Name of Drug

Classification and Mechanism of Action

Indication and Dosage

Contraindication

Side Effects / Adverse Reaction

Nursing Responsibility

1.

Acetaminophen

Non – Narcotic Analgesic Produces analgesia by unknown mechanism, perhaps by action on peripheral nervous system. Reduces fever by direct action on hypothalamus heat – regulating center with consequent peripheral vasodilation, sweating and dissipation of heat.

Paracetamol Tylenol Tempra Pedric

Fever reduction. Temporary relief of mild to moderate pain. Adult: PO 500mg q4 hour

*Hypersensitivity to acetaminophen or phenacetin

GI: hepatic failure hepatotoxicity GU: renal failure(high doses/chronic use) Derm:rash,urticaria

1. Do not use this medication without medical direction for: fever persisting longer than 3 days, fever over 39.5C (103F) or recurrence fever 2. Do not self medicate adults for pain more than 10 days without consulting a physician 3. Do not take other medication (e.g., cold preparations) containing acetaminophen without medical advice, overdosing and chronic use can cause liver damage and other toxic effects.

Name of Drug

Classification and Mechanism of Action

Indication and Dosage For the treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes

Contraindication *Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins.

Side Effects / Adverse Reaction Pain at inj site; hypersensitivity ; GI disturbances; eosinophilia, neutropenia, leucopenia, thrombocytope nia. Potentially Fatal: Anaphylactic reactions; nephrotoxicity.

Nursing Responsibility 1. The drug should be taken with or without food. (May be taken with meals to reduce GI discomfort) 2. Before administration, ask patient if he is allergic to penicillins or cephalosporins. 3. Tell patient to take entire amount of drug exactly as prescribed, even after he feels better. 4. Advise patient to notify prescriber if rash develops or signs and symptoms of superinfection appear. 5. Inform patient not to crush, cut, or chew extended-release tablets.

2. Cefalexin

Also known as Cephalexin

• •

Anti-bacterial Agents Cephalosporins

Cephalexin, like the penicillins, is a betalactam antibiotic. By binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, it inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is

possible that cephalexin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.

Name of Drug

Classification and Mechanism of Action Expectorants Carbocisteine reduces the viscosity of noninfected secretions from mucous cells in Classification and the respiratory Mechanism of Action tract.

Indication and Dosage Adjunctive therapy in respiratory tract disorders characterised by excessive viscous mucous in the absence of infection. Indication and Dosage Maintenance therapy for duodenal or gastric ulcer

Contraindication Contraindicated in Active peptic ulcer.

Side Effects / Adverse Reaction Nausea, diarrhoea, headache, dizziness, palpitations and heartburn may occur. Caution must Side Effects / be exercised Adverse in patients Reaction with a history of gastric or CNS: vertigo, duodenal malaise, Gastroulcer. headache. intestinal EENT: blurred bleeding and vision. rash may skin Hepatic: occur. jaundice. Other: burning and itching at injection site, anaphylaxis, angioedema.

Nursing Responsibility 1. Tell patient to take with 8 oz of water and to drink plenty of fluids. 2. Ins truct patient to contact prescriber if cough lasts more than 1 week. 3. As Nursing Responsibility appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions and interactions, especially 1. Assess patient for abdominal those related to the tests mentioned above. pain. Note presence of blood in 4. emesis, stool, or gastric If the medication taste bad take aspirate. 2. Remind patient to take oncewith juice. 5. daily prescription drug at Do not use more best results. bedtime for than the 3. Instruct patient to take without recommened dosage to prevent adverse reactions. regard to meals because 6. absorption isn't affected bydru gs food. make the sputum more will 4. Advise patient to report liquid and when coughing, the sputum is easier andcough in abdominal pain to blood up. stool or emesis.s

1. Carbocistein e Mucospect Solmux Guaifenesin Name of Drug

Contraindication Contraindicated in patients hypersensitive to drug and those with acute porphyria. Use cautiously in patients with hepatic dysfunction. Adjust dosage in patients with impaired renal function.

2.

Ranitidine Hydrochlori de

H 2 receptor antagonist. Competitively inhibits action of histamine on the H2 at receptor sites of parietal cells, decreasing gastric acid secretion.

Apo-Ranitidine†, Zantac*, Zantac-C†, Zantac 75OTC

Name of Drug

Classification and Mechanism of Action

Indication and Dosage Treat wide variety of infection

Contraindication Contraindicated in patients hypersensitive to drug or other cephalosporins. Use cautiously in patients hypersensitive to penicillin because of possibility of crosssensitivity with other beta-lactam antibiotics. Use cautiously in breast-feeding women and in patients with history of colitis or renal insufficiency.

Side Effects / Adverse Reaction Reported side effects include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, rash, hives, vaginitis, headache, and mouth ulcers. 1.

Nursing Responsibility Do not take this medication if you are allergic to cefuroxime, or to similar antibiotics, such as Cefzil, Keflex, Omnicef, and others. Before taking this medication, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs (especially penicillin). Tell your doctor if you have liver or kidney disease, diabetes, a history of intestinal problems, or if you are malnourished. Tell patient to take drug as prescribed, even after he feels better. Instruct patient to take oral form with food. If patient has difficulty swallowing tablets, show him how to dissolve or crush tablets but warn him that the bitter taste is hard to mask, even with food. Tell patient to notify prescriber about loose stools or diarrhea. Instruct patient to notify prescriber about rash or evidence of superinfection.

5.Cefuroxime

Ceftin

Cefuroxime is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic, chemically similar to penicillin. It is effective against a wide variety of bacteria organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, E. coli, N. gonorrhoeae, and many others.

2.

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4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

Name of Drug

Classification and Mechanism of Action Corticosteroids Not clearly defined. Decreases inflammation, mainly by stabilizing leukocyte lysosomal membranes; suppresses immune response; stimulates bone marrow; and influences protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism.

Indication and Dosage Severe inflammation or immunosuppression 4mg

Contraindication Contraindicated in patients hypersensitive to drug or its ingredients, in those with systemic fungal infections, in premature infants (acetate and succinate), and in patients receiving immunosuppressive doses together with live virus vaccines. Use cautiously in patients with GI ulceration or renal disease, hypertension, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, cirrhosis, diverticulitis, nonspecific ulcerative colitis, recent intestinal anastomoses, thromboembolic disorders, seizures, active hepatitis, lactation, myasthenia gravis, heart failure, tuberculosis, ocular herpes simplex, emotional instability, and psychotic tendencies.

Side Effects / Adverse Reaction CNS: euphoria, insomnia, psychotic behavior GI: peptic ulceration, GI irritation, increased appetite Musculoskeletal: growth suppression in children, muscle weakness

Nursing Responsibility 1. Tell patient not to stop drug abruptly or without prescriber's consent. 2. Instruct patient to take oral form of drug with milk or food. 3. Teach patient signs and symptoms of early adrenal insufficiency: fatigue, muscle weakness, joint pain, fever, anorexia, nausea, shortness of breath, dizziness, and fainting. 4. Always adjust to lowest effective dose. 5. Monitor patient's weight, blood pressure, electrolyte level, and sleep patterns. Euphoria may initially interfere with sleep, but patients typically adjust to therapy in 1 to 3 weeks. 6. Unless contraindicated, give lowsodium diet that's high in potassium and protein. Give potassium supplements, as needed.

6. Methylprednisolone Medrol