MANGO CULTIVATION

1. INTRODUCTION
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) belonging to Family Anacardiaceae is the most important commercially grown fruit crop of the country. It is called the king of fruits. India has the richest collection of mango cultivars.

2. BACKGROUND
3.1 Origin Cultivation of mango is believed to have originated in S.E. Asia. Mango is being cultivated in southern Asia for nearly six thousand years. 3.2 Area & Production India ranks first among world’s mango producing countries accounting for about 50% of the world’s mango production. Other major mango producing countries include China, Thailand, Mexico, Pakistan, Philippines, Indonesia, Brazil, Nigeria and Egypt. India’s share is around 52% of world production. An increasing trend has been observed in world mango production averaging 22 million metric tonnes per year. Worldwide production is mostly concentrated in Asia, accounting for 75% followed by South and Northern America with about 10% share. Production mangoes in India during 2006-2007 were shown in below table. Producing States are Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka,

Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Other States where mangoes are grown include Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Haryana, Punjab etc. (Ref. Table-1) The state-wise area and production of mangoes are given in Table 1 below: Table 1 : State-wise Area, Production & Productivity of Mangoes during 2006-2007 State
ANDHRA PRADESH \UTTAR PRADESH KARNATAKA BIHAR OTHERS GUJARAT MAHARASHTRA TAMIL NADU WEST BENGAL KERALA ORRISA

Production In Tonnes
3194300.00 2673300.00 1236800.00 1222700.00 809100.00 772100.00 638600.00 537800.00 513300.00 511100.00 428800.00

Percentage Share in Total
25.48 21.32 9.86 9.75 6.45 6.16 5.09 4.29 4.09 4.08 3.42

Total

12,537,900

Source : Database of National Horticulture Board, Ministry of Agriculture , Govt. of India.

3.3 Economic Importance The fruit is very popular with the masses due to its wide range of adaptability, high nutritive value, richness in variety, delicious taste and excellent flavour. It is a rich source of vitamin A and C. The fruit is consumed raw or ripe. Good mango varieties contain 20% of total soluble sugars. The acid content of ripe desert fruit varies from 0.2 to 0.5 % and protein content is about 1 %. Raw fruits of local varieties of mango trees are used for preparing various traditional products like raw slices in brine, amchur, pickle, murabba, chutney, panhe (sharabat) etc. Presently, the raw fruit of local varieties of mango are used for preparing pickle and raw slices in brine on commercial scale while fruits of Alphonso variety are used for squash in coastal western zone. The wood is used as timber, and dried twigs are used for religious purposes. The mango kernel also contains about 8-10% good quality fat which can be used for saponification. Its starch is used in confectionery industry. Mango also has medicinal uses. The ripe fruit has fattening, diuretic and laxative properties. It helps to increase digestive capacity.

4. MARKET ANALYSIS AND STRATEGY
4.1 Demand and Supply patterns 4.1.1 World Trade

Their supplies come mainly from India. Each exporting country has its own varieties. Japan. United Kingdom. its dominance does not translate into international trade. the prices vary with the season. In the United States of America. Thailand. 4. European Union buyers source mangoes from South America and Asia. Singapore. mango ranks only second to pineapple in quantity and value. Most international trade in fresh mangoes takes place within short distances. Although Asia accounts for 75 percent of world production.1. Malaysia.Among internationally traded tropical fruits. Australia. Germany. Pakistan. Prices are very low for Indonesian and Thailand fruit and are on the higher side for Indian fruit. Haiti and Brazil account for the majority of North America’s imports. colour and flavour. Australia and most recently South Africa.2 International Markets for Indian Mango . when mango availability is lowest. Indonesia. India and Pakistan are the predominant suppliers to the West Asian market. Mexico. Philippines. while for canned mango were: Netherlands. France and USA. Hong Kong and the Netherlands. higher prices found during February and March. which differ in shape. Southeast Asian countries get most of their supplies from the Philippines and Thailand. Southeast Asian buyers consume mangoes all year round. Major markets for fresh and dried mangoes were: Malaysia.

About 13. because of a large demand from Asian immigrant groups. India and Pakistan are able to compete with non-Asian suppliers to the European Union. Indian exports take place mainly during the month of May. Transportation costs are not as big a factor in exporting mangoes to the European Union as in exporting to the United States market: for example.000 MT of Alphonso variety is exported to Middle East. Brazil provided chiefly during the period November to December.Asian producers find it easier to expand sales to the European Union. UK and Netherlands every year. Although a lion’s share of Indian mango goes to the Gulf countries. South Africa during January to April and Venezuela during April to July. whereas United Kingdom imports are concentrated during the May to July. Phytosanitary restrictions are less stringent. American and Asian markets. . with peak imports in June. Of the top suppliers. Pakistan supplies the majority of its exports to the European Union during June and July. the United States during June to October. French imports reach peak in April and May. German imports are spread more evenly throughout the year. efforts are being made to exploit European. Europe’s acceptance of different varieties is greater. Fifty-four percent of European Union imports enter during the periods May to July and November to December. whereas proximity gives Mexico and Haiti a clear advantage in supplying to the United States market.

. Kuwait. grading packing line etc. New Delhi and Maharashtra State Agricultural & Marketing Board (Pune). Tomy Atkin. The varieties in demand at the international market include Kent.99 lakh in 2006-2007. Singapore and U. pickles. jam. Bahrain. Dashehari. nectar and slices. Lakh. Kesar. Quantity in MT) . pack house. Facilities like pre-cooling. France. Besides these. Nepal. 4. squash.K. The trend in export of mangoes during (Value in Rs. Malaysia.K. This was mainly formed to boost the export of Alphonso mangoes as well as for domestic marketing. U. Varieties such as Alphonso. a co-operative society was established in 1991 with the support of Maharashtra State Agricultural & Marketing Board (Pune). Kuwait and Russia.The different products of mango which are exported include mango chutney.. cold storages. A similar type of association named ‘MANGROW’ has been formed for the export of Kesar mangoes from Aurangabad district of Maharashtra. ‘Mahamango’.193.A. Banganapalli and several other varieties that are currently in demand in the international markets are produced and exported from India. Alphonso and Kesar. the fresh mangoes are being exported to Bangladesh.2 Import/Export trends India's mango exports were 79.060. pulp. These are being exported to U. juice.88 MT worth Rs 14. have been made available at the facility centre of Mahamango for which the financial assistance was given by APEDA.S.

055.08 167.03 63.400.52 1.06 0.18 0.72 0 0 23.25 29.77 20.304.83 0.42 0 20.09 0 23.05 1.503.74 23.94 2.29 3 0.581.72 49.66 9.24 0.2 3.86 170.88 0.2 0.24 160.3 21.92 57.06 84.74 0.84 4.15 28.49 0 1.38 44.01 Value (2004-2005) 2.81 242.9 1.14 0.19 8.58 0 0 0.9 0 61 0 2 0 20.84 680 0 5.98 442.308.28 707.03 18.29 28.29 0 0 0 QTY (2005-2006) 26.55 4.69 19 4.39 14.59 620.52 47.68 1.045.994.971.7 0.83 75.88 20 158.85 0.5 0 0 0 0.82 34.27 1.33 9.84 49.04 489.21 0 21 0 0 34 0 0 Value (2005-2006) 7.09 6.15 10 0 0 0.22 242.36 22.300.46 0.25 0 0.53 74.67 5.116.74 3.93 322.78 32.54 2.32 230.56 91.8 118.47 29.32 244.08 8.02 0.E.84 40.883.06 0.07 4.41 86.47 0 0 19.64 747.44 0 0 1.5 40 3.36 34.52 1.68 123.31 0.8 1.73 1.63 143.6 2.85 7.56 0.54 90.94 18 58.45 41.66 745.01 0 Value (2006-2007) 6.57 1.05 0 0.16 0 0.87 54.66 260.88 4.5 9.766.01 0.03 0 1 117.903.62 0.Country U.76 32.79 228.01 116.45 323.8 136.39 0 0 54 0 0.5 0.32 243.31 0 0 0 0.34 0 0.31 1.17 0.77 269.55 0 0 83.78 150.3 0.56 3.8 25.97 4.29 0 5.4 0 2.45 214.3 33.68 0.52 3 0.97 0.49 13.02 0.1 0 0.61 32.5 31.97 6.3 27.83 1.01 0 0 0 .A.15 104.36 48.95 1.40 2.75 18.2 0 2.16 40.4 39.77 4.69 43.22 1.72 60.69 9.66 17.99 75.72 84.49 3.6 21.02 0.89 11.18 1.53 28.65 0 0.01 0.05 45.19 9.83 4.65 105.3 0 68.25 1.14 6.79 13.6 1.97 0 0 0 0.31 0 0.09 0.02 0.02 0.11 58.83 6.14 0.68 0.36 537. DENMARK SOUTH AFRICA PORTUGAL SRI LANKA ALGERIA INDONESIA GEORGIA QTY (2004-2005) 10.86 0.69 159.15 9.99 21.71 332.86 70.24 226.46 42.02 3.96 848.12 7.29 0 2.83 8.02 0.88 44.564.4 0 0 18.88 5.27 0.09 0.S.56 428.323.76 131.5 0 13.33 23.8 212.79 3.64 4.90 839.K.8 10.5 0.533.2 107.141.88 0 0 0 0.89 171.44 63.03 0.887.55 38.338.770.26 422.4 41. NEPAL SAUDI ARABIA KUWAIT BAHRAIN SINGAPORE OMAN SWITZERLAND MALAYSIA NETHERLANDS JAPAN QATAR CANADA GERMANY HONG KONG BELGIUM FRANCE YAMEN ARAB REPU UKRAINE AUSTRALIA BRUNEI KOREA REPUBLIC BARBODOS RUSSIA MALTA CONGO NORWAY OTHER COUNTRY VIETNAM BHUTAN ITALY SPAIN MALDIVES PAKISTAN SWAJILAND CAYMAN ISLANDS AUSTRIA NEWZEALAND THAILAND POLAND BAHAMAS BOSNIAHRZGOVIN SWEDEN CHINA EGYPT TURKEY U.17 0. BANGLADESH U.1 0.19 82.49 8.98 0.25 0 0 QTY (2006-2007) 22.53 267.44 14.17 0.51 42.A.8 1.18 0 0 42.07 0.32 0.01 0.01 1.26 0 17.27 0 0 5.21 131.7 185 532 237.79 14.79 74.01 243.

mango stones.4. rapid transit. . Similarly. refrigerated transportation. There is scope to establish mango preservation factories in cooperative sector. the mango industry has provided livelihood opportunities to its growers and those involved in its marketing channel. Mango growers cooperatives on the lines of Mahamango need to encouraged to come up in major mango producing States. packaging and quality control are the important aspects which needs more attention. e. This will add to their income through processing and create additional employment opportunities for the rural people. Creation of essential infra-structure for preservation. processing.g. cold storage. This will also help to improve sanitary conditions around factory premises. peels remain unutilized which can be used properly by the processors to earn more profit. grading. There is need for developing processing industries in the southern region of the country where post harvest losses in handling and marketing are higher.3 Analysis and Future Strategy Mango has an established export market and poses bright opportunities for export in the international market whether in fresh or processed forms. Considerable amount of waste material.

but in combination with low humidity and high winds.5 to 7. Strong winds and cyclones during fruiting season can play havoc as they cause excessive fruit drop. rain during fruit development is good but heavy rains cause damage to ripening fruits. 5. It thrives well in almost all the regions of the country but cannot be grown commercially in areas above 600 m. especially when the tree is young. It cannot stand severe frost. aerated and deep soils rich in organic matter with a pH range of 5. well drained. Rain during flowering is detrimental to the crop as it interferes with pollination. Mango varieties usually thrive well in places with rainfall in the range of 75375 cm. High temperature by itself is not so injurious to mango.2 Growing and Potential Belts Mango is cultivated in almost all the states of India. The state-wise growing belts are given in the following : . /annum and dry season. Dry weather before blossoming is conducive to profuse flowering. Loamy. PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY: 5.5. alluvial. However.1 Agro-climatic requirements Mango is well adapted to tropical and sub-tropical climates. it affects the tree adversely.5 are ideal for mango cultivation. The distribution of rainfall is more important than its amount.

Bangalora. East and West Godavari. Malappuram Rewa. Bilaspur. Bombay Green . Katni. Rajgari. Durg. Lucknow. Suvernarekha Alphonso. Bolangir. Vanraj. Malkanpuri. Theni. Satna. Bastar. Valsad. Adilabad. Palakkad. Junagarh. Langra. Khamman. Dumka. Himsagar. Sindega. Madurai Almora. Gumla. Haridwar Saharanpur. Bangalore. Raigarh Sonepur. Tiruvallur. Dehradun. Kolar. Surat. Kathwa. Kagu Kannur. Khera Karnal. Each of the main varieties of mango has an unique taste and flavour. about 1. Kishen Bhog. Bageshwar. Jabalpur. Hazaribagh.State Andhra Pradesh Chhattisgarh Gujarat Haryana Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Tamil Nadu Uttaranchal Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Growing belts Krishna. Nainital. Faizabad. Gunpur. Rayagada. Dashehari. Trissur.000 commercial varieties. Varanasi Malda. Tumkur. Nadia 5. Bastar Bhavnagar. Chittoor. Vishakhapatnam. Vellore.3 Varieties Cultivated In India. Gajapati. Based on time of ripening . varieties may be classified as under : Early Mid-season Bombai. Balagha Ratnagiri. Dhenkanal.500 varieties of mango are grown including 1. Raipur. Koraput. Udhampur Ranchi. Sindhudurg. Murshidabad. Puri Gurdaspur. Hoshiarpur. UdhamSingh Nagar. Kesar. Ramnandgaon. Mankurad. Sahibganj. Godda. Mehsana. Srikakulam. Bulandshahar. Ganjam. Vijaynagar Jabalpur. Ropar Dharmapuri. Kurushetra Jammu. . Banganapalli.

Jamadar. Himayuddin. Fazli Chausa. Arka Aruna (Banganapalli x Alphonso). Dashehari. Neelum. Langra Dashehari. Kishen Bhog. Langra. Dashehari. Gulabkhas Alphonso. Mallika. Suvernarekha. Chausa. Chausa. Bangalora. Mulgoa. Amrapalli. Dashehari. Chausa Hybrids: Amrapalli (Dashehari x Neelum). Pairi. Pairi. Langra. Langra. Sabri. Cherukurasam. Kesar. Bombay Green. Vanraj. Sarauli. Neelphonso. Neelum. Himsagar. Neeleshan. The important mango varieties cultivated in different states of India are given below : State Andhra Pradesh Bihar Goa Gujarat Varieties grown Allumpur Baneshan. Rajapuri. Mankurad Alphonso. Bangalora. Manjeera (Rumani x Neelum). Alfazli. Neelum. PKM 2 (very few of these hybrid varieties are grown commercially in the country). Mulgoa. Gulabi. Neelum. Fazli. Neelum. Sunder Langra. Sunderja. Totapuri Bathua. Langra. Mankurad Fazli. Totapuri Mundappa. PKM 1 (Chinnasuvernarekha x Neelum). Arka Neelkiran (Alpohonso x Neelum). Langra Jardalu. Rajapuri. Jawahar. Bombai. Chausa. Mallika (Neelum x Dashehari). Vanraj - Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra - . Mulgoa. Gulab Khas. Sindhu (Ratna x Alphonso). Bombai. Amrapalli. Mallika Alphonso. Fernandin. Fazli Fernandin. Sukul. Himsagar. Arka Puneet (Alphonso x Janardhan Pasand). Totapuri.Late - Zardalu. Baganapalli. Au Rumani (Rumani x Mulgoa). Ratna (Neelum x Alphonso). Dashehari. Olour. Mankurad. Banganapalli. Pairi Alphonso. Kesar. Neeleshwari. Zardalu.

Mulgoa. Totapuri Bombay Green. Chausa. Neelum.4 Planting 5. 5. Chausa. Himsagar. Gulabkhas. x 10m.2 Planting Season Planting is usually done in the month of July-August in rainfed areas and during February-March in irrigated areas. Safeda Lucknow. Langra. Mallika 5. Rumani. Kishen Bhog. 5.4. Fazli Bombai. Langra Banganapalli. Dashehari. Neelum. Mallika Dashehari. In case of heavy rainfall zones. Chausa. Fazli. Langra. inarching and epicotyl grafting etc. x 12m. a spacing of 8m.3 Spacing The planting distance is 10m.4. Bangalora. Dashehari. Malda Bombay Green.Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal - Baneshan. Suvarnarekha. Plants are generally propagated vegetatively by using several techniques like veneer grafting. and 12m. Amrapalli. in dry and moist zones respectively. Alphonso. Langra. Amrapalli.4. x 8m.1 Planting Material Mango can be propagated from seed or propagated vegetatively. Langra. planting is taken up at the end of rainy season. In the model scheme. with a .

N. P2O5.6 Nutrition Fertilizers may be applied in two split doses . Foliar application of 3 % urea in sandy soils is recommended before flowering. P2O5. Well decomposed farm-yard manure may be applied every year. K2O -do- *The doses applied in the subsequent years should be increased every year upto 10 years in the multiple of the first year’s dose. N. 100g. one half immediately after the harvesting of fruits in June/July and the other half in October. 5. 400g. in both young and old orchards followed by irrigation if there are no rains. 5. 500g. The following table gives the details of fertilizer applied (depending upon the age of the plants) : Age of the plant (in years) 1* 10 11 Fertilizer applied 100g. 50g. of P2O5 per . K2O 1kg. each of N and K2O and 200g.5 Training of Plants Training of plants in the initial stages of growth is very important to give them a proper shape specially in cases where the graft has branched too low. 1kg.population of 63 plants per acre has been considered which was observed to be common in areas covered during a field study. For trench application of fertilizers.

use of Drip Irrigation will not only reduce the water requirements but will also help in fertigation in root zones of the plants.7 Irrigation The frequency and amount of irrigation to be provided depends on the type of soil. Age of the plant (in Irrigation schedule years)/Growth stage 1 Irrigated at an interval of 2-3 days during dry season. prevailing climatic conditions. Micro-nutrients may be applied as per the requirement in the form of foliar sprays. 2-5 Irrigation interval. In case of . Generally intercrops are grown during the early years of plantation and hence frequency and method of irrigation has to be adjusted accordingly. The weed problem may not exist immediately after planting the mango crop but it is advisable to break the crust with hand hoe each time after 10-15 irrigations are applied. Irrigation should be given at 50% field capacity. rainfall and its distribution and lastly the age of the trees. 5. However. 5-8/ fruit set to maturity Irrigated after every 10-15 days Full bearing stage 2-3 irrigations after fruit set.plant should be provided. 5. The method usually followed for irrigating mango plants is basin irrigation.8 Intercultural Operations The frequency and the time of inter-culture operations vary with age of the orchards and existence of inter-crops. Frequent irrigation during 2-3 months prior to the flowering season is not advisable as it is likely to promote vegetative growth at the expense of flowering.4-5 days . No irrigation is required during the monsoon months unless there are long spells of drought.

post-monsoon period and in the last week of November.10. gram etc. bitter gourd. and spices like chillies can be grown as intercrops. black gram. tomato. plum etc. The partial shade loving crops like pineapple. vegetable crops such as cabbage.10 Crop Management 5. can be grown till these do not interfere with the main mango crop . ginger. brinjal. guava. the area between the basins should be ploughed at least three times in a year i. turmeric etc. 5. sesame and groundnut.fillers like papaya.10.mono-cropping. The average cost of inter cropping would be Rs. Regular . tinda.000 / Acre and it would yield on an average of 6 tonnes / Acres. cauliflower. oilseeds like mustard. less exhaustive and dwarf type inter. pumpkin. In addition to field crops. peach. lady’s finger etc. some short duration . during the pre-monsoon.9 Inter-cropping Intercropping can be taken up till the mango trees attain suitable height and develop canopy (at 5-6 years of age). cereals like wheat. potato.e. can be cultivated in fully grown orchards.. cucumber.1 Regulation of Bearing Proper cultural practices like addition of fertilizers and control of diseases and insect pests may be adopted to regulate growth and bearing.Leguminous crops like green gram.It is advisable to take vegetable crops as inter crops for better returns. 5.

climatic factors .11. 5. or 20 ppm. lack of nutrition.11. spraying with carbaryl. water) during ‘on’ year may help to regulate the bearing.1 Insect Pests Insect pests mostly observed are mealy bug. (20 g. For controlling these insects. 5. in 100 l. monocrotophos. 2.bearing varieties viz. Deblossoming of the panicles with NAA @ 200 ppm. phosphamidon & methyl parathion are recommended.4-D (2g.2 Regulation of Fruit Drop Embryo abortion. Dashehari and Amrapalli may be grown.10. disturbed water relation. hopper. A spray of Alar (B-Nine) @ 100 ppm./100 l. fruit fly and scale insects. attack of disease and pest. hormonal imbalances are the major factors that lead to fruit drop. 5.11 Plant Protection Measures 5. water) in the last week of April or in the last week of May will control to some extent the summer fruit drop in Langra & Dashehari.2 Diseases and Disorders . inflorescence midge.

On an average. Grafted plants start bearing early. In order to control these diseases spraying of appropriate chemicals/fungicides have to be undertaken preferably on preventive basis. The major among these are malformation.The crop is suspect to diseases like powdery mildew. sooty mould. etc. black tip. die back. Disorders can also affect the crop if proper case and control measures are not taken. Yield of fruits varies considerably according to the variety. 5. anthracnose.1 Grading . 6. blight. red rust. climatic conditions. POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT 6.12 Harvesting and Yield The orchard starts bearing from sixth year onwards and the economic life of a mango tree exceeds 35 years. plant population etc. fruit drop. The grower needs to seek advice and professional assistance to prevent/control diseases and disorders in the crop. biennial bearing. the yield ranges from 5 to 9 t/acre. clustering etc.

) in hot water at 52±20 C for 5 minutes. The most commonly used containers are ventilated card board boxes of corrugated fibre board (CFB) cartons. overripe. ethrel (1. Mallika and Amrapalli should be stored at 120 C.2 Storage The mature green fruits can be stored at room temperature for about 4-10 days depending upon the variety. Mature fruits are ripened with lower doses of ethrel for uniform colour development. colour and maturity of the fruits. 6. of fruit is used for packaging and transportation of mango fruits. 6. .Grading is mainly based on the size.3 Packing Wooden or cardboard boxes. smaller fruits are separated from the larger ones in order to achieve uniform ripening. Langra at 140 C and Chausa at 80 C with 85-90 % relative humidity. damaged and diseased fruits are discarded in the process of grading. Size of the box varies to accommodate 5 to 10 kg./l. While grading. The fruits are generally harvested early in the season at a pre-mature stage to capture early market. of fruit. Such fruits are ripened by uniformly dipping in 750 ppm. Immature. rectangular in shape and bamboo baskets having capacity to accommodate 5 to 8kg. within 4-8 days under ambient conditions. The fruits of Dashehari.8ml. The harvested fruits are pre-cooled to 10120 C and then stored at an appropriate temperature.

Bangalore-560089. • Indian Agricultural Research Institute.5 Marketing Marketing of the produce is mainly controlled by intermediaries like wholesalers and commission agents.6. Kakori. Tel (080)-28466471/6353. • Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology. • Indian Institute of Horticultural Research. • Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University. Tel (040)24015078. as well as quality planting material are: • Central Institute for Sub-tropical Horticulture. New Delhi-110012.4 Transportation Road transport by trucks is the most popular mode of transport due to easy approach from orchards to the market. . Hessarghatta. TECHNOLOGY SOURCES The major sources for technology. Karnataka. Uttar Pradesh. Hyderabad-500030. Rajendra Nagar. Tel (05270)2262097/2161. Andhra Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh. Kumarganj.O. Faizabad-224229. P. Lucknow-226002. 7. 6. Tel (0522)-2841022/1023.

Tel (02358)2282064.• University of Agricultural Sciences. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth. . ECONOMICS OF A ONE ACRE MODEL 8.  Synchronized growth. • Directorate of Horticulture. • Directorate of Horticulture. flowering and harvesting. Uttar Pradesh 8. Tel (02426) 2243208. Karnataka. Tel (0836)-2447783. Hyderabad. • Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth.1 High quality commercial cultivation of crop by using improved planting material and drip irrigation leads to multiple benefits viz. Bangalore. Rahuri-413722. • Directorate of Horticulture. Dapoli District. Dharwad-580005. Maharashtra.  Early maturity. Lucknow.  Reduction in variation of off-type and non-fruit plants.  Increase in average productivity.  Improved fruit quality. Maharashtra. Karnataka. Lalbagh. Pune.  High efficiency in water application and water use efficiency.  High fertilizer use efficiency. Shivajinagar. Maharashtra-560003 • Directorate of Horticulture. Andhra Pradesh. Ratnagiri-415712. • Dr.

1. . Costs & Returns: 8.50 lakhs per acre. A summary is given in the figure below.Minimum incidence of pests and diseases.2 A one acre plantation of the crop is a highly viable proposition. The project cost works out to around Rs. The cost components of such a model along with the basis for costing are exhibited in Annexures I & II.

if newly purchased (Please indicate the year)* Grand Total 2.4. No. 5.0 thousand): This is the labour cost of shaping and dressing the land site and developing a layout. 4.600 21. Component Cultivation Expenses (i) Cost of planting material (ii) Manures & fertilizers (iii) Insecticides & pesticides (iv) Cost of Labour (v) Others.4000 25.400 4. 3.50. 1. *Cost of newly purchased land will be limited to one-tenth of the total project cost 8.000 5.000 8. 6. (Power) Subtotal Irrigation (i) Tube-well/submersible pump (ii) Cost of Pipeline (iii) Others. if any.400 3. .000 45.000 5.600 1.000 25.3 The major components of the model are: Land Development: (Rs.000 29.COST OF PROJECT (Amount in Rs.000 5.000 2. if any.) Proposed Expenditure 2.000 Sl.600 33. please specify Subtotal Cost of Drip/Sprinkler Infrastructure (i) Store & pump house (ii) Labour room (iii) Agriculture Equipments Subtotal Land Development (i) Soil Leveling (ii) Fencing Subtotal Land.000 45.000 15.

10 thousand is included. The actual cost will vary depending on location. The actual cost will vary from location to location depending upon For investment on improved manually operated essential implements a provision . it is necessary to install a bore well with diesel/electric pumpset and motor.5.0 thousand): This is to cover costs of land preparation and planting operations.20.70 per man-day. Drip Irrigation & Fertigation System (Rs.45 thousand): For effective working with drip irrigation system.0 thousand): This is average cost of one acre drip system for mango inclusive of the cost of fertigation equipment.21.29.4 thousand): of another Rs.Fencing (Rs. Equipment/Implements (Rs. plant population and plot geometry.25. inputs and power. Building and Storage (Rs.0 thousand): A one acre orchard would require minimally a labour shed and a store-cum pump house. planting material. This is part cost of tube-well.60 thousand): It is necessary to guard the orchard by barbed wire fencing to safeguard the valuable produce from poaching. 8. Irrigation Infra-structure (Rs. Cultivation (Rs.4 Labour cost has been put at an average of Rs.

5 thousand per annum .5 Returns from the Project: In the development stage returns from inter-cropping are estimated at Rs.00 Capital subsidy Term loan Total 30.00 150.6 Balance Sheet: The projected balance sheet of the model is given at AnnexureIII.000 per tonne in this exercise. Annexure V.25. Project Financing: 8.00 share Rs.00 45. Thousand 8. Gross profit increases from Rs. The produce has been valued at Rs. There would be three sources of financing the project as below: Source Farmr’s 75.minimum wage levels or prevailing wage levels for skilled and unskilled labour. The yield from the plantation is estimated at 5 tonnes in the first year of bearing rising to 7 tonnes.7 Profit & Loss Account: The cash flow statement may be seen in Annexure IV. 8. projects the profit and loss account of the model.000 annually. 10.25.

43.3 thousand per annum in the first three years of bearing and thereafter more or less stabilize. .to Rs.

60 33.00 150. in thousand) Sr.00 5.00 25.40 75.20 2. 1 LAND & SITE DEVELOPMENT LAND Cost of Development Land Development Levelling & Dressing Fencing & Gates 2 BUILDING Store / Pump House Labour Shed PLANT & MACHINERY Irrigation system Borewell SIP sets & Electrical Installation Drip Irrigation inc. Particulars No.00 20.00 7.00 29.00 5. Fertigation system Farm Equipment Machinery COST OF CULTIVATION Land Preparation / Planting Planting Material Input Cost Power Cost Other Farm Operations Scale Acre Unit Cost Total Qty 1 Cost Acre Per Rft.00 4 Sub Total TOTAL .00 20.60 15.00 3.20 21. LS LS LS 25000 20000 25000 5400 1 1 1 1 Sub Total 25.60 7. Sq Ft. 150 100 3 Nos.00 Sq Ft.Annexure-I ESTIMATED PROJECT COST (Rs. 4000 35 1 846 Sub Total 100 50 Sub Total 4.40 4.

00 25.20 0.00 70.40 6.Annexure-II COST OF PRODUCTION & PROFITABILITY (Rs.70 10.80 5.30 32.50 10.40 0.30 31.50 6.30 33.00 4.50 43.50 24.30 39.80 3.40 0.80 5.80 5.50 43.60 7.00 4. W/O Profit before tax Taxes Profit After Taxes Retained Profit Net cash Accrual Year-I 50.60 6.60 8.30 6.10 Year-II 60.30 13.00 70.30 40.30 13.40 13.30 6.20 3.30 38.60 8.20 22.00 4.00 70.20 3.10 Year-V to XV 70.00 4.40 22.30 20.30 0.60 10.00 50.20 22.20 33.50 43.00 26.40 0.20 3.20 31.00 Year-III 70.10 .70 26.50 25.80 4.70 10.30 31.70 26.20 3.60 25.00 26.30 33.70 26. in thousand) Particulars Income Sales Cost Fixed Manure/fertilizers/chemicals Direct Labour cost Other cost Harvesting & transportation cost General expenses Gross profit Depreciation Interest -term loan Pre-operative Exp.00 60.30 6.30 32.00 24.10 Year-IV 70.20 32.50 34.00 4.20 3.70 10.20 29.00 26.60 8.

90 200.30 Year III 75.30 143.00 150.30 Year II 75.00 45.50 .40 6.40 40.00 13.00 150.Annexure-III PROJECTED BALANCE SHEET (Rs.80 177.50 150.00 30.00 35.50 224.40 Year IV 75.00 Year I 75.10 20.00 66.80 28.00 30.00 150.20 6.80 224.30 45. in thousands) Particulars LIABILITIES Farmer's Share Capital Subsidy Reserves & Surpluses Term Loan Total ASSETS Fixed Assets Less Depreciation Net Block Cash & Bank Balance Total Year 0 75.80 143.60 6.70 101.00 30.00 30.00 163.40 129.00 99.00 6.20 20.00 30.50 36.60 70.80 129.60 200.80 136.10 163.80 122.00 150.90 177.30 136.

85 30.94 101.10 8.00 30.18 6. in thousand) PARTICULARS SOURCES OF FUNDS Increase in Farmer's Share Net Profit Increase in Subsidy Depreciation Increase in Term Loan Total DEPLOYMENT Increase in Fixed Assets Decrease in Term Loan Total Opening Balance Surplus/Deficit Closing Balance Year 0 75.15 Year IV 32.90 29.10 Year II 22.18 8.31 6.18 8.85 8.79 .32 6.10 20.82 20.Annexure-IV CASH FLOW STATEMENT (Rs.28 6.82 39.82 29.81 40.10 20.19 40.18 8.19 20.00 - 20.95 70.82 38.00 150.00 150.19 70.13 150.00 Year III 31.90 8.00 Year I 13.00 45.

00 70.60 34.70 43.10 99.30 32.10 Year V 70.30 31.20 33.20 31.80 66.10 132.80 5.30 35.10 Year II Year III Year IV 60.80 99.30 32.30 6.50 6.80 5.00 26.00 26.10 26.80 4.70 43.80 3.40 .30 13.00 25.40 6.30 33.40 13.30 6.00 13.70 43.30 6.00 70. in thousands) Particulars Sales Realisation Total Costs Gross Profit Depreciation Pre-Operative Expenses W/O Interest on Term Loan Profit before Tax Taxes Profit after Tax Retained Profit Net Cash Accruals PROFIT & LOSS ACCOUNT Opening Balance Closing Balance Year I 50.20 22.00 24.10 0.30 13.30 38.20 22.20 29.30 40.Annexure-V PROJECTED PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT (Rs.20 32.80 5.30 13.30 33.50 25.30 39.30 20.50 66.40 22.30 31.50 35.

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