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1 Industry Standard Architecture
Industry Standard Architecture (in practice almost always shortened to ISA) was a computer bus standard for IBM compatible computers. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Five 16-bit and one 8-bit ISA slots on a motherboard Year Created: Created By: Superseded By: Width: Number of Devices: Speed: Style: Hotplugging? External? 1981 IBM PCI (1993) 8 or 16 bits 1 per slot 8 MHz Parallel No No
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------History ISA originated as an 8-bit system in the IBM PC in 1981, and was extended in 1983 as the XT bus architecture. The newer 16-bit standard was introduced in 1984. Designed to connect peripheral cards to the motherboard, the protocol also allows for bus mastering although only the first 16 MB of main memory is available for direct access. The 8-bit bus ran at 4.77 MHz, while the 16-bit bus operated at 8 MHz. In reference to the XT bus, it is sometimes referred to as the AT bus architecture. It was also available on some non-IBM compatible machines such as the short-lived AT&T Hobbit and later PowerPC based BeBox. In 1987, IBM moved to replace the ISA bus with their proprietary Micro Channel Architecture (MCA) in an effort to regain control of the PC architecture, and the PC market. The system was far more advanced than ISA, and computer manufacturers responded with the Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) and later, the VESA Local Bus (VLB). In fact, VLB used some parts originally intended for MCA due to the fact that component manufacturers already had the ability to manufacture it. Both were compatible expansions of the ISA standard. Users of ISA-based machines had to know special information about the hardware they were adding to the system. While a handful of devices were essentially "plug-n-play," this was rare. Users frequently had to configure two or three things when adding a new device, such as the IRQ line, I/O address, or DMA channel. MCA had done away with this complication, and PCI
actually incorporated many of the ideas first explored with MCA (though it was more directly descended from EISA). This trouble with configuration eventually led to the creation of ISA PnP, a plug-n-play system that used a combination of modifications to hardware, the system BIOS, and operating system software to automatically manage the nitty-gritty details. In reality, ISA PnP turned out to be a major headache much of the time, and didn't become well-supported until the architecture was in its final days. This was a major contributor to the use of the phrase "plug-n-pray". PCI slots were the first physically-incompatible expansion ports to directly squeeze ISA off of the motherboard. At first, motherboards were largely ISA, including a few PCI slots. By the mid1990s, the two slot types were roughly balanced, and ISA slots soon were in the minority on consumer systems. Microsoft's PC 97 specification recommended that ISA slots be removed entirely, though the system architecture still required ISA to be present in some vestigial way internally to handle the floppy drive, serial ports, etc. ISA slots remained for a few more years, and it was even possible to see systems with an Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) sitting near the central processing unit, an array of PCI slots, and one or two ISA slots near the end. It is also notable that PCI slots are "rotated" compared to their ISA counterparts—PCI cards were essentially inserted "upside-down," allowing ISA and PCI connectors to squeeze together on the motherboard. Only one of the two connectors can be used in each slot at a time, but this allowed for greater flexibility. 8-bit ISA (XT bus architecture) The XT bus architecture is an eight-bit ISA bus used by Intel 8086 and Intel 8088 systems in the IBM PC and IBM PC XT in the 1980s.
An 8-bit ISA (XT-bus) mouse adapter The XT bus has four DMA channels, of which three are brought out to the expansion slots. Of these three, two are normally allocated to machine functions:
DMA channel Expansion Standard function
0 1 2 3
No Yes Yes Yes
Dynamic RAM refresh Add-on cards Floppy disk controller Hard disk controller
16-bit ISA (AT bus architecture) The AT bus architecture is an 16-bit version of the ISA bus first in the IBM PC/AT.
Technical data 8 bit ISA or XT bus architecture
Bus width Compatible with Pins Vcc Clock
8-bit 8 bit ISA 62 +5 V, -5 V, +12 V, -12 V 4.7727266 MHz
+12 V. -5 V. is a derivative of the ISA bus. used in industrial and embedded applications.333333 MHz Current use Apart from specialized industrial use. 16 bit ISA 98 +5 V. system manufacturers often shield customers from the term "ISA bus". The LPC . referring to it instead as the "legacy bus" (see legacy system). -12 V 8. ISA is all but gone today.16 bit ISA Bus width Compatible with Pins Vcc Clock 16-bit 8 bit ISA. The PC/104 bus. utilizing the same signal lines with different connectors. Even where present.
and other technologies. An expansion card that fits in sockets. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ five 32-bit 5-volt PCI expansion slots on a motherboard Year Created: Created By: Superseded By: Width: Number of Devices: Speed: Style: Hotplugging? External? Mid-1993 Intel PCI Express (2004) 32 bits 1 per slot 133 MB/s Parallel No No . 2. or PCI Standard (in practice almost always shortened to PCI) specifies a computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard. but it also appears in many other computer types. These devices can take any one of the following forms: • • An integrated circuit fitted onto the motherboard itself. called a planar device in the PCI specification. so that the peculiarities of ISA such as the 16MB DMA limit are likely to stick around for a while. which is standard in most new computers. The bus will eventually be succeeded by PCI Express.2 Peripheral Component Interconnect The Peripheral Component Interconnect. The PCI bus is common in modern PCs. LPC looks just like ISA to software.bus has replaced the ISA bus as the connection to the legacy I/O devices on recent motherboards. while physically quite different. where it has displaced ISA and VESA Local Bus as the standard expansion bus.
The specification can be purchased from the PCI Special Interest Group (PCISIG).1 was released on June 1. PCI 1. and protocols.0.0. 1992. PCI 2. History Work on PCI began at Intel's Architecture Lab circa 1990. PCI 2. was released on April 30. 1993. electrical characteristics.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 64-bit PCI expansion slots inside a Power Macintosh G4 The PCI specification covers the physical size of the bus (including wire spacing). . 1995. which was merely a component-level specification. which was the first to establish standards for the connector and motherboard slot. bus timing. was released on June 22.
Each device can request up to six areas of memory space or I/O port space. Single-function devices always use their INTA# for interrupt signalling. Some bridges use a fixed mapping. Both PCI-X 1. etc. and the adaptation of PCI signaling to other form factors. or at least to have a dialogue with a user about the system configuration. Part of this information is a human readable text description of the device. they are not wired in parallel as are the other traces. and the consumer Performa product line (replacing LC PDS) in mid-1996. all of which are available to each device. software cannot determine which interrupt line a device's INTA# pin is connected to across a bridge. motherboard manufacturers have included progressively fewer PCI expansion slots in favor of the new standard. By 1996 VLB was all but extinct. EISA continued to be used alongside PCI through 2000. replacing MCA and EISA as the server expansion bus of choice. In the general case. The PCI bus includes four interrupt lines.) each needs.PCI was immediately put to use in servers. Later revisions of PCI added new features and performance improvements. PCI bridges (between two PCI buses) map the four interrupt traces on each of their sides in varying ways. including a 66 MHz 3. The PCI configuration space also contains a small amount of device type information. Open Firmware or an EFI driver. so the device load is spread fairly evenly across the four available interrupt lines. In mainstream PCs. through the PCI host bridge. Interrupts Devices are required to follow a protocol so that the interrupt lines can be shared. so what appears to one device as the INTA# line is INTB# to the next and INTC# to the next.0 are backward compatible with PCI standards. which helps an operating system choose device drivers for it. and did not gain significant market penetration until late 1994 in second-generation Pentium PCs. This alleviates a common problem with sharing interrupts. The result is that it can be impossible to .0b and PCI-X 2. interrupt lines. and in others it is configurable.3 V standard and 133 MHz PCI-X. It then allocates the resources and tells each device what its allocation is. They can also have an optional ROM that can contain executable x86 or PA-RISC code. Although it is still common to see both interfaces implemented side-by-side. the operating system queries all PCI buses at startup time to find out what devices are present and what system resources (memory. Apple Computer adopted PCI for professional Power Macintosh computers (replacing NuBus) in mid-1995. With the introduction of the serial PCI Express standard in 2004. PCI was slower to replace VESA Local Bus (VLB). The positions of the interrupt lines rotate between slots. The mapping of PCI interrupt lines onto system interrupt lines. However. and manufacturers had adopted PCI even for 486 computers. The system firmware examines each device's PCI Configuration Space and allocates resources. In a typical system. is similarly implementation-dependent. traditional PCI is likely to slowly die out in coming years.
It also resolves the routing problem. it resolves some synchronisation problems that can occur with posted writes and out-of-band interrupt lines. One interrupting device can easily block all other devices on the same interrupt line. because the message signalling is in-band. This alleviates the problem of scarcity of interrupt lines. Even if interrupt vectors are still shared. (See "level-triggered interrupt" for explanation. because the memory write is not unpredictably modified between device and host. Conventional hardware specifications A typical 32-bit PCI card. this efficiency gain comes at the cost of robustness and flexibility.determine how a PCI device's interrupts will appear to software. but this process is not reliable. This was chosen over edge-triggering in order to gain an efficiency advantage when servicing a shared interrupt line in a particular way. Platform-specific BIOS code is meant to know this. PCI Express does not have physical interrupt lines at all. it does not suffer the sharing problems of level-triggered interrupts. rather than by asserting a dedicated line.) Later revisions of the PCI specification add support for message-signalled interrupts. PCI interrupt lines are level-triggered. in this case a SCSI adapter from Adaptec . Finally. In this system a device signals its need for service by perfoming a memory write. and set a field in each device's configuration space indicating which IRQ it is connected to. It uses message-signalled interrupts exclusively. However.
PCI-X doubles the width to 64-bit.3 permits use of 3.283 inches). expands the configuration space to 4096 bytes. revises the protocol. uses Eurocard-sized modules plugged into a PCI backplane. completely removing 5-volt capability. adds a 16-bit bus variant and allows for 1. PCI Express is expected to replace the PCI (and PCI-derived AGP) buses. and increases the maximum data rate to 133 MHz (peak transfer rate of 1014 MB/s) PCI-X 2.3 volt signaling) (peak transfer rate of 266 MB/s) PCI 2. The height includes the edge card connector.33 MHz clock with synchronous transfers peak transfer rate of 133 MB per second for 32-bit bus width (33.3 or 5-volt signaling reflected-wave switching Variants Conventional • • • • • • • • • PCI 2.2 allows for 66 MHz signaling (requires 3.0 permits a 266 MHz rate (peak transfer rate of 2035 MB/s) and also 533 MHz rate. In addition to these dimensions the physical size and location of a card's backplate are also standardized. Card's physical size A full-size PCI card has a height of 107 mm (4.2 inches) and a depth of 312 mm (12.2 for use mainly inside laptops Cardbus is a PCMCIA form factor for 32-bit.3 volt and universal keying. PCI 3. a new interface using PCI programming concepts.5 volt signaling Mini PCI is a new form factor of PCI 2. PC/104-Plus is an industrial bus that uses the PCI signal lines with different connectors. PCIe slots are not backwards compatible with PCI or PCI-X expansion cards.33 MHz × 32 bits × (1 byte ÷ 8 bits) = 133 MB/s) 32-bit or 64-bit bus width 32-bit address space (4 gigabytes) 32-bit port space (now deprecated) 256-byte configuration space 3. The backplate is the part that fastens to the card cage to stabilize the card and also .0 is the final official standard of the bus. (formerly 3GIO/Arapaho). Other • PCI Express. but does not allow 5 volt keyed add in cards. or PCIe.A PCI-X Gigabit Ethernet expansion card • • • • • • • • 33. with a serial physical-layer protocol and different connectors. 33 MHz PCI Compact PCI.
2 inches (106.6 inches (15.9 inches (175. but the backplate must still be full-size and properly located so that the card fits in any standard PCI slot. SCSI drives and even SCSI RAIDs. SCSI is most commonly used for hard disks and tape storage devices. RAIDs on servers almost always use SCSI hard disks. Other cards with reduced height are called "low profile" or "slim. most likely because SCSI was formerly known as SASI. SCSI is popular on high-performance workstations and servers. However. Height 4. and hence used to be spelled SC/ASI at some point in history. are more common in PC workstations for video and/or audio production. Half-length extension card • Width 0. printers. and DVD drives. A PCI card can be any smaller size. In some computers. SCSI has never been popular in the low priced IBM PC world. CD-ROM drives. but also connects a wide range of other devices. so is usually attaches in a window so it is accessible from outside the computer case. "Half-height" and "half-length" cards and slots are common. while others do not because some part of the computer interferes." There is at least one reduced size variation on the backplate and there are very compact card cages that require that variation. including scanners. since the mid1990s.24 mm). Desktop computers and notebooks more typically use the .68 mm) 2. the entire SCSI standard promotes device independence.contains external connectors. and presumably have dimensions half those of the full-size cards. the "Shugart Associates System Interface" introduced by the company of the same name in 1979. CD recorders.26 mm). some slots accommodate full-size PCI cards. and is a standard interface and command set for transferring data between devices on both internal and external computer buses. Since its standardization in 1986. At this time. It is pronounced "scuzzy". In fact. owing to the lower cost and adequate performance of its ATA hard disk standard. Many computers have slots for PCI cards but do not have the space for full-size PCI cards.3 SCSI SCSI stands for "Small Computer System Interface". SCSI has been used on even the largest of computer systems. It is not common. which means that theoretically SCSI can be used with any type of computer hardware. The "small" part is historical. Depth 6. SCSI has been commonly used in the Apple Macintosh and Sun Microsystems computer lines.
In actual practice. as codified by the SCSI trade association. There are a dozen SCSI interface names. SCSI 320 or SCSI 160) in Megabytes per second. All SCSI standards have been modular. there have only been three SCSI standards: SCSI-1. and common parlance. a distinction should be made between the terminology used in the SCSI standard itself.ATA/IDE or the newer Serial ATA interfaces for hard disks. defining various capabilities which manufacturers can include or not. Sun Microsystems External SCSI Enclosures Old Macintosh SCSI port SCSI Terminator (Centronics connector) Standards Parallel SCSI is not a single standard. several different connector types. The leading SCSI card manufacturer." Such a signalling rate is not . SCSITA. SCSI has evolved since its introduction. many experienced technicians simply refer to SCSI devices by their bus bandwidth (i. each of which has a collection of modular.e. As of 2003. have confusing names. unfortunately. Adaptec. Individual vendors and SCSITA have given names to specific combinations of capabilities. the term "Ultra SCSI" is not defined anywhere in the standard. optional features. three SCSI standards. and SCSI-3. For example. but is used to refer to SCSI implementations that signal at twice the rate of "Fast SCSI. and Ultra Wide SCSI). and USB and FireWire connections for external devices. most with ambiguous wording (like Fast SCSI. and three different types of voltage signalling. as promulgated by the T10 committee of INCITS. has manufactured over 100 varieties of SCSI cards over the years. SCSI-2. Ultra SCSI. Fast Wide SCSI. Before summarizing the evolution. but a suite of closely related standards which.
This change divorces SCSI's various interfaces from the command set. allowing devices that support SCSI commands to use any interface (including ones not otherwise specified by T10)." Starting with SCSI-3.compliant with SCSI-2 but is one option allowed by SCSI-3. No version of the standard has ever specified what kind of connector should be used.5-3 m 12 m 12 m 12 m 12 m ?m 10 MHz 10 MB/s 10 MHz 20 MB/s 20 MHz 20 MB/s 20 MHz 40 MB/s 40 MHz 40 MB/s 40 MHz 80 MB/s 40 MHz 160 MB/s DDR 80 MHz 320 MB/s DDR 160 640 MB/s Ultra Wide 16-bit SCSI Ultra2 SCSI 8-bit Ultra2 16-bit Wide SCSI Ultra3 SCSI Ultra-320 SCSI Ultra-640 16-bit 16-bit 16-bit . This change is also why there is no "SCSI-4". but products called Ultra-2 SCSI include this capability. and bound together by the SCSI Architectural Model.5-3 m 1. because "Ultra-2 SCSI" device has a better-defined set of capabilities than simply identifying it as "SCSI-3. This terminology is helpful to consumers. and also allowing the interfaces that are defined by T10 to develop on their own terms. no version of the standard requires low-voltage-differential (LVD) signalling.5-3 m 1.5-3 m 1. Similarly. using common parlance: SCSI interface overview Bus Width 8-bit 8-bit 16-bit 8-bit Clock Speed 5 MHz Max Devices (not including HBA) 7 7 15 7 15 7 15 15 15 15 Interface SCSI Fast SCSI Fast-Wide SCSI Ultra SCSI Max Throughput Max Cable Length 5 MB/s 6m 1. the SCSI standard has been maintained as a loose collection of standards. The mainstream implementations of SCSI (in chronological order) are as follows. See "Connectors." below. each defining a certain piece of the SCSI architecture.
full 3km(monoMode) duplex 96 96 127 FC-AL 1Gb 1 bit FC-AL 2Gb 1 bit 2 Gbit 127 FC-AL 4Gb 1 bit iSCSI SAS Gbit/s SCSI-1 3 4 Gbit 127 ?? 16. and was officially retired in SCSI-3. per direction. SCSI1 features an 8-bit parallel bus (with parity). full duplex 100 MB/s 500m(multiMode).5 MB/s or 5 MB/s in synchronous mode. Fast SCSI doubled the maximum transfer rate to 10 MB/s and Wide SCSI doubled the bus width to 16 bits on top of that (to reach 20 MB/s). full duplex 80 MB/s spatial 25 m reuse. SCSI-2 also specified a 32-bit version of Wide SCSI. A rarely seen variation on the original standard included a high-voltage differential (HVD) implementation whose maximum cable length was 25 meters.256 (128 per expander) Dependent upon IP network 1 bit N/A 300 MB/s per direction.SCSI SSA SSA 40 1 bit 1 bit MHz DDR 200 Mbit 400 Mbit 1 Gbit 40 MB/s spatial 25 m reuse. full 3km(monoMode) duplex 400 MB/s 500m(multiMode).45 meter) limit of the ATA interface). However. which used 2 16-bit cables per bus. these improvements came at the cost of a reduced maximum cable length to 3 meters. SCSI-3 . running asynchronously at 3. per direction. full 3km(monoMode) duplex 200 MB/s 500m(multiMode). per direction. and a maximum bus cable length of 6 meters (just under 20 feet—compared to the 18 inch (0. SCSI-2 This standard was introduced in 1994 and gave rise to the Fast SCSI and Wide SCSI variants. this was largely ignored by SCSI device makers because it was expensive and unnecessary. full 6 m duplex The original standard that was derived from SASI and formally adopted in 1986 by ANSI.
also known as Ultra SCSI and fast-20 SCSI. 1997 and featured a low-voltage differential (LVD) bus. as it was soon superseded by Ultra-3 (Ultra-160) SCSI. the data transfer rate was increased to 80 MB/s. Ultra-160 SCSI offered new features like cyclic redundancy check (CRC). These devices. connectors or terminators were often to blame for instability problems). The maximum cable length stayed at 3 meters but single-ended Ultra SCSI developed an undeserved reputation for extreme sensitivity to cable length and condition (faulty cables. . this version was basically an improvement on the ultra-2 standard. were introduced in 1996. The latest working draft for this standard is revision 10 and is dated May 6. LVD's greater immunity to noise allowed a maximum bus cable length of 12 meters. and domain validation. Ultra-2 This standard was introduced c. Nearly all new SCSI hard drives being manufactured at the time of this writing (October 2003) are actually Ultra-320 devices. 2002. in that the transfer rate was doubled once more to 160 MB/s by the use of double transition clocking. Ultra-320 This is the Ultra-160 standard with the data transfer rate doubled to 320 MB/s. an error correcting process. For this reason ultra-2 is sometimes referred to as LVD SCSI. The bus speed doubled again to 20 MB/s for narrow (8 bit) systems and 40 MB/s for wide (16-bit). the first parallel SCSI devices that exceeded the SCSI-2 capabilities were simply designated SCSI-3. At the same time. Ultra-2 SCSI actually had a relatively short lifespan. Ultra-3 Also known as Ultra-160 SCSI and introduced toward the end of 1999.Before Adaptec and later SCSITA codified the terminology.
SSA. an embedding of SCSI-3 over TCP/IP. most manufacturers have skipped over Ultra640 and are developing for Serial Attached SCSI instead. and Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) break from the traditional parallel SCSI standards and perform data transfer via serial communications. iSCSI iSCSI preserves the basic SCSI paradigm. hot swapping. the speed limits cable lengths drastically. Connectors Centronics 50 SCSI plug IDC 50 SCSI plug . Serial SCSI Four recent versions of SCSI. Although much of the documentation of SCSI talks about the parallel interface. making it impractical for more than one or two devices. iSCSI could thus address both the low-end and high-end markets with a single commodity-based technology. especially the command set. this time to 640 MB/s. most contemporary development effort is on serial SCSI. Serial SCSI has number of advantages over parallel SCSI—faster data rates. Because of this. almost unchanged. IEEE1394. iSCSI advocates project the iSCSI standard.Ultra-640 Ultra-640 (otherwise known as Fast-320) was promulgated as a standard (INCITS 367-2003 or SPI-5) in early 2003. FC-AL. Serial SCSI devices are more expensive than the equivalent parallel SCSI devices but this is likely to change soon. Ultra-640 doubles the interface speed yet again. Ultra-640 pushes the limits of LVD signaling. and improved fault isolation. as displacing Fibre Channel in the long run. arguing that Ethernet data rates are currently increasing faster than data rates for Fibre Channel and similar disk-attachment technologies.
Parallel SCSI connectors Although parallel SCSI-1 devices typically used bulky Blue Ribbon Centronics connectors. See the SCSI connector article for a more detailed description. This is a brief summary. a cable normally has male connectors while a SCSI device (e. They then evolved through two main stages.Centronics 50 SCSI sockets No version of the standard has ever specified what kind of connector should be used. High-Density (HD) and most recently SCA . FCAL. disk drive) has female. SCSI command protocol In addition to many different hardware implementations. One valid rule is that connectors for wide SCSI buses have more pins and wires than those for narrow SCSI buses. This could be SSA. while a Centronics-68 or HD-68 connector is for wide SCSI. and SCSI-2 devices typically used Mini-D connectors. the SCSI standards also include a complex set of command protocol definitions. The first parallel SCSI connectors were the Centronics type. . On some early devices. Serial SCSI connectors Most modern server-class SCSI devices use some form of serial SCSI. A Centronics-50 or HD-50 connector is for narrow SCSI. it is not correct to refer to these as "SCSI-1" and "SCSI-2" connectors. iSCSI or SAS. host adapter.80 pin. Specific types of connectors for parallel SCSI devices were developed by vendors over time.g. but see the SCSI connector article for a more detailed description. The SCSI command architecture was originally defined for parallel SCSI buses but has been carried forward with minimal change for use with iSCSI and serial SCSI. A female connector on a cable is meant to connect to another cable (for additional length or additional device connections). With the HD connectors. Connectors for serial SCSI devices have diversified into different families for each type of serial SCSI protocol. This has led to a diversity of cables and disk-drive connectors. wide parallel SCSI busses used two or four connectors and cables while narrow SCSI busses used only one.
and B (bidirectional). which is not known exactly. with the most common being: • • • • • • • • • • • • Test unit ready: ask the device if it is ready for data transfers (disk spun up. The usage of LBAs has evolved over time and so four different command variants are provided for reading and writing data. The Check Condition and Request Sense sequence involves a special SCSI protocol called a Contingent Allegiance Condition. tape type) device does not have a specific capacity because it typically depends on the length of the tape. load/unload media Read capacity: return storage capacity Format unit Read (four variants) Write (four variants) Log sense: return current information from log pages Mode sense: return current device parameters from mode pages Mode select: set device parameters in a mode page Each device on the SCSI bus is assigned at least one logical unit number (LUN). Read Long. or 08h for busy.) Inquiry: return basic device information. There are 4 categories of SCSI commands: N (non-data). Reads and writes on a sequential access device happen at the current position.e. Read(12). 02h for an error (called a Check Condition). The Read(6) and Write(6) commands contain a 21-bit LBA address. Write(10).In SCSI terminology. the initiator usually then issues a SCSI Request Sense command in order to obtain a Key Code Qualifier (KCQ) from the target.. media loaded. also used to "ping" the device since it does not modify sense data Request sense: give any error codes from the previous command that returned an error status Send diagnostic and Receive diagnostic results: run a simple self-test. not at a specific LBA. There are about 60 different SCSI commands in total. A "sequential access" (i. SCSI commands are sent in a Command Descriptor Block (CDB). more complex devices may have multiple LUNs. The initiator sends a command to the target which then responds. and Write Long commands all contain a 32-bit LBA address plus various other parameter options. When the target returns a Check Condition in response to a command. .. Simple devices have just one LUN. Write(12). W (writing data from initiator to target). communication takes place between an initiator and a target. or a specialised test defined in a diagnostic page Start/Stop unit: spin disks up and down. R (reading data). A "direct access" (i. The Read(10). The block size on sequential access devices can typically vary. usually referred to by the term Logical Block Address (LBA). At the end of the command sequence the target returns a Status Code byte which is usually 00h for success. disk type) storage device consists of a number of logical blocks. A typical LBA equates to 512 bytes of storage.e. The CDB consists of a one byte operation code followed by five or more bytes containing command-specific parameters.
The converse example—a SCSI narrow host adapter and SCSI wide disk drive also works. However there are some compatibility issues with parallel SCSI busses which are described in the rest of this section. This is sometimes referred to as a cable with high-9 termination. Inside the cable's HD-68 connector. Modern Single Connector Attachment (SCA) parallel SCSI devices may be connected to older controller/drive chains by using SCA adapters. You can get a cable designed to connect the wide part of the bus to the narrow part which either provides a place to plug in a terminator for the high half or includes the terminator itself. The SPI-5 standard (which describes Ultra-640) deprecates single-ended devices. for example. You can attach Single-ended and LVDS devices to the same bus. and terminate the high half of the bus in between (because the high half of the bus ends with the last wide SCSI device). As an example of a mixed bus. which are not compatible with each other. there is termination for the high half of the bus and the cable contains wires for only the low half. nor to connect a cable between an SSA initiator and an FC-AL enclosure. remember that SCSI devices include both host adapters and peripherals such as disk drives. To do this. you must put all the narrow SCSI devices at one end and all the wide SCSI devices at the other end. you are asking whether you can attach those two SCSI devices to the same SCSI bus. Specific commands allow the devices to determine whether their partners are using the whole wide bus or just the lower half and drive the bus accordingly. You can attach both narrow and wide SCSI devices to the same parallel bus. Always try the drive without auxiliary power first. You might make this connection with a cable that has an HD-68 female connector on one end and an HD-50 male connector on the other. consider a SCSI wide host adapter with a HD-68 male connector connected to a SCSI narrow disk drive with a HD-50 female connector. Within the parallel SCSI family. . Different SCSI transports. Ultra-2. Although these adapters often have auxiliary power connectors. so talks to it using only the lower half. When you ask whether you can cable a certain host adapter to a certain disk drive. ultra-160 and ultra-320 devices may be freely mixed on the parallel LVD bus with no compromise in performance. it is possible to connect an ultra-3 SCSI hard disk to an ultra-2 SCSI controller and use it (though with reduced speed and feature set).Compatibility For purposes of discussing compatibility. SCSI devices in the same SCSI transport family are generally backward-compatible. usually have unique connectors to avoid accidental mis-plugging of incompatible devices. so future devices may not be electrically backward compatible. For example it is not possible to plug a parallel SCSI disk into an FC-AL backplane. but all devices will run at the slower single-ended speed. as the host adapter will negotiate the operating speed and bus management requirements for each device. The host adapter determines that the disk drive uses only the low half of the bus. use caution: it is possible to destroy the drive by connecting external power.
disk drive) is identified by a "SCSI ID". drive designers typically set up their jumper headers in the way that these switches implement. it is not that simple—virtual disk devices are generated by the subystem based on the storage in those physical drives. with the active type much preferred (and required on LVD buses). the switch emulates the necessary jumpers. for example. You usually set the SCSI ID of the initiator (host adapter) with a physical jumper or switch on early models. disk drive) either with physical jumpers or by your choice of the slot in which you install the drive in a drive enclosure (each connector on the enclosure's back plane delivers control signals to the drive to select a unique SCSI ID). On a parallel SCSI bus. Both active and passive terminators are in common use.Each parallel SCSI device (including the computer's host adapter) must be configured to have a unique SCSI ID on the bus. While there is no standard that makes this work. SSA initiators "walk the loop" to determine what devices are there and then assign each one a 7bit "hop-count" value. The SCSI ID.g. These discovery processes occur at poweron/initialization time and also if the bus topology changes later." For example. one had to attach a physical terminator to each end. a device (e. there is an automated process of "discovery" of the IDs. the logical unit number (LUN) identifies a disk device within the subsystem. as that ID has the highest priority during bus arbitration (even on a 16 bit bus). Also. because of the unlimited scope of the (IP) network. Improper termination is a common problem with parallel SCSI installations. A SCSI enclosure without a backplane often has a switch for each drive in the enclosure to choose the drive's SCSI ID. a high-end disk subsystem may be a single SCSI device but contain dozens of individual disk drives. host adapter. The way this works is that the enclosure has a connector that you plug into the drive where jumpers are supposed to go. and each virtual disk device is a logical unit). any parallel SCSI bus must be terminated at both ends with the correct type of terminator. Or the host adapter may come with software you can install on the computer to do this. each of which is a logical unit (more commonly. WWNN. the adapter often contains a BIOS program that runs when the computer boots up and that program has menus that let you choose the SCSI ID of the host adapter. for example if an extra device is added. In early SCSI buses. which is a number in the range 0-7 on a narrow bus and in the range 0–15 on a wide bus.g. and you just have to switch termination on somehow on the devices at either end of the bus. etc. FC-AL initiators use the LIP (Loop Initialization Protocol) to interrogate each device port for its WWN (World Wide Name). You set the SCSI ID for a target (e. The traditional SCSI ID for a host adapter is 7. but modern SCSI devices often have terminators built in. in this case identifies the whole subsystem. On modern (since about 1997) host adapters. the process is quite complicated. . For iSCSI. Advanced SCSI devices actually detect whether they are last on the bus and switch termination on or off automatically. you set the SCSI ID by doing I/O to the adapter. and a second number. SCSI device identification In the modern SCSI transport protocols. Note that a SCSI target device (which can be called a "physical unit") is often divided into smaller "logical units.
Essentially. . In this article.4 Integrated Device Electronics No matter what you do with your computer. though incorrect. 2. storage is an important part of your system. and other non-data characteristics. In fact. signified that the interface was initially developed for the IBM AT computer. an IDE interface is a standard way for a storage device to connect to a computer. IDE is actually not the true technical name for the interface standard. AT Attachment (ATA). what the pinouts are and exactly what "slave" and "master" mean in IDE. the disk-drive devices are housed in an intelligent enclosure that supports SCSI Enclosure Services (SES). most personal computers have one or more of the following storage devices: • • • Floppy drive Hard drive CD-ROM drive The hard drive and circuit board combination that typify IDE devices Usually. you may see the actual LUN called a "LUN number" or "LUN id". The initiator can communicate with the enclosure using a specialised set of SCSI commands to access power." Accordingly. The original name.It is quite common. to refer to the logical unit itself as a "LUN. you will learn about the evolution of IDE/ATA. cooling. these devices connect to the computer through an Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface. SCSI enclosure services In larger SCSI servers.
In 1986. This drive/controller combination was based on the ATA standard developed by IBM. A ribbon cable from the drive/controller combination ran to an ISA card to connect to the computer. • • The slots in the computer for adding cards used a new version of the Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus. The controller is a small circuit board with chips that provide guidance as to exactly how the hard drive stores and accesses data. IBM also offered a hard drive for the AT that used a new combined drive/controller. Before long. IDE became the term that covered the entire range of integrated drive/controller devices. a controller from one manufacturer might not work with a hard drive from another manufacturer. The basic concept behind IDE is that the hard drive and the controller should be combined. Controllers. In other words. Drives. IBM introduced the AT computer in 1984 with a couple of key innovations. Host Adapters . Since almost all IDE drives are ATA-based. controllers and hard drives were separate and often proprietary. Before IDE. other vendors began offering IDE drives. the two terms are used interchangeably. giving birth to the AT Attachment (ATA) interface. The birth of the IDE interface led to combining a controller like this one with a hard drive.IDE Evolution IDE was created as a way to standardize the use of hard drives in computers. The distance between the controller and the hard drive could result in poor signal quality and affect performance. Obviously. The new bus was capable of transmitting information 16 bits at a time. compared to 8 bits on the original ISA bus. Most controllers also include some memory that acts as a buffer to enhance hard drive performance. Compaq introduced IDE drives in their Deskpro 386. this caused much frustration for computer users.
In the 44-pin version. The interface is actually a host adapter. the extra four pins are used to supply power to a drive that doesn't have a separate power connector. ATA-1 provides signal timing for direct . Additionally. ATA-1 was based on a subset of the standard ISA 96-pin connector that uses either 40 or 44 pin connectors and cables. There are several variations of ATA. This interface is often referred to as an IDE controller. The actual controller is on a circuit board attached to the hard drive. which is incorrect. CD-ROM drives and even some tape backup drives. The standards include: • ATA-1 .Most motherboards come with an IDE interface. it has evolved into the universal interface for connecting internal floppy drives. meaning that it provides a way to connect a complete device to the computer (host). each one adding to the previous standard and maintaining backward compatibility. It instituted the use of a master/slave configuration. Although it is very popular for internal drives. IDE is rarely used for attaching an external device. That's the reason it's called Integrated Drive Electronics in the first place! A close-up of the primary and secondary IDE interfaces on a motherboard While the IDE interface was originally developed for connecting hard drives.The original specification that Compaq included in the Deskpro 386.
Ribbon cables have all of the wires laid flat next to each other instead of bunched or wrapped together in a bundle. Ultra DMA is increased to 66. tape backup drives and other removable storage devices. CHS has a fixed length for each part of the address. There is a connector at each end of the cable and another one about two-thirds of the distance from the motherboard connector.67 MBps. ATA-3 . ATA-2 . ATA-3 also adds password protection to access drives. DMA means that the drive sends information directly to memory.The major update in ATA-5 is auto detection of which cable is used: the 40conductor or 80-conductor version.4 gigabytes. The reason for the big discrepancy between total hard drive size and CHS hard drive support is because of the bit sizes used by the basic input/output system (BIOS) for CHS.4 gigabytes. Newer BIOS versions increased the bit size for CHS. while PIO means that the computer's central processing unit (CPU) manages the information transfer.DMA was fully implemented beginning with the ATA-2 version. Look at this chart: Cylinder Head Sector 10-bit 8-bit 6-bit 1024 256 63* • • • • You will note that the number of sectors is 63 instead of 64. IDE drives were made more reliable. The total hard drive size supported increased to 137. ATA-5 . Cable Key IDE devices use a ribbon cable to connect to each other.4 gigabytes. ATA-4 is also known as Ultra DMA.Probably the two biggest additions to the standard in this version are Ultra DMA support and the integration of the AT Attachment Program Interface (ATAPI) standard. ATA-2 provided standard translation methods for Cylinder Head Sector (CHS) for hard drives up to 8. and 6 inches from second to . providing support for the full 137.• memory access (DMA) and programmed input/output (PIO) functions.455.67 MBps to 33. providing a valuable security feature. Standard DMA transfer rates increased from 4. Fast ATA or Fast ATA-2. CHS is how the system determines where the data is located on a hard drive. Ultra ATA and Ultra ATA/33.716. IDE ribbon cables have either 40 or 80 wires.864 bytes or approximately 8. PCMCIA card support and removable device support. In addition to the existing cable that uses 40 pins and 40 conductors (wires). This cable cannot exceed 18 inches (46 cm) in total length (12 inches from first to second connector. ATA-5 is also called Ultra ATA/66.With the addition of Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology (SMART). Before ATA-4. ATA-2 is often called EIDE (Enhanced IDE).33 MBps. If you multiply 1. ATA-1 is more commonly known as IDE.16 megabytes per second (MBps) in ATA-1 to as many as 16. ATA-2 provides power management.4 gigabytes in size. Ultra DMA increased the DMA transfer rate from ATA-2's 16. ATA-4 immediately improved the removable media support of ATA. this version introduces a cable that has 80 conductors. With the inclusion of ATAPI. you will get 8. The other 40 conductors are ground wires interspersed between the standard 40 conductors to improve signal quality. ATA-4 .67 MB/sec with the use of the 80-conductor cable. Each sector holds 512 bytes. ATAPI provides a common interface for CD-ROM drives. ATAPI was a completely separate standard. This is because a sector cannot begin with zero.024 x 256 x 63 x 512.
The grey connector attaches to the secondary (slave) drive. plastic square on top of the connector on the ribbon cable that fits into a notch on the connector of the device. Wire 20 is not connected to anything. In fact. there is no pin at that position. This position is used to ensure that the cable is attached to the drive in the correct position. The connector on an IDE cable Pin Description 1 Reset 2 Ground 3 Data Bit 7 4 Data Bit 8 5 Data Bit 6 6 Data Bit 9 7 Data Bit 5 8 Data Bit 10 9 Data Bit 4 10 Data Bit 11 11 Data Bit 3 12 Data Bit 12 13 Data Bit 2 Pin Description 23 -IOW 24 Ground 25 -IOR 26 Ground 27 I/O Channel Ready 28 SPSYNC: Cable Select 29 -DACK 3 30 Ground 31 RQ 14 32 -IOCS 16 33 Address Bit 1 34 -PDIAG 35 Address Bit 0 . This stripe tells you that the wire on that side is attached to Pin 1 of each connector. The black connector attaches to the primary (master) drive. The cable key is a small. Along one side of the cable is a stripe. The three connectors are typically different colors and attach to specific items: • • • The blue connector attaches to the motherboard.third) to maintain signal integrity. Another way that manufacturers make sure the cable is not reversed is by using a cable key. This allows the cable to attach in only one position.
that checks to see if a slave drive is present. a jumper on the back of the drive next to the IDE connector must be set in the correct position to identify the drive as the master drive. Then. there is no overall controller to decide which device is currently communicating with the computer. Typically. Although it will work in either position. it tells the slave drive to wait and then informs it when it can go ahead. which checks to see if it is currently communicating with the computer. If the master drive is idle. What happens is the slave drive makes a request to the master drive. If only one drive is installed. 2. IDE uses a special configuration called master and slave. the slave drive is attached to the connector near the middle of the IDE ribbon cable. This configuration allows one drive's controller to tell the other drive when it can transfer data to or from the computer. Every drive is capable of being either slave or master when you receive it from the manufacturer. Each drive's controller board looks at the jumper setting to determine whether it is a slave or a master.14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Data Bit 13 Data Bit 1 Data Bit 14 Data Bit 0 Data Bit 15 Ground Cable Key (pin missing) DRQ 3 Ground 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Address Bit 2 -CS1FX -CS3FX -DA/SP Ground +5 Volts (Logic) (Optional) +5 Volts (Motor) (Optional) Ground (Optional) -Type (Optional) Note that the last four pins are only used by devices that require power through the ribbon cable. it is recommended that the master drive is attached to the connector at the very end of the IDE ribbon cable. such devices are hard drives that are too small (for example. Pin 39 carries a special signal. This tells them how to perform. called Drive Active/Slave Present (DASP). Because the controller is integrated with the drive. it tells the slave drive to go ahead. If the master drive is communicating with the computer. The slave drive must have either the master jumper removed or a special slave jumper set. The computer determines if there is a second (slave) drive attached through the use of Pin 39 on the connector. Most motherboards come with dual IDE interfaces (primary and secondary) for up to four IDE devices. Also. depending on the drive. Masters and Slaves A single IDE interface can support two devices. but adding support for a second drive on the same cable took some ingenuity. To allow for two drives on the same cable. This is not a problem as long as each device is on a separate interface. it should always be the master drive.5 inches) to need a separate power supply. .
It was originally designed for computers. the IDE interface sends a signal along the wire for Pin 28. car stereos and portable memory devices.5 Universal Serial Bus Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a serial bus standard to interface devices.Pin 28 only connects to the master drive connector. Since the other drive received no signal. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ The USB "trident" Icon Year Created: Width: Number of Devices: Speed: Style: Hotplugging? External? Jan 1996 1 bits 127 per host up to 480 Mbit/s Serial yes yes ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ The USB (Type A and B) Connectors . The radio spectrum based USB implementation is known as Wireless USB. PDAs..g. When your computer is powered up. 2. CS works like this: A jumper on each drive is set to the CS option. but its popularity has prompted it to also become commonplace on video game consoles. and even devices such as televisions. digital audio players). portable DVD and media players. Only the drive attached to the master connector receives the signal. it defaults to slave mode. cellphones. home stereo equipment (e. these drives can be auto configured as master or slave.Many drives feature an option called Cable Select (CS). That drive then configures itself as the master drive. The cable itself is just like a normal IDE cable except for one difference -. With the correct type of IDE ribbon cable.
subject to a limit of 5 levels of branching per controller. Because of the capability of daisy-chaining USB devices. EISA. and to improve plug-and-play capabilities by allowing devices to be hot-swapped (connected or disconnected without powering down or rebooting the computer). and loads the device driver it needs. In this model. to facilitate temporary connection of portable devices. consisting of a host controller and multiple daisychained devices. may be connected to a single host controller. allowing branching into a tree structure. No more than 127 devices. including the bus devices. Additional USB hubs may be included in the chain.A USB Series “A” plug Overview The Universal Serial Bus (USB) was devised as a major component in the transition towards a legacy-free PC. computers now come with a large number of USB ports. However. USB was designed to allow peripherals to be connected without the need to plug expansion cards into the computer's ISA. early USB announcements predicted that each USB device would include a USB port to allow for long chains of devices. for economical and technical reasons. or PCI bus. . The intention was to let go of all older serial and parallel ports on personal computers since these were not properly standardized. USB cables do not need to be terminated. When a device is first connected. typically six. allowing a very large number of USB devices to be connected. computers would not need many USB ports. To reduce the necessity of USB hubs. and computers shipped at this time typically had only two. daisy chaining never became widespread. A USB system has an asymmetric design. Most modern desktop computers have up to half of their total complement of USB ports on the front panel. and required a multitude of device drivers to be developed and maintained. the host enumerates and recognizes it. Modern computers often have several host controllers.
As of 2004 there were about 1 billion USB devices in the world. digital cameras.5 Mbit/s (187. the only large classes of peripherals that cannot use USB are high data rate devices such as displays and monitors. serving a number of non-hi-speed devices. which might slow them down. Most hi-speed USB devices typically operate at much slower speeds. honest. definite meaning. Standardization . (full technical details below) Potential sources of confusion: • Devices marketed as "Full Speed" or "2. networking components. • Hi-speed devices are advertised as "up to 480 Mb/s". The maximum rate currently (2006) attained with real devices is about half. keyboards. USB cannot provide the data rates necessary for these devices. USB is also used extensively to connect non-networked printers. USB has become the standard connection method.A USB hub USB can connect peripherals such as mouse devices. sometimes up to 10-20 MB/s. external storage. replacing the parallel ports which were widely used. scanners. 30 MB/s. even Hi-Speed hubs. Only the terms "Hi-Speed" or "480 Mb/s" have a clear. gamepads and joysticks. and high-quality digital video components. USB simplifies connecting several printers to one computer. For many devices such as scanners and digital cameras. often about 3MB/s overall. A Hi-Speed rate of 480 Mbit/s (60 MB/s). Speeds • • • A Low Speed rate of 1. printers.5 KB/s) A Full Speed rate of 12 Mbit/s (1. are likely to divide up a total bandwidth of 12 Mb/s for such devices.0" may not be capable of the current fastest speeds. etc.5 MB/s). but don't actually operate at that full theoretical (60 MBytes/s) data throughput rate. As of 2005. • Hubs.
and Philips jointly led the initiative to develop a higher data transfer rate than the 1. the specification is at revision 1. Hewlett-Packard. Equipment conforming with any version of the standard will also work with devices designed to any previous specification (known as: backwards compatibility).The design of USB is standardized by the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF). and 1.0 (with revisions). As of 2006. Microsoft. Technical details PCB mounting USB receptacles USB endpoints actually reside on the connected device: the channels to the host are referred to as pipes USB connects several devices to a host controller through a chain of hubs. however the term endpoint is also (sloppily) used to mean the entire pipe. In USB terminology devices are referred to as functions. .0 specification was released in April 2000 and was standardized by the USB-IF at the end of 2001. As of 2006 the USB specification is at version 2. Intel. The hubs are special purpose devices that are not officially considered functions. NEC. 1. Microsoft.9.0 Specification. NEC. as specified by the On-The-Go Supplement to the USB 2. such as a router that is a Secure Digital Card reader at the same time. and Agere.0. because each individual physical device may actually host several functions.2. are also available. called Mini-A and Mini-B.1 specification. Previous notable releases of the specification were 0. Hewlett-Packard. There always exists one hub known as the root hub. The pipes are synonymous to byte streams such as in the pipelines of Unix. Smaller USB plugs and receptacles. an industry standards body incorporating leading companies from the computer and electronics industries. The USB 2.1. Intel. Lucent. even in the standard USB documentation. Notable members have included Apple Computer. These devices/functions (and hubs) have associated pipes (logical channels) which are connections from the host controller to a logical entity on the device named an endpoint. which is attached directly to the host controller.
64.g. Intel subsequently created a specification they called the Universal Host Controller Interface (UHCI) and insisted other implementers pay to license and implement UHCI.devices that need guaranteed quick responses (bounded latency). The virtual HCD on Intel and VIA EHCI controllers are UHCI. The USB 2. so each pipe is uni-directional. In these pipes. Compaq's Open Host Controller Interface (OHCI) was adopted as the standard by the USB-IF. data is transferred in packets of varying length. e. Each endpoint can transfer data in one direction only. 16 into the host controller and 16 out of the controller. However.0 and 1. During the design phase of USB 2. typically 2n bytes.at some guaranteed speed (often but not necessarily as fast as possible) but with possible data loss. file transfers Host controllers The hardware that contains the host controller and the root hub has an interface geared toward the programmer which is called Host Controller Device (HCD) and is defined by the hardware implementer. these are hardware registers (ports) in the computer.0 HCD implementation is called the Extended Host Controller Interface (EHCI). The dueling implementations forced operating system vendors and hardware vendors to develop and test on both implementations which increased cost. 32. The main difference between OHCI and UHCI is the fact that UHCI is more software-driven than OHCI is. Only EHCI can support hi-speed transfers. Each pipe has a maximum packet length. 128.1 there were two competing HCD implementations. so a device/function can have up to 32 active pipes. all other chipset implementers use OHCI. VIA Technologies licensed the UHCI standard from Intel. so a USB packet will often contain something on the order of 8.These endpoints (and their respective pipes) are numbered 0-15 in each direction. by the bus control pipe number 0 isochronous transfers . e. 256 up to 512 bytes.typically used for short.g. e.large sporadic transfers using all remaining available bandwidth (but with no guarantees on bandwidth or latency). At version 1. either into or out of the device/function. 16. Endpoint 0 is however reserved for the bus management in both directions and thus takes up two of the 32 endpoints — all USB devices are required to implement endpoint 0. In practice. making UHCI slightly more processor-intensive but cheaper to implement (excluding the license fees).g. simple commands to the device.g.0 the USB-IF insisted on only one implementation. realtime audio or video interrupt transfers . All other vendors use virtual OHCI controllers. The pipes are also divided into four different categories by way of their transfer type: • • • • control transfers . . used e. so there is always an inward and an outward pipe numbered 0 on any given device. pointing devices and keyboards bulk transfers . Each EHCI controller contains four virtual HCD implementations to support Full Speed and Low Speed devices. and a status response.
Transfer speed USB supports three data rates. The USB specification provides a 5 V (volts) supply on a single wire from which connected USB devices may draw power.0–0. one can tell whether a USB port is version 2.75–5.5 MB/s).35 V between the +ve and -ve bus power lines. only USB 2.5 kB/s) that is mostly used for Human Interface Devices (HID) such as keyboards. they are not separate simplex connections.8–3.On Microsoft Windows platforms. the lspci -v command will list all PCI devices. dmesg will show the detailed information hierarchy. UHCI or EHCI respectively. D+ and D− usually operate together. Full Speed was the fastest rate before the USB 2.25 V and no less than 4.5 Mbit/s (187. Transmitted signal levels are 0. A Full Speed rate of 12 Mbit/s (1.3 volts for low and 2. labelled D+ and D−.25 volts) 2 D− 3 D+ 4 GND Shell Shield USB signals are transmitted on a twisted pair of data cables. which is also the case in the Mac OS X system profiler.0 specification and many devices fall back to Full Speed. All USB Hubs support Full Speed. mice. A Hi-Speed rate of 480 Mbit/s (60 MB/s).6 volts for high. • • • A Low Speed rate of 1." On Linux systems. and joysticks.0 drivers will contain the word "Enhanced. . These collectively use half-duplex differential signaling to combat the effects of electromagnetic noise on longer lines. USB signaling Pin numbers (looking at socket): Pin assignments Pin Function 1 VBUS (4. and USB controllers will be named OHCI. The specification provides for no more than 5.0 by opening the Device Manager and checking for the word "Enhanced" in its description. On BSD systems. Full Speed devices divide the USB bandwidth between them in a first-come first-served basis and it is not uncommon to run out of bandwidth with several isochronous devices.
Serial ATA (SATA). Equipment requiring more than 500 mA. ATA. Today a number of manufacturers offer external portable USB hard drives. Other competing standards that allow for external connectivity are eSATA and Firewire. then it cannot operate until the user changes the network (either by rearranging USB connections or by adding external power) to supply the power required. among other things. These external drives usually contain a translating device that interfaces a drive of conventional technology (IDE. or even SCSI) to a USB port. Storage A Flash Drive. the drive appears to the user just like another internal drive. hubs with more than 4 ports and hubs with downstream devices using more than four 100 mA units total must provide their own power. This limits compliant bus-powered hubs to 4 ports. making it useful for external drives. If a bus-powered hub is used. Functionally. Version history . USB is not intended to be a primary bus for a computer's internal storage: buses such as ATA (IDE). even if the device hasn't requested it or even identified itself. but has been extended to support a wide variety of devices. a device is only allowed to draw 100 mA. This was initially intended for traditional magnetic and optical drives. that offer performance comparable to internal drives. If a (compliant) device requires more power than is available.Initially. the devices downstream may only use a total of four units — 400 mA — of current. most ports will deliver the full 500 mA or more before shutting down power. or empty enclosures for drives. and SCSI fulfill that role. SATA. a typical USB mass-storage device USB implements connections to storage devices using a set of standards called the USB massstorage device class (referred to as MSC or UMS). However. ATAPI. The host operating system typically keeps track of the power requirements of the USB network and may warn the computer's operator when a given segment requires more power than is available. USB has one important advantage in making it possible to install and remove devices without opening the computer case. In practice. It may request more current from the upstream device in units of 100 mA up to a maximum of 500 mA.
7: Released in November 1994.0a: Released in June 2003. Added higher maximum speed of 480 Mbps (now called Hi-Speed).0 Release Candidate: Released in November 1995. Fixed problems identified in 1. USB 1. USB On-The-Go Supplement 1. Current revision.Original USB Logo Hi-Speed USB Logo • • • • • • USB 0.8: Released in December 1994.0 compliant (a major confusion factor to the market). mostly relating to hubs. Allowed Low-Speed and Full-Speed to be designated as 2. USB 1. USB 0.2: Released in April 2006. • • • USB On-The-Go Supplement USB OTG Logo • • • USB On-The-Go Supplement 1. This is the current revision.5 Mbps (Low-Speed) and 12 Mbps (Full-Speed).0: Released in December 2001. Specified data rates of 1. USB On-The-Go Supplement 1. USB 0. Earliest revision to be widely adopted. Few such devices actually made it to market.99: Released in August 1995. USB 0. Did not anticipate or pass-through monitors.0. Wireless USB .1: Released in September 1998. USB 2. USB 1. USB 2.0: Released in January 1996.0: Revised in December 2002.0: Released in April 2000.9: Released in April 1995. Added specification clarifications.
Wireless USB uses UWB (Ultra Wide Band) as the radio technology. .Wireless USB Logo Released on May 12. 2005.
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