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free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search Android Android 2.3 Company / developer Google Inc., Open Handset Alliance Programmed in C (core), C++ (some third party libraries), Java (UI) Working state Current Source model Free and open source software Initial release 21 October 2008 (2008-10-21) Latest stable release 2.3 (Gingerbread) Build: GRH47B / 16 December 2010; 5 days ago (2010-12-16) Supported platforms ARM, MIPS, Power Architecture, x86 Kernel type Monolithic (modified Linux kernel) Default user interface Graphical License Apache 2.0 (some code are under the GPL v2) Official website android.com Android is a mobile operating system initially developed by Android Inc. Android was purchased by Google in 2005. Android is based upon a modified version of the Linux kernel. Google and other members of the Open Handset Alliance collabo rated to develop and release Android to the world. The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is tasked with the maintenance and further development of Androi d. Unit sales for Android OS smartphones ranked first among all smartphone OS handsets sold in the U.S. in the second and third quarters of 2010, w ith a third quarter market share of 43.6%. Android has a large community of developers writing application programs ("apps" ) that extend the functionality of the devices. There are currently over 100,000 apps available for Android. Android Market is the online app store run by Google, though apps can be downloaded from third party sites (except on AT&T, which disallows this). Developers write in the Java language, controlling the d evice via Google-developed Java libraries. The unveiling of the Android distribution on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 79 hardware, software , and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.[ 15] Google released most of the Android code under the Apache License, a fre e software and open source license. The Android operating system software stack consists of Java applications runnin g on a Java based object oriented application framework on top of Java core libr aries running on a Dalvik virtual machine featuring JIT compilation. Libraries w ritten in C include the surface manager, OpenCore media framework, SQLite re lational database management system, OpenGL ES 2.0 3D graphics API, WebKit layou t engine, SGL graphics engine, SSL, and Bionic libc. The Android operating syste m consists of 12 million lines of code including 3 million lines of XML, 2.8 mil lion lines of C, 2.1 million lines of Java, and 1.75 million lines of C++. Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Acquisition by Google 1.2 Open Handset Alliance 1.3 Licensing 1.4 Update history 2 Features
3 Hardware running Android 3.1 Google's flagship smartphones 4 Software development 4.1 Software development kit 4.2 Android Market 4.3 App Inventor for Android 4.4 Android Developer Challenge 4.5 Google applications 4.6 Third party applications 4.7 Native code 4.8 Community-based firmware 5 Marketing 5.1 Logos 5.2 Typeface 5.3 Market share 5.4 Usage share 6 Restrictions and issues 6.1 Linux compatibility 6.2 Networking issues 6.3 Issues concerning application development 6.4 Other issues 6.5 Claimed infringement of copyrights and patents 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External links  History  Acquisition by Google In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc., a small startup company based in Pal o Alto, California, USA. Android's co-founders who went to work at Google in cluded Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.), Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile), and Chris Whit e (headed design and interface development at WebTV). At the time, little wa s known about the functions of Android, Inc. other than that they made software for mobile phones. This began rumors that Google was planning to enter the m obile phone market. At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by t he Linux kernel which they marketed to handset makers and carriers on the premis e of providing a flexible, upgradable system. It was reported that Google had al ready lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.[2 5] More speculation that Google's Android would be entering the mobile-p hone market came in December 2006. Reports from the BBC and The Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and applications on mobile phones an d it was working hard to deliver that. Print and online media outlets soon repor ted rumors that Google was developing a Google-branded handset. More specula tion followed reporting that as Google was defining technical specifications, it was showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that G oogle had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony.   Open Handset Alliance Main article: Open Handset Alliance "Today's announcement is more ambitious than any single 'Google Phone' that the press has been speculating about over the past few weeks. Our vision is that the powerful platform we're unveiling will power thousands of different phone model
including PacketVideo. Sony Ericsson. and Vodafon e Group Plc. Intel. There were several new features and UI update s included in the 1. and a text-to-speech eng ine Support for WVGA screen resolutions Speed improvements in searching and camera applications Gesture framework and GestureBuilder development tool Google free turn-by-turn navigation .6 (Donut) SDK was r eleased. Included in the update were: An improved Android Market experience An integrated camera.1 Released 9 February 2009 1. a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2. Google. Google Chairman/CEOOn the 5th of November 2007.29 On 15 September 2009. Softbank. HTC. history." Eric Schmidt. and t he web from the home screen Updated technology support for CDMA/EVDO. Sprint Nextel and T-Mobile was unveiled with the goal to develop open standards for mobile devices. Garmin Ltd.  Update history Android has seen a number of updates since its original release. the 1. B roadcom Corporation. These updates t o the base operating system typically fix bugs and add new features. Along with the fo rmation of the Open Handset Alliance.6.s.27 On 30 April 2009. and gallery interface Gallery now enables users to select multiple photos for deletion Updated Voice Search. the official 1. Marvell Technology Group. Motorola. Google published the e ntire source code (including network and telephony stacks) under an Apache L icense.0 Released 23 September 2008 1. 1.1x. Qualcomm.5 (Cupcake) Based on Linux Kernel 2. including the ability to dial contacts Updated search experience to allow searching bookmarks. it was announced that 14 new members would be joining the An droid Project.6. On 9 December 2008. VPNs. the OHA also unveiled their first product. a consortium of several companies which include Texas Instruments. Atheros Communications. ARM Holdings. contacts. Asus tek Computer Inc. Nvidia. Toshiba Corp.5 (Cupcake) update for Android was released.6. LG. 802. the Open Handse t Alliance. Android. Android has been available under a f ree software / open source license since 21 October 2008.  Licensing With the exception of brief update periods.5 update: Ability to record and watch videos through camcorder mode Uploading videos to YouTube and pictures to Picasa directly from the phone A new soft-keyboard with text-prediction Bluetooth A2DP and AVRCP support Ability to automatically connect to a Bluetooth headset within a certain distanc e New widgets and folders that can populate the Home screens Animated screen transitions 1. camcorder. with faster response and deeper integration with native ap plications.6 (Donut) Based on Linux Kernel 2. Samsung Electronics. Generally e ach update to the Android operating system is developed under a code name based on a dessert item.
2 Froyo phones.5. called Scandinavia.4. "Functionality is not there." Despite this. Videocalling The mainstream Android version doesn't support videocalling. sample code.The early feedback on developing applications for the Andro id platform was mixed. Multitasking Multitasking of applications is available.) In December 2007. a handset emulator (based on QEMU). MergeLab mobile st artup founder Adam MacBeth stated. some developers ma y choose not to use a retail device. is poorly docume nted or just doesn't work..0. G1 manufactured by HTC Nexus One manufactured by HTC Nexus S manufactured by Samsung  Software development Early Android device. and tutorials.at the kernel level (possibly to avoid infringing Apple's patents on touch-scree n technology). and no public issue-tracking system.  Google's flagship smartphones Android phones that are marketed by Google. The first commercially available phone to run the Android operating system was t he HTC Dream. including the Dell Streak. released on 22 October 2008. e. either via UMTS network (like the Samsung i9000 Galaxy S) or over IP. Voice based features Google search through Voice is available as Search Input si nce initial release. Tethering Android supports tethering. Issues cited include bugs. These include a debugger.5) usin . which allows a phone to be used as a wirel ess/wired hotspot (All 2.6 or hig her via applications available in the Android Market. documentation. preferring an unlocked or no-contract devic e. sending file s (OPP) and accessing the phone book (PBAP) were added in version 2. It's clearly not ready for prime time. While developers can use regular consumer de vices purchased at retail to test and use their applications. Currently supported develo pment platforms include computers running Linux (any modern desktop Linux distri bution).  The Android Dev Phone is a SIM-unlocked and hardware-unlocked device that i s designed for advanced developers. Google has since released an update for the Nexus One and the Motorola Droid which enables multi-touch natively. netbooks and t ablets. unofficial on phones running 1. Windows XP or later.2. has also been launched by the company People of Lava. Mac OS X 10. The officially supported integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse (currently 3. Samsung Galaxy Tab and other devices. ina dequate QA infrastructure.  Software development kit The Android software development kit (SDK) includes a comprehensive set of devel opment tools. and v oice dialing and sending contacts between phones were added in version 2.. (Google announce d an issue tracker on 18 January 2008. Also launched Voice actions supported on Android 2. The first publicly available application was the Snake game. The world's first TV running Android.g. libraries. Bluetooth Support for A2DP and AVRCP were added in version 1. Android-targeted applications began to appear the week after the platform was announced.2 on wards. To allow a l aptop to share the 3G connection on an Android phone software may need to be ins talled on both the phone and the laptop  Hardware running Android Main article: List of Android devices The Android OS can be used as an operating system for cellphones. PdaNet).9 or later. ho wever some handsets could have a customized version of the operating system whic h supports it. lack of documentation.4 or 3.
 Enhancements to Android's SDK go hand in hand with the overall Android platform development. though developers may use any text editor to edit Java and XML files then use command line tools (Java Development Kit and Apache Ant are required) to create.0 S DK (Release 1) was released.  Android Market Main article: Android Market On 28 August 2008 Google announced the Android Market which was available to use rs on 22 October 2008. the block-editing tool has been taught to non-majors in computer science at Harvard.000. Multiple versions have been released sinc e. On 23 September 2008 the Android 1. the Android Developer Challenge Team accidentally sent an email to all e ntrants in the Android Developer Challenge announcing that a new release of the SDK was available in a "private" download area.  App Inventor for Android Main article: Google App Inventor On 12 July 2010 Google announced the availability of App Inventor for Android. According to the release notes. MIT's Hal Abelson. a Web-based visual development environment for novice programmers. instal ling software package(s) remotely). triggering a reboot.dex files (compiled byte code files called Dal vik executable). The Android Market is the official download location for applications and games for Android powered devices. There are a huge amount of games.9 version. MIT. Detailed instructions for upgrading are available to those alr eady working with an earlier release. On 15 Jul y 2008. speech-to-text conv ersion.apk format and stored under /data/app fold er on the Android OS (the folder is accessible to root user only for security re asons). and the University of San Francisco . APK package contains . with additional support from 29 countries on 30 September 2010. phone functions. based on MIT's Open Blocks Java library and providing access to Android devices' GPS. The revelation that Go ogle was supplying new SDK releases to some developers and not others (and keepi ng this arrangement private) led to widely reported frustration within the Andro id developer community at the time. On 18 August 2008 the Android 0. The SDK also supports older versions of the Android platform in cas e developers wish to target their applications at older devices. it included "ma inly bug fixes.g. contact data. so after one has downloaded the latest version a nd platform. accelero meter and orientation data." said the project director. and Web services. resource files. although some smaller features were added". Under developm ent for over a year. initially including Amazon and Twitter. Android applications are packaged in . "We could only have done this because Android s architectu re is so open. persistent storage. etc. improved development tools and an updated design for the home screen. in mobile phone the Mark et application is built in and integrated with each version of the OS to allow u ser's quick access to a range of applications and games that will be usable on t heir individual device. build and debug Android application s as well as control attached Android devices (e.9 SDK beta was released. A preview release of the Android SDK was released on 12 November 2007. text messaging. applications and w idgets available on the Android Market with the number of applications being cit ed in November 2010 at 160.g the Android Development Tools (ADT) Plugin. It also included sev eral API changes from the 0. older platforms and tools can also be downloaded for compatibility testing. Development too ls are downloadable components. Wellsley. Support for paid applications was available from 13 Febru ary 2009 for US and UK developers. The email was intended for winne rs of the first round of the Android Developer Challenge. This release provided a n updated and extended API..
allowing the . As of 15 July 2010.  Native code Libraries written in C and other languages can be compiled to ARM native code an d installed using the Android Native Development Kit. Voting for the second round also opened on the same day and ended on Novemb er 25. Skia has backends for both win32 and Unix.  Third party applications With the growing number of Android handsets. where Professor David Wolber developed an introductory computer science course and tutorial book for non-computer science students based on App Inventor for A ndroid. ARM code can be compiled using GCC on a standard PC.. These include MySpace. there has also been an increased in terest by third party developers to port their applications to the Android opera ting system. Facebook. Doodle Jump. known as Bionic). The Android operating system has grown significantly. Google offered prizes totaling 10 million US dollars.  Google applications Google has also participated in the Android Market by offering several applicati ons for its services. announced on 12 May 2008. These applications include Google Voice for the Google Voi ce service. and initiate calls by voice. write messages. each receive d a $25. distrib uted between ADC I and ADC II. with o ver 1 billion downloads. Sky Map for watching stars. Complete applications can be compiled and installed using traditional developmen t tools. Google Translate. What the Doodle!? and WaveSecure being nominated the overall winners of the challenge. Notable applications that have been converted to the Android operat ing system include Shazam. Maps Editor for their MyMaps service.  Android Developer Challenge Main article: Android Developer Challenge The Android Developer Challenge was a competition for the most innovative applic ation for Android. which is part of the standard Android Java classes. The graphics library that Android uses to arbitrate and control access to this devic e is called the Skia Graphics Library (SGL).000 each. Google announced the top winners of ADC II on November 30. and ten tea ms that received $100. with SweetDrea ms. The first-round winn ers of ADC II comprising the top 200 applications were announced on 5 November 2 009. Native classes can be call ed from Java code running under the Dalvik VM using the System. which allows u sers to search. and it has been released under an o pen source license. Google Shopp er. Gesture Search for using finger written letters and numbers to search the contents of the phone. ADC I accepted submissions from 2 January to 14 A pril 2008. T he first round of the ADC II closed on 6 October 2009. and WeatherBug. Running native code is complicated by the fact that Android uses a non-standard C library (libc. the Android Marketplace had over 70. Google launched "Voice Actions for Android". In August 2010.000 each. The underlyi ng graphics device is available as a framebuffer at /dev/graphics/fb0. a jogging application.loadLibrary call. Google Goggles that searches by image. Finance for their finance service. Places Directory for their Local Search.000 award to fund further development. It ended in early Septe mber with the announcement of ten teams that received $275. The 50 most promising entries. and Twitter. The ADB debugger gives a root shell under the Android Emulator whi ch allows native ARM code to be uploaded and executed. Listen for podcasts and My Tracks. ADC II was announced on 27 May 2009.000 applications. and a lot of the most popu lar internet sites and services have created native applications.
 Those firmware packages are updated frequently. In May 2010. up 8% from the December quarter. sales surpassed that of the rival iPho ne platform.  Typeface The custom typeface of Android is called Norad. According to a report by the NPD group. only used in the text logo.  Market share Research company Canalys estimates that by Q2 2009.development of cross-platform applications. This figure was up from an earlier estimate of 5. The print color is PMS 376C and the RGB color value in hexadecimal is #A4C639. phones come packaged with closed-source Google applications for functio nality such as the application store and GPS navigation.  Community-based firmware There is a community of open-source enthusiasts that build and share Android-bas ed firmware with a number of customizations and additional features. Android achieved 28% smartp hone sales in the US market. In order to use custom firmwares the devices bootloader must be un locked. Even though most of Android OS is open source. Cyanogen has complied with Google's wishes and is con tinuing to distribute this mod without the proprietary software.2% stated in November 2009.0%. Google has asserted tha t these applications can only be provided through approved distribution channels by licensed distributors. Androi d's market share had grown to 3. an increase of 4 percentage points . Google issued a cease and desist letter to the modder Cyanogen. In July 2010 ComScore revised Android's shar e for 3 months March/April/May 2010 to 13. 0. This usually involves rooting the device.  Marketing Android robot logo. Android Green is the color of the Android Robot that represents the Android oper ating system.9%. citing issues with the re-distribution of Google's closed-source appl ications within the custom firmware. He has provided a method to back up licensed Google applications during the mod's install proce ss and restore them when it is complete. incorporate elements of Android functionality that haven't yet been officially released within a carrier-sanctio ned firmware.000 Motorola Droid phones were sold in the United States during the phone's first week in stores.2 percentage points behind Microsoft whose share had dropped 1. as specified by the Android Brand Guidelines.8% share of the worldwide smartphone market. such as FLA C lossless audio support and the ability to store downloaded applications on the microSD card. Rooting alone does not allow the flashing of custom firmware. On 24 September 2009. In February 2010 ComScore ranked the Android platform as obtaining a 9. Modified f irmwares allow users of older phones to use applications available only on newer releases. In the second quar . Logos The Android logo was designed with the Droid font family made by Ascender Corpor ation. By the following quarter (Q3 2009). and it is the graphics engine under lying the Google Chrome web browser. and tend to have fewer limitations. Android had a 2.5%. Android's first quarter U.0% of the smartphone platform marketshare. Rooting allows use rs root access to the operating system.S. CyanogenMod and VillainROM are two examples of such firmware. Analytics firm Flurry estimates that 250. giving more control over their environme nt variables.
 Furthermore.1% of devices running obsolete versionsData collected during two w eeks ending on December 1.S.5 (Cupcake) 3 6. In early October 2010. Apple's iOS was up by 1%. Google added 20 countries to its list of approved submitt ers.5%.6 (Donut) 4 10.000 per day in May 2010. separating their code from Linux.4 percent of (US) smartphone subscribers. purchasing apps will be available in a total of 32 countrie s.  Linux compatibility Android's kernel was derived from Linux but has been tweaked by Google outside t he main Linux kernel tree. By mid-October. How ever. Google continues to gain ground in the market. up 15 percent from the preceding three month period. ComScore reported at the end of the Q3 2010. indicating that Android is taking market share ma inly from RIM.000 new phones to the Android p latform per day according to Eric Schmidt.1 (Eclair) 7 39. and still has to compete with heavy consumer demand for new compe titor offerings. owned Android smartphones duri ng the three months ending in September. support for the X Window System is possible. On December 8th. Android ha d a worldwide market share of 25. Android is getting 160.  Usage share Data collected during two weeks ending on December 1. 2010. which has allowed it to duplicate the quick s uccess of Microsoft's Windows Mobile. Market research firm Gartner reported that at the end of the Q3 2010.The code which is no longer maintained was deleted in . This was due to a disagree ment about new features Google felt were necessary (some related to security of mobile applications). multi-carrier OS.5 percenta ge points to capture 21.  For a complete list of countries that are allowed to sell apps and those able to buy them see Android Market. rising 6.000 new users per day (end June 2010) up from 100.4% Android 2.3%  Restrictions and issues Google tracks issues and feature requests publicly at Google Code's site. effectively branching kernel code in their own tree. U.6% Android 1.ter.6% Android 1. Andy Rubin announced on Twitter that there are 300. 2010 Other: 0. analysts point to advantages that Android has a s multi-channel.[1 31] As of 4 August 2010 Google is now activating 200.2 (Froyo) 8 43. Google no longer maintains the code they previously contributed to the Linux ker nel as part of their Android effort. and this makes it dif ficult to port existing GNU/Linux applications or libraries to Android. Android does not have a native X Window System n or does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries. According to an interview with Eric Schmidt in The Guardian. 2010 Platform API Level Distribution Android 2.000 An droid phones activated daily.
This preve nts compatibility among Java applications written for those platforms and those for the Android platform. Specifically the patent infringement claim references seven patents including Un ited States Patent No. "In developing Android. 6. which combines NTFS. As of the 2. etc. an Android de vice user runs into the same limitations that exist in the Calendar application.e. The rapid growth in the number of Android-based phone models with differing hard ware capabilities also makes it difficult to develop applications that work on a ll Android-based phones. Android supports all the file systems supported by the linux kernel. is mis sing. and United States Patent No.January 2010 from the Linux codebase. RE38. The most noticeable defect is the lack of proper time zone support: it is not p ossible to set the time zone for start/end times of events. a lthough it may still be achieved with some hacking.2. Developers have reported that it is difficult to maintain applications on multip le versions of Android. Google announced in April 20 10 that they will employ staff to work with the Linux kernel community. Android does not support Cisco virtual private network servers requiring XAUTH e xtensions for IPsec (L2TP/IPsec and PPTP are supported).  Networking issues Support for setting up a network proxy configuration for WiFi connections is not available.702.5 and 1. there are multiple tools in the market that provide J2ME to Android con version services. owner of Java since it acquired Sun Microsystems in April 2009. with its ow n limitations. i. Schiller & Flexner as part of its legal team. 5. which many vehicles use for handsfree. However. However. ("the '104 pa ." Oracle h as named Boies.5 and 1 . Support for setting up a network proxy configuration for APN (i. Google knowingly. sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents. 83% of Android p hones run the 2. Such problems were pointedly brought into focus as they were encountered during the ADC2 contest. Compa nies like Myriad Group and UpOnTek provide these services. some users experience difficulty while traveling with Android devices.x versions. Using the native Google Calendar functionality for Android phones.966. exFAT and HFS+ for Android. The lawsuit claims that.205. Java SE and ME. support for conjunct consonants.104. the rSAP protocol. entitled "Method And Apparatus For Preprocessi ng And Packaging Class Files". Becau se of this issue. In version 2. especially the different resolution ratios in use among various An droid phones. Android only reuses the Java language syntax.3 release.  Issues concerning application development Android does not use established Java standards.6 versions  Other issues Older versions of Android do not readily support Bluetooth file exchange. owing to compatibility issues between versions 1. and 17% still run the 1. Oracle. As of August 2010. For read/write access to other popular filesystems. Tuxera launch ed Tuxera File System Suite. Android does not have full Unicode support. Develope rs are reporting rendering issues. entitled "Interpreting Functions Utilizing A Hybrid Of Virtual And Native Machine Instruc tions".e. but does not provide the full-class libraries and APIs bundled with Java SE or ME.910. It also references United States Patent No.  Claimed infringement of copyrights and patents See also: Java applet#2010 Oracle Google lawsuit On the 12 August 2010. GSM/EDGE) con nections is not available. Android doesn't natively support EAP extensions configuration.6. which enable the developer to convert Java into Android. Bluetooth is supported by more recent phones.[17 4] Android doesn't support the "Require Device Encryption" policy in Microsoft's Ex change ActiveSync (EAS) service. directly and repeatedly infringed Oracle's Java-related intellectual property.
the FSF also criticiz ed Google.com/8301-1035_3-20012627-94. "The Programming Languages Beacon. 8.html. Retrieved 2010-10-29. share. http://www. Retrieved 2010-11-15.businessweek.^ "Licenses".^ a b "Android hits top spot in U. Businessweek. 2.html. http://www.^ Lextrait. Retrieved 2010-06-10. Retrieved 2010-11-15. While officially claiming that "Android is n ot Java". Retrieved 2010-08-04.com/site/Google+-+Nexus+S+Mobil e+Phone+-+Black+(T-Mobile)/1484107. 3.  See also Android Market BlackBerry OS Dalvik virtual machine Chromium OS Google Chrome OS Google TV iOS (Apple) LiMo Foundation Linux Phone Standards Forum List of Android devices List of Android OS-related topics List of open source Android applications MeeGo Linux Samsung's Bada OS OPhone Open Mobile Alliance Palm. http://ne ws.html. 7.FAQ". Retrieved 2007-11-05. and its Java copyright.^ a b c d Open Handset Alliance (2007-11-05). 6.".p?skuId=1484107&id=1218262482328. Inc. Google at the same time calls the suit an "attack on Java community". Press release.0".openhandsetalliance. Android Open Source Project. http://source. Press release. called Dalvik.bestbuy.^ "About the Android Open Source Project". 4. which are listed in the complaint . http://www. best known as the father of the Java programming l anguage.com. modify. "Industry Leaders Announce Open Platform for Mobile Devices".^ "Google Buys Android for Its Mobile Arsenal".S. "Open Handset Alliance . 2010-08-04. .com/ press_110507. smartphone market".com/technology/content/aug2005/tc20050817_0949_tc024. Android is based on a clean room rever se-engineered version of Java.^ Open Handset Alliance.cnet. and redistribute software". 2005-08-17.^ "Google Nexus S On Sale".com/Vincent/implementations. v10. Open Handset Alliance.html. It has also called the suit a "clear attack against someone's freedom to use .'s webOS Symbian Foundation Windows Phone 7  References 1.android.htm . However.com/about/ind ex. writing that "It's sad to see that Google apparently shunned those pr otections in order to make proprietary software development easier on Android.tent") entitled Method And Apparatus For Resolving Data References In Generated C ode authored by James Gosling.android. The Free Software Foundation has said that Google could have avoided this suit b y building Android on top of IcedTea whose GPL license provides some protection against patents. According to Gartner analyst Ken Dulaney. Retrieved 2010-01-05. http:// www. Oracle says Dalvik is a competitor to Java and infringes several of its patents.html.[ 181] making a distinction between "official Java" and "Java in general".openhandsetalliance.com/source/licenses. and remarking that Google had not taken any clear position or action against so ftware patents. Vincent (January 2010).com/oha_faq. http://www. 5.html. instead of implementing it independently under the Apache Licen se. http://sourc e.lextrait.
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http://www. Mobile Subscriber Market Share .html. 140. "Dream(sheep++): A developer's introduction to Google Android".zdnet. Charles (2010-06-25). Androidfanatic. Google Code.Part 1 of 3 . Retrieved 2010-10-29.com/open-source/reviews/20 09/02/an-introduction-to-google-android-for-developers.com/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2010/11/comScore_Repor ts_September_2010_U.^ "comScore Reports May 2010 U. Comscore. http://developer.^ "Canalys Q3 2009: iPhone. "This means that any drivers written for Android hardware platforms. April 2010. http://www. com Score MobiLens.html. others.google. causing it to fail to build in the kernel. Palm. 2010-10-01.com/it/page.) The problem w ith Google's approach is that it makes Android an island.com/articles/09/11/03/canalys_q3_2009 _iphone_rim_taking_over_smartphone_market.com/2010/09 /01/steve-jobs-hits-google-with-number-counting-accusations/. KDE. Google engineer P atrick Brady stated unambiguously that Android is not Linux.com/Arubin/status/12727540783251456 137.1%.com/reso urces/dashboard/platform-versions. Retrieved 2010-0203.androidfanatic. http://www.com/2010/10/01 /google-expands-androidss-reach-accepting-paid-apps-from-20-mor/.^ http://www.com/8301-13579_3-20012418-37.^ "Platform Versions".S. 133. IceWM or LXDE Desktop on your Android! . The highly insular nat ure of the platform prevents Android users and developers from taking advantage of the rich ecosystem of existing third-party Linux applications. Android Developers. Google (Android) .^ "Re:Gnome.com.^ "Issues . Retrieved 2010-12-01. Retrieved 2010-01-15. http://code. YouTube. http://www.^ Paul. during a presentation at the Google IO conference.gartner.html. London: The Guardian.^ "Linux developer explains Android kernel code removal". Ret rieved 2010-04-19.uk/te chnology/2010/jun/25/android-schmidt-mobile-platform.com/guide /basics/what-is-android. http://www._Mobile_Subscriber_Market_Share 136.net/Press_Events/Press_Release s/2010/4/comScore_Reports_February_2010_U. Retrieved 2010-01-08.html. 9.android".com/watch?v=QBGfUs9mQYY. "based on the numb er of Android devices that have accessed Android Market within a 14-day period e nding on the data collection date noted below" 138. Retrieved 2010 -10-29. Microsoft. California?: CNN Money.^ "Top smarthphone platforms. Retrieved 2010-08-04. 139. [Video]. Bloomberg Television. cannot get merged into the main kernel tree because they have dependencies on code that only lives in Google's kernel tree.comscore. http: //www. 3 November 2009. 25.Architecture Overview.com/community-for ums.youtube.com/2100-9595_22-389733.com/article/182310/droid_sales_and_the_android_explosion. 2010-07-08._Mobile_Subscriber_Market_Share. http://www.^ Greg Kroah-Hartman (2010-02-02).ars. http://tech.android. http://www. selling to 18 more".html.4%. Apple.cnn. 131.com/Press_Events/Press_Rele ases/2010/7/comScore_Reports_May_2010_U.^ http://twitter. ZDNet. Lightell (2010-09-01).^ http://www. 142. Retrieved 2010-02-03.1%.fortune. 127. PC World. 129.cnet. 132.mycomscore.126. so it won't be possible to port y our favorite GTK+ or Qt applications to Android" 141.0%" 128.o . accepting paid apps from 20 more countrie s.4%. http://developer. 2010-02-02.android. 15. Retrieved 2009-03-07 .^ "Google expands Android's reach. 144. Retrieved 2009-11-03.S.^ Arthur. http://news. "More signs iPhone under Android attack"..^ Androidology . "RIM. AppleInsider .^ "What is Android?". Ryan (23 February 2009). Ars Technica.0%.^ Greg Sandoval (2010-08-02). "In fact. Engadget. ending 2/10". Retrieved 2007-11-07. http ://news.. 3.AndroidFanatic Co mmunity Forums". "Google responds to Steve Jobs' activation co unting accusations".appleinsider.S.comScore.kroah. "Android and the Linux kernel community". 134.pcworld. "Eric Schmidt's dog whistle to mobile develo pers: abandon Windows Phone". 143.S. (. RIM taking over smartphone market".guardian.^ Mark. Android Developers.html. 130. Inc".engadget. http://arstechnica. Retri eved 2010-10-29.^ "Droid Sales and the Android Explosion".html.html?%20func=view&catid=9&id=1615. Android doesn' t officially support native C programs at all. 17 November 2009. 42.comscore. http://www.com/log/linux/android-kernel-problems.com.co. 2008 -09-06.jsp?id=1466313 135.com/p/android/issues/l ist. 5. 3 mos._Mobile_Subscriber_Market_Share.
^ "Myriad's New J2Android Converter Fuels Android Applications Gold Rush". http://androidandme. 151.com/adp. Ultimately.zdnet.com/open/features/Android-versus-Linux-924563. Retrieved 2010-01-15. ZDNet. 146. 15 April 2010.^ "Android's Weakest Link".htc. http://blogs.com. www. www .techcrunc h. while Schillings spoke optimisticall y about "converting 1." 154. Retrieved 2010-01-15.000 MIDlets in an afternoon.^ Issue 3902.com/open-source/?p=6274. The tool isn't actu ally available on the open market just yet." at the moment they're workin g with a few providers to transform their back catalogs. If you are using the Android 1. Effec tively creating a kernel branch that a number of different vendors are now relyi ng on. Jilles (13 November 2007).^ Issue 1273. androidandme. then using Android 1.^ Issue 1386. consider downloading all platform versions with which your application is compatible. For te sting. 2009-1106. you might th ink this is kind of a scam aimed at developers who don't really understand the n ature of the platform they're targeting.javaworld. My biggest complaint is that you'd thin k that Mikael Ricknäs. Javalobby.1 SDK and your applica tion is using APIs introduced in Android 1.1 system image. So those of you out the re hoping to avoid learning how to write Android code may have to wait a while. Retrieved 2009-10-11.myriadgroup. unreviewed as of August 2010 . the IDG News Service reporter who wrote the first story lin ked to above (who toils for the same company that publishes JavaWorld). first reported 28 November 2008.^ "J2Android hopes you don't know that Android is Java-based". TechCrunch. http://www.javaworld.0 image is sufficient. It seems like a bad case of "not invented here" to me.h-online. 147. Google has now prevented a large chunk of hardware dri vers and platform code from ever getting merged into the main kernel tree. first reported 12 November 2008. I don't understand why Google intends to i gnore the vast amount of existing implementation out there.1. Retrieved 2010-04-29. 157..html. "And now they 're faced with a landslide of new handsets. "We will have to w ait and see exactly how much pickup J2Android actually sees. then you should download the Andro id 1.com/community/?q=node/4210.zdnet. http://blogs. first reported 15 September 2009.) But now they are stuck. Companies with Android-specific platform and drivers cannot contribute upstream. HTC Corporation. Retrieved 2010-02-28.org/nl/archive/jlnews_20071113o.javalobby.^ "HTC Developer center: Android Dev Phone 1". 2009-10-11.^ ." 155. 23 March 2010 . some running v.zdnet.^ "DiBona: Google will hire two Android coders to work with kernel.. 9 February 2010. "For development.rg tree." 145. 148.com/community/node/4170. http://www. http://www.1 APIs. then running your applications on those platform versions to ensure that they work as designed.html.com/Media-Centre/News/Myriad-New-J2AndroidConverter-Fuels-Android-Applications-Gold-Rush. 153.com.1. this will slow adoption. you should select the lowest possible Android platform version that meets the needs of your appli cations.^ "Android versus Linux?". http://www." 156. "Google Android: Initial Impressions and Criticism". http://www. unreviewed as of June 2010. 150. Retrieved 2010-01-15. There ar e already too many Java platforms for the mobile world and this is yet another o ne" 152. Because of this. 2009-10-11.org". http://www. would ha ve at least mentioned the relationship between Java and Android to make the oddn ess of this announcement clear.h-o nline. "On the other hand. if you are working in the Android 1. 31 March 2010.1 SDK but your application d oes not use Android 1.(. "Frankly.^ "Myriad CTO: J2Android moves MIDlets to "beautiful" Android framework".com/2009/11/news/complications-looming-for-android-devel opers/.6 and some courageo . unreviewed as of June 2010.^ van Gurp.aspx.com/Greenf ield/?p=481. 1 9 March 2010. 158.com. listed as released but not resolved 149.com/2009/10/11/a-chink-in-androids-armor/. http://devel oper. which causes these companies a much larger maintenance and development cycle. For example.^ "Complications looming for Android developers". html. Retrieved 2009-03-07.^ "A Chink In Android's Armor".
And here's the problem in almost every c ase. 169. 2010. Erin (February 1. Retrieved 2010-02-28. http://code .google.androidguys.5 to 1. h ttp://www. http://www. "Fagan s concerns about the fragmentation of Android is being echoed by oth er developers." says Fagan. 2009-11-16 . h ttp://infoworld." 160. Retrieved 2010-11-03.^ Yueh.^ "Transferring files to the HTC Desire and HTC Legend via Bluetooth".html. 2010-02-22.^ "Issue 4402: rSAP / Sim access bluetooth profile".a ndroid.wired. 170. google.. developer. "So we find ourselves having to create apps that are compatible with multiple firmwares. http://getsatisfaction.. BusinessWeek.com. October 28.2. Ap ril 4. http://cod e.html. All those manufacturers/carriers are racing to release their phones by the 2009 holiday season. Retrieved 2010-11-03. Google Code. an mobile app analytics company(.com.com/p/android/issues/detail?id=5925. exFAT an d HFS+ for Android". 167.^ "Tuxera Launches Tuxera File System Suite.com." 159.^ "Android s Rapid Growth Has Some Developers Worried".marketwire. JavaWorld. Retrieved 2010-11-03.com/d/mobilize/google-androids-self-destruction-derby-begins-863 . AndroidGuys.co. google. The Washington Post. marketwire.com/resources/dashboard/platform-versions. there are bugs and more serious problems with the apps. 174.com/2010/01/21/fixit-google-calendar-time-zones/..c om/p/android/issues/detail?id=4230.javaworld. Retrieved 2010-11-03. now". Retrieved 2010-11-03 . 175. we hear.^ "Android just reproducing Java ME's problems. Retriev ed 2010-02-28. Retrieve d 2010-11-03.)"You may build an app that works perfec tly with all three firmwares. Retrieved 2010-11-03.c om. http://code. Retrieved 2010-11-03. First to Combine NTFS. Retrieved 2010-08-07.com/gadgetlab/2009/11/android-fragmentation/. vice president of business development at Flu rry. says Sean Galligan. and want to ensure the hot applications will work on their phones.^ "Android's Spread Could Become a Problem".android. Get Satisfaction Inc.com/p/android/issues/detail?id=719.com/google/topics/google_calendar_needs_per_event_timezon e_support. 165. 2010). multiple ROMs and multiple devices with dif ferent hardware. 2009-10-15.uk/transferring-files-htc-desire-and-htc-legend-bluetoot h. "New Bluetooth Object Push Profile in Andro id 2. Retrieved 20 10-11-03. Retri eved 2010-11-03.businessweek.com/pre ss-release/Tuxera-Launches-Tuxera-File-System-Suite-First-Combine-NTFS-exFAT-HFS -Android-1342807. 173.google. Also.^ "Help File: Google Calendar's time-zone weakness". 171.washingtonpost.. I ve now upgraded my phone from 1.google. http://www. 2010. http://www. Wired News. 2009-11-17. Google. Retrieved 201002-26. Retrieved 2010-11-03.]First of all. 172..us souls even running android v.com/community/node/3704.^ "Issue 8686: Add support for ActiveSync Device Encryption Policy Requireme .blogspot. Retrieved 2010-02-26. http://www.^ "Issue 4230: Armenian character support".com/2010_02_01_archive.[. http://code.html.]We haven t heard of any major app developers complaining of backwards or forward compatibility prob lems.0. http://i-miss-erin.com/p/android/issues/detail?id=4402. 2010-05-03. 162.com/p/android/issues/detail?id=5892.htm.google.google. http: //blog. google. 161. January 21.^ "Google Android's self-destruction derby begins".6.^ "FixIt!: Google Calendar and time zones". http://developer. http://code. the compatibility between versions issue may be overblown.brightpointuk.^ "Google Calendar needs per event timezone support". 163. but then when you run it on carriers ROMs it comple tely blows up.^ "Issue 5925: Support full Unicode for all languages and scripts".com/technology/content/oct2009/tc20091015_626136. 168.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/04/03/AR2 010040304956. 164.htm.^ "Issue 5892: Calendar: Don't change times when moving across time zones". 166.0 (Eclair)".com. 2010.^ "Platform Versions". The reported problems have been limited to an Android developer contest[. http: //www. InfoWorld.^ "Issue 719: enhanced low-level Bluetooth support". and every application cont inues to work fine..
ISBN 0596521472.com/catalog/9780596521509.). Chris (July 21. 2008).). O'Reilly Media.com. Retrieved 2010-11-03.com/article2/0. 179. 2008).c om. Collins. 2009).google. 2009).  Bibliography Ed. Jerome (July 30. "Google dubs Oracle suit 'attack on Java comm unity'". http://www.). 2009). http://www.com/s/article/9180678/Update_Oracle_sues_Google_o ver_Java_use_in_Android?taxonomyId=13.apress.co. http://code. Frank.aspx?isbn=0321627091. 2009). Satya. ISBN 0321627091. Retrieved 2010-11-03. 181.  External links Wikinews has related news: Google Android smartphone sales triple in the UK thi s year Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Android (operating system) Official Android page Android Open Source Project Android Market Android Developers Android Developers Blog Android Brand Guidelines Google Projects for Android from Google Code .java. http://www.^ a b James Niccolai (2010-08-12).2367761.com.^ Brett Smith (September 8. Rogers.uk/2010/08/16/google_oracle_and roid_lawsuit/.asp.com/doc/35811761/Oracle-s-complaint-against-Google-for-Jav a-patent-infringement. 180.2817. http://www. ISBN 14302 10648. Sayed Y. http://www. pcmag.wrox. http://www. ISBN 14302241 93. Retrieved 2010-11-03. http://www.^ Ed Burnette (August 12.net. google. Manning. Unlocking Android: A Developer's Guide (1st ed. http://www. McGrawHill Osborne Media. Charlie.apress. http://weblogs. Darcey.com/WileyCDA/WroxTitle/Pro fessional-Android-Application-Development. 2010).).00.content. http://pragp rog.apress. Dave (February 26. Wrox Press. 178. "Oracle Sues Google Over Android Java Use". Retrieved 2010-08-13.). Google and the threat of software patents". http://oreilly.org/news/ oracle-v-google/?searchterm=Oracle.net/blog/opin ali/archive/2010/08/17/android-java. Android: Introducing Google's Mobile De velopment Platform (2nd ed. ISBN 1430226595.nt". John. Mark (June 26. "Oracle uses James Gosling patent to attack Google and Android developers". http://www.productCd-0470344717. Blake (May 1. ISBN 0071599886.scribd.com/book/view/1430210648. Addison-Wesley Professional. Retriev ed 2010-12-03. http://www. 182. Free Software Foundation. Beginning Android (1st ed. scribd. http://www.^ Mark Hachman. Conder. Lombardo. informit.mhprofessional. "FSF responds to Oracle v.zdnet. Professional Android Application Development (1 st ed. ISBN 1933988673. Andr oid Application Development: Programming with the Google SDK (1st ed. Ableson. Burnette (November 10. Robi (May 1. Meier. Haseman. http://www.manning. 177.computerworld. Apress.). ISBN 1934356492. Pro And roid 2 (2nd ed. Mednieks. Retrieved 2010-08-24. MacLean.com/product. Komatineni. Android a programmers guide (1st ed. 2010).). Java. The Register.com/book/view/14302 26595. Apress. ZD Net. 176. Apress. Hello. Android Wireless Application Development (1st ed. Android Essentials (1st ed.^ "Oracle's complaint against Google for Java patent infringement". Meike. Zigurd.com/blog/burnette/orac le-uses-james-gosling-patent-to-attack-google-and-android-developers/2035?tag=ma ntle_skin. http: //www.^ "Android and Java comparison". Retrieved 2010-08-20.).^ Cade Metz (August 16. Hashimi.com/store/product. "Oracle sues Google over Java use in Andr oid". Murphy.). 2010).html.com/titles/eband2/hello-android.theregister.com/p/android/issues/detail?id=8686. Lauren (September 7. ISBN 0470344717. DiMarzio.php?i sbn=0071599886&cat=112. 2010).. Sen. Shane. Rick. Pragmatic Bookshelf.com/ab leson/. Reto (November 24.com/book/view/1430224193. 2009).pcmag. 2008). Retrieved 2010-11-03.fsf.
Open Handset Alliance) Development Android SDK · Apache Ant · Basic4android · Dalvik · Developer Challenge · Ecli pse · Google Code · Google App Inventor · Google I/O User interfaces HTC Sense · Motorola Motoblur · Samsung TouchWiz · Sony Ericsson UX Apps Earth · Goggles · Gmail · Maps · Sky Map · Talk · Translate · Voice · YouTube Services Android Market Lists Android based devices · Android related topics [show]v d eAndroid devices See also: Comparison of Android devices Smartphones Acer beTouch E110 · Liquid A1 · Liquid E (Ferrari) · Liquid Stream S110 CSL CSL Spice Dell Mini 3 · Streak Garmin Nüvifone HTC Corporation Aria · Desire · Desire Z (T-Mobile G2) · Desire HD · Dream (T-Mobile G1) · Glacier (T-Mobile myTouch 4G) · Hero (Droid Eris / T-Mobile G2 Touch) · Droid Inc redible · Legend · Magic (Sapphire / T-Mobile myTouch 3G) · Tattoo (Click) · Evo 4G ( Supersonic) · Google Nexus One · Espresso (T-Mobile myTouch 3G Slide) · Wildfire Huawei T-Mobile Pulse · U8230 · IDEOS(U8150) LG Group GW620 Eve · GT540 Optimus · KH5200 Andro-1 · LU2300 Optimus Q · VS740 Ally · KU95 00 Optimus Z Motorola Charm · CLIQ XT · Droid (Milestone) · Droid X · Droid 2 (Milestone 2) · Droi d Pro · i1 · Backflip · Devour Samsung Group i7500 (Galaxy) · Moment (SPH-M900) · i5700 (Spica) · i9000 Galaxy S · Intercept · Google Nexus S Sony Ericsson Xperia X8 · Xperia X10 Mini · Xperia X10 Mini Pro · Xperia X10 Tablet computers Archos Archos 5 (Archos Generation 6) · Archos 5 (Archos Generation 7) · Archos 7 · Archos 8 Dell Streak (Mini 5) Lenovo LePad .Android Wiki Sergey Brin introduces the Android platform at YouTube Android: Building a Mobile Platform to Change the Industry lecture given by Goog le Mobile Platforms Manager.. Android (operating system) at the Open Directory Project [show]v d eAndroid (Google Inc. Richard Miner at Stanford University (video archive ).
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786 full -time (Jun.80 billion (FY 2008.wikipedia. 30.org/wiki/Android_(operating_system)" Categories: Smartphones Embedded Linux Google Mobile Linux Cloud clients Mobile phone operating systems Mobile open source Android (operating syst em) Google acquisitions Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead ex .org · Googleplex · History · Hoaxes · Fiber · Illegal flower tribute · I'm Feeling Luc y · I/O · Labs · Logo · Lunar X Prize · Monopoly City Streets · Products · Ventures · WiFi Annual revenue: US$21. 31% from 2007) · Employees: 19.com [show]v d eLinux operating system Linux Adoption · Comparison with Windows · Criticism · (Criticism of Desktop Linux) · Hi story · Kernel (kernel names · supported architectures) · Linus' Law · Linux Foundation · Linux-libre · Tux Distribution Distribution (general comparison · netbook-specific comparison · Lightw eight Linux distribution) · Live CD · Live USB · Package formats GNU Free Software Foundation · GNU · GNU GPL · GNU/Linux naming controversy · GNU packag es · GNU Project Window manager X Window Manager · AfterStep · Blackbox · CTWM · Enlightenment · FVWM · Hack dbox · IceWM · Metisse · OLVWM · PLWM · PWM · Sawfish · vtwm · wm2 · wmx · Xmonad User interface CLI · GUI · GNOME · KDE · Xfce · LXDE Applications Desktop · Devices · Embedded · Gaming · LAMP · Thin client People Jono Bacon · Alan Cox · Jon 'Mad Dog' Hall · Benjamin Mako Hill · Greg Kroah-Hart man · David S.net · O3 Ma azine · Phoronix Lists Devices · Distributions · Distributions that run from RAM · Live CDs · Proprietary software for Linux System arrangement and features Startup process · Console · Framebuffer · Kernel modules Mobile Access Linux Platform · Android · bada · LiMo Foundation · LiMo Platform · Linux Ph one Standards Forum · MeeGo (Maemo · Moblin) · Mobilinux · Open Handset Alliance · Openmok o · OPhone · webOS · SHR · Ubuntu Mobile Other topics Linux conference · Linux Documentation Project · Malware · Linux Standard Base · Linux User Group (LUG) · Revolution OS · SCO and Linux · Tanenbaum Torvalds debate · The Code Retrieved from "http://en. Miller · Andrew Morton · Ian Murdock · Bruce Perens · Daniel Robbins · Mark huttleworth · Richard Stallman · Linus Torvalds · Theodore Ts'o · Patrick Volkerding · Mat t Zimmerman Media Free Software Magazine · Linux. LSE: GGEA) · Motto: Don't be ev il · Website: www.· Instant Search) · Analysis: Insights for Search · Trends Discontinued Answers · Browser Sync · Click-to-Call · Dodgeball · GOOG-411 · Lively · Mashu Editor · Page Creator · SearchWiki · Video Marketplace · Web Accelerator Related Acquisitions · Bomb · Criticism · Doodles · Foundation · Google China · Google TV · ogle. 2009) · Stock symbol: (NASDAQ: GOOG.com · Linux Format · Linux For You · Linux Gazette · Linux Journal · Linux-Magazin · Linux Magazine · Linux Outlaws · LugRadio · LWN.google.
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