Robotics is the engineering science and technology of robots, and their design, manufacture, application, and structural disposition

. Robotics is related to electronics, mechanics, and software.[3] The word "robot" was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel apek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), published in 1920. The term "robotics" was coined by Isaac Asimov in his 1941 science fiction short-story "Liar!"[4]

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1 History 2 Etymology 3 Components o 3.1 Structure o 3.2 Power source o 3.3 Actuation o 3.4 Sensing  3.4.1 Touch  3.4.2 Vision o 3.5 Manipulation o 3.6 Locomotion  3.6.1 Rolling robots  3.6.2 Walking robots  3.6.3 Other methods of locomotion o 3.7 Environmental interaction and navigation o 3.8 Human-robot interaction 4 Control 5 Autonomy levels 6 Dynamics and kinematics 7 Robot research 8 Education and training o 8.1 Career training o 8.2 Certification 9 Employment in robotics 10 Relationship to unemployment 11 Healthcare 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

[edit] History

Main article: History of robots See also: Robot Stories of artificial helpers and companions and attempts to create them have a long history. In 1921, Czech writer Karel apek introduced the word "robot" in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots). The word "robot" comes from the word "robota", meaning, in Czech, "forced labour, drudgery". [5] In 1927, the Maschinenmensch (³machine-human´), a gynoid humanoid robot, also called "Parody", "Futura", "Robotrix", or the "Maria impersonator" (played by German actress Brigitte Helm), the first and perhaps the most memorable depiction of a robot ever to appear on film, was depicted in Fritz Lang's film Metropolis. In 1942, Isaac Asimov formulated the Three Laws of Robotics, and in the process of doing so, coined the word "robotics" (see details in "Etymology" section below). In 1948, Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of cybernetics, the basis of practical robotics. Fully autonomous robots only appeared in the second half of the 20th century. The first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them. Today, commercial and industrial robots are in widespread use performing jobs more cheaply or more accurately and reliably than humans. They are also employed in jobs which are too dirty, dangerous, or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly, and packing; transport; earth and space exploration; surgery; weaponry; laboratory research; safety; and mass production of consumer and industrial goods.[6] Significance Descriptions of more than 100 machines First and automata, including a fire engine, a century wind organ, a coin-operated machine, and A.D. and a steam-powered engine, in Pneumatica earlier and Automata by Heron of Alexandria Date Created early humanoid automata, programmable automaton band[7] Robot Name Inventor Ctesibius, Philo of Byzantium, Heron of Alexandria, and others Robot band, handwashing automaton,[8] automated moving peacocks[9] Mechanical knight

1206

Al-Jazari

1495 1738 1837

Designs for a humanoid robot Mechanical duck that was able to eat, flap Digesting Duck its wings, and excrete The novel Spinoza introduced a humanoid automaton activated by inscribing Hebrew The Golem of Prague letters on its forehead based on Jewish

Leonardo da Vinci Jacques de Vaucanson Berthold Auerbach

the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov. Asimov was unaware that he was coining the term. in his science fiction short story "Liar!". First palletizing robot[12] First industrial robot with six electromechanically driven axes[13] Programmable universal manipulation arm.[14][15] The word robotics was derived from the word robot.1898 1921 1930s 1948 folklore Nikola Tesla demonstrates first radioTeleautomaton controlled vessel. based on Devol's patents[11] First installed industrial robot. published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction.U. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.R. (July 2009) [edit] Structure The structure of a robot is usually mostly mechanical and can be called a kinematic chain (its functionality being similar to the skeleton of the human body). he states that the first use of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround (Astounding Science Fiction.R. which was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel apek in his play R. since the science and technology of electrical devices is electronics.U. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. in some of Asimov's other works. However.[16] [edit] Components This section needs additional citations for verification. The chain is formed of links (its . March 1942). First fictional automatons called "robots" Rossum's Universal appear in the play R. from the Unimation company founded by George Devol and Joseph Engelberger. (Rossum's Universal Robots). which premiered in 1921. he assumed robotics already referred to the science and technology of robots. Robots Humanoid robot exhibited at the 1939 and Elektro 1940 World's Fairs Simple robots exhibiting biological behaviors[10] First commercial robot. a Unimation product Elsie and Elmer Nikola Tesla Karel apek Westinghouse Electric Corporation William Grey Walter George Devol George Devol Fuji Yusoki Kogyo KUKA Robot Group Victor Scheinman 1956 1961 1963 1973 1975 Unimate Unimate Palletizer Famulus PUMA [edit] Etymology According to the Oxford English Dictionary.

Robots used as manipulators have an end effector mounted on the last link. actuators (its muscles). Other structures.. are comparatively rare. Most contemporary robots use open serial chains in which each link connects the one before to the one after it. such as those that mimic the mechanical structure of humans.) radioactive source (such as with the proposed Ford car of the '50s). and joints which can allow one or more degrees of freedom. such as the Stewart platform. [edit] Power source At present. use a closed parallel kinematical chain. This end effector can be anything from a welding device to a mechanical hand used to manipulate the environment.. Some robots. mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used. may be interesting in a military context as feces of small combat groups may be reused for the energy requirements of the robot assistant (see DEKA's project Slingshot stirling engine on how the system would operate) still untested energy sources (e.bones). to those proposed in movies such as Red Planet [edit] Actuation . but potential power sources could be: y y y y y y y pneumatic (compressed gases) hydraulics (compressed liquids) flywheel energy storage organic garbage (through anaerobic digestion) faeces (human.g. various animals. These robots are called serial robots and often resemble the human arm.g. biomechanics). Nuclear Fusion reactors. animal). the development and use of such structures in robots is an active area of research (e. However. . and insects.

[17] Air muscles: (Also known as Pneumatic Artificial Muscles) are special tubes that contract (typically up to 40%) when air is forced inside it. By far the most popular actuators are electric motors that spin a wheel or gear. particularly when very large forces are needed such as with industrial robotics. It has been used in various robots. often brushed and brushless DC motors in portable robots or AC motors in industrial robots and CNC machines. They have been used for some robot applications. the parts which convert stored energy into movement. to allow improved force control.[18][19] . But there are some recent advances in alternative types of actuators. particularly walking humanoid robots. Linear Actuators: Various types of linear actuators move in and out instead of by spinning. powered by electricity. chemicals.A robot leg powered by Air Muscles Actuators are like the "muscles" of a robot. Series Elastic Actuators: A spring can be designed as part of the motor actuator. They are typically powered by compressed air (pneumatic actuator) or an oil (hydraulic actuator). or compressed air: y y y y Electric motors: The vast majority of robots use electric motors. and linear actuators that control industrial robots in factories.

called SmartHand. Human biceps could be replaced with an 8 mm diameter wire of this material. Such compact "muscle" might allow future robots to outrun and outjump humans.[24] Piezo motor: A recent alternative to DC motors are piezo motors or ultrasonic motors. Nitinol or Flexinol Wire) is a material that contracts slightly (typically under 5%) when electricity runs through it. whereby tiny piezoceramic elements. with energy storage levels of perhaps 10 J/cm3 for metal nanotubes. and have been used in facial muscles and arms of humanoid robots. early-stage experimental technology. type on a keyboard. which functions like a real one. scientists from several European countries and Israel developed a prosthetic hand.[29] [edit] Sensing [edit] Touch Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. vibrating many thousands of times per second. The absence of defects in nanotubes enables these filaments to deform elastically by several percent. swim or walk. cause linear or rotary motion. computer vision is concerned with the theory behind artificial systems that extract information .[22] and to allow new robots to float. and available force for their size. speed.y y y y Muscle wire: (Also known as Shape Memory Alloy. The prosthesis has sensors which enable the patient to sense real feeling in its fingertips.[32] [edit] Vision Main article: Computer vision Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. These work on a fundamentally different principle. allowing patients to write with it. play piano and perform other fine movements. The researchers expect that an important function of such artificial fingertips will be adjusting robotic grip on held objects.[20][21] Electroactive Polymers: (EAPs or EPAMs) are a new plastic material that can contract substantially (up to 400%) from electricity. producing impedance changes that map the forces received from the object.[26] These motors are already available commercially. There are different mechanisms of operation. one type uses the vibration of the piezo elements to walk the motor in a circle or a straight line. Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid core and are connected to an impedance-measuring device within the core. In 2009. When the artificial skin touches an object the fluid path around the electrodes is deformed.[25] Another type uses the piezo elements to cause a nut to vibrate and drive a screw.[27][28] Elastic nanotubes: These are a promising. and being used on some robots.[30][31] The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin. The advantages of these motors are nanometer resolution. Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips.[23] fly. As a scientific discipline. They have been used for some small robot applications.

y y y Mechanical Grippers: One of the most common effectors is the gripper. Vacuum Grippers: Pick and place robots for electronic components and for large objects like car windscreens. Some have a fixed manipulator which cannot be replaced. for example a humanoid hand. each allowing them to perform some small range of tasks. and usage consult the book "Robot Grippers". Sophisticated image sensors even require quantum mechanics to provide a complete understanding of the image formation process. some of the learning-based methods developed within computer vision have their background in biology. General purpose effectors: Some advanced robots are beginning to use fully humanoid hands. MANUS. Computer vision systems rely on image sensors which detect electromagnetic radiation which is typically in the form of either visible light or infra-red light. Fingers can for example be made of a chain with a metal wire run trough it. The process by which light propagates and reflects off surfaces is explained using optics. The image data can take many forms. like the Shadow Hand. In most practical computer vision applications. the computers are pre-programmed to solve a particular task. modify. their design.[40] [edit] Locomotion See also: Robot locomotion [edit] Rolling robots . The sensors are designed using solid-state physics. at different levels of complexity. with as many as 20 degrees of freedom and hundreds of tactile sensors.from images. but methods based on learning are now becoming increasingly common.[38] These highly dexterous manipulators. pick up.[34] Most robot arms have replaceable effectors. but can hold very large loads provided the prehension surface is smooth enough to ensure suction. In its simplest manifestation it consists of just two fingers which can open and close to pick up and let go of a range of small objects.[33] while the arm is referred to as a manipulator. There is a subfield within computer vision where artificial systems are designed to mimic the processing and behavior of biological systems. Thus the 'hands' of a robot are often referred to as end effectors. while a few have one very general purpose manipulator. or otherwise have an effect. [edit] Manipulation Robots which must work in the real world require some way to manipulate objects. destroy.[39] For the definitive guide to all forms of robot endeffectors. These are very simple astrictive[36] devices. Also. will often use very simple vacuum grippers.[35] See Shadow Hand. such as video sequences and views from cameras.[37] and the Schunk hand.

For simplicity. it can be thought of as a component of a robot. y y y y y Two-wheeled balancing: Balancing robots generally use a gyroscope to detect how much a robot is falling and then drive the wheels proportionally in the opposite direction. such as NASA's Robonaut that has been mounted on a Segway. Several one-wheeled balancing robots have been designed recently.[42] While the Segway is not commonly thought of as a robot. and allow a robot to navigate in tight places that a four wheeled robot would not be able to.[46][47] or by rotating the outer shells of the sphere. some researchers have tried to create more complex wheeled robots.[43] One-wheeled balancing: A one-wheeled balancing robot is an extension of a twowheeled balancing robot so that it can move in any 2D direction using a round ball as its only wheel. These can have certain advantages such as greater efficiency. with only one or two wheels. and Tohoku Gakuin University's "BallIP". Tracked wheels behave as if they were made of hundreds of wheels. where the robot must drive on very rough . However. either by spinning a weight inside the ball. they have the potential to function better than other robots in environments with people. therefore are very common for outdoor and military robots. reduced parts.Segway in the Robot museum in Nagoya. Tracked robots: Tank tracks provide even more traction than a six-wheeled robot. thin shape and ability to maneuver in tight spaces.[41] Many different balancing robots have been designed.[44] Because of the long.[45] Spherical orb robots: Several attempts have been made in robots that are completely inside a spherical ball. such as Carnegie Mellon University's "Ballbot" that is the approximate height and width of a person. based on the dynamics of an inverted pendulum. to counter-balance the fall at hundreds of times per second. most mobile robots have four wheels.[48][49] These have also been referred to as an orb bot [50] or a ball bot[51][52] Six-wheeled robots: Using six wheels instead of four wheels can give better traction or grip in outdoor terrain such as on rocky dirt or grass.

and the difference is obvious to human observers.[54][55] Hybrids too have been proposed in movies such as I. In this way.terrain. designed by the RobotCub Consortium Walking is a difficult and dynamic problem to solve. however none have yet been made which are as robust as a human. uneven terrain. could stay upright simply by hopping. due to these robots being significantly easier to construct. Some of the methods which have been tried are: y y ZMP Technique: The Zero Moment Point (ZMP) is the algorithm used by robots such as Honda's ASIMO. leaving no moment (force causing the robot to rotate and fall over).[53] [edit] Walking robots iCub robot. they are difficult to use indoors such as on carpets and smooth floors. and a very small foot. successfully demonstrated very dynamic walking. some of whom have pointed out that ASIMO walks as if it needs the lavatory. this is not exactly how a human walks.[60] Soon. As the robot falls to one side. Typically. None can walk over rocky. Examples include NASA's Urban Robot "Urbie". Many other robots have been built that walk on more than two legs. Hopping: Several robots. where they walk on 2 legs and switch to 4 (arms+legs) when going to a sprint. However. robots on 2 legs can walk well on flat floors. in order to catch itself. However. built in the 1980s by Marc Raibert at the MIT Leg Laboratory. and some dynamic balancing is used (See below). The robot's onboard computer tries to keep the total inertial forces (the combination of earth's gravity and the acceleration and deceleration of walking).[56] However. Robot. it would jump slightly in that direction. A bipedal robot was demonstrated running and even performing . and can occasionally walk up stairs. The movement is the same as that of a person on a pogo stick. exactly opposed by the floor reaction force (the force of the floor pushing back on the robot's foot).[57][58][59] ASIMO's walking algorithm is not static. the two forces cancel out. the algorithm was generalised to two and four legs. Initially. Several robots have been made which can walk reliably on two legs. it still requires a smooth surface to walk on. a robot with only one leg.

y y somersaults. normal flight. and even landing. Some can even fire on targets under command. Passive Dynamics: Perhaps the most promising approach utilizes passive dynamics where the momentum of swinging limbs is used for greater efficiency.[68] Other flying robots are uninhabited.[62] For a full list of these robots. and fly into dangerous territory for military surveillance missions. and places the feet in order to maintain stability. the Entomopter.[61] A quadruped was also demonstrated which could trot. UAVs are also being developed which can fire on targets automatically. Robots such as the Air Penguin. like ASIMO. a robot need only supply a small amount of motor power to walk along a flat surface or a little more to walk up a hill. run. as it constantly monitors the robot's motion. and Air Jelly have lighter-than-air bodies. Other flying robots include cruise missiles. It has been shown that totally unpowered humanoid mechanisms can walk down a gentle slope. . using only gravity to propel themselves.[65] Another example is the TU Delft Flame. and guided by sonar. it can even jump. pace. without the need for a command from a human. Air Ray. This technique promises to make walking robots at least ten times more efficient than ZMP walkers. Dynamic Balancing or controlled falling: A more advanced way for a robot to walk is by using a dynamic balancing algorithm. and the Epson micro helicopter robot. and bound. and are known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). see the MIT Leg Lab Robots page.[64] which is so stable. propelled by paddles. with two humans to manage it. including takeoff.[66][67] [edit] Other methods of locomotion RQ-4 Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle y Flying: A modern passenger airliner is essentially a flying robot.[63] This technique was recently demonstrated by Anybots' Dexter Robot. The autopilot can control the plane for each stage of the journey. Using this technique. They can be smaller and lighter without a human pilot onboard. which is potentially more robust than the Zero Moment Point technique.

it is able to adapt on smooth glass. Ltd. y y y y Snaking: Several snake robots have been successfully developed. Therefore. this gecko robot can rapidly climbing up and down in a variety of building walls. adjusting the center of mass and moving each limb in turn to gain leverage. these robots can navigate very confined spaces. can use a miniature skateboard or rollerskates. It has four legs. A third approach is to mimick the motion of a snake climbing a pole[citation needed].According to Dr. meaning they may one day be used to search for people trapped in collapsed buildings.Two robot snakes.. they can accelerate and maneuver far better than any man-made boat or submarine.[74] built by Stanford University. Its flexibility and speed are comparable to the natural gecko. Examples of this approach include Wallbot [75] and Stickybot. Li introduction. California. One approach mimicks the movements of a human climber on a wall with protrusions. many researchers studying underwater robots would like to copy this type of locomotion. and produce less noise and water disturbance.[80] The Aqua Penguin. An example of this is Capuchin.[77] Furthermore. Swimming: It is calculated that when swimming some fish can achieve a propulsive efficiency greater than 90%. ground and vertical wall fissure or walking upside down on the ceiling. the right one 10.[79] and the Robot Tuna built by the Institute of Field Robotics. copies the streamlined shape and propulsion by front "flippers" of .[78] Notable examples are the Essex University Computer Science Robotic Fish. designed and built by Festo of Germany. and skate across a desktop.[72] Another robot. Dr. one of which is a multimode walking and skating device. Titan VIII[dead link]. to analyze and mathematically model thunniform motion. Mimicking the way real snakes move.[76] China's "Technology Daily" November 15.[73] Climbing: Several different approaches have been used to develop robots that have the ability to climb vertical surfaces. Li Hiu Yeung and his research group have recently successfully developed the bionic gecko robot "Speedy Freelander". circumvent the bypass and flexible and realistic movements. with unpowered wheels.[71] Skating: A small number of skating robots have been developed. Another approach uses the specialised toe pad method of wall-climbing geckoes. Plen. 2008 reported New Concept Aircraft (ZHUHAI) Co. which can either step or roll. rough or sticky dust walls as well as the various surface of metallic materials and also can automatically identify obstacles. which can run on smooth surfaces such as vertical glass. Left one has 64 motors (with 2 degrees of freedom per segment).[69] The Japanese ACMR5 snake robot[70] can even navigate both on land and in water.

along with radar. [edit] Human-robot interaction . self-controlled cars. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. people and other obstacles that are not stationary) can cause problems or collisions. . EveR-1.g. respectively. and the entries in the DARPA Grand Challenge. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. LIDAR. video cameras. Some highly advanced robots as ASIMO.. (July 2009) Though a significant percentage of robots in commission today are either human controlled. which emulate the locomotion of manta ray. there is an increasing interest in robots that can operate autonomously in a dynamic environment. Festo have also built the Aqua Ray and Aqua Jelly. GPS. sometimes combined with other sensory data such as LIDAR. are all combined to provide proper navigation and obstacle avoidance This section does not cite any references or sources. Also. are capable of sensing the environment well and subsequently making navigational decisions based on this information. Ernst Dickmanns' driverless car. In particular unforeseen events (e. These robots require some combination of navigation hardware and software in order to traverse their environment. Meinü robot have particularly good robot navigation hardware and software. and inertial guidance systems for better navigation between waypoints. [edit] Environmental interaction and navigation RADAR..penguins. or operate in a static environment. Most of these robots employ a GPS navigation device with waypoints. and jellyfish.

Kismet can produce a range of facial expressions. A . Biddulph. gestures. and perhaps repeating them for confirmation. The people who interact with them may have little or no training in robotics. great strides have been made in the field since Davis. It becomes even harder when the speaker has a different accent.[82] Currently. with an accuracy of 95%. the robot police officer would gesture to indicate "down the road. natural speech. it is unnatural for the robot. and Balashek designed the first "voice input system" which recognized "ten digits spoken by a single user with 100% accuracy" in 1952. and facial expressions. explaining to a robot chef how to make a pastry. It will be a long time before robots interact as naturally as the fictional C-3PO. then turn right". Robotic faces have been constructed by Hanson Robotics using their elastic polymer called Frubber. If robots are to work effectively in homes and other non-industrial environments.[85] Facial expression: Facial expressions can provide rapid feedback on the progress of a dialog between two humans.[86] The coating and servos are built on a metal skull. in the future. is a difficult task for a computer. and so any interface will need to be extremely intuitive. up to 160 words per minute. allowing a great amount of facial expressions due to the elasticity of the rubber facial coating and imbedded subsurface motors (servos) to produce the facial expressions.[81] Nevertheless. the robot would be recognizing gestures made by the human.. the previous word. whether or not the speaker has a cold. in real time. mostly because of the great variability of speech. the best systems can recognize continuous. In both of these cases. In the second case. y y y Speech recognition: Interpreting the continuous flow of sounds coming from a human (speech recognition). In the first case. the way they are instructed to perform their jobs. spoken by the same person may sound different depending on local acoustics. etc. volume. and soon it may be able to do the same for humans and robots. It is likely that gestures will make up a part of the interaction between humans and robots.[84] A great many systems have been developed to recognize human hand gestures. Science fiction authors also typically assume that robots will eventually be capable of communicating with humans through speech. The same word. making hand gestures would aid the verbal descriptions.[83] Gestures: One can imagine. and especially how they will be told to stop will be of critical importance. rather than a command-line interface. or asking directions from a robot police officer. Although speech would be the most natural way for the human to communicate.

This decreased the amount of time needed to make the film. they use sounds. the position of its joints or its end . These presets could possibly be transferred for use in real-life robots. The control of a robot involves three distinct phases . a toy robot dinosaur. presets were created together with a special software program.perception. As can be seen from the movie Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within. Whether the person is happy. and action (robotic paradigms).g. (July 2009) The mechanical structure of a robot must be controlled to perform tasks. and body language to try to convey an internal state. Sensors give information about the environment or the robot itself (e. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. the programming of these artificial emotions is complex and requires a great amount of human observation.[88] Artificial emotions Artificial emotions can also be imbedded and are composed of a sequence of facial expressions and/or gestures. robots like Kismet and the more recent addition. One commercial example is Pleo. which can exhibit several apparent emotions. or crazy-looking affects the type of interaction expected of the robot. judging by their facial expression and body language. allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges with humans. which may be joy. sadness. with complex control systems This section does not cite any references or sources.[92] [edit] Control A robot-manipulated marionette. Likewise. Nexi[87] can produce a range of facial expressions. To simplify this programming in the movie. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. or fear. researchers are trying to create robots which appear to have a personality:[90][91] i.y y robot should know how to approach a human.[89] Nevertheless. something which may or may not be desirable in the commercial robots of the future. Personality: Many of the robots of science fiction have a personality. processing.e. frightened. facial expressions.

[edit] Dynamics and kinematics . the robot may need to build and reason with a "cognitive" model. Full autonomy. Mapping techniques can be used to build maps of the world. and how they interact. At a reactive level. etc. but operate in a fixed pattern. the position of the robot's gripper) from noisy sensor data. An immediate task (such as moving the gripper in a certain direction) is inferred from these estimates. Supervisory. Sensor fusion may first be used to estimate parameters of interest (e. 4. A human specifies general moves or position changes and the machine decides specific movements of its actuators. Finally. A human controls each movement. The machine will create and complete all its tasks without human interaction. robots in assembly plants are completely autonomous. a planner may figure out how to achieve a task without hitting obstacles. Higher levels of autonomy do not necessarily require more complex cognitive capabilities. Pattern recognition and computer vision can be used to track objects. Operator-assist modes have the operator commanding medium-to-high-level tasks.effector). falling over. 3. Techniques from control theory convert the task into commands that drive the actuators. An autonomous robot may go for extended periods of time without human interaction. each machine actuator change is specified by the operator. [edit] Autonomy levels Control systems may also have varying levels of autonomy. 3. and the human has nearly complete control over the robot's motion. 2. Task-level autonomy. Direct interaction is used for haptic or tele-operated devices. At longer time scales or with more sophisticated tasks. 1. 1. This information is then processed to calculate the appropriate signals to the actuators (motors) which move the mechanical. with the robot automatically figuring out how to achieve them.g. 2. The operator specifies only the task and the robot manages itself to complete it. motion planning and other artificial intelligence techniques may be used to figure out how to act. For example. Teleoperation. it may translate raw sensor information directly into actuator commands. the world. The processing phase can range in complexity. Another classification takes into account the interaction between human control and the machine motions. Cognitive models try to represent the robot. For example.

improve existing ones. would become possible. Direct kinematics refers to the calculation of end effector position. This information can be used to improve the control algorithms of a robot. Direct dynamics is used in computer simulations of the robot. Though fourth generation robots. with an intelligence maybe comparable to that of a mouse. Once all relevant positions. orientation. Because the first generation robot would be incapable of learning. Moravec predicts that the second generation robot would be an improvement over the first and become available by 2020. Moravec predicted in 1997. robots with human intelligence. and control of robots must be developed and implemented. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. To describe the level of advancement of a robot. The third generation robot should have an intelligence comparable to that of a monkey. and accelerations have been calculated using kinematics. he does not predict this happening before around 2040 or 2050. methods from the field of dynamics are used to study the effect of forces upon these movements. the term "Generation Robots" can be used. professor Moravec predicts. Direct dynamics refers to the calculation of accelerations in the robot once the applied forces are known. In a similar . First generation robots. and acceleration when the corresponding joint values are known. velocity. alternative ways to think about or design robots.This section does not cite any references or sources. such as MIT's cyberflora project. velocities. are almost wholly academic. Some special aspects of kinematics include handling of redundancy (different possibilities of performing the same movement). or motion and behavior controllers. (July 2009) The study of motion can be divided into kinematics and dynamics. Inverse dynamics refers to the calculation of the actuator forces necessary to create a prescribed end effector acceleration. Inverse kinematics refers to the opposite case in which required joint values are calculated for given end effector values. Principal Research Scientist at the Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute in describing the near future evolution of robot technology. researchers strive to develop new concepts and strategies. [edit] Robot research Further information: Open-source robotics and Evolutionary robotics Much of the research in robotics focuses not on specific industrial tasks. collision avoidance. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. criteria for "optimal" performance and ways to optimize design. This is a methodology that uses evolutionary computation to help design robots. and singularity avoidance. should have an intellectual capacity comparable to perhaps a lizard and should become available by 2010. A first particular new innovation in robot design is the opensourcing of robot-projects. and new ways to manufacture them but other investigations. and improve the interaction between these areas. structure. especially the body form. In each area mentioned above. To do this. as done in path planning. but on investigations into new types of robots.[93] The second is Evolutionary Robots. This term is coined by Professor Hans Moravec. however.

and replaced by a new set. Robots recently became a popular tool in raising interests in computing for middle and high school students.[94] and to explore the nature of evolution. Researchers use this method both to create better robots. Over time the population improves.[96] this technique may be run entirely or mostly in simulation. Those that perform worst are removed from the population.way to natural evolution. there are about 1 million industrial robots toiling around the world.[97] Currently. then tested on real robots once the evolved algorithms are good enough. a large population of robots is allowed to compete in some way. which have new behaviors based on those of the winners. or their ability to perform a task is measured using a fitness function. This happens without any direct programming of the robots by the researchers.educational robot.[98] [edit] Education and training The SCORBOT-ER 4u .[95] Because the process often requires many generations of robots to be simulated. First year computer science courses at several universities were developed which involves the programming of a robot instead of the traditional software engineering based coursework. and eventually a satisfactory robot may appear. [edit] Career training . and Japan is the top country having high density of utilizing robots in its manufacturing industry.

these highly skilled jobs are not sufficient in number to offset the greater decrease in employment among the general population. the number of robotics related jobs grow and have been observed to be on a steady rise.Universities offer Bachelors. [edit] Certification The Robotics Certification Standards Alliance (RCSA) is an international robotics certification authority who confers various industry and educational related robotics certifications. and there is actually a positive impact on the number of jobs for highly skilled technicians. engineers. such as Martin Ford. As factories increase their use of robots. However. . [edit] Employment in robotics A robot technician builds small all-terrain robots. (Courtesy: MobileRobots Inc) Robotics is an essential component in any modern manufacturing environment. At present the negative impact is only on average and repetitive jobs. causing structural unemployment in which overall (net) unemployment rises. Masters and Doctoral degrees in the field of robotics. [edit] Relationship to unemployment Main article: Automation > Relationship to unemployment Some analysts.[99] argue that robots and other forms of automation will ultimately result in significant unemployment as machines begin to match and exceed the capability of workers to perform most jobs. and knowledge workers. Select Private Career Colleges and vocational schools offer robotics training to train individuals towards being job ready and employable in the emerging robotics industry.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. It then delivers the drug to a patient specific bin on a conveyor belt. It uses an electromechanical head coupled with a pneumatic system to capture each dose and deliver it to its either stocked or dispensed location.As robotics and artificial intelligence develop further. [edit] See also Robotics portal . the bin is then released and returned out on the conveyor belt to a technician waiting to load it into a cart for delivery to the floor. The pharmacist or technician then checks the contents of the vial to ensure it¶s the correct drug for the correct patient and then seals the vials and sends it out front to be picked up. resulting in higher demand for other goods. The robot is a very time efficient device that the pharmacy depends on to fill prescriptions. offsetting whatever negatives are caused. or pharmacist determines the needed size of the vial based on the tablet when the robot is stocked. and hence higher labour demand in these sectors. this should cause merely an increase in the productivity of the involved industries. (July 2009) It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Robot#Contemporary_uses. (Discuss) Script Pro manufactures a robot designed to help pharmacies fill prescriptions that consist of oral solids or medications in pill form. The pharmacist or pharmacy technician enters the prescription information into its information system. The robot technician. [edit] Healthcare This section does not cite any references or sources. The robot has 3 different size vials to fill determined by the size of the pill. The robot can be ten feet wide and thirty feet long and can hold hundreds of different kinds of medications and thousands of doses. The head moves along a single axis while it rotates 180 degrees to pull the medications. In conventional economic theory. However. Afterwards it is set on another conveyor that delivers the patient¶s medication vial to a slot labeled with the patient's name on an LED read out. some authors believe that the conventional theory describes the past well but may not describe the future because of shifts in the parameter values that shape the context (see Automation > Relationship to unemployment). some worry even many skilled jobs may be threatened. upon determining whether or not the drug is in the robot. The system. will send the information to the robot for filling. McKesson¶s Robot RX is another healthcare robotics product that helps pharmacies dispense thousands of medications daily with little or no errors. The pharmacy saves many resources like staff members that are otherwise unavailable in a resource scarce industry. Once the bin is filled with all of the drugs that a particular patient needs and that the robot stocks. During this process it uses barcode technology to verify its pulling the correct drug. user. Once the vial is filled it is brought up to a conveyor belt that delivers it to a holder that spins the vial and attaches the patient label.

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