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Two students of the first Muslim school in Bombay, British India, contributed to Muslims in a major way. The first was a brilliant barrister, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan nation, also known as Quaid e Azam. The second was Abdullah Yusuf Ali whose translation of the Quran is the most used English translation of the Quran in the world. In 1940 Mohammad Ali Jinnah was instrumental in getting the Muslim League formally to adopt Dr. Mohammad Iqbal's vision of a separate state for Muslims. A year later, Jinnah summed up the implications of this vision of a separate state for Muslims with his customary eloquence: The ideology of the Muslim League is based on the fundamental principle that the Muslims of India are an independent nationality and any attempt to get them to merge their national and political identity and unity will not only be resisted but, in my opinion, it will be futile for anyone to attempt it. We are determined, and let there be no mistake about it, to establish the status of an independent State in this subcontinent. Click here to read more Quaid-e-Azam's Profile Pakistan: A Living Monument of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah: Father of Nation Time Line of Quaid-e-Azam Jinnah's Legacy to Pakistan- Lecture by Prof. Stanley Wolpert Life of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah Jinnah: The Founder of Pakistan Jinnah's Vision What do we mean by Pakistan? - Muhammad Asad Time now to recall Quaid's warning to Muslim World - Sharif-ul-Mujahid Speeches of Jinnah NEW Address from All India Radio - 3rd June 1947 NEW Public Meeting at Dhaka - 21st March, 1948 NEW Pakistan Constituent Assembly - 14th August, 1947 Address to the Nation - 15th August, 1947 Message to the people of Australia - 19th February, 1948 Public Address at Peshawar - 20th April, 1948 Inaugaration of State Bank of Pakistan - 1st July, 1948 [Last Recorded Speech of Quaid-e-Azam] Jinnah: A Closer Look Jinnah - The Movie is in essence a glowing tribute to a man who hasn't only left behind him a legacy, a nation of devouts, but is also revered by an age as one of the greatest statesmen in the history of mankind. The story of a man, whose unflinching resolve and single minded devotion, resulted in the creation of a homeland for the Muslims of the sub-continent. Read its reviews at Inside Out Jinnah Review The March of Time was one of the most famous US weekly newsreel series. In the early 1940's, when wartime rationing limited international newsreel coverage, The March of Time sent a crew to India and
It could only do so by whipping up communal sentiments and identifying the Congress as a party only of the Hindus. otherwise. that Nehru said that the Congress would enter the Constituent Assembly unfettered by any agreement. on August 15th. till Nehru made his fateful observation. . George Abell. One was Gandhi's offer to Jinnah to be prime minister. Jinnah did not have the kind of unflattering image as he would later have in India. In arguing his case against the Congress's claim to represent all the communities in India. "India in Crisis" and "India at War" (May and June 1942). therefore. Jinnah's career in politics can be divided into two halves. Even if Gandhi's suggestion is seen as utopian and "unrealistic". As is obvious. to the Pakistan Constituent Assembly which Advani referred to while in Pakistan. he did not believe in it as ardently as he claimed. Jinnah floated his twonation theory. which portrayed Hindus and Muslims as belonging to two separate "nations". 1947. the reason is. as he was called by Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Sarojini Naidu in the 1920s and 1930s. There were two opportunities. which also depicted a few shots of Jinnah. Arguably. And the other was the Cabinet Mission plan. no student of Indian history can forget his role as the "ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity". for. The first half saw him in the secular camp. engaged in the task of bringing Hindus and Muslims together. it nevertheless shows that on the eve of partition.-killed million people. as Maulana Abul Kalam Azad says in his book "India Wins Freedom". Quaid's Address to the Nation Listen to a thought-provoking address of Muhammad Ali Jinnah over the radio from Lahore. as Nehru had said. therefore. That image is the result of the communal riots that accompanied the division of the country and in the aftermath of the call for "direct action" given by the Muslim League in August 1946. Jinnah used this disclaimer to withdraw his acceptance of the Cabinet Mission plan and call for "direct action". expressed the fear that there might be a civil war since Jinnah's cabinet would be wholly subordinate to the Congress majority in the central legislature while the civil servant VP Menon said that the move might create political complications since it would "place Jinnah in the position of having to adjust his views to those of the Congress". Mosoleum Mazar-e-Quaid Mosouleum of Quaid-e-Azam Date/Time Last Modified: 6/3/2004 8:15:31 AM Readers' Comment MUSTUFA JATOI: 6/13/2005 7:31:42 AM the idea of the Quaid-e-Azam as the prime minister. 1947. to a country then only a few hours old. This stance followed the resounding defeat suffered by the League at the hands of the Congress in the 1937 elections which convinced Jinnah and other Muslim leaders that their party had little chance of defeating the seemingly all-powerful Congress in the foreseeable future. Each ten minute program.produced two complete 35mm film newsreels. But the second half of Jinnah's political career undoubtedly saw him abandoning secularism for the sake of communal politics. he would not have accepted the Cabinet Mission's plan for a federal India in which the Muslim-majority states of what is today Pakistan and Bangladesh would have been a part of the Union of India. which had secured the approval of both the Congress and the Muslim League. That his belief in secularism never died is evident from the speech on August 11. one of Mountbatten's aides. for avoiding the partition. was seen by millions across the US before regular cinema programs. as when he projected the Muslim League as the only party which could save the Indian Muslims from coming under a Hindu raj ushered in by the Congress after independence. Notwithstanding these negative aspects of Jinnah's politics. If this plan fell through. It is evidently this reputation of being the ambassador to which Gandhi was harking back when he wanted him to be the prime minister.
and each zone would have the right to OPT OUT of the federation in ten years if they so inclined. Rioting and killing of Muslims on any pretext was also a fact of life. Shah AzharAShah@aol. We know hat in a parliamentry form of government. I really appreciate for a wonderful site. The cabinet mission plan envisaged that India will be constituted in three zones. afzal mohammed: 10/18/2005 3:53:43 AM Jinnah was a traitor. He observed brutal killings of innocent people who were migrating to India. where as many as 8000 Muslims were put to death. Jatoi makes it look like Quaid-e-Azam raised the flag of two nation theory to further his own leadership. the whole propognanda to rewrite the history by accusing the Indian leaders can not prove the truth. we could have avoided partition. the prime minister would have been bound by their decisions and policies. the prime minister has to follow the guidelines set by the majority party. Acceptance of this new interpretation put forth by Nehru would have put Muslims under the rule of Hindu majority for all times. Mr. Muslim restaurants were a fact of life on all railway stations in India.8m. but it was the Hindu majority which fanned the hatred and after the incidents in Calcutta and Noakhali. "Killing of humanity". My father was posted at Queta in the Army at the time of partition. Lawrence Joseph: 10/2/2005 6:39:14 PM Thank you for wonderful site to know about Pakistan. and further no law will be passed by the constituent assembly affecting a minority without the approval of that minority. For God's sake. His position would have been no better than the Muslim presidents elected in India who had no real power.(it is happening in India even today witness the latest riots in Gujarat). In addition blatant communal partisanship shown by these ministries was another factor in the renewed popularity of Muslim League. Read articles by Mr.com Mir Nawab: 9/18/2005 6:03:46 PM Why you are blaimimg killing muslims in India? We killed more muslims in Pakistan than in India. When Nehru said that the constituent assembly would not be bound by any prior agreements. Hindu mobs came out with full force and attacked and slaughtered Muslims in Bihar. please do not put wrong stories of partition. On this website.allama-mashriqi. Since Hindus would have enjoyed overwhelming majority in any federal government. what would have happened after the death of Quaid-e-Azam. Still I can not forget the words he spoke to us. Gen Tuker in his book "while memory serves"). My son married to a woman from Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam ardently believed in the two nation theory. Muslim League and Congress accepted this plan with a clear and fundamental understanding that the zones would retain this right. and more often than not. We pakistanis always talk about jinnah as if he was . I have tried to set the recoed straight. Hindu restaurants. We did four times. it essentially scuttled the Cabinet Mission plan. Those of us who lived in India before partition can attest to the amount of prejudice that we Muslims had to face in India.allamamashriqi.Azhar A. Furthermore. Nasim Yousaf www. It is true that the Congress won overwhelmingly in the 1937 elections. (One of the lines in that song says that we worship Mother India. When Muslim students in schools were forced to sing "Bande Matram". Sardar Patel and Nehru and their mindset convinced him of the bleak future awaiting Muslims in an independent India dominated by Hindus. The only wrong and hatred site is the purposeful wrong history of partition of India. It created a backlash among the Muslims. but the actions of Hindu leaders like Gandhi. the police actively aided and abetted the rioters in their killing frenzy and after the riots were over. Shah: 8/2/2005 10:37:24 PM Gandhi's proposal to make Quaid-e-Azam the prime minister was a propaganda ploy. The direct action call by the Muslim League was meant to be peaceful. it was the Muslims who were prosecuted. (see Lt. but the actions of the Congress ministries in Hindu provinces are the catalysrt for the resurgence of Muslim League. Azhar A. It is true that Quaid-eAzam at one time worked for Hindu Muslim unity. Hindu drinking water. The truth is that we were part of united India and India never invaded Pakistan or any country. The Hindu majority would have been free to elect any Hindu as prime Minister and that would have been the end of Muslims in India. which is anethama to the Muslims as it smacks of polytheism).com manz: 8/6/2005 12:52:51 PM Visits web sites dedicated to Allama Mashraqi. Muslim drinking water.info www.
He demanded the inclusion of 14 points in the future Indian constitution that included 33% reservation for Muslims in the legislature and also in the ministries and simultaneously there were other issues but the congress and particularly Nehru ignored it all together. but everyone knows what happened after his death. If we read the memoirs of the first High Commissioner of India in Pakistan. Unfortunately. However. fundamentalists dubbed him the ³Protector General´ of Hindus. he too was committed to Hindu Muslim unity but his ways and means were completely different. He never wanted Shari at to be imposed in Pakistan and he also got the first national anthem written by Jagannath Azad. his mission became the division of India and he did everything. For all these actions. on Ataturk¶s model. fighting for just a home rule. With the influence of Gandhi. a Hindu. This fumigated Jinnah and the last effort from his side (as per his perception) to unite the two communities went futile. Gandhi¶s formula was of civil disobedience. However.some kind of a prophet. Gandhi was worried. He worked hard to preserve Hindu Muslim unity before but now his mission was to tear that apart. which is evident in lots of documents.they were hindus. and strike but through non-violent means while Jinnah¶s formula was to be critical of the rulers to the extent that it doesn¶t hurt anybody.muslims ruled India and according the muslims cronickers many hindus were killed. which he indeed was. Like Jinnah. he was slowly becoming one of the important leaders of India. but in reality he was a westernised politician who used people and sensitive issue of religion to get pakistan. We have to see all this with a neutral perspective. . Jinnah even wanted to come to Bombay and stay in his lavish mansion.but do not forget that Jinnah was behind the murders of many hindus because he initiated the direct action day. when Pakistan was created. till 30¶s he was very much comfortable in the company of Hindus and Parsis and used to enjoy pork and cigars.Pakistanis praise Jinnah and I understand it. When he started mobilizing the Muslims in his favour. His role model was Kamaal Ataturk (who is in fact the role model of Musharraf as well) and lots of his colleagues in the Muslim League resented it. he was indeed a brilliant barrister and an elite constitutionalist. He was weak in Urdu and exceptionally good in English. Jinnah opposed the government on lot of issues in the central legislature and argued brilliantly for the cause of India and of his own community. Jinnah wanted a big role for himself. although he was never comfortable to be with the downtrodden section of Muslims. In fact. Hence. Nehru and his followers in the congress were not taking this seriously but the damage was already done. His simplicity impressed the rural and urban folk alike and appealed to both Hindus and muslins. Jinnah was a nationalist in pre-thirties and did what he could to unite Hindus and Muslims. Dadabhai Nauroji and Gopal Krishan Gokhle influenced him. When Congress humiliated him. Incapable presidents.However many things are not clear. Coumarane: 10/28/2005 10:46:51 AM I read with great interest this site. which is reflected from his famous constituent assembly speech. Everything changed when Gandhi entered the Indian independence polity. Before the entry of Gandhi. Gandhi was facing the similar wrath from Hindu fundamentalists. This is not a sectarian issue because people of both communities were killed and the partition itself was responsible for death/destruction/displacement of over 2 million people. In Pakistan today no hindu can live freely. He (Jinnah) never wanted a big confrontation with the Britishers and was quite okay with the congress being an elitist organisation. People from pakistan do not know their own history. boycott. which resulted in his assassination.They do not know that the first inhabitants of this part of the world were hindus and that they were massacred in their owncountry:their only fault. a party he nurtured and was fond of at one point of time. which was contrary to his earlier belief. For more than 10 centuries. Jinnah had to change his strategy. He wanted a secular Pakistan. Jinnah was more inclined towards home rule or a dominion status for a united India while Gandhi¶s call was for complete independence.Many innocents hindus were killed only because they were hindus. Sandeep Kuulshrestha: 12/11/2005 11:42:28 PM Jinnah was neither a prophet nor a grass root Muslim leader. This should not be an issue of hatred between Hindus and Muslims as I see from the comments of few people on this forum. In fact it was Gokhle who said that Jinnah was the ambassador of Hindu Muslim unity. Jinnah was so adamant on Pakistan that he didn¶t mind people being killed all across India by his direct action call. It is very sad. Jinnah¶s vision was of a south Asian ³TURKEY´.In India a muslim can become the ppresident of India. Pakiastanis have an hidden agenda:to kill all hindus in India. He wanted Nehru to make sure that Jinnah House in Bombay be maintained at all times. we can conclude and say that everything was circumstantial and it was an ego clash of Jinnah with Congress.
They have got their land and they should mind their own business.The Voice turned in to the sonic boom of Freedom only when Congress turns in to Hinduress. His two nation theaory still as true as it was back then("Hindus and Muslims are two entirely different nations by any defination of nation"). It was stagnated approach of indian leaders which led him to raise voice for Muslims rights protection.Anyway.. India muslims. India is secular.... Pakistan is not.India may never re-produced as pure nationalist as Mohammad Ali Jinnah(The Quaid-e-Azam).. yet it was not a voice of independence but just a voice of birth right of muslims who at the moment were not 1000 years old invaders but just indians. Faraz Shahid: 7/3/2006 12:59:13 PM Well few people here are using a familiar tone here. Gandhi was a Mahatama indeed but Jinnah has been the most unique person in world history to achieve a separate country out of sheer determination. Pakistan does has that unfortunately. Now that it is created.. India is innovative with respect for freedom and life.He was respected by friends and foes alike. Muslim president in India is like giving the dog a bone..and who is commiting genocide of Muslim and christian minorities in Kasmeer and Asam. Still hundereds of muslims die in India and their religious places are being destroyed (Babri Masjid). why the hell people from pakistan want to compare themselves with India. sikhs and other minorities are indain subjects and I am sure that they are far better than minorities in Pakistan whose percentage considerably felled from 12% in 1947 to less than 2% now. There is no comparision between India and Pakistan but jealousy.. ..innumerable army coups have destroyed the vision of Jinnah. Who demolished mosques in Gujrat. please give up your obsession with India and use your energy constructively.. No doubt he was westernized but he was pragmatic and modern in his thinking although he used fundamentalism in reaching his goals... They don't even have guts to post their original name. Laraib Imtiaz: 4/7/2006 4:28:28 AM In Pakistan everyone lives freely.His leadership has given us the state of Pakistan and his legacy is as bright as the sun. I am not trying to show Pakistan low and bad but I am sick and tired of Pakistanis comparing themselves with India. pakistan is not. -----------------------------------------... Viewing all that if someone intentially wants to be a ignorant fool.be my guest Joe: 8/30/2006 9:21:34 AM I still fail to understand why pakistan was created in first place. No Democracy is perfect and so US also has problems of poverty and social issues including discrimination.. whatever means and resources he utilized for that. Who flatterend the golden temple.. who burnet the churches in christian riots in Maharashtra .. For God sake Pakistan. Every country has its own problems. Osman Din: 1/29/2006 7:10:00 PM Thank you so much for providing Jinnah's speeches. What Jinnah has done for us was impossible.hiding their identity behined rather loacal Pakistani names. Mian Mustafa Sajjad Hotiana: 4/2/2006 12:50:02 AM Jinnah was no doubt one of the greatest personalities of India at his time...... India is democratic.
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