federation. He experimented with other. In 1944. Kyokushin is largely a synthesis of Shotokan and G j -ry .By 1929. kendo. Wad ry karate was officially recognized as an independent style of karate. Ohtsuka was appointed Japan's Chief Karate Instructor. Wad -ry . full-force sparring. In 1934. or heavily influenced by. Choi Yeong-Eui ). or "Knockdown karate" (after the name for its competition rules). This recognition meant a departure for Ohtsuka from his medical practice and the fulfilment of a life's ambition²to become a full-time martial artist. was missing. and aikido. The World Karate Federation recognizes these styles of karate in its kata list [19] y y y y Sh t kan-ry . one or more of these styles. Many other karate organizations and styles are descended from the Kyokushin curriculum. Sh rin-ry . which led to the birth of kumite. . Ohtsuka thought that there was a need for this more dynamic type of karate to be taught.

.[edit] Practice See also: Oki awa kobud a d Japa ese martial arts#Philosophical a d strategic co cepts Karate can be practiced as an art (bud ).  © © © © ©  © [edit] Kihon Mai article: Kiho   Karate styles place varying importance on kihon. and leadership skills. as a combat sport. kata (forms). [edit] Kata Motobu Ch ki in Naihanchi-dachi. Karate training is commonly divided into kiho (basics or fundamentals). Weapons (kobud ) is important training activity in some styles. Typically this is performance in unison of a technique or a combination of techniques by a group of karateka. or as self defense [21] training. Kihon may also be prearranged drills in smaller groups or in pairs. These postures are based on idealized combat applications. fearlessness. one of the basic karate stances Mai article: Karate kata Kata ( : ) means literally "shape" or "model. as a sport. virtue. Traditional karate places emphasis on self development (bud ). Sport karate places emphasis on exercise and competition. Modern Japanese style training emphasizes the psychological elements incorporated into a properkokoro (attitude) such as perseverance." Kata is a formalized sequence of movements which represent various offensive and defensive postures. and kumite (sparring).

Sparring in armour (bogu kumite) allows full power techniques with some safety. To attain a formal rank the karateka must demonstrate competent performance of specific required kata for that level. In Kickboxing variants ( for example K-1). Because the applicability for actual selfdefense is so flexible there is no definitively correct way to interpret all kata. The bout runs for a fixed time (2 to 3 minutes. In structured kumite (Yakusoku . Levels of physical contact during sparring vary considerably. Kata vary in number of movements and difficulty." Kumite is practiced both as a sport and as self-defense training. Kata are taught with minor variations among schools of the same style. vigorous application. the preferred win is by knockout. rank and sex of the participants. The allowed techniques and contact level are primarily determined by sport or style organization policy. but might be modified according to the age. Vigorous arm movements enhance cardiovascular fitness and upper body strength. The various moves have multiple interpretations and applications. points are based on the results of the impact.prearranged). It literally means "meeting of hands. the two participants have a free choice of scoring techniques. [edit] Kumite Main article: Kumite Sparring in Karate is called kumite ( : ). In light contact or semi contact kumite. That is why only high ranking practitioners are qualified to judge adequate form for their own style. Even the same instructor will teach a particular kata slightly differently as the years pass. Sport kumite in many international competition under the World Karate Federation is free or structured with light contact or semi contact and points are awarded by a referee. Knockdown karate (such as Kyokushin) uses full power techniques to bring an opponent to the ground. Kata with the same name are often performed differently in other styles of karate. This practice develops leg strength. two participants perform a choreographed series of techniques with one striking while the other blocks. correct beginning and especially ending. correct posture. take-downs. Physical routines were a logical way to preserve this type of knowledge. Depending upon style. correct speed and power. awareness/zanshin. sporting attitude. points are awarded based on the criteria: good form. In full contact karate kumite. and knowledge of application. The Japanese terminology for grades or ranks is commonly used. Requirements for examinations vary among schools. The longer kata require the karateka to learn many complex movements. Some of the criteria for judging the quality of a performance are: Absence of missteps. In free sparring (Jiyu Kumite). and gracefulness. rather than the formal appearance of the scoring technique. Full contact karate has several variants. good timing and correct distance. sweeps and in some rare cases even timelimited grappling on the ground are also allowed. The form ends with one devastating technique (Hito Tsuki). .Some kata use low and wide stances.) The time can run continuously (Iri Kume) or be stopped for referee judgment. confidence. Diligent training and correct mindfulness lead to real understanding of combat principles. Free sparring is performed in a marked or closed area. crispness and smoothness.

gender. The nigiri game is a large jar used for developing grip strength. some karateka were ousted from their dojo because they adopted sparring after having learned it in Tokyo."[24] In pre-World War II Okinawa. NWUKO. These supplementary exercises are designed to increase strength. WKF only allows membership through one national organization/federation per country to which clubs may join.[22] Sport Karate emphasises aerobic exercise. Sparring matches are typically divided by weight. but not the two-thirds majority needed to become an official Olympic sport. kumite was not part of karate training. usually with assistant referees at the side of the sparring area. anaerobic exercise. This utilizes simple equipment made of wood and stone. These organizations sometimes cooperate in nonstyle specific sport karate organizations or federations. [edit] Conditioning Okinawan karate uses supplementary training known as hojo undo. whereas sparring is judged by a head referee. rank and sex with potentially different rules or standards based on these factors. The national WKF organizations coordinate with their respective National Olympic Committees. The World Union of Karate-do Federations (WUKF)[28] offers different .[25] Shigeru Egami relates that. and experience. Karate does not have 2012 Olympic status. AOK. WKF. in 1940. "There are no contests in karate. The tournament may be exclusively for members of a particular style (closed) or one in which any martial artist from any style may participate within the rules of the tournament (open). The World Karate Federation (WKF) is the largest sport karate organization and is recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as being responsible for karate competition in the Olympic games. flexibility. Tournaments are designed to match members of opposing schools or styles against one another in kata. and muscle coordination. age. WUKF and WKC. speed. The WKF has developed common rules governing all styles. TKL. In the 117th IOC Session (July 2005). Examples of sport organizations are AAKF/ITKF. power. agility. [27] Organizations hold competitions (tournaments) from local to international level. and stress management.[26] Karate is divided into style organizations. WKF karate competition has two disciplines: sparring (kumite) and forms (kata) Competitors may enter either as individuals or as part of a team. karate received more than half of the votes. [edit] Sport Gichin Funakoshi ( å ) said.[23] All practices vary depending upon the school and the teacher.[edit] Dojo Kun Main article: Dojo kun In the bushid tradition dojo kun is a set of guidelines for karateka to follow. sparring and weapons demonstration. These guidelines apply both in the dojo (training hall) and in everyday life. AKA. The makiwara is a striking post. Evaluation for kata and kobud is performed by a panel of judges. stamina. They are often separated by age.

Seidokaikan and other organizations. Yudansha typically wear a black belt.g. The Dan progression continues from 1st Dan (Shodan. rules may be under the jurisdiction of state sports authorities. WUKO and WKC. This will vary by school. Bogu kumite (full contact with protective padding) rules are used in the ll Japan Koshiki Karate-Do Federation organization.[29] Shinkaratedo Federation use boxing gloves. Ky ranks stress stance. such as the boxing commission. without having to compromise their style or size. or 'beginning dan') to the higher dan grades. Requirements of rank differ among styles..styles and federations a world body they may join. Testing consists of demonstration of techniques before a panel of examiners. founder of Shotokan Karate. Full contact karate rules used by Kyokushinkai. but testing .   young student graduates up a rank in belt in front of his dojo. Light contact rules are used by the WKF. Dan-grade karateka are referred to as yuda sha (holders of dan/rank). Sport organizations use different competition rule systems. Ky -grade karateka are referred to as "color belt" or mudan ("ones without sha dan/rank"). 10th Ky or Juky ) and progress toward a lower numbered ky . Speed and power are added at higher grades. Other Okinawan teachers also adopted this practice. The WUKF accepts more than one federation or association per country.  Karatekas wearing different coloured belts [edit] Rank See also: Ky In 1924 Gichin Funakoshi. balance. In the Ky /Dan system the beginner grades start with a higher numbered ky (e. and coordination. Minimum age and time in rank are factors affecting promotion. adopted theDan system from judo founder Jigoro Kano[ 1] using a rank scheme with a limited set of belt colors. and schools.[ 0] Within the United States. organizations.

" He taught that indecisiveness is a weakness. During the time when admiration for China and things Chinese was at its height in the Ry ky s it was the custom to use the former character when referring to things of fine quality. He promoted the character trait of personal conviction. He stated that Karate practitioners must "never be easily drawn into a fight." Only by behaving humbly can one be open to Karate's many lessons.may include everything learned at that point. The original use of the word "karate" in print is attributed to Ank Itosu. He said that "Karate is properly applied only in those rare situations in which one really must either down another or be downed by him. approximately over the last 40 years. tameshiwari (breaking). Commonly referred to as a "McDojo"[32] or a "Black Belt Mill. he wrote it as " ". Sino±Japanese . In "time of grave public crisis. in such words as " " meaning Chinatown. It was later changed to a homophone meaning empty hand ( ). ²Gishin Funakoshi[34] The first documented use of a homophone of the logogram pronounced kara by replacing the Chinese character meaning "Tang Dynasty" with the character meaning "empty" took place in Karate Kumite written in August 1905 by Ch mo Hanashiro (1869±1945). in recent times karate has begun to be written with the character to give it a sense of class or elegance. For only with a clear mind and conscience can the practitioner understand the knowledge which he receives.. one must have the courage. [edit] Dishonest practice Due to the popularity of martial arts.to face a million and one opponents. This is done by listening and being receptive to criticism." these schools are commonly headed by martial artists of either dubious skill or business ethics. both in mass media and reality. [edit] Philosophy Gichin Funakoshi interpreted the "kara" of Karate-d to mean "to purge oneself of selfish and evil thoughts. or just new information. bunkai. The demonstration is an application for new rank (shinsa) and may include kata. [33] [edit] Etymology Karate was originally written as "Chinese hand" ( literally "Tang dynasty hand") in kanji. self-defense. and/or kumite (sparring). Black belt testing may also include a written examination." Funakoshi believed that one should be "inwardly humble and outwardly gentle. but the kanji representing it remains in use in Japanese language referring to China generally. The Tang Dynasty of China ended in AD 907." Funakoshi did not consider it unusual for a devotee to use Karate in a real physical confrontation no more than perhaps once in a lifetime. Influenced by this practice. or misguided teachers and schools have arisen. He considered courtesy of prime importance." It is understood that one blow from a real expert could mean death.. fraudulent. a large number of disreputable." Since there are no written records it is not known definitely whether the kara in karate was originally written with the character meaning China or the character meaning empty. It is clear that those who misuse what they have learned bring dishonor upon themselves. Thus the word "karate" was originally a way of expressing "martial art from China. routines.

began to study Shorin-Ryu karate in the Japanese camp under Kitigawa. "karate" was written as " " (Chinese hand). Shintani travelled to Japan and met Hironori Otsuka (Wado Ryu). It implies that these arts are not just fighting systems but contain spiritual elements when promoted as disciplines. Shintani died May 7. kyudo. and in 1969 he asked Shintani to officially call his style Wado.[35] In 1933. It is "The Way Of The Empty Hand". In 1956 after 9 years of training with Kitigawa. In 1966 he began (with Otsuka's endorsement) the Shintani Wado Kai Karate Federation. Otsuka publicly promoted Shintani to hachidan (8th dan) and privately gave him a kudan certificate (9th dan). judo. the masters of the various styles of Okinawan karate conferred to decide a new name for their art. 2000. Shintani and Otsuka visited each other in Japan and Canada several times. the Okinawan art of karate was recognized as a Japanese martial art by the Japanese Martial Arts Committee known as the "Butoku Kai". route. Another nominal development is the addition of d ( : D is a suffix having numerous meanings including road. the last time in 1980 two years prior to Otsuka's death. They decided to call their art "karate" written in Japanese characters as " " (empty hand). Thus karated is more than just empty hand techniques. Masaru Shintani. Until 1935. the influence of karate in Korea is a contentious issue. In 1979.[36] In Canada during this same time.[37] In 1954 Tsuruoka initiated the first karate competition in Canada and laid the foundation for the National Karate Association. From 1910 until .[37] In the late 1950s Shintani moved to Ontario and began teaching karate and judo at the Japanese Cultural Centre in Hamilton.relations have never been very good. referring to the Chinese origins of karate was considered politically incorrect. at the age of 13. Karate was practised quietly without a large amount of organization. and especially at the time of the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. In 1958 Otsuka invited Shintani to join his organization Wado Kai. which was revealed by Shintani in 1995. During the 1970s Otsuka appointed Shintani the Supreme Instructor of Wado Kai in North America. many Japanese-Canadian families were moved to the interior of British Columbia. Examples include aikido. It is used in many martial arts that survived Japan's transition from feudal culture to modern times. and way. [edit] Karate and its influence outside Japan [edit] Canada Karate began in Canada in the 1930s and 1940s as Japanese people immigrated to the country.[36] [edit] Korea See also: Korea under Japanese rule Due to past conflict between Korea and Japan. But in 1935. path. In this context d is usually translated as "the way of ___".[14] ) to the end of the word karate. During the Second World War. and kendo. most notably during the Japanese occupation in the 20th century. karate was also introduced by Masami Tsuruoka who had studied in Japan in the 1940s under Tsuyoshi Chitose.

during Khruschev's policy of improved international relations. a new association split off from KUGB. In 1966. Eventually orginal Korean forms (poomse. many Korean martial arts schools were founded by masters with training in Chinese. karate practice became legal again. Kanazawa left the UK after 3 years and Enoeda took over. only after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1992 did independent karate schools resume functioning. however. who studied Korean Karate under these early masters and worked toward unifying a Korean national martial art. The aim of this group was to follow the teachings of Taiji Kase.hyung) were developed by individual schools and associations. Although WTF(Olympic) and ITF forms are prevalant throughout the taekwondo world. there are still many "traditional" taekwondo and tang soo do schools where japanese kihon and kata are regularly practiced as they were originally conveyed to Won Kuk Lee and his contemporaries from Master Funakoshi. in 1989 in order to pursue the teaching of ³Budo´ karate as opposed to what he viewed as ³sport karate´. JKA England. formerly the JKA chief instructor in Europe. Keinosuke Enoeda came to England at the same time as Kanazawa. but under strict government regulations. [edit] Soviet Union Karate appeared in the Soviet Union in the mid-1960s. The first Shotokan clubs were opened in Moscow's universities. and Korean martial arts. Japanese. reintroducing amongst other things open hand and throwing techniques that had been side lined as the result of competition rules introduced by the JKA. These martial arts were initailly called Tang Soo Do and eventually renamed Taekwondo by Choi Hong Hi with a committee of Korean masters. several Japanese karate masters began to teach the art in the United Kingdom. After Enoeda¶s death in 2003. members of the former British Karate Federation established the Karate Union of Great Britain (KUGB) under Hirokazu Kanazawa as chief instructor[41] and affiliated to JKA.[39] On 17 May 1984. Both the ESA and the . the government banned karate²together with all other foreign martial arts² endorsing only the Soviet martial art of sambo. Failing to suppress these uncontrolled groups. An earlier significant split from the KUGB took place in 1991 when a group lead by KUGB senior instructor Steve Cattle formed the English Shotokan Academy [2](ESA).1939. Choi was a significant figure in taekwondo history. In 1965. Shortly after this. Tatsuo Suzuki began teaching Wad -ry in London. many Koreans migrated to Japan[38] and were exposed to Japanese martial arts. After regaining independence from Japan. the KUGB elected Andy Sherry as Chief Instructor. Kase sought to return the practice of Shotokan Karate to its martial roots. In 1989.[40] [edit] United Kingdom In the 1950s and 1960s. who along with Hiroshi Shirai created the World Shotokan Karate-do Academy (WKSA). a Korean student of Funakoshi founded the first Korean Karate school in 1944-5 called Chung Do Kwan. the Soviet Karate Federation was disbanded and all karate became illegal again. Similar "Kwan" schools cropped up in the late 1940s. and so federations were formed and national tournaments in authentic styles began.[39] In 1973. Won Kuk Lee. teaching at a dojo in Liverpool. The early forms (Kata) followed the choreography of the Japanese Kata. the USSR's Sport Committee formed the Karate Federation of USSR in December 1978. Karate also provided an important comparative model for the early founders of taekwondo in the formalization of their art including kata and the belt rank system.

Mike Foster (Chitoryu/Yoshukai) and J. Pat Burleson all began teaching martial arts around the country. In the 1950s. The organization was renamed Shotokan Karate of America in 1969. Sea Oh Choi (Hapkido). relocated the International Karate Association from Tokyo to California. and became captain of the university's karate club in 1952. the highest rank awarded by Funakoshi. as additional Shotokan dojos opened. Jay Trombley (G j -ry ). [edit] France . John Pachivas. In 1952. Anthony Mirakian (G j -ry ). Kokondo synthesized techniques and kata from Arel's previous experience in Isshin Ryu. and Kokondo) and Peter Urban (G j -kai) all began instructing in the US. Ohshima formalized the judging system used in modern karate tournaments. Allen Steen. In 1959 he founded the Southern California Karate Association (SCKA). Arizona. Tsutomu Ohshima began studying karate while a student at Waseda University.WKSA (re-named the Kase-Ha Shotokan-Ryu Karate-do Academy [3] (KSKA) after Kase¶s death in 2004) continue following this path today. Takayuki Mikami were sent to New Orleans by the JKA in 1963. Bruce Terrill. Gordon Doversola (Okinawa-te). In 1975 Great Britain became the first team ever to take the World male team title from Japan after being defeated the previous year in the final. he cautions students that tournaments should not be viewed as an expression of true karate itself. Louis Kowlowski. William Dometrich (Chit -ry ). beginning in 1948. a co-founder of the JKA and student of Masatoshi Nakayama. Teruyuki Okazaki (Shotokan). Richard Kim (Shorinji-ry ). Ohshima left Japan in 1955 to continue his studies at UCLA. George Mattson (Uechi-ry ). [edit] United States After World War II. Cecil Patterson (Wad -ry ). Sankata & Kyokushin Karate. In 1957 Ohshima received his godan (fifth degree black belt). founder of Gosoku-ry .S.[42] In 1961 Hidetaka Nishiyama. He trained under Shotokan's founder. In 1964. Don Nagle (Isshin-ry ). Paul Arel (Sankata. However. Steve Armstrong. Gosei Yamaguchi (G j -ry ). Takayuki Kubota. Funakoshi personally awarded Ohshima his sandan (3rd degree black belt) rank in 1952. until 1953. Edward Kaloudis. practice in 1956 and founded the first university karate club in the United States at Caltech in 1957. Seido Karate was founded by Tadashi Nakamura In 1970 Paul Arel founded Kokondo Karate which is a sister style of Jukido Jujitsu developed in 1959. In the 1960s. began teaching in the United States. Ed Parker (Kenpo). Gichin Funakoshi. members of the US military learned karate in Okinawa or Japan and then opened schools in the USA. He led his first U. Kyokushin. a Shuri-ry karate dojo. This remains the highest rank in SKA. In 1945 Robert Trias opened the first dojo in the United States in Phoenix.

and G j -ry Richard Norton G j -ry Cynthia Luster G j -ry Wesley Snipes Shotokan[51] Glen Murphy Kyokushin . by Tsutomu Ohshima. In 1950s popular fiction. with Chuck Norris himself appearing to reveal the episode and the moral contained in the episode. Part II (1986).[43] By the 1970s. and it was credible to show Western experts of unarmed combat as unaware of Eastern martial arts of this kind.[45][46] Chuck Norris: Karate Kommandos(1986). karate was at times described to readers in near-mythical terms. was created in 1964. martial arts films had formed a mainstream genre that propelled karate and other Asian martial arts into mass popularity. The Karate Kid. Part III (1989) and The Next Karate Kid (1994) are films relating the fictional story of an American adolescent's introduction into karate. animated children's show. [edit] Film and popular culture Karate spread rapidly in the West through popular culture.[44] y y The Karate Kid (1984) an its sequels The Karate Kid. Film stars and their styles Practitioner Fighting style Sonny Chiba G j -ry and Kyokushin Sean Connery Kyokushin Fumio Demura Shit -ry Tadashi Yamashita Shorin-ryu Dolph Lundgren Kyokushin[47][48] Jean-Claude Van Damme Shotokan[49] Michael Jai White Kyokushin.France Shotokan Karate.[50] Shotokan. It is still the only organization representing Ohshima Shotokan style.

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