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In the previous examples, in the case of the uniquely decodable code, the binary string left over after we had gone through an incorrect

decoding was not a codeword. In the case of the code that was not uniquely decodable, in the incorrect decoding what was left was a valid

codeword. Based on whether the dangling suffix is a codeword or not, we get the following test [11, 12]. We start with some definitions.

Suppose we have two binary codewords a and b, where a is k bits long, b is n bits long, and ^ < n. If the first k bits of b are identical to a, then

a is called a prefix of b. The last n — k bits of b are called the dangling suffix [11]. For example, if a = 010 and b = 01011, then a is a prefix of

b and the dangling suffix is 11. Construct a list of all the codewords. Examine all pairs of codewords to see if any codeword is a prefix of

another codeword. Whenever you find such a pair, add the dangling suffix to the list unless you have added the same dangling suffix to the list

in a previous iteration. Now repeat the procedure using this larger list. Continue in this fashion until one of the following two things happens:

1 • You get a dangling suffix that is a codeword.

2. There are no more unique dangling suffixes.

If you get the first outcome, the code is not uniquely decodable. However, if you get the

second outcome, the code is uniquely decodable.

Let's see how this procedure works with a couple of examples.

Example 2 . 4 . 1 :

Consider Code 5. First list the codewords

{0,01,11}

The codeword 0 is a prefix for the codeword 01. The dangling suffix is 1. There are no other pairs for which one element of the pair is the

prefix of the other. Let us augment the codeword list with the dangling suffix.

{0,01,11,1}

Comparing the elements of this list, we find 0 is a prefix of 01 with a dangling suffix of 1. But we have already included 1 in our list. Also, 1 is

a prefix of 11. This gives us a dangling suffix of 1, which is already in the list. There are no other pairs that would generate a dangling suffix,

so we cannot augment the list any further. Therefore, Code 5 is uniquely decodable.

• Example 2 . 4 . 2 :

Consider Code 6. First list the codewords

{0,01,10}

The codeword 0 is a prefix for the codeword 01. The dangling suffix is 1. There are no other pairs for which one element of the pair is the

prefix of the other. Augmenting the codeword list with 1, we obtain the list {0,01,10,1}

In this list, 1 is a prefix for 10. The dangling suffix for this pair is 0, which is the codeword for flp Therefore, Code 6 is not uniquely decodable.

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