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PRESENTED TO: DR. MANZAR HASSAN TOPIC: MAJOR DISASTERS BY: FARAH IQBAL LODHI FROM: 2ND YR, 2ND SEMESTER (CC)
A disaster is the tragedy of a natural or human made hazard (a hazard is a situation which poses a level of threat to life, health, property, or environment) that negatively affects society or environment.
CLASSIFICATION OF DISASTER:Disasters are classified into two types. 1. Natural Disaster 2. Man made Disaster
NATURAL DISASTER:A natural disaster is a consequence when a natural hazard affects humans. It is further classified into: i. Disasters related to extreme weather events (floods, cyclones, tornadoes, blizzards, droughts) occur regularly. ii. Events related to extremes of the earth’s geology (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions) occur less frequently, but result in major consequences when they happen. Tsunamis often result from earthquakes.
MAN MADE DISASTER:Disasters caused by human action, negligence, error, or involving the failure of a system are called man-made disasters. Man-made disasters are in turn categorized i. Technological disasters ii. Sociological disasters Technological disasters are the results of failure of technology, such as engineering failures, transport disasters, or environmental disasters. Sociological disasters have a strong human motive, such as criminal acts, stampedes, riots and war.
DETAILS OF NATURAL DISASTERS:RELATED TO EXTREME WEATHER: Flood Cyclones Tornadoes Blizzards
(a) FLOOD:Basically a flood is a when the water level in an area rises where there was normally little or none before. Floods can be dramatic and quick or slow and creeping. Floods are natural phenomena common in many places around the world where either there is river nearby or the local weather can dump large amounts of rain.
The River Berounka, Czech Republic, burst its banks in 2002.
Flooding near Snoqualmie, Washington, 2009.
(b) CYCLONES:Cyclones are huge revolving storms caused by winds blowing around a central area of low atmospheric pressure. In the northern hemisphere, cyclones are called hurricanes or typhoons and their winds blow in an anti-clockwise circle. In the southern hemisphere, these tropical storms are known as cyclones, whose winds blow in a clockwise circle.
(c) TORNEDO:A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air. A rotating column of air ranging in width from a few yards to more than a mile and whirling at destructively high speeds, usually accompanied by a funnel-shaped downward extension of a cumulonimbus cloud.
The Cordell, Oklahoma, Tornado of May 22, 1981.
(d) BLIZZARD:A blizzard (or winter hurricane) is a severe winter storm condition characterized by low temperature, strong winds, and heavy blowing snow. Blizzards are formed when a high pressure system, also known as a ridge, interacts with a low pressure system; this results in the advection of air from the high pressure zone into the low pressure area.
RELATED TO EARTH GEOLOGLY:(a) EARTHQUAKE:A sudden shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement along a fault plane of from volcanic activity.
(b) VOLCANO:A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot magma, ash and gases to escape from below the surface.
Lava flow at Hawaii
(c) TSUNAMI:A tsunami is a huge is a huge series of water waves that can travel at speeds up to 600 mi/hr (965 km/hr), hundreds of miles over open sea before it hits land. Sometimes incorrectly called a tidal wave, a tsunami is usually caused by an earthquake, volcanic eruption or coastal landslide.
Tsun ami MAN MADE DISASTERS:1) TECHNOLOGICAL DISASTERS a) ENGINEERING DISASTERS:The primary causes of engineering disasters are usually considered to be
• • • • •
human factors (including both 'ethical' failure and accidents) design flaws (many of which are also the result of unethical practices) materials failures extreme conditions or environments, and, most commonly and importantly Combinations of these reasons.
b) TRANSPORT DISASTERS:It occurs due to human negligence, extreme weather or material failure.
2) SOCIOLOGICAL DISASTERS:a) TERRORISM:Acts of violence committed by groups that view themselves as victimized by some notable historical wrong. It is systematic use of violence and intimidation to achieve some goal. EXAMPLES "Air India Bombing", June 23, 1985: A bomb destroyed an Air India Boeing 747 over the Atlantic, killing all 329 people aboard. "Attack on World Trade Centre", September 11, 2000: On September 11, 2001, terrorists hijacked American Airlines Flight 11 and crashed it into the north tower, World Trade Centre. Seventeen minutes later, a second team of terrorists crashed the similarly hijacked United Airlines Flight 175 into the south tower. The damage caused to the north tower by Flight 11 destroyed any means of escape from above the impact zone, trapping 1,344 people. Flight 175 had a much more off-centered impact compared to flight 11, and a single stairwell was left intact, however only a few people managed to successfully pass through it before the tower collapsed. Although the south tower's floors of impact were lower, a smaller number, less than 700, were killed instantly or trapped, because evacuation of the south tower was ordered immediately after the north tower strike.
b) WAR:- A contest between nations or states, carried on by force, whether for
defense, for revenging insults and redressing wrongs, for the extension of commerce, for the acquisition of territory, for obtaining and establishing the superiority and dominion of one over the other, or for any other purpose; armed conflict of sovereign powers; declared and open hostilities. EXAMPLE: World War II, was a global military conflict which involved most of the world's nations, including all great powers, organized into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. The war involved the mobilization of over 100 million military personnel, making it the most widespread war in history. Over seventy million people, the majority civilians, were killed, making it the deadliest conflict in human history.
c) RIOT:-A riot is a form of civil disorder characterized by disorganized groups lashing out in a sudden and intense rash of violence against people or property. While individuals may attempt to lead or control a riot, riots are typically chaotic and exhibit herd behavior. EXAMPLES Race Riot: - "Race riot" is a term describing a riot in which race or ethnicity is a key factor. The rioting mob targets people and properties of a specific religion.
Religious Riot: - "Religious riot" is a term describing a riot in which religion is a key factor. The rioting mob targets people and properties of a specific religion. Like Gujarat riots.
MANAGEMENT OF DISASTER:The word Disaster Management (DM) encompasses two different yet interlinked phases of Disasters as posed in Disaster Cycle. They are: Disaster Response
Disaster recovery is the process, policies and procedures related to prepare for recovery or continuation of technology infrastructure critical to an organization after a natural or human-induced disaster. Disaster management involves:• • •
Pre-disaster planning, preparedness, monitoring including relief management capability Prediction and early warning Damage assessment and relief management.
Disaster reduction is a systematic work which involves with different regions, different professions and different scientific fields, and has become an important measure for human, society and nature sustainable development. It is possible to reduce the impact of disasters by adopting suitable disaster mitigation strategies. The disaster mitigation works mainly address the following:
• • • •
Minimize the potential risks by developing disaster early warning strategies Prepare and implement developmental plans to provide resilience to such disasters, Mobilize resources including communication and tale-medicinal services To help in rehabilitation and post-disaster reduction.
CONTROL MEASURES IN RECOVERY PLAN:-
Control measures are steps or mechanisms that can reduce or eliminate computer security threats TYPES OF MEASURES:1. Preventive measures: These controls are aimed at preventing an event from occurring. 2. Detective measures: These controls are aimed at detecting or discovering unwanted events. 3. Corrective measures: These controls are aimed at correcting or restoring the system after disaster or event. These controls should be always documented and tested regularly. “Effective Disaster Response in present is Disaster Preparedness for Future”. The local communities at the time of disaster or before the disaster make groups for helping the people from suffering during the disaster. These groups include First Aid group, Health group, Food and Welfare group etc. They all are well trained by some local community members. All the groups are sent for helping any other local community that is suffering from a disaster. They also migrate the people from the area affected from disaster to some other safe regions. They are given shelter and every possible facility by those local management communities. Today, Government is also making effort to provide good facilities during the disaster.
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