You are on page 1of 26

This document is being written for the person who wants to have a go

at something amazing and who doesn’t hold a degree in electrical


engineering or other such qualification.
Large 6000 gauss magnets have been chosen, with a 30mm pole face and iron core induction
coils with a 14mm square face. This may not be the best combination. The distance has been set
between the magnet and iron core at a nominal distance of 10mm as a starting point for this
experiment. If you choose a closer gap this will change drive requirements, i.e. more current so
subsequently higher voltage on the input stage.
This will also require a change to the duty cycle pulse duration from the computer.

The secret to efficient over-unity is to understand the two fields and their direct relationship to one
another. Factors to be aware of:-
1 surface area of your magnets;
2 surface area of your iron cores;
3 gap between the iron core and the magnets; and
4 rotational velocity, RPM.
This determines how long the key point of the magnets and iron cores are in direct relationship to
each other.

Refer to diagram below.


I use the term “collision point”. When you see or feel the motor generator in action you will
understand. Just make sure you choose a good solid base to put it on.

Here is a screen shot of the ignition pulse, timed exactly over the output sine wave. Note the
timing. This is critical.
The square part of the pulse is the drive time, delivered by the computer’s calculation so as to
precisely saturate the induced voltage current being generated by the magnetic field within the
coil, only lasting for .004 of a second. Also, this time applies specifically to the motor design. It is
at this point that the magnetic field generated by the induced current in the coil and the magnetic
field within the magnet are forced together by the kinetic energy of the magnet’s attraction to the
iron core. This conflict of forces causes the reactance of the coil to rise and current consumption
to fall and at the same time, breaking the magnet’s natural attraction to the iron core allowing the
magnet of the rotor stage to rotate on to the next pole and repeat the process once again.
It is important to note that if we were to energize the coil too soon, or allow the pulse duration to
continue on for a longer period of time, the drive coils would consume far too much electrical
current making any attempt at over-unity completely impossible.

This is the motor pictured.


Note: It is the drive stage that makes an over-unity motor.
The drive stage and how that is tuned is what will decide the gain of the motor generator or even
if over-unity is obtainable.

This is the 12 volt supply on the oscilloscope.

This is the 30 volt supply on the oscilloscope.

The strength of your magnets is important. You need to make note of the gauss rating of your
magnets so you can best determine the drive voltage required or at best give it some thought.
There is a suitable drive voltage, coil inductance and coil resistance that produces the correct
current flow, which in turn produces the correct magnetic field to produce the correct resonance
at the field collision point.

The voltage has been increased to the drive coils. There is an optimum drive voltage that will give
the best results. More is not better and too little won’t work. The current flow is increased at the
same ratio as dictated by Ohms’ law. This improves motor torque, making it possible to improve
output.
When the permanent magnet rotates towards the iron core of your inductors they are
naturally attracted to the iron as magnets do. At this point they build up kinetic energy
and without the appropriate magnetic field to release them they would stop there.

This is where we take over and switch on the coils to our electric magnets, delivering a
pulse to the stator coils and inducing current to flow.
The coil stator is wired so that current flow creates an opposing magnetic field to the
magnet that now directly faces it, forcing the demagnetization of the stator iron core and
neutralizing the lock of magnet to core. The rotor is now able to move on.
To our good fortune the current induced in the stator coils by the magnets on the rotor is
balanced with the injected pulse from our power source. This is where we start to see the
creation of over-unity, known as opposing the force that induced it.

This why we call it reactance, not resistance, because it is reactive to charges in the
magnetic filed within it.

Reactance rises as frequency increases in an inductor or copper coil, reducing current


flow. The same is true for a capacitor. It just works in the opposite direction.
If you want to understand this better, study inductance and reactance of EMF in an
inductor.

One observation seems to be that you will get better results if the drive coils are slightly
higher in resistance than the generator coils.
We have used 9 mille Henries with .9 Ohm coil resistance as drive coils and 5.6 mille
Henries with .6 Ohm resistance for generator coils.

The square part of the pulse is the drive time and it only last for .004 of a second. Also
this time applies specifically to the motor design. The timing pulse is controlled by two
main pieces of hard ware, i.e. the Hall Effect Sensor and the microprocessor. The Hall
Effect Sensor marks the position of the starting time of the trigger pulse. The micro
processor sets the duration of time of the pulse width.
These two main factors are very important when setting up the system for the amount of
over- unity you require and the amount of current you require at over-unity.

When you have determined the Hall timing location it can be set for good. The computer
can be used as the main control of the output.

By adjusting the parameters of the motor generator with the micro processor it will
become evident as to how over-unity will be used in the real world for home application.
I have already started laying down designs for a home unit that will be fully managed by
a computer, providing the best output as load requirements change.

Always keep in mind that the current consumption of the drive stage only matters if it
changes the over-unity ratio. It is not always important to make the drive stage run as
efficient as possible. It is only important to consider the gain ratio of the motor generator.
This is really an attraction motor. What gives this the ability to create motion and produce
current on the output coils is the attraction of the magnets to the iron core. The pulse
created by the drive electronics is so timed it does not provide any pushing from the
stator coils as a conventional induction motor would. It only neutralizes the lock.
What keeps the motor turning is the attraction of the magnets to the iron core.
This is energy gained on the way into the field.

What you see on the oscilloscope in the photos above is the square pulse wave timed over
the top of the sine wave. As you can see, precise timing is essential.

Pictured below is something we tested to determine how things would change.


Note in the photo below that the generator coils have no iron core. There was no benefit
to this configuration.
I recommend experimenting with different cores and coil types.
Parts you will require
The following parts only are recommended to replicate the exact experiment you see in
this document. Other configurations should work just as well.

All parts that are not specified as not requiring magnetic properties should all be non-
magnetic materials.

What I have tried to do with most parts is buy what is on the shelf.
My main goal was to make this possible for the novice, not so much the top end engineer,
although all are welcome to have ago.

1.) The Coils


I was able to obtain some large inductors from speaker crossover networks.
They are available at a good cost and are accurately manufactured. They have a
inductance rating coil resistance and wire gauge and most of all an iron core.
They work well for our demonstration.
L1, L2, L3, L4.

The magnets used here are rod magnets, 30 x 25.4mm N45 Rare Earth 6000 gauss.
Please take care: these magnets were dangerous to handle.
A PVC billet disc was used for the main rotor and should be plastic or aluminum (non
magnetic). It was 10mm thick x 150mm in diameter, with our magnets 24.5 mm. This
gives us a total diameter of 199 mm.

The base plate needs to be of a solid nature. Vibration will cause loses in performance.
PVC or aluminum (non magnetic materials only).

Our base plate PVC 500 x 500 x 15mm

I used aluminum support bracket for the coils.


You need to source a bearing for the rotor. This one is from an old hard drive. We had
the base plate machined to fit the bearing. you may have another approach.

These are small 5mm x 5mm trigger magnets fitted to the side of the rotor. They should
be installed south pole facing out to suit the pick up electronics, as the Hall Effect Sensor
is pole sensitive.
The Electronics
There is no easy way around this.

If this is to work across a wide range of voltages and load conditions.


You will need a accurate control system.

The control processor


You can contact me if you need one of these.
If you have any 555 knowledge the same thing should be achievable

MOSFET driver and board


this schematic is only for the hard core electronic enthusiasts
if you don’t have the skills for this don’t worry about it use more simple methods
R1
Shunt load resistor

Bridge rectifier

C1
5700 u farad
50 volt
Drive Coil Wiring
Schematic
Parts Continued
Hall devices.

There are many on the market.

I recommend one of the two types of hall


devices listed below.

1 US5781

2 UGN3503
SE Pin _ UA Pin _ Name Type Function
1 1 VDD Supply Supply Voltage pin
2 3 OUT Output Open Drain Output pin
3 2 GND Ground Ground pin
Table 2: Pin definitions and descriptions
SE package
This is a simplified circuit with out the processor that can be
constructed on vero board as seen below
The complete control system is available. Programmed and ready to
install.
It has been designed to deliver the multi trigger pulse seen above.
Start up and tune
With every thing in place connect the power supplier and give the motor a push.
Adjust the position of the Hall Effect device until you are able to achieve a balance
between rotational velocity and minimum current consumption. If you have an
oscilloscope the switching pulse will be seen over the top out going ac voltages sin wave.

As in the photo below


IF you have the electronics to adjust the drive pulse duration, setting this at around 3 to 5
mill seconds is a good start.. if you drive the magnets to far out side the magnetic field of
the coils. The coils will start to heat and efficiency will be lost.
It will be just another electric motor

Speed is not the goal constant efficiency is what we are after.