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His Divine Grace Çré Çrémad

A. C. Bhaktivedänta Swämé Prabhupäda

Founder-Äcärya of The International Society for Krishna Consciousness,
The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust & The Bhaktivedänta Institute
With Simplified Romanized Saìskåt by Déna-Anukampana Däs
arjuna uväca
svayam evätmanätmänaà
vettha tvaà puruñottama
bhüta-bhävana bhüteça
deva-deva jagat-pate

- Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,

Chapter 10 Text 15

svayam— vettha—know bhüta- deva-deva—O

personally tvam—You bhävana— Lord-of-All-
eva— puruña- O Origin-of- Devas
certainly uttama— O Everything jagat-pate—O
ätmanä—by Greatest-of- bhüta-éça—O Lord-of-the-
Yourself All-Persons Lord-of- Entire-
ätmänam— Everything Universe
AJauRNa ovac
SvYaMaevaTMaNaaTMaaNa& veTQa Tv& PauåzaetaMa )
>aUTa>aavNa >aUTaeXa devdev JaGaTPaTae )) 15

Arjuna said:
Indeed, You alone know Yourself
by Your own internal potency,
O Supreme Person, Origin of All,
Lord of All Beings,
God of Gods,
Lord of the Universe!
 p NaMaae >aGavTae vaSaudevaYa 

Authorized translations by

His Divine Grace Çré Çrémad

A. C. Bhaktivedänta Swämé Prabhupäda
Founder-Äcärya of
The International Society for Krishna Consciousness,
The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
& The Bhaktivedänta Institute

With Simplified Romanized Saìskåt by Déna-Anukampana Däs




1896 -1977
whose pure love for Kåñëa
and whose lifetime
of intense devotional labour
have made the brilliant sun of
the Bhagavad Gétä As It Is
rise all over Mother Earth
in all her many languages.

He sincerely desired the salvation of the whole

world from the vicious cycle of birth and death.
We pray in all humility that he be pleased
with this humble effort in that direction.

Hare Kåñëa Hare Kåñëa Kåñëa Kåñëa Hare Hare

Hare Räma Hare Räma Räma Räma Hare Hare
Message from His Holiness Bhakti Svarupa
Dämodara Swämé Mahäräja......... 10
Message from Mother A. Mangalam............12
Edidtor’s Notes...........................................14
History of the Bhagavad Gétä......................18
Preface....................................................... 19
Brahmä-Madhva-Gauòéya Sampradäya
Invocations (22 verses)...21
Gétä Dhyänaà (9 verses).............................37
Ch. 1 – Arjuna-Viñäda Yoga
(46/47* verses)...............48
Ch. 2 – Säìkhya Yoga (72 verses)................70
Ch. 3 – Karma Yoga (43 verses)...................102
Ch. 4 – Jïäna-Karma-Sannyäsa Yoga
(42 verses)..................... 122
Ch. 5 – Karma-Sannyäsa Yoga (29 verses)...142
Ch. 6 – Ätma-Saàyama Yoga (47 verses).... 156
Ch. 7 – Jïäna-Vijïäna Yoga (30 verses).......178
Ch. 8 – Akñara-Brahma Yoga (28 verses).....194
Ch. 9 – Räja-Vidya-Räja-Guhya Yoga
(34 verses)..................... 208
Ch. 10 – Vibhüti Yoga (42 verses)............... 224

*In some ancient Gétäs, the numbering for the lines of Ch. 1 differs while
verse 13.1 is not present. The total number of verses thus remains 700.


Ch. 11 – Visvarüpa Darçana Yoga
(55 verses)..................... 242
Ch. 12 – Bhakti Yoga (20 verses)................ 270
Ch. 13 – Kñetra-Kñetrajïa-Vibhäga Yoga
(35/34* verses).............. 280
Ch. 14 – Guëatraya-Vibhäga Yoga
(27 verses)..................... 298
Ch. 15 – Puruñottama Yoga (20 verses)........310
Ch. 16 – Daiväsura-Saàpad-Vibhäga Yoga
(24 verses)..................... 320
Ch. 17 – Çraddhätraya-Vibhäga Yoga
(28 verses)..................... 332
Ch. 18 – Mokña-Sannyäsa Yoga
(78 verses)..................... 346
Gétä Mähätmyaà (Varäha Puräëa)
(23 verses)..................... 380

Brahma Saàhitä......................................... 394

Dina’s Simplified Romanized Saìskåt
Course Notes..................410
Sanskåt Pronunciation Guide.......................418
Chart of the numbers of verses & their
speakers......................... 421
A Treasury of 30 Precepts To Follow
(Çrémad Bhägavatam 7:11:8-12)....... 422
Index of Gétä Verses In Four Lines.............. 428


By the mercy of Çré-Çré Guru-Gauräìga, between 1991 and
1998, Çrémän Déna Anukampana Däs discovered and
evolved a simple method of teaching people of all ages
how to chant Saìskåt çlokas with very accurate
pronunciation, using Romanized Saìskåt, within a single
workshop of 4 hours*. Participants would subsequently
be able to self-correct themselves and practice on their
own along with an audio recording of Gétä verses. Indeed,
his method of teaching is very innovative.

Having discovered this, he called all the Hindu leaders of

Singapore together and proposed that all the Hindus of
Singapore should have a common annual religious
function. He suggested that they all gather together and
recite the entire Gétä en-masse each year on Gétä Jayanti
Day, which falls on Mokshadä Ekädaçi, the anniversary
of the day when Lord Kåñëa personally spoke the Gétä to
Arjuna at Kuruksetra 51 centuries ago. They were
agreeable to the proposal because the Gétä’s philosophy is
universal, scientific and non-sectarian. However, they
were doubtful whether everyone would be able to chant
Säìskrit, which is thought to be very difficult to pronounce.
Their fears were allayed when they witnessed his 4-hour
workshops. Hundreds learned to recite the Gétä within a
few months, and the first Gétä Jayanti in Singapore in 1998
was a grand success.

I had the opportunity to be their guest of honor at that

inaugural event in 1998 along with the late His Holiness

*The course notes for this can be found at the back of this book.


Hariharjé Mahäräj, founder of the 700 Gétä Ashrams
worldwide. Since then the program in Singapore has grown
more successful every year for the past six years. I am
very happy to hear that it is now being observed in Malaysia
for the first time on the 4th of December 2003 under the
patronage of Mother Mangalam of the Pure Life Society.
I pray for Çréla Prabhupäda’s unlimited mercy upon Çrémän
Déna-Anukampana Däs for his sincere service. May Lord
Çré Kåñëa shower His unlimited blessings upon everyone
in Malaysia.

The book’s improved easy-to-read format makes it more

accessible, especially for those not familiar with the
Devanägaré Sanskåt script. In this way one can practice
the chanting of the Bhagavad-Gétä for spiritual progress.
We pray that by the blessings of Çréla Prabhupäda and Lord
Sri Kåñëa that the program will help to popularize the
chanting of the Bhagavad-Gétä throughout the world. This
will definitely promote world peace and harmony. I pray
that the Gétä Jayanti program in Malaysia will be a grand
success. Hare Kåñëa!

Bhaktisvarüpa Dämodara Swämé (Dr T. D. Singh)

International Director, Bhaktivedänta Institute
Governing Body Commissioner, International Society for
Krishna Consciousness


Among all living species, the human specie is very complex
by nature. Other than the outward appearance which
portrays so-called ‘beauty’ and ‘ugliness’ and all other
dualities in so many shapes and colours, this living being
called the human being, is a sum total of 4 main components
– the body, the mind, the intellect and the vital energies –
moved by the Spirit. All these four components need to be
cultured for a wholesome life on Mother Earth.

However, there are so many negative forces that have to be

overcome in order to attain to the stage of wholeness or

The Bhagavad Gétä is a discourse between Kåñëa, the

Godhead and Arjuna, the soul enmeshed in darkness
(Mäyä), in which the Lord tells of the Way by which Man
can overcome the negative forces that impede his path
towards perfection (Mokña). The discourse covers Karma
Yoga the path of action, Bhakti Yoga the path of devotion,
Räja Yoga the path of conquering the lower self and Jïäna
Yoga the path of wisdom. All these four paths help the
human being to lead a balanced life leading to human
perfection which (in the words of Çré S. Radhakrishnan,
the religio-philosopher) is ‘a sort of a marriage between
high thought and just action. i.e. to take care that spiritual
vision does not degenerate into madness and energy into


The Bhagavad Gétä which literally means the Song of God
will elevate the human to a state of Divine Consciousness if
read meaningfully with devotion.

Déna-Anukampana Däs Prabhu, has been inspired to make

this Supreme Saìskåt Literature of Universal Values very
readable even by the young.

May every follower of the Sanätana Dharma take up the

reading of the Bhagavad Gétä as a daily sädhana. Déna
Prabhu has witnessed scholars in India, especially in the Gétä
Äshram, who are able to recite the entire Gétä within an hour.
With this book any amateur will be able to recite it easily
within 3 to 4 hours.

You will be missing life’s opportunity to transform yourself

to experience higher realms of existence if you do not take
up to reading this Divine Scripture, which has been translated
into at least 55 languages by the world’s learned.

This is not an attempt to convert, but merely to better the life

of Man and to make the world a better world.

“The incarnation of Kåñëa is not so much the conversion

of Godhead in flesh as the taking up of manhood into God”.
(S. Radhakrishnan)

Mother A Mangalam
Pure Life Society, Malaysia


Editor’s notes
The system of Romanized Saìskåt in this book has been
used by almost all Saìskrt scholars in the past 70 years.
It has been further simplified in this book without losing
any details of the original system, in order to make
Saìskåt more accessible for beginners. The additional
marks guide one towards far better pronunciation.
♦ Red slashes (/) have been added immediately
after every ‘dérgha’ (long) syllable. The ugliest
and most common mistake that beginners make is
to mix up the long and short vowels. This is
further complicated by the fact that the existing
system is confusing: some long letters (ä, é & ü)
have top-lines above them, but ‘e’, ‘ai’, ‘o’ & ‘au’,
do not have them, even though these four sounds
are always long (i.e. there is no short version of
these four vowels unlike ‘a - ä’, ‘i - é’ and ‘u - ü’).
These red slashes thus offer invaluable help to
beginners. It also helps to introduce the concept
of ‘breaks’ in the sound after every long vowel,
which make the difference between the sounds of
long and short vowels. (Please see the course notes
at the end of the book for further elaboration).
♦ Letters underlined in red indicate that they
should be joined together and pronounced as one
syllable. In the existing system, the original
Saìskåt lines are broken into words but those who
are expert know how to join them back when
chanting the verse. To de-mystify the process for
beginners, all such cases have been underlined in
red for easy identification.


♦ Lines which end with ‘ù’ are to be pronounced
in a special way: the vowel wich appears just before
it should be repeated softly immediately after it. To
make this ‘hidden rule’ more easy to follow, the vowel
appears in brackets in red eg. (a) or (o).
Notes have also been added in dark grey. They will be
extremely useful to persons who begin to recite from
this book every day, especially to those who begin
memorizing the sacred verses.
♦ Wherever there are similar verses elsewhere
in the Gétä the cross reference is given for the
student to confer with ( cf ). See the all-new index
of all four lines at page 428 - similar lines are in italics.
♦ Lines which are printed in italics indicate that
the same line appears in almost identical form
elsewhere in the Gétä.
♦ Whenever the meter changes because of
sudden changes in the number of lines or the
number of syllables, these have been highlighted.
♦ Verses that tend to be tricky have been labelled
as such.
♦ The translations of the Four Seed Verses of the
Bhagavad Gétä (Catur Çloké) have been highlighted
in RED along with certain verses that are held dear by
devotees of Lord Çré Kåñëa. Happy Chanting!

(Future edition will have word-by-word synonyms in recitation

format as on page 2 and a word-by-word index as well.)



May Lord Çré Kåñëa and His Beloved

Çrémati Rädhäräëé shower Their unlimited
blessings upon Çré Nanthakumaran and
family, Çré Maniam and family and Çré Dr.
Vythilingam and family, without whose
devotional support in so many ways this
book would not have been possible.


history of the BHAGAVAD GITA
The Bhagavad Gétä was revealed by Lord Çré Kåñëa to His
paternal cousin and dearmost friend Arjuna 51 centuries
ago, towards the end of the Dväpara Yuga and the start
of the present cycle of the Kali Yuga. Their conversation
took place on the battlefield of Kurukñetra, a holy place
of pilgrimage in India, on the day of Mokshadä Ekädaçi,
just before the battle of Kurukñetra began*. In this bat-
tle, Arjuna and his four brothers, the Päëòavas, had to
fight their 100 cousins, the Kauravas, for sovereignty over
the whole world.

Their dialogue was witnessed by Saïjaya, the empowered

disciple of Vyäsadev, the literary incarnation of God who
wrote all the Vedic (Hindu) scriptures. Later, at the re-
quest of Lord Gaëapati, Vyäsadev narrated the entire
history of the Mahäbhärata and Lord Gaëapati broke his
own tusk to use as a pen to write down the epic in the
form of a poem. This poem of 110,000 verses is by far the
longest poem in the world. The Gétä is recorded as one
chapter in the Bhéñma-parva section of that great work.

It is also revealed in the Mahäbhärata [Çänti-parva

(348:51-52) and Bhagava Gétä (4:1-3)] that Lord Kåñëa had
spoken the same eternal message of the Gétä to the sun
god, Vivasvän, 120.4 million years ago, thus he was actu-
ally repeating the Gétä for Arjuna’s benefit because the
original message had been lost in the course of time.

*Please note that there are many living exponents of Saìskåt

who are able to recite the entire Géta within 1 hour.


The Bhagavad Gétä As It Is by His Divine Grace A C
Bhaktivedänta Swämé Prabhupäda has transformed the lives
of millions of people all over the world. There were more than
700 English versions of the Bhagavad Gétä available in America
before Çréla Prabhupäda’s was published in 1967. However,
hardly anyone in the western world had taken up the path of
devotion to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Bhakti Yoga,
which is the path that Arjuna himself had practised. However
after his commentary was published, millions of people have
taken up the ancient path of bhakti märga, transcendental
devotional service to Lord Kåñëa and experienced spiritual
happiness easily. Bhagavad Géta As It Is is used as a standard
text book in hundreds of universities all over the world. It easy
to read and is true to the spirit of the original Saìskåt text

To say that his commentary and translations are authorized is

a point easily understood by Äcäryas (professors) in all ancient
traditional sampradäyas or Vedic disciplic successions which
still exist today. It means that his writings are not expressions
of his scholarship nor concoctions of his own imagaination.
Rather, they are strictly in accordance with the teachings of all
his predecessor Äcäryas in the Brahma-Madhva-Gauòéya
Sampradäya, headed by Çréla Rüpa Goswämé Prabhupäda,
the ‘Father of Bhakti Yoga’. Rüpa Goswämé was empowered
by Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu to write books on science of
bhakti strictly in accordance with the Vedas and Puräëas in
accordance with Lord Caitanya’s Vedänta philosophy of
Acintya-Bhedäbheda Tattva. Such authorized writings have
the potency to awaken genuine love of God in the hearts of
ordinary men. To taste the highest happiness, we strongly
urge one and all to MAKE IT A REGULAR DAILY HABIT TO
reading, please go through the Bhaktivedänta Book Trust’s
books of His Divine Grace Çré Çrémad A. C. Bhaktivedänta
Swämi Prabhupäda, which can be found at


<< Click Here


(22 verses)
ajïä / na - t imirä / ndhasya
jïä / nä / ïjana - çalä / kayä /
cakñur unmé / lit aà ye / na
t asmai / çré / - gurave / namaù(a)

çré / - cai / t anya - mano / - ’bhé / ñöaà

st hä / pit aà ye / na bhü / - t ale /
svayaà rü / paù kadä / mahyaà
dadä / t i sva - padä / nt ikam

vande/ ’haà çré/ - guro/ù çré/ - yuta - pada

- kamalaà çré / - gurü / n vai / ñëavä / àç ca
çré / - rü / paà sä / grajä / taà saha - gaëa -
raghunä / thä / nvit aà t aà sa - jé / vam
sä / dvai / t aà sä / vadhü / taà parijana -
sahit aà kåñëa - cai / t anya - de / vaà
çré/ - rä/dhä/ - kåñëa - pä/dä/n saha - gaëa
- lalitä / - çré / - viçä / khä / nvitä / àç ca

22 mangalaacarana
nama o / à viñëu - pä / dä / ya
kåñëa - pre / ñöhä / ya bhü / - t ale /
çré / mat e / bhakt ive / dä / nt a -
svä / min it i nä / mine /

namas t e / sä / rasvat e / de / ve /
gau / ra - vä / ëé / - pracä / riëe /
nir viçe / ña - çü / nyavä / di -
pä / çcä / t ya - de / ça - tä / riëe /

nama o / à viñëu - pä / dä / ya
kåñëa - pre / ñöhä / ya bhü / - t ale /
çré / mat e / bhakt isiddhä / nt a -
sarasvaté / t i nä / mine /

çré / - vä / rñabhä / navé / - de / vé / -

dayitä / ya kåpä / bdhaye /
kåñëa - sambandha - vijïä / na -
dä / yine / prabhave / namaù (a)

24 mangalaacarana
mä / dhur yo / jjvala - pre / mä / òhya -
çré / - rü / pä / nuga - bhakt ida
çré / - gau / ra - karuëä / - çakt i -
vigrahä / ya namo / ’stu t e /

namas t e / gau / ra - vä / ëé / -
çré / - mü / rt aye / dé / na - tä / riëe /
rü / pä / nuga - viruddhä / pa -
siddhä / nt a - dhvä / nt a - hä / riëe /

namo / gau / ra - kiço / rä / ya

sä / kñä / d - vai / rä / gya - mü / rt aye /
vipralambha - rasä / mbho / de /
pä / dä / mbujä / ya t e / namaù (a)

namo / bhakt ivino / dä / ya

sac - cid - ä / nanda - nä / mine /
gau / ra - çakt i - svarü / pä / ya
rü / pä / nuga - varä / ya t e /

26 mangalaacarana
gau / rä / virbhä / va - bhü / me / s tvaà
nirde / ñöä / saj - jana - priyaù (a)
vai / ñëava - sä / r vabhau / maù ñré / -
jagannä / t hä / ya t e / namaù (a)

vä / ïchä / - kalpat arubhyaç ca

kåpä / - sindhubhya e / va ca
pat itä / nä / à pä / vane / bhyo /
vai / ñëave / bhyo / namo / namaù (a)

namo / mahä / - vadä / nyä / ya

kåñëa - pre / ma - pradä / ya t e /
kåñëä / ya kåñëa - cai / t anya -
nä / mne / gau / ra - tviñe / namaù (a)

28 mangalaacarana
païca - t attvä / t makaà kåñëaà
bhakt a - rü / pa - svarü / pakam
bhaktä / vatä / raà bhaktä / khyaà
namä / mi bhakt a - çakt ikam

he / kåñëa karuëä / - sindho /

dé / na - bandho / jagat - pate /
go / pe / ça go / pikä / - kä / nt a
rä / dhä / - kä / nt a namo / ’stu t e /

jayatä / à surat au / paìgo / r

mama manda - mat e / r gaté /
mat - sar vasva - padä / mbho / jau /
rä / dhä / - madana - mo / hanau /

30 mangalaacarana
dé / v yad - våndä / raëya - kalpa -
drumä / dhaù (a)
çré / mad - ratnä / gä / ra - siàhä / sana -
sthau /
çré / mad - rä / dhä / - çré / la - go / vinda -
de / vau /
pre / ñöhä / lé / bhiù se / v yamä / nau /
smarä / mi

çré / mä / n rä / sa - rasä / rambhé /

vaàçé / - vaöa - t aöa - st hit aù (a)
karñan ve / ëu - svanai / r go / pé / r
go / pé / nä / t haù çriye / ’stu naù (a)

t apt a - kä / ïcana - gau / rä / ìgi

rä / dhe / våndä / vane / çvari
våñabhä / nu - sut e / de / vé /
praëamä / mi hari - priye /

32 mangalaacarana

çré / - kåñëa - cai / t anya

prabhu - nit yä / nanda
çré / - advai / t a gadä / dhara
çré / vä / sä / di - gau / ra - bhakta - vånda




34 mangalaacarana
- Çrépäd Çaìkaräcär ya has given mankind
these profound meditations
on Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä
which reveal the great importance
of Mother Gétä as the crest jewel
of the Vedic scriptures and
which set the proper mood with which
to approach this sacred book

(9 verses)

Text 1 (meter – 19)

pä/rthä/ya pratibo/dhitä/à bhagavatä/
nä/rä/yaëe/na svayaà
vyä/se/na grathitä/m purä/ëa muninä/
madhye/ mahä/bhä/ratam
advai/tä/måtavarñiëé/à bhagavaté/à
amba tvä/m anusandadhä/mi bhagavad -
gé/te/ bhavadve/ñiëé/à

Text 2 (meter – 11)

namo/ ’stu te/ vyä/sa viçä/la buddhe/

phullä/ravindä/yata patra ne/tra
ye/na tvayä/ bhä/rata tai/lapü/rëaù(a)
prajvä/lito/ jïä/na mayaù pradé/paù(a)

38 Gitaa Dhyaanam
Text 3 (meter – 8)

prapanna pä/rijä/tä/ya
to/trave/trai/ka pä/ëaye/
jïä/na mudrä/ya kåñëä/ya
gé/tä/måta duhe/ namaù(a)

Text 4 (meter – 8)

sarvo/paniñado/ gä/vo/
do/gdhä/ go/pä/la nandanaù(a)
pä/rtho/ vatsaù sudhé/r bho/ktä/
dugdhaà gé/tä/måtaà mahat

Text 5 (meter – 8)

vasude/va sutaà de/vaà

kaàsa cä/ëü/ra mardanaà
de/vaké/ paramä/nandaà
kåñëaà vande/ jagad gurum

40 Gitaa Dhyaanam
Text 6 (meter – 19)
bhé/ñma dro/ëa taöä/ jayadratha jalä/
gä/ndhä/ra né/lo/tpalä/
çalya grä/havaté/ kåpe/ëa vahané/
karëe/na ve/lä/kulä/
açvatthä/ma vikarëa gho/ra makarä/
so/tté/rëä/ khalu pä/ëòavai/ raëa nadé/
kai/vartakaù ke/çavaù(a)

Text 7 (meter – 19)

pä/rä/çarya vacaù saro/jam amalaà
gé/tä/rtha gandho/tkaöaà
nä/nä/khyä/naka ke/saraà hari kathä/
saàbo/dhanä/ bo/dhitaà
lo/ke/ sajjana ñaöpadai/r aharahaù
pe/pé/yamä/naà mudä/
bhü/yä/d bhä/rata paìkajaà kalimala
pradhvaàsi naù çre/yase/

42 Gitaa Dhyaanam
Text 8 (meter – 8)

mü/kaà karo/ti vä/cä/laà

paìguà laìghayate/ girià
yat kåpä/ tam ahaà vande/
paramä/nanda mä/dhavaà

Text 9 (meter – 19)

yaà brahmä/ varune/ndra rudra marutaù

stunvanti divyai/ù stavai/ù(i)

ve/dai/ù sä/ìga padakramo/paniñadai/r

gä/yanti yaà sä/magä/ù(a)

dhyä/nä/vasthita tad gate/na manasä/

paçyanti yaà yo/gino/

yasyä/ntam na viduù surä/suragaëä/

de/vä/ya tasmai/ namaù(a)

44 Gitaa Dhyaanam

- the Beautiful Song of God

Dhåtaräñöra said: O Saïjaya,
after my sons and the Sons-of-Päëòu
assembled in the place of pilgrimage
at Kurukñetra, desiring to fight,
what did they do?
Saïjaya said: O King,
after looking over the army
arranged in military formation
by the Sons-of-Päëòu,
King Duryodhana went to his teacher
and spoke the following words.
O My Teacher, behold the great army
of the Sons-of-Päëòu,
so expertly arranged
by your intelligent disciple,
the son of Drupada.
Here in this army are many heroic bowmen
equal in fighting to Bhéma and Arjuna:
great fighters like
Yuyudhäna, Viräöa and Drupada.


There are also great, heroic,
powerful fighters like
Dhåñöaketu, Cekitäna,
Käçiräja, Purujit, Kuntibhoja and Çaibya.
There are the mighty Yudhämanyu,
the very powerful Uttamaujä,
the son of Subhadrä and the sons of Draupadé.
All these warriors are great chariot fighters.
But for your information,
O Best-of-the-Brähmaëas,
let me tell you about the captains
who are especially qualified
to lead my military force.
There are personalities like you, Bhéñma,
Karëa, Kåpa, Açvatthämä, Vikarëa and
the son of Somadatta called Bhüriçravä,
who are always victorious in battle.
There are many other heroes who are
prepared to lay down their lives for my sake.
All of them are well equipped
with different kinds of weapons,
and all are experienced in military science.


Our strength is immeasurable,
and we are perfectly protected
by Grandfather Bhéñma,
whereas the strength of the Päëòavas,
carefully protected by Bhéma, is limited.
All of you must now give full support
to Grandfather Bhéñma,
as you stand at your respective
strategic points of entrance
into the phalanx of the army.
Then Bhéñma, the great valiant
Grandsire of the Kuru dynasty,
the grandfather of the fighters,
blew his conchshell very loudly,
making a sound like the roar of a lion,
giving Duryodhana joy.
After that, the conchshells,
drums, bugles, trumpets and horns
were all suddenly sounded,
and the combined sound was tumultuous.
On the other side,
both Lord Kåñëa and Arjuna, stationed
on a great chariot drawn by white horses,
sounded their transcendental conchshells.


Lord Kåñëa blew His conchshell,
called Päïcajanya;
Arjuna blew his, the Devadatta;
and Bhéma, the Voracious Eater
and Performer-of-Herculean-Tasks,
blew his terrific conchshell,
called Pauëòra.
1:16 – 1:18
King Yudhiñöhira, the Son-of-Kunté,
blew his conchshell, the Ananta-vijaya,
and Nakula and Sahadeva blew
the Sughoña and Maëipuñpaka.
That great archer the King of Käçé,
the great fighter Çikhaëòé, Dhåñöadyumna,
Viräöa, the unconquerable Sätyaki,
Drupada, the sons of Draupadé,
and the others, O King,
such as the mighty-armed Son-of-Subhadrä,
all blew their respective conchshells.
The blowing of these different conchshells
became uproarious.
Vibrating both in the sky and on the earth,
it shattered the hearts
of the Sons-of-Dhåtaräñöra.


At that time Arjuna, the Son-of-Päëòu,
seated in the chariot bearing
the flag marked with Hanumän,
took up his bow and prepared
to shoot his arrows.
O King, after looking at the
drawn in military array,
Arjuna then spoke
to Lord Kåñëa these words.
1:21 - 1:22
Arjuna said: O Infallible-One,
please draw my chariot
between the two armies
so that I may see those present here,
who desire to fight, and with whom
I must contend in this great trial of arms.
Let me see those
who have come here to fight,
wishing to please the evil-minded
Saïjaya said: O Descendant-of-Bharata,
having thus been addressed by Arjuna,
Lord Kåñëa drew up the fine chariot
in the midst of the armies of both parties.


In the presence of Bhéñma, Droëa
and all the other chieftains of the world,
the Lord said,
Just behold, Pärtha,
all the Kurus assembled here.

There Arjuna could see, within the midst
of the armies of both parties,
his fathers, grandfathers, teachers,
maternal uncles, brothers, sons,
grandsons, friends, and also
his fathers-in-law and well-wishers.

When the Son-of-Kunté, Arjuna,
saw all these different grades
of friends and relatives,
he became overwhelmed with compassion
and spoke thus.

Arjuna said: My dear Kåñëa,
seeing my friends and relatives
present before me in such a fighting spirit,
I feel the limbs of my body quivering
and my mouth drying up.


My whole body is trembling,
my hair is standing on end,
my bow Gäëòéva is slipping from my hand,
and my skin is burning.
I am now unable to stand here any longer.
I am forgetting myself,
and my mind is reeling.
I see only causes of misfortune,
O Kåñëa, Killer-of-the-Keçé-Demon.
I do not see how any good can come
from killing my own kinsmen in this battle,
nor can I, my dear Kåñëa,
desire any subsequent victory,
kingdom, or happiness.
1:32 - 1:35
O Govinda, of what avail to us are
a kingdom, happiness or even life itself
when all those for whom we may desire them
are now arrayed on this battlefield?
O Madhusüdana, when teachers, fathers, sons,
grandfathers, maternal uncles,
fathers-in-law, grandsons,
brothers-in-law and other relatives
are ready to give up their lives and properties
and are standing before me,
why should I wish to kill them,
even though they might otherwise kill me? ... /


O Maintainer-of-all-Living-Entities,
I am not prepared to fight with them
even in exchange for the three worlds,
let alone this earth.
What pleasure will we derive
from killing the Sons-of-Dhåtaräñöra?

Sin will overcome us
if we slay such aggressors.
Therefore it is not proper for us to kill
the Sons-of-Dhåtaräñöra and our friends.
What should we gain, O Kåñëa,
and how could we be happy
by killing our own kinsmen?

1:37 - 1:38
O Janärdana, although these men,
their hearts overtaken by greed,
see no fault in killing one’s family
or quarreling with friends,
why should we, who can see
the crime in destroying a family,
engage in these acts of sin?


With the destruction of dynasty,
the eternal family tradition is vanquished,
and thus the rest of the family
becomes involved in irreligion.

When irreligion is prominent in the family,
O Kåñëa, the women of the family
become polluted, and
from the degradation of womanhood,
O Descendant-of-Våñëi,
comes unwanted progeny.

An increase of unwanted population
certainly causes hellish life both
for the family and for those
who destroy the family tradition.
The ancestors of such corrupt families
fall down, because the performances
for offering them food and water
are entirely stopped.

By the evil deeds of those
who destroy the family tradition and
thus give rise to unwanted children,
all kinds of community projects and
family welfare activities are devastated.


O Kåñëa, Maintainer-of-the-People,
I have heard by disciplic succession that
those who destroy family traditions
dwell always in hell.

Alas, how strange it is
that we are preparing
to commit greatly sinful acts.
Driven by the desire
to enjoy royal happiness,
we are intent on killing
our own kinsmen.

Better for me if
the Sons-of-Dhåtaräñöra,
weapons in hand, were to kill me
unarmed and unresisting on the battlefield.


Saïjaya said:
Arjuna, having thus spoken
on the battlefield,
cast aside his bow and arrows
and sat down on the chariot,
his mind overwhelmed with grief.

Thus ends ‘Arjuna Viñäda Yoga’,

the first chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad
and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,
which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,
and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section
of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,
which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva
in one-hundred-thousand verses.


Saïjaya said:
Seeing Arjuna full of compassion,
his mind depressed, his eyes full of tears,
Madhusüdana, Kåñëa,
spoke the following words.
The Supreme-Personality-of-Godhead said:
My dear Arjuna,
how have these impurities
come upon you?
They are not at all befitting a man
who knows the value of life.
They lead not to higher planets
but to infamy.
O Son-of-Påthä, do not yield
to this degrading impotence.
It does not become you.
Give up such petty weakness of heart
and arise, O Chastiser-of-the-Enemy.
Arjuna said: O Killer-of-Enemies,
O Killer-of-Madhu,
how can I counterattack with arrows in battle
men like Bhéñma and Droëa,
who are worthy of my worship?


It would be better to live in this world
by begging than to live at the cost of the lives
of great souls who are my teachers.
Even though desiring worldly gain,
they are superiors.
If they are killed, everything we enjoy
will be tainted with blood.
Nor do we know which is better—
conquering them or being conquered by them.
If we killed the Sons-of-Dhåtaräñöra,
we should not care to live. Yet they are now
standing before us on the battlefield.
Now I am confused about my duty and
have lost all composure
because of miserly weakness.
In this condition I am asking You
to tell me for certain what is best for me.
Now I am Your disciple,
and a soul surrendered unto You.
Please instruct me.
I can find no means to drive away this grief
which is drying up my senses.
I will not be able to dispel it
even if I win a prosperous,
unrivaled kingdom on earth
with sovereignty like the devas in heaven.


Saïjaya said: Having spoken thus,
Arjuna, Chastiser-of-Enemies, told Kåñëa,
“Govinda, I shall not fight,”
and fell silent.
O Descendant-of-Bharata,
at that time Kåñëa,
smiling, in the midst of both the armies,
spoke the following words
to the grief-stricken Arjuna.
The Supreme-Personality-of-Godhead said:
While speaking learned words,
you are mourning
for what is not worthy of grief.
Those who are wise lament
neither for the living nor for the dead.
Never was there a time
when I did not exist,
nor you, nor all these kings;
nor in the future shall any of us cease to be.


As the embodied soul continuously passes,
in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age,
the soul similarly passes
into another body at death.
A sober person
is not bewildered by such a change.
O Son-of-Kunté, the non-permanent appearance
of happiness and distress,
and their disappearance in due course,
are like the appearance and disappearance
of winter and summer seasons.
They arise from sense perception,
O Scion-of-Bharata,
and one must learn to tolerate them
without being disturbed.
O Best-Among-Men (Arjuna),
the person who is not disturbed
by happiness and distress
and is steady in both
is certainly eligible for liberation.
Those who are seers of the truth have concluded
that of the nonexistent (the material body)
there is no endurance
and of the eternal (the soul) there is no change.
This they have concluded
by studying the nature of both.


That which pervades the entire body
you should know to be indestructible.
No one is able to destroy
that imperishable soul.
The material body of the indestructible,
immeasurable and eternal living entity
is sure to come to an end;
therefore, fight, O Descendant-of-Bharata.
Neither he who thinks the living entity the slayer
nor he who thinks it slain
is in knowledge,
for the self slays not nor is slain.
For the soul there is neither
birth nor death at any time.
He has not come into being,
does not come into being,
and will not come into being.
He is unborn, eternal,
ever-existing and primeval.
He is not slain when the body is slain.
O Pärtha, how can a person
who knows that the soul
is indestructible, eternal,
unborn and immutable
kill anyone or cause anyone to kill?


As a person puts on new garments,
giving up old ones, the soul
similarly accepts new material bodies,
giving up the old and useless ones.
The soul can never be
cut to pieces by any weapon,
nor burned by fire, nor moistened by water,
nor withered by the wind.
This individual soul is
unbreakable and insoluble,
and can be neither burned nor dried.
He is everlasting, present everywhere,
unchangeable, immovable
and eternally the same.
It is said that the soul is invisible,
inconceivable and immutable.
Knowing this, you should not
grieve for the body.
If, however, you think that
the soul (or the symptoms of life)
is always born and dies forever,
you still have no reason to lament,
O Mighty-Armed.


One who has taken his birth
is sure to die, and after death
one is sure to take birth again.
Therefore, in the unavoidable
discharge of your duty,
you should not lament.
All created beings are
unmanifest in their beginning,
manifest in their interim state,
and unmanifest again when annihilated.
So what need is there for lamentation?
Some look on the soul as amazing,
some describe him as amazing,
and some hear of him as amazing, while others,
even after hearing about him,
cannot understand him at all.
O Descendant-of-Bharata,
he who dwells in the body
can never be slain.
Therefore you need not grieve
for any living being.
Considering your specific duty as a kñatriya,
you should know that
there is no better engagement for you
than fighting on religious principles;
and so there is no need for hesitation.


O Pärtha, happy are
the kñatriyas to whom
such fighting opportunities come unsought,
opening for them
the doors of the heavenly planets.
If, however, you do not perform
your religious duty of fighting,
then you will certainly incur sins
for neglecting your duties
and thus lose your reputation as a fighter.
People will always speak of your infamy,
and for a respectable person,
dishonor is worse than death.
The great generals who have highly esteemed
your name and fame will think
that you have left the battlefield
out of fear only, and thus
they will consider you insignificant.
Your enemies will describe you
in many unkind words
and scorn your ability.
What could be more painful for you?


O Son-of-Kunté, either
you will be killed on the battlefield
and attain the heavenly planets, or
you will conquer and enjoy the earthly kingdom.
Therefore, get up with determination and fight.
Do thou fight for the sake of fighting,
without considering happiness or distress,
loss or gain, victory or defeat—
and by so doing you shall never incur sin.
Thus far I have described this knowledge to you
through analytical study.
Now listen as I explain it in terms of
working without fruitive results.
O Son-of-Påthä, when you act in such knowledge
you can free yourself from the bondage of works.
In this endeavor there is no loss or diminution,
and a little advancement on this path can
protect one from the most dangerous type of fear.
Those who are on this path
are resolute in purpose, and their aim is one.
O Beloved-Child-of-the-Kurus,
the intelligence of those
who are irresolute is many-branched.


2:42 - 2:43
Men of small knowledge are very much attached
to the flowery words of the Vedas,
which recommend various fruitive activities
for elevation to heavenly planets,
resultant good birth, power, and so forth.
Being desirous of sense gratification
and opulent life,
they say that there is nothing more than this.
In the minds of those who are too attached
to sense enjoyment and material opulence,
and who are bewildered by such things,
the resolute determination
for devotional service to the Supreme Lord
does not take place.
The Vedas deal mainly with the subject
of the three modes of material nature. O Arjuna,
become transcendental to these three modes.
Be free from all dualities
and from all anxieties for gain and safety,
and be established in the self.
All purposes served by a small well
can at once be served
by a great reservoir of water.
Similarly, all the purposes of the Vedas
can be served to one who knows
the purpose behind them.


You have a right to
perform your prescribed duty,
but you are not entitled to the fruits of action.
Never consider yourself the cause
of the results of your activities,
and never be attached to not doing your duty.
Perform your duty equipoised, O Arjuna,
abandoning all attachment to success or failure.
Such equanimity is called yoga.
O Dhanaïjaya, keep all abominable activities
far distant by devotional service, and
in that consciousness surrender unto the Lord.
Those who want to enjoy
the fruits of their work are misers.
A man engaged in devotional service
rids himself of both good and bad actions
even in this life. Therefore strive for yoga,
which is the art of all work.
By thus engaging
in devotional service to the Lord,
great sages or devotees free themselves
from the results of work in the material world.
In this way they become free
from the cycle of birth and death
and attain the state beyond all miseries
(by going back to Godhead).


When your intelligence has passed out
of the dense forest of delusion,
you shall become indifferent
to all that has been heard
and all that is to be heard.
When your mind is no longer disturbed
by the flowery language of the Vedas,
and when it remains fixed
in the trance of self-realization,
then you will have attained
the divine consciousness.
Arjuna said:
O Kåñëa, what are the symptoms
of one whose consciousness
is thus merged in transcendence?
How does he speak, and what is his language?
How does he sit, and how does he walk?
The Supreme-Personality-of-Godhead said:
O Pärtha, when a man gives up all varieties
of desire for sense gratification,
which arise from mental concoction,
and when his mind, thus purified,
finds satisfaction in the self alone,
then he is said to be
in pure transcendental consciousness.


One who is not disturbed in mind
even amidst the threefold miseries
nor elated when there is happiness,
and who is free from
attachment, fear and anger,
is called a sage of steady mind.
In the material world, one who is unaffected
by whatever good or evil he may obtain,
neither praising it nor despising it,
is firmly fixed in perfect knowledge.
One who is able to withdraw
his senses from sense objects,
as the tortoise draws its limbs within the shell,
is firmly fixed in perfect consciousness.
The embodied soul may be
restricted from sense enjoyment,
though the taste for sense objects remains.
But, ceasing such engagements
by experiencing a higher taste,
he is fixed in consciousness.
The senses are so strong and impetuous,
O Arjuna, that they forcibly carry away the mind
even of a man of discrimination
who is endeavoring to control them.


One who restrains his senses,
keeping them under full control,
and fixes his consciousness upon Me,
is known as a man of steady intelligence.
While contemplating the objects of the senses,
a person develops attachment for them,
and from such attachment lust develops,
and from lust anger arises.
From anger, complete delusion arises,
and from delusion bewilderment of memory.
When memory is bewildered,
intelligence is lost, and when intelligence is lost
one falls down again into the material pool.
But a person free from all
attachment and aversion
and able to control his senses
through regulative principles of freedom
can obtain the complete mercy of the Lord.
For one thus satisfied (in Kåñëa consciousness),
the threefold miseries
of material existence exist no longer;
in such satisfied consciousness,
one’s intelligence is soon well established.


One who is not connected
with the Supreme (in Kåñëa consciousness)
can have neither transcendental intelligence
nor a steady mind, without which
there is no possibility of peace.
And how can there be any happiness
without peace?
As a strong wind sweeps away a boat on the water,
even one of the roaming senses
on which the mind focuses
can carry away a man’s intelligence.
Therefore, O Mighty-Armed, one whose senses
are restrained from their objects
is certainly of steady intelligence.
What is night for all beings
is the time of awakening
for the self-controlled;
and the time of awakening for all beings
is night for the introspective sage.
A person who is not disturbed
by the incessant flow of desires—
that enter like rivers into the ocean,
which is ever being filled but is always still—
can alone achieve peace,
and not the man who strives
to satisfy such desires.


A person who has given up
all desires for sense gratification,
who lives free from desires,
who has given up all sense of proprietorship
and is devoid of false ego—
he alone can attain real peace.
That is the way of the spiritual and godly life,
after attaining which a man is not bewildered.
If one is thus situated
even at the hour of death,
one can enter into the kingdom of God.

Thus ends ‘Säìkhya Yoga’,

the second chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad
and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,
which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,
and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section
of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,
which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva
in one-hundred-thousand verses.


Arjuna said: O Janärdana, O Keçava,
why do You want to engage me
in this ghastly warfare,
if You think that intelligence
is better than fruitive work?

My intelligence is bewildered
by Your equivocal instructions.
Therefore, please tell me decisively
which will be most beneficial for me.

The Supreme-Personality-of-Godhead said:
O Sinless-Arjuna, I have already explained that
there are two classes of men
who try to realize the self.
Some are inclined to understand it
by empirical, philosophical speculation,
and others by devotional service.

Not by merely abstaining from work
can one achieve freedom from reaction,
nor by renunciation alone
can one attain perfection.


Everyone is forced to act helplessly
according to the qualities he has acquired
from the modes of material nature;
therefore no one can refrain
from doing something, not even for a moment.
One who restrains the senses of action
but whose mind dwells on sense objects
certainly deludes himself
and is called a pretender.
On the other hand, if a sincere person
tries to control the active senses by the mind
and begins karma-yoga
(in Kåñëa consciousness)
without attachment, he is by far superior.
Perform your prescribed duty,
for doing so is better than not working.
One cannot even maintain
one’s physical body without work.
Work done as a sacrifice for Viñëu
has to be performed,
otherwise work causes bondage
in this material world.
Therefore, O Son-of-Kunté,
perform your prescribed duties
for His satisfaction, and in that way
you will always remain free from bondage.


In the beginning of creation,
the Lord-of-All-Creatures
sent forth generations of men and devas,
along with sacrifices for Viñëu,
and blessed them by saying,
“Be thou happy by this yajïa (sacrifice)
because its performance
will bestow upon you everything desirable
for living happily and achieving liberation.”
The devas, being pleased by sacrifices,
will also please you, and thus,
by cooperation between men and devas,
prosperity will reign for all.
In charge of the various necessities of life,
the devas, being satisfied
by the performance of yajïa (sacrifice),
will supply all necessities to you.
But he who enjoys such gifts
without offering them to the devas in return
is certainly a thief.
The devotees of the Lord
are released from all kinds of sins
because they eat food
which is offered first for sacrifice.
Others, who prepare food
for personal sense enjoyment,
verily eat only sin.


All living bodies subsist on food grains,
which are produced from rains.
Rains are produced by
performance of yajïa (sacrifice),
and yajïa is born of prescribed duties.
Regulated activities are prescribed in the Vedas,
and the Vedas are directly manifested
from the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Consequently the all-pervading Transcendence
is eternally situated in acts of sacrifice.
My dear Arjuna,
one who does not follow in human life
the cycle of sacrifice thus established by the Vedas
certainly leads a life full of sin.
Living only for the satisfaction of the senses,
such a person lives in vain.
But for one who takes pleasure in the self,
whose human life is one of self-realization,
and who is satisfied in the self only, fully satiated—
for him there is no duty.
A self-realized man has no purpose to fulfill
in the discharge of his prescribed duties,
nor has he any reason not to perform such work.
Nor has he any need to depend
on any other living being.


Therefore, without being attached
to the fruits of activities,
one should act as a matter of duty,
for by working without attachment
one attains the Supreme.
Kings such as Janaka attained perfection
solely by performance of prescribed duties.
Therefore, just for the sake of
educating the people in general,
you should perform your work.
Whatever action a great man performs,
common men follow.
And whatever standards he sets
by exemplary acts,
all the world pursues.
O Son-of-Påthä, there is no work prescribed for Me
within all the three planetary systems.
Nor am I in want of anything,
nor have I a need to obtain anything—
and yet I am engaged in prescribed duties.
For if I ever failed to engage
in carefully performing prescribed duties,
O Pärtha, certainly all men
would follow My path.


If I did not perform prescribed duties,
all these worlds would be put to ruination.
I would be the cause
of creating unwanted population,
and I would thereby destroy the peace
of all living beings.
As the ignorant perform their duties
with attachment to results,
the learned may similarly act,
but without attachment,
for the sake of leading people
on the right path.
So as not to disrupt the minds
of ignorant men attached to the
fruitive results of prescribed duties,
a learned person should not
induce them to stop work.
Rather, by working in the spirit of devotion,
he should engage them in all sorts of activities
(for the gradual development
of Kåñëa consciousness).
The spirit soul bewildered by
the influence of false ego
thinks himself the doer of activities
that are in actuality carried out
by the three modes of material nature.


One who is in knowledge of the Absolute Truth,
O Mighty-Armed, does not engage himself
in the senses and sense gratification,
knowing well the differences between
work in devotion and work for fruitive results.
Bewildered by the modes of material nature,
the ignorant fully engage themselves
in material activities and become attached.
But the wise should not unsettle them,
although these duties are inferior
due to the performers’ lack of knowledge.
Therefore, O Arjuna,
surrendering all your works unto Me,
with full knowledge of Me, without desires for profit,
with no claims to proprietorship,
and free from lethargy, fight.
Those persons who execute their duties
according to My injunctions and
who follow this teaching faithfully, without envy,
become free from the bondage of fruitive actions.
But those who, out of envy,
disregard these teachings
and do not follow them are to be considered
bereft of all knowledge, befooled,
and ruined in their endeavors for perfection.


Even a man of knowledge
acts according to his own nature,
for everyone follows the nature
he has acquired from the three modes.
What can repression accomplish?
There are principles to regulate
attachment and aversion
pertaining to the senses and their objects.
One should not come under the control
of such attachment and aversion,
because they are stumbling blocks
on the path of self-realization.
It is far better to discharge
one’s prescribed duties, even though faultily,
than another’s duties perfectly.
Destruction in the course of performing
one’s own duty is better
than engaging in another’s duties,
for to follow another’s path is dangerous.
Arjuna said: O Descendant-of-Våñëi,
by what is one impelled to sinful acts,
even unwillingly, as if engaged by force?


The Supreme-Personality-of-Godhead said:
It is lust only, Arjuna,
which is born of contact with
the material mode of passion
and later transformed into wrath, and
which is the all-devouring
sinful enemy of this world.
As fire is covered by smoke,
as a mirror is covered by dust,
or as the embryo is covered by the womb,
the living entity is similarly covered
by different degrees of this lust.
Thus the wise living entity’s
pure consciousness becomes covered
by his eternal enemy in the form of lust,
which is never satisfied and which burns like fire.
The senses, the mind and the intelligence
are the sitting places of this lust.
Through them lust covers the real knowledge
of the living entity and bewilders him.
Therefore, O Arjuna, Best-of-the-Bhäratas,
in the very beginning
curb this great symbol of sin (lust)
by regulating the senses,
and slay this destroyer
of knowledge and self-realization.


The working senses
are superior to dull matter;
mind is higher than the senses;
intelligence is still higher than the mind;
and he (the soul)
is even higher than the intelligence.
Thus knowing oneself to be transcendental to
the material senses, mind and intelligence,
O Mighty-Armed-Arjuna,
one should steady the mind
by deliberate spiritual intelligence
(Kåñëa consciousness)
and thus—by spiritual strength—
conquer this insatiable enemy known as lust.

Thus ends ‘Karma Yoga’,

the third chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad
and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,
which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,
and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section
of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,
which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva
in one-hundred-thousand verses.


The Personality-of-Godhead, Lord Çré Kåñëa, said:
I instructed this imperishable science of yoga
to the sun-god, Vivasvän, and
Vivasvän instructed it to Manu,
the Father-of-Mankind,
and Manu in turn instructed it to Ikñväku.
This supreme science was thus received
through the chain of disciplic succession,
and the saintly kings understood it in that way.
But in course of time
the succession was broken,
and therefore the science as it is
appears to be lost.
That very ancient science
of the relationship with the Supreme
is today told by Me to you because
you are My devotee as well as My friend
and can therefore understand
the transcendental mystery of this science.
Arjuna said: The sun-god Vivasvän
is senior by birth to You.
How am I to understand that in the beginning
You instructed this science to him?


The Personality-of-Godhead said: Many, many births
both you and I have passed.
I can remember all of them, but you cannot,
O Subduer-of-the-Enemy!
Although I am unborn and
My transcendental body never deteriorates,
and although I am the Lord of all living entities,
I still appear in every millennium
in My original transcendental form.
Whenever and wherever there is
a decline in religious practice,
O Descendant-of-Bharata,
and a predominant rise of irreligion—
at that time I descend Myself.
To deliver the pious and
to annihilate the miscreants,
as well as to re-establish the principles of religion,
I Myself appear, millennium after millennium.
One who knows the transcendental nature
of My appearance and activities
does not, upon leaving the body,
take his birth again
in this material world,
but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna.


Being freed from attachment, fear and anger,
being fully absorbed in Me and taking refuge in Me,
many, many persons in the past became purified
by knowledge of Me—and thus they all attained
transcendental love for Me.
As all surrender unto Me,
I reward them accordingly.
Everyone follows My path
in all respects, O Son-of-Påthä.
Men in this world desire success in fruitive activities,
and therefore they worship the devas.
Quickly, of course, men get results
from fruitive work in this world.
According to the three modes of material nature
and the work associated with them,
the four divisions of human society
are created by Me.
And although I am the creator of this system,
you should know that I am yet the non-doer,
being unchangeable.
There is no work that affects Me;
nor do I aspire for the fruits of action.
One who understands this truth about Me
also does not become entangled
in the fruitive reactions of work.


All the liberated souls in ancient times
acted with this understanding
of My transcendental nature.
Therefore you should perform your duty,
following in their footsteps.
Even the intelligent are bewildered
in determining what is action and what is inaction.
Now I shall explain to you what action is,
knowing which you shall be
liberated from all misfortune.
The intricacies of action are very hard to understand.
Therefore one should know properly
what action is, what forbidden action is,
and what inaction is.
One who sees inaction in action,
and action in inaction,
is intelligent among men,
and he is in the transcendental position,
although engaged in all sorts of activities.
One is understood to be in full knowledge
whose every endeavor is devoid
of desire for sense gratification.
He is said by sages to be a worker for whom
the reactions of work have been burned up
by the fire of perfect knowledge.


Abandoning all attachment
to the results of his activities,
ever satisfied and independent,
he performs no fruitive action,
although engaged in all kinds of undertakings.

Such a man of understanding acts
with mind and intelligence perfectly controlled,
gives up all sense of proprietorship
over his possessions,
and acts only for the bare necessities of life.
Thus working, he is
not affected by sinful reactions.

He who is satisfied with gain
which comes of its own accord,
who is free from duality and does not envy,
who is steady in both success and failure,
is never entangled,
although performing actions.

The work of a man who is unattached to
the modes of material nature and
who is fully situated in transcendental knowledge
merges entirely into transcendence.


A person who is fully absorbed
in Kåñëa consciousness
is sure to attain the spiritual kingdom
because of his full contribution to spiritual activities,
in which the consummation is absolute
and that which is offered
is of the same spiritual nature.
Some yogés perfectly worship the devas
by offering different sacrifices to them,
and some of them offer sacrifices
in the fire of the Supreme Brahman.
Some (the unadulterated brahmacärés)
sacrifice the hearing process and the senses
in the fire of mental control,
and others (the regulated householders)
sacrifice the objects of the senses
in the fire of the senses.
Others, who are interested
in achieving self-realization
through control of the mind and senses,
offer the functions of all the senses,
and of the life breath,
as oblations into the fire of the controlled mind.


Having accepted strict vows,
some become enlightened
by sacrificing their possessions,
and others by performing severe austerities,
by practicing the yoga of eightfold mysticism,
or by studying the Vedas
to advance in transcendental knowledge.
Still others, who are inclined to the process
of breath restraint to remain in trance,
practice by offering the movement of the
outgoing breath into the incoming,
and the incoming breath into the outgoing, and
thus at last remain in trance, stopping all breathing.
Others, curtailing the eating process,
offer the outgoing breath into itself as a sacrifice.
All these performers
who know the meaning of sacrifice
become cleansed of sinful reactions, and,
having tasted the nectar of the results of sacrifices,
they advance toward
the supreme eternal atmosphere.
O Best-of-the-Kuru-Dynasty,
without sacrifice one can never live happily
on this planet or in this life:
what then of the next?


All these different types of sacrifice
are approved by the Vedas, and all of them
are born of different types of work.
Knowing them as such, you will become liberated.
O Chastiser-of-the-Enemy,
the sacrifice performed in knowledge
is better than the mere sacrifice
of material possessions.
After all, O Son-of-Påthä, all sacrifices of work
culminate in transcendental knowledge.
Just try to learn the truth
by approaching a spiritual master.
Inquire from him submissively
and render service unto him.
The self-realized souls
can impart knowledge unto you
because they have seen the truth.
Having obtained real knowledge
from a self-realized soul,
you will never fall again into such illusion,
for by this knowledge you will see
that all living beings are but part of the Supreme,
or, in other words, that they are Mine.


Even if you are considered to be
the most sinful of all sinners,
when you are situated in the boat
of transcendental knowledge you will be able
to cross over the ocean of miseries.
As a blazing fire turns firewood to ashes,
O Arjuna, so does the fire of knowledge
burn to ashes all reactions to material activities.
In this world, there is nothing so sublime and pure
as transcendental knowledge.
Such knowledge is the mature fruit of all mysticism.
And one who has become accomplished
in the practice of devotional service
enjoys this knowledge within himself
in due course of time.
A faithful man who is dedicated to
transcendental knowledge
and who subdues his senses
is eligible to achieve such knowledge, and
having achieved it he quickly attains
the supreme spiritual peace.
But ignorant and faithless persons
who doubt the revealed scriptures
do not attain God consciousness; they fall down.
For the doubting soul there is happiness
neither in this world nor in the next.


One who acts in devotional service,
renouncing the fruits of his actions,
and whose doubts have been destroyed
by transcendental knowledge,
is situated factually in the self.
Thus he is not bound by the reactions of work,
O Conqueror-of-Riches.
Therefore the doubts which have arisen
in your heart out of ignorance
should be slashed by the weapon of knowledge.
Armed with yoga, O Bhärata, stand and fight.

Thus ends ‘Jïäna-Karma-Sannyäsa Yoga’,

the fourth chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad

and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,

which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,

and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section

of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,

which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva

in one-hundred-thousand verses.


Arjuna said: O Kåñëa, first of all
You ask me to renounce work, and then again
You recommend work with devotion.
Now will You kindly tell me definitely
which of the two is more beneficial?
The Personality-of-Godhead replied:
The renunciation of work and
work in devotion are both good for liberation.
But, of the two, work in devotional service
is better than renunciation of work.
One who neither hates nor desires
the fruits of his activities
is known to be always renounced.
Such a person, free from all dualities,
easily overcomes material bondage and
is completely liberated, O Mighty-Armed-Arjuna.
Only the ignorant speak of devotional service
as being different from the analytical study
of the material world (Säìkhya).
Those who are actually learned say that
he who applies himself well to one of these paths
achieves the results of both.


One who knows that the position reached
by means of analytical study can also be attained
by devotional service, and who therefore sees
analytical study and devotional service
to be on the same level, sees things as they are.
Merely renouncing all activities yet
not engaging in the devotional service of the Lord
cannot make one happy.
But a thoughtful person
engaged in devotional service
can achieve the Supreme without delay.
One who works in devotion, who is a pure soul,
and who controls his mind and senses
is dear to everyone, and everyone is dear to him.
Though always working,
such a man is never entangled.
5:8 - 5:9
A person in the divine consciousness,
although engaged in seeing,
hearing, touching, smelling, eating,
moving about, sleeping and breathing,
always knows within himself that he
actually does nothing at all.
Because while speaking, evacuating, receiving,
or opening or closing his eyes,
he always knows that only the material senses
are engaged with their objects
and that he is aloof from them.


One who performs his duty without attachment,
surrendering the results unto the Supreme Lord,
is unaffected by sinful action,
as the lotus leaf is untouched by water.
The yogés, abandoning attachment,
act with body, mind, intelligence
and even with the senses,
only for the purpose of purification.
The steadily devoted soul
attains unadulterated peace
because he offers the result of all activities to Me;
whereas a person who is
not in union with the Divine,
who is greedy for the fruits of his labor,
becomes entangled.
When the embodied living being controls his nature
and mentally renounces all actions,
he resides happily
in the city of nine gates (the material body),
neither working nor causing work to be done.
The embodied spirit, master of the city of his body,
does not create activities,
nor does he induce people to act,
nor does he create the fruits of action.
All this is enacted by the modes of material nature.


Nor does the Supreme Lord
assume anyone’s sinful or pious activities.
Embodied beings, however, are bewildered
because of the ignorance
which covers their real knowledge.
When, however, one is
enlightened with the knowledge
by which nescience is destroyed,
then his knowledge reveals everything,
as the sun lights up everything in the daytime.
When one’s intelligence, mind, faith and refuge
are all fixed in the Supreme,
then one becomes fully cleansed of misgivings
through complete knowledge
and thus proceeds straight
on the path of liberation.
The humble sages, by virtue of true knowledge,
see with equal vision
a learned and gentle brähmaëa, a cow,
an elephant, a dog and a dog-eater (outcaste).
Those whose minds are established
in sameness and equanimity have already
conquered the conditions of birth and death.
They are flawless like Brahman,
and thus they are already situated in Brahman.


A person who neither rejoices
upon achieving something pleasant
nor laments upon obtaining something unpleasant,
who is self-intelligent, who is unbewildered,
and who knows the science of God,
is already situated in transcendence.

Such a liberated person is not attracted
to material sense pleasure but is always in trance,
enjoying the pleasure within.
In this way the self-realized person
enjoys unlimited happiness,
for he concentrates on the Supreme.

An intelligent person does not take part in
the sources of misery, which are due to contact
with the material senses. O Son-of-Kunté,
such pleasures have a beginning and an end,
and so the wise man does not delight in them.

Before giving up this present body,
if one is able to tolerate
the urges of the material senses
and check the force of desire and anger,
he is well situated and is happy in this world.


One whose happiness is within,
who is active and rejoices within, and
whose aim is inward is actually the perfect mystic.
He is liberated in the Supreme,
and ultimately he attains the Supreme.
Those who are beyond
the dualities that arise from doubts,
whose minds are engaged within,
who are always busy working
for the welfare of all living beings,
and who are free from all sins
achieve liberation in the Supreme.
Those who are free from anger
and all material desires,
who are self-realized, self-disciplined
and constantly endeavoring for perfection,
are assured of liberation in the Supreme
in the very near future.
5:27 - 5:28
Shutting out all external sense objects,
keeping the eyes and vision
concentrated between the two eyebrows,
suspending the inward and outward breaths
within the nostrils, and thus controlling
the mind, senses and intelligence,
the transcendentalist aiming at liberation
becomes free from desire, fear and anger.
One who is always in this state is certainly liberated.


A person in full consciousness of Me,
knowing Me to be the
ultimate beneficiary
of all sacrifices and austerities,
the Supreme Lord of
all planets and devas,
and the benefactor and well-wisher
of all living entities,
attains peace from
the pangs of material miseries.

Thus ends ‘Karma-Sannyäsa Yoga’,

the fifth chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad
and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,
which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,
and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section
of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,
which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva
in one-hundred-thousand verses.


The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:
One who is unattached to the fruits of his work
and who works as he is obligated
is in the renounced order of life,
and he is the true mystic,
not he who lights no fire and performs no duty.
What is called renunciation you should know
to be the same as yoga,
or linking oneself with the Supreme,
O Son-of-Päëòu,
for one can never become a yogé
unless he renounces
the desire for sense gratification.
For one who is a neophyte
in the eightfold yoga system,
work is said to be the means;
and for one who is already elevated in yoga,
cessation of all material activities
is said to be the means.
A person is said to be elevated in yoga when,
having renounced all material desires,
he neither acts for sense gratification
nor engages in fruitive activities.


One must deliver himself with the help of his mind,
and not degrade himself.
The mind is the friend of the conditioned soul,
and his enemy as well.
For him who has conquered the mind,
the mind is the best of friends;
but for one who has failed to do so,
his mind will remain the greatest enemy.
For one who has conquered the mind,
the Supersoul is already reached,
for he has attained tranquillity.
To such a man happiness and distress,
heat and cold, honor and dishonor are all the same.
A person is said to be established in self-realization
and is called a yogé (or mystic)
when he is fully satisfied by virtue of
acquired knowledge and realization.
Such a person is situated in transcendence
and is self-controlled. He sees everything—
whether it be pebbles, stones or gold—
as the same.
A person is considered still further advanced
when he regards honest well-wishers,
affectionate benefactors, the neutral, mediators,
the envious, friends and enemies,
the pious and the sinners all with an equal mind.


A transcendentalist should always
engage his body, mind and self
in relationship with the Supreme;
he should live alone in a secluded place
and should always carefully control his mind.
He should be free from desires
and feelings of possessiveness.
6:11 – 6:12
To practice yoga, one should
go to a secluded place and
should lay kuça grass on the ground and
then cover it with a deerskin and a soft cloth.
The seat should be neither too high nor too low
and should be situated in a sacred place.
The yogé should then sit on it very firmly
and practice yoga to purify the heart
by controlling his mind, senses and activities
and fixing the mind on one point.
6:13 - 6:14
One should hold one’s body, neck and head
erect in a straight line and
stare steadily at the tip of the nose.
Thus, with an unagitated, subdued mind,
devoid of fear,
completely free from sex life,
one should meditate upon Me
within the heart and make Me
the ultimate goal of life.


Thus practicing constant control of
the body, mind and activities,
the mystic transcendentalist, his mind regulated,
attains to the kingdom of God
(or the abode of Kåñëa)
by cessation of material existence.
There is no possibility of one’s becoming a yogé,
O Arjuna, if one eats too much or eats too little,
sleeps too much or does not sleep enough.
He who is regulated in his habits of
eating, sleeping, recreation and work
can mitigate all material pains
by practicing the yoga system.
When the yogé, by practice of yoga,
disciplines his mental activities
and becomes situated in transcendence—
devoid of all material desires—
he is said to be well established in yoga.
As a lamp in a windless place does not waver,
so the transcendentalist, whose mind is controlled,
remains always steady
in his meditation on the transcendent self.


6:20 - 6:23
In the stage of perfection called trance, or samädhi,
one’s mind is completely restrained
from material mental activities
by practice of yoga.
This perfection is characterized
by one’s ability to see the self
by the pure mind
and to relish and rejoice in the self.
In that joyous state,
one is situated
in boundless transcendental happiness,
realized through transcendental senses.
Established thus,
one never departs from the truth,
and upon gaining this he thinks
there is no greater gain.
Being situated in such a position,
one is never shaken,
even in the midst of greatest difficulty.
This indeed is actual freedom
from all miseries arising from material contact.
One should engage oneself in the practice of yoga
with determination and faith
and not be deviated from the path.
One should abandon, without exception,
all material desires born of mental speculation
and thus control all the senses
on all sides by the mind.


Gradually, step by step, one should
become situated in trance by means of
intelligence sustained by full conviction,
and thus the mind should be fixed
on the self alone and should think of nothing else.
From wherever the mind wanders
due to its flickering and unsteady nature,
one must certainly withdraw it
and bring it back under the control of the self.
The yogé whose mind is fixed on Me verily attains
the highest perfection of transcendental happiness.
He is beyond the mode of passion,
he realizes his qualitative identity with the Supreme,
and thus he is freed from all reactions to past deeds.
Thus the self-controlled yogé,
constantly engaged in yoga practice,
becomes free from all material contamination
and achieves the highest stage of perfect happiness
in transcendental loving service to the Lord.
A true yogé observes Me
in all beings and also sees every being in Me.
Indeed, the self-realized person sees Me,
the same Supreme Lord, everywhere.


For one who sees Me everywhere
and sees everything in Me,
I am never lost,
nor is he ever lost to Me.
Such a yogé, who engages
in the worshipful service of the Supersoul,
knowing that I and the Supersoul are one,
remains always in Me in all circumstances.
He is a perfect yogé who,
by comparison to his own self,
sees the true equality of all beings,
in both their happiness and their distress, O Arjuna!
Arjuna said: O Madhusüdana,
the system of yoga
which You have summarized
appears impractical and unendurable to me,
for the mind is restless and unsteady.
For the mind is restless, turbulent,
obstinate and very strong, O Kåñëa,
and to subdue it, I think,
is more difficult than controlling the wind.


Lord Çré Kåñëa said:
O Mighty-Armed-Son-of-Kunté,
it is undoubtedly very difficult
to curb the restless mind,
but it is possible by suitable practice
and by detachment.
For one whose mind is unbridled,
self-realization is difficult work.
But he whose mind is controlled
and who strives by appropriate means
is assured of success. That is My opinion.
Arjuna said: O Kåñëa,
what is the destination
of the unsuccessful transcendentalist,
who in the beginning takes to
the process of self-realization with faith
but who later desists due to worldly-mindedness
and thus does not attain perfection in mysticism?
O Mighty-Armed-Kåñëa,
does not such a man,
who is bewildered from the path of transcendence,
fall away from both spiritual and material success
and perish like a riven cloud,
with no position in any sphere?


This is my doubt, O Kåñëa,
and I ask You to dispel it completely.
But for You, no one is to be found
who can destroy this doubt.

The Supreme-Personality-of-Godhead said:
Son-of-Påthä, a transcendentalist
engaged in auspicious activities
does not meet with destruction
either in this world or in the spiritual world;
one who does good, My friend,
is never overcome by evil.

The unsuccessful yogé, after many, many years
of enjoyment on the planets of
the pious living entities,
is born into a family of righteous people,
or into a family of rich aristocracy.

Or (if unsuccessful after long practice of yoga)
he takes his birth in a family of transcendentalists
who are surely great in wisdom.
Certainly, such a birth is rare in this world.


On taking such a birth,
he revives the divine consciousness
of his previous life,
and he again tries to make further progress
in order to achieve complete success,
O Son-of-Kuru.
By virtue of the divine consciousness
of his previous life,
he automatically becomes attracted
to the yogic principles—
even without seeking them.
Such an inquisitive transcendentalist
stands always above
the ritualistic principles of the scriptures.
And when the yogé
engages himself with sincere endeavor
in making further progress,
being washed of all contaminations,
then ultimately, achieving perfection
after many, many births of practice,
he attains the supreme goal.
A yogé is greater than the ascetic,
greater than the empiricist
and greater than the fruitive worker.
Therefore, O Arjuna,
in all circumstances, be a yogé.


And of all yogés,
the one with great faith
who always abides in Me,
thinks of Me within himself,
and renders transcendental
loving service to Me—
he is the most intimately
united with Me in yoga
and is the highest of all.
That is My opinion.

Thus ends ‘Ätma-Saàyama Yoga’,

the fourth chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad
and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,
which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,
and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section
of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,
which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva
in one-hundred-thousand verses.


The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:
Now hear, O Son-of-Påthä,
how by practicing yoga
in full consciousness of Me,
with mind attached to Me,
you can know Me in full, free from doubt.
I shall now declare unto you in full
this knowledge,
both phenomenal and numinous.
This being known,
nothing further shall remain
for you to know.
Out of many thousands among men,
one may endeavor for perfection,
and of those who have achieved perfection,
hardly one knows Me in truth.
Earth, water, fire, air, ether,
mind, intelligence and false ego—
all together these eight constitute
My separated material energies.


Besides these, O Mighty-Armed-Arjuna,
there is another, superior energy of Mine,
which comprises the living entities
who are exploiting the resources
of this material, inferior nature.
All created beings have their source
in these two natures.
Of all that is material and
all that is spiritual in this world,
know for certain that I am both
the origin and the dissolution.
O Conqueror-of-Wealth,
there is no truth superior to Me.
Everything rests upon Me,
as pearls are strung on a thread.
O Son-of-Kunté, I am the taste of water,
the light of the sun and the moon,
the syllable oà in the Vedic mantras;
I am the sound in ether and ability in man.
I am the original fragrance of the earth,
and I am the heat in fire.
I am the life of all that lives,
and I am the penances of all ascetics.


O Son-of-Påthä, know that I am
the original seed of all existences,
the intelligence of the intelligent,
and the prowess of all powerful men.
I am the strength of the strong,
devoid of passion and desire.
I am sex life which is not contrary
to religious principles,
O Lord-of-the-Bhäratas (Arjuna).
Know that all states of being—
be they of goodness, passion or ignorance—
are manifested by My energy.
I am, in one sense, everything,
but I am independent.
I am not under the modes of material nature,
for they, on the contrary, are within Me.
Deluded by the three modes
(goodness, passion and ignorance),
the whole world does not know Me,
who am above the modes and inexhaustible.
This divine energy of Mine,
consisting of the three modes of material nature,
is difficult to overcome.
But those who have surrendered unto Me
can easily cross beyond it.


Those miscreants who are grossly foolish,
who are lowest among mankind,
whose knowledge is stolen by illusion,
and who partake of the atheistic nature of demons
do not surrender unto Me.
O Best-Among-the-Bhäratas,
four kinds of pious men
begin to render devotional service unto Me—
the distressed, the desirer of wealth, the inquisitive,
and he who is searching
for knowledge of the Absolute.
Of these, the one who is in full knowledge
and who is always engaged
in pure devotional service
is the best. For I am very dear to him,
and he is dear to Me.
All these devotees are undoubtedly
magnanimous souls,
but he who is situated in knowledge of Me
I consider to be just like My own self.
Being engaged in My transcendental service,
he is sure to attain Me,
the highest and most perfect goal.


After many births and deaths,
he who is actually in knowledge
surrenders unto Me, knowing Me to be
the cause of all causes and all that is.
Such a great soul is very rare.

Those whose intelligence
has been stolen by material desires
surrender unto devas and follow
the particular rules and regulations of worship
according to their own natures.

I am in everyone’s heart as the Supersoul.
As soon as one desires
to worship some deva,
I make his faith steady
so that he can devote himself
to that particular deity.

Endowed with such a faith,
he endeavors to worship a particular deva
and obtains his desires.
But in actuality these benefits
are bestowed by Me alone.


Men of small intelligence worship the devas,
and their fruits are limited and temporary.
Those who worship the devas
go to the planets of the devas,
but My devotees ultimately reach
My supreme planet.
Unintelligent men,
who do not know Me perfectly, think that I,
the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kåñëa,
was impersonal before and
have now assumed this personality.
Due to their small knowledge,
they do not know My higher nature,
which is imperishable and supreme.
I am never manifest to the foolish and unintelligent.
For them I am covered by My internal potency,
and therefore they do not know
that I am unborn and infallible.
O Arjuna, as the Supreme-Personality-of-Godhead,
I know everything that has happened in the past,
all that is happening in the present,
and all things that are yet to come.
I also know all living entities; but Me no one knows.


O Scion-of-Bharata,
O Conqueror-of-the-Foe,
all living entities are born into delusion,
bewildered by dualities
arisen from desire and hate.
Persons who have acted piously
in previous lives and in this life
and whose sinful actions
are completely eradicated
are freed from the dualities of delusion,
and they engage themselves
in My service with determination.
Intelligent persons who are endeavoring
for liberation from old age and death
take refuge in Me in devotional service.
They are actually Brahman because
they entirely know everything
about transcendental activities.


Those in full consciousness of Me, who know Me,
the Supreme Lord, to be the governing principle
of the material manifestation, of the devas,
and of all methods of sacrifice,
can understand and know Me,
the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
even at the time of death.

Thus ends ‘Jïäna-Vijïäna Yoga’,

the seventh chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad

and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,

which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,

and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section

of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,

which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva

in one-hundred-thousand verses.



Arjuna inquired:
O My Lord, O Supreme Person,
what is Brahman? What is the self?
What are fruitive activities?
What is this material manifestation?
And what are the devas?
Please explain this to me.

Who is the Lord of sacrifice,
and how does He live in the body,
O Madhusüdana?
And how can those engaged in devotional service
know You at the time of death?

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:
The indestructible, transcendental
living entity is called Brahman, and
his eternal nature is called adhyätma, the self.
Action pertaining to the development
of the material bodies of the living entities
is called karma, or fruitive activities.


O Best-of-the-Embodied-Beings,
the physical nature,
which is constantly changing,
is called adhibhüta (the material manifestation).
The universal form of the Lord,
which includes all the devas,
like those of the sun and moon,
is called adhidaiva.
And I, the Supreme Lord,
represented as the Supersoul
in the heart of every embodied being,
am called adhiyajïa (the Lord of sacrifice).
And whoever, at the end of his life,
quits his body, remembering Me alone,
at once attains My nature.
Of this there is no doubt.
Whatever state of being one remembers
when he quits his body, O Son-of-Kunté,
that state he will attain without fail.
Therefore, Arjuna, you should
always think of Me in the form of Kåñëa
and at the same time carry out
your prescribed duty of fighting.
With your activities dedicated to Me
and your mind and intelligence fixed on Me,
you will attain Me without doubt.


He who meditates on Me
as the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
his mind constantly engaged in remembering Me,
undeviated from the path,
he, O Pärtha, is sure to reach Me.
One should meditate upon the Supreme Person
as the one who knows everything,
as He who is the oldest, who is the controller,
who is smaller than the smallest,
who is the maintainer of everything,
who is beyond all material conception,
who is inconceivable, and who is always a person.
He is luminous like the sun, and He is
transcendental, beyond this material nature.
One who, at the time of death,
fixes his life air between the eyebrows and,
by the strength of yoga, with an undeviating mind,
engages himself in remembering
the Supreme Lord in full devotion,
will certainly attain to the
Persons who are learned in the Vedas,
who utter oàkära and who are great sages
in the renounced order enter into Brahman.
Desiring such perfection, one practices celibacy.
I shall now briefly explain to you this process
by which one may attain salvation.


The yogic situation is that of
detachment from all sensual engagements.
Closing all the doors of the senses and
fixing the mind on the heart and
the life air at the top of the head,
one establishes himself in yoga.
After being situated in this yoga practice
and vibrating the sacred syllable oà,
the supreme combination of letters,
if one thinks of the Supreme-Personality-of-Godhead
and quits his body,
he will certainly reach the spiritual planets.
For one who always remembers Me
without deviation, I am easy to obtain,
O Son-of-Påthä, because of his constant
engagement in devotional service.
After attaining Me, the great souls,
who are yogés in devotion,
never return to this temporary world,
which is full of miseries,
because they have attained the highest perfection.
From the highest planet in the material world
down to the lowest, all are places of misery
wherein repeated birth and death take place.
But one who attains to My abode, O Son-of-Kunté,
never takes birth again.


By human calculation,
a thousand ages taken together
form the duration of Brahmä’s one day.
And such also is the duration of his night.
At the beginning of Brahmä’s day,
all living entities become
manifest from the unmanifest state,
and thereafter, when the night falls,
they are merged into the unmanifest again.
Again and again, when Brahmä’s day arrives,
all living entities come into being,
and with the arrival of Brahmä’s night
they are helplessly annihilated.
Yet there is another unmanifest nature,
which is eternal and is transcendental to this
manifested and unmanifested matter.
It is supreme and is never annihilated.
When all in this world is annihilated,
that part remains as it is.
That which the Vedäntists describe
as unmanifest and infallible,
that which is known as the supreme destination,
that place from which,
having attained it, one never returns—
that is My supreme abode.


The Supreme Personality of Godhead,
who is greater than all,
is attainable by unalloyed devotion.
Although He is present in His abode,
He is all-pervading,
and everything is situated within Him.
O Best-of-the-Bhäratas, I shall now explain to you
the different times at which,
passing away from this world,
the yogé does or does not come back.
Those who know the Supreme Brahman
attain that Supreme by passing away from the world
during the influence of the fiery god, in the light,
at an auspicious moment of the day,
during the fortnight of the waxing moon,
or during the six months
when the sun travels in the north.
The mystic who passes away from this world
during the smoke, the night,
the fortnight of the waning moon, or
the six months when the sun passes to the south
reaches the moon planet but again comes back.
According to Vedic opinion,
there are two ways of passing from this world—
one in light and one in darkness.
When one passes in light, he does not come back;
but when one passes in darkness, he returns.


Although the devotees know these two paths,
O Arjuna, they are never bewildered.
Therefore be always fixed in devotion.
A person who accepts
the path of devotional service
is not bereft of the results derived from
studying the Vedas, performing austere
sacrifices, giving charity
or pursuing philosophical and fruitive activities.
Simply by performing devotional service,
he attains all these, and
at the end he reaches
the supreme eternal abode.

Thus ends ‘Akñara-Brahma Yoga’,

the eighth chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad

and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,

which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,

and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section

of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,

which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva

in one hundred thousand verses


The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:
My dear Arjuna, because you
are never envious of Me,
I shall impart to you
this most confidential knowledge and realization,
knowing which you shall be relieved
of the miseries of material existence.
This knowledge is the king of education,
the most secret of all secrets.
It is the purest knowledge,
and because it gives direct perception
of the self by realization,
it is the perfection of religion.
It is everlasting, and it is joyfully performed.
Those who are not faithful in this devotional service
cannot attain Me, O Conqueror-of-Enemies.
Therefore they return to the path
of birth and death in this material world.
By Me, in My unmanifested form,
this entire universe is pervaded.
All beings are in Me, but I am not in them.


And yet everything that is created
does not rest in Me.
Behold My mystic opulence!
Although I am the maintainer
of all living entities and
although I am everywhere,
I am not a part of this cosmic manifestation,
for My Self is the very source of creation.
Understand that as the mighty wind,
blowing everywhere, rests always in the sky,
all created beings rest in Me.
O Son-of-Kunté, at the end of the millennium
all material manifestations enter into My nature,
and at the beginning of another millennium,
by My potency, I create them again.
The whole cosmic order is under Me.
Under My will it is automatically
manifested again and again,
and under My will it is annihilated at the end.
O Dhanaïjaya, all this work cannot bind Me.
I am ever detached
from all these material activities,
seated as though neutral.


This material nature, which is one of My energies,
is working under My direction, O Son-of-Kunté,
producing all moving and nonmoving beings.
Under its rule this manifestation
is created and annihilated again and again.
Fools deride Me when
I descend in the human form.
They do not know My transcendental nature
as the Supreme Lord of all that be.
Those who are thus bewildered
are attracted by demonic and atheistic views.
In that deluded condition,
their hopes for liberation,
their fruitive activities,
and their culture of knowledge are all defeated.
O Son-of-Påthä, those who are not deluded,
the great souls, are under the protection
of the divine nature.
They are fully engaged in devotional service
because they know Me as
the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
original and inexhaustible.
Always chanting My glories,
endeavoring with great determination,
bowing down before Me, these great souls
perpetually worship Me with devotion.


Others, who engage in sacrifice
by the cultivation of knowledge,
worship the Supreme Lord
as the one without a second,
as diverse in many,
and in the universal form.
But it is I who am the ritual,
I the sacrifice, the offering to the ancestors,
the healing herb, the transcendental chant.
I am the butter and the fire and the offering.
I am the father of this universe, the mother,
the support and the grandsire.
I am the object of knowledge,
the purifier and the syllable oà.
I am also the Åg, the Säma and the Yajur Vedas.
I am the goal, the sustainer, the master,
the witness, the abode, the refuge,
and the most dear friend.
I am the creation and the annihilation,
the basis of everything,
the resting place and the eternal seed.
O Arjuna, I give heat,
and I withhold and send forth the rain.
I am immortality, and I am also death personified.
Both spirit and matter are in Me.


Those who study the Vedas
and drink the soma juice,
seeking the heavenly planets,
worship Me indirectly.
Purified of sinful reactions,
they take birth on the pious,
heavenly planet of Indra,
where they enjoy godly delights.
When they have thus enjoyed
vast heavenly sense pleasure
and the results of their
pious activities are exhausted,
they return to this mortal planet again.
Thus those who seek sense enjoyment
by adhering to the principles of the three Vedas
achieve only repeated birth and death.
But those who always worship Me
with exclusive devotion,
meditating on My transcendental form—
to them I carry what they lack,
and I preserve what they have.
Those who are devotees of other gods
and who worship them with faith
actually worship only Me, O Son-of-Kunté,
but they do so in a wrong way.


I am the only enjoyer and master of all sacrifices.
Therefore, those who do not recognize
My true transcendental nature fall down.
Those who worship the devas
will take birth among the devas;
those who worship the ancestors
go to the ancestors;
those who worship ghosts and spirits
will take birth among such beings;
and those who worship Me will live with Me.
If one offers Me with love and devotion
a leaf, a flower, fruit or water,
I will accept it.
Whatever you do, whatever you eat,
whatever you offer or give away, and
whatever austerities you perform—
do that, O Son-of-Kunté,
as an offering to Me.
In this way you will be
freed from bondage to work and
its auspicious and inauspicious results.
With your mind fixed on Me
in this principle of renunciation,
you will be liberated and come to Me.


I envy no one,
nor am I partial to anyone.
I am equal to all.
But whoever renders service unto Me in devotion
is a friend, is in Me,
and I am also a friend to him.
Even if one commits the most abominable action,
if he is engaged in devotional service
he is to be considered saintly because
he is properly situated in his determination.
He quickly becomes righteous
and attains lasting peace.
O Son-of-Kunté, declare it boldly that
My devotee never perishes.
O Son-of-Påthä, those who take shelter in Me,
though they be of lower birth—
women, vaiçyas (merchants)
and çüdras (workers)—
can attain the supreme destination.
How much more this is so
of the righteous brähmaëas, the devotees
and the saintly kings.
Therefore, having come to this temporary,
miserable world,
engage in loving service unto Me.


Engage your mind always
in thinking of Me,
become My devotee,
offer obeisances to Me
and worship Me.
Being completely absorbed in Me,
surely you will come to Me.

Thus ends ‘Räja-Vidya-Räja-Guhya Yoga’,

the ninth chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad

and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,

which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,

and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section

of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,

which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva

in one-hundred-thousand verses.


The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:
Listen again, O Mighty-Armed-Arjuna.
Because you are My dear friend,
for your benefit I shall speak to you further,
giving knowledge that is better
than what I have already explained.
Neither the hosts of devas
nor the great sages know My origin or opulences,
for, in every respect,
I am the source of the devas and sages.
He who knows Me as the unborn,
as the beginningless,
as the Supreme Lord of all the worlds—
he only, undeluded among men,
is freed from all sins.
10:4 - 10:5
Intelligence, knowledge,
freedom from doubt and delusion,
forgiveness, truthfulness,
control of the senses, control of the mind,
happiness and distress,
birth, death, fear, fearlessness, nonviolence,
equanimity, satisfaction, austerity, charity,
fame and infamy—
all these various qualities of living beings
are created by Me alone.


The seven great sages and before them
the four other great sages
and the Manus [progenitors of mankind]
come from Me, born from My mind,
and all the living beings
populating the various planets
descend from them.
One who is factually convinced of this
opulence and mystic power of Mine
engages in unalloyed devotional service;
of this there is no doubt.
I am the source of all spiritual and material worlds.
Everything emanates from Me.
The wise who perfectly know this
engage in My devotional service
and worship Me with all their hearts.
The thoughts of My pure devotees dwell in Me,
their lives are fully devoted to My service,
and they derive great satisfaction and bliss
from always enlightening one another
and conversing about Me.


To those who are constantly devoted
to serving Me with love,
I give the understanding
by which they can come to Me.
To show them special mercy,
I, dwelling in their hearts,
destroy with the shining lamp of knowledge
the darkness born of ignorance.
10:12 - 10:13
Arjuna said: You are the
Supreme Personality of Godhead,
the ultimate abode, the purest,
the Absolute Truth.
You are the eternal, transcendental,
original person, the unborn, the greatest.
All the great sages such as
Närada, Asita, Devala and Vyäsa
confirm this truth about You,
and now You Yourself are declaring it to me.
O Kåñëa, I totally accept as truth
all that You have told me.
Neither the devas nor the demons,
O Lord, can understand Your personality.


Indeed, You alone know Yourself
by Your own internal potency,
O Supreme Person, origin of all,
Lord of all beings, God of gods,
Lord of the universe!
Please tell me in detail
of Your divine opulences
by which You pervade all these worlds.
O Kåñëa, O Supreme-Mystic,
how shall I constantly think of You,
and how shall I know You?
In what various forms
are You to be remembered,
O Supreme-Personality-of-Godhead?
O Janärdana, again please describe in detail
the mystic power of Your opulences.
I am never satiated in hearing about You,
for the more I hear the more I want to taste
the nectar of Your words.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:
Yes, I will tell you
of My splendorous manifestations,
but only of those which are prominent,
O Arjuna, for My opulence is limitless.


I am the Supersoul, O Arjuna,
seated in the hearts of all living entities.
I am the beginning, the middle
and the end of all beings.
Of the Ädityas I am Viñëu,
of lights I am the radiant sun,
of the Maruts I am Maréci,
and among the stars I am the moon.
Of the Vedas I am the Säma Veda;
of the devas I am Indra,
the King of Heaven;
of the senses I am the mind;
and in living beings
I am the living force (consciousness).
Of all the Rudras I am Lord Çiva,
of the Yakñas and Räkñasas
I am the Lord of wealth (Kuvera),
of the Vasus I am fire (Agni),
and of mountains I am Meru.
Of priests, O Arjuna,
know Me to be the chief, Båhaspati.
Of generals I am Kärtikeya,
and of bodies of water I am the ocean.


Of the great sages I am Bhågu;
of vibrations I am the transcendental oà.
Of sacrifices I am the
chanting of the holy names (japa),
and of immovable things I am the Himälayas.
Of all trees I am the banyan tree, and
of the sages among the devas I am Närada.
Of the Gandharvas I am Citraratha, and
among perfected beings I am the sage Kapila.
Of horses know Me to be
Uccaiùçravä, produced during the
churning of the ocean for nectar.
Of lordly elephants I am Airävata,
and among men I am the monarch.
Of weapons I am the thunderbolt;
among cows I am the surabhi.
Of causes for procreation
I am Kandarpa, the god of love,
and of serpents I am Väsuki.
Of the many-hooded Nägas I am Ananta,
and among the aquatics I am the deva Varuëa.
Of departed ancestors I am Aryamä,
and among the dispensers of law
I am Yama, the lord of death.


Among the Daitya demons
I am the devoted Prahläda,
among subduers I am time,
among beasts I am the lion,
and among birds I am Garuòa.
Of purifiers I am the wind,
of the wielders of weapons I am Räma,
of fishes I am the shark,
and of flowing rivers I am the Ganges.
Of all creations I am the beginning and the end
and also the middle, O Arjuna.
Of all sciences I am the
spiritual science of the self,
and among logicians I am the conclusive truth.
Of letters I am the letter A,
and among compound words
I am the dual compound. I am also
inexhaustible time,
and of creators I am Brahmä.
I am all-devouring death,
and I am the generating principle
of all that is yet to be.
Among women I am fame, fortune,
fine speech, memory, intelligence,
steadfastness and patience.


Of the hymns in the Säma Veda
I am the Båhat-säma,
and of poetry I am the Gäyatré.
Of months I am Märgaçérña (November-December),
and of seasons I am flower-bearing spring.
I am also the gambling of cheats,
and of the splendid I am the splendor.
I am victory, I am adventure,
and I am the strength of the strong.
Of the descendants of Våñëi I am Väsudeva,
and of the Päëòavas I am Arjuna.
Of the sages I am Vyäsa,
and among great thinkers I am Uçanä.
Among all means of suppressing lawlessness
I am punishment,
and of those who seek victory
I am morality.
Of secret things
I am silence,
and of the wise I am the wisdom.
Furthermore, O Arjuna,
I am the generating seed of all existences.
There is no being—
moving or nonmoving—
that can exist without Me.


O Mighty-Conqueror-of-Enemies,
there is no end to My divine manifestations.
What I have spoken to you
is but a mere indication of My infinite opulences.
Know that all opulent,
beautiful and glorious creations
spring from but a spark of My splendor.
But what need is there, Arjuna,
for all this detailed knowledge?
With a single fragment of Myself
I pervade and support this entire universe.

Thus ends ‘Vibhüti Yoga’,

the tenth chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad

and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,

which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,

and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section

of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,

which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva

in one-hundred-thousand verses.


Arjuna said:
By my hearing the instructions
You have kindly given me
about these most confidential
spiritual subjects,
my illusion has now been dispelled.
O Lotus-Eyed-One,
I have heard from You in detail
about the appearance and disappearance
of every living entity
and have realized
Your inexhaustible glories.
O Greatest-of-All-Personalities, O Supreme-Form,
though I see You here before me
in Your actual position,
as You have described Yourself,
I wish to see how You have entered
into this cosmic manifestation.
I want to see that form of Yours.
If You think that I am able
to behold Your cosmic form,
O My Lord, O Master-of-All-Mystic-Power,
then kindly show me
that unlimited universal Self.


The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:
My dear Arjuna, O Son-of-Påthä,
see now My opulences,
hundreds of thousands of
varied divine and multicolored forms.
O Best-of-the-Bhäratas,
see here the different manifestations of Ädityas,
Vasus, Rudras, Açviné-kumäras
and all the other devas.
Behold the many wonderful things
which no one has ever seen or heard of before.
O Arjuna, whatever you wish to see,
behold at once in this body of Mine!
This universal form can show you
whatever you now desire to see and
whatever you may want to see in the future.
Everything—moving and nonmoving—
is here completely, in one place.
But you cannot see Me with your present eyes.
Therefore I give you divine eyes.
Behold My mystic opulence!
Saïjaya said: O King, having spoken thus,
the Supreme Lord of all mystic power,
the Personality of Godhead,
displayed His universal form to Arjuna.


11:10 – 11:11
Arjuna saw in that universal form
unlimited mouths, unlimited eyes,
unlimited wonderful visions.
The form was decorated with
many celestial ornaments
and bore many divine upraised weapons.
He wore celestial garlands and garments,
and many divine scents
were smeared over His body.
All was wondrous, brilliant,
unlimited, all-expanding.
If hundreds of thousands of suns
were to rise at once into the sky,
their radiance might resemble the effulgence
of the Supreme Person in that universal form.
At that time Arjuna could see
in the universal form of the Lord
the unlimited expansions of the universe
situated in one place
although divided into many, many thousands.
Then, bewildered and astonished,
his hair standing on end,
Arjuna bowed his head to offer obeisances
and with folded hands
began to pray to the Supreme Lord.


Arjuna said:
My dear Lord Kåñëa,
I see assembled in Your body all the devas
and various other living entities.
I see Brahmä sitting on the lotus flower,
as well as Lord Çiva
and all the sages and divine serpents.
O Lord-of-the-Universe, O Universal Form,
I see in Your body many, many arms,
bellies, mouths and eyes,
expanded everywhere, without limit.
I see in You no end, no middle and no beginning.
Your form is difficult to see
because of its glaring effulgence,
spreading on all sides, like blazing fire
or the immeasurable radiance of the sun.
Yet I see this glowing form everywhere,
adorned with various crowns, clubs and discs.
You are the supreme primal objective.
You are the ultimate resting place
of all this universe.
You are inexhaustible,
and You are the oldest.
You are the maintainer of the eternal religion,
the Personality of Godhead.
This is my opinion.


You are without origin, middle or end.
Your glory is unlimited.
You have numberless arms,
and the sun and moon are Your eyes.
I see You with blazing fire
coming forth from Your mouth,
burning this entire universe by Your own radiance.
Although You are one,
You spread throughout the sky
and the planets and all space between.
O Great One,
seeing this wondrous and terrible form,
all the planetary systems are perturbed.
All the hosts of devas
are surrendering before You and entering into You.
Some of them, very much afraid,
are offering prayers with folded hands.
Hosts of great sages and perfected beings,
crying “All peace!” are praying to You
by singing the Vedic hymns.
All the various manifestations of Lord Çiva,
the Ädityas, the Vasus, the Sädhyas, the
Viçvedevas, the two Açvinés, the Maruts, the
forefathers, the Gandharvas, the Yakñas,
the Asuras and the perfected devas
are beholding You in wonder.


O Mighty-Armed-One,
all the planets with their devas
are disturbed at seeing Your great form,
with its many faces, eyes, arms,
thighs, legs, and bellies and
Your many terrible teeth;
and as they are disturbed, so am I.
O All-Pervading-Viñëu, seeing You
with Your many radiant colors touching the sky,
Your gaping mouths, and Your great glowing eyes,
my mind is perturbed by fear.
I can no longer maintain my steadiness
or equilibrium of mind.
O Lord-of-Lords, O Refuge-of-the-Worlds,
please be gracious to me.
I cannot keep my balance seeing thus
Your blazing deathlike faces and awful teeth.
In all directions I am bewildered.
11:26 - 11:27
All the sons of Dhåtaräñöra,
along with their allied kings,
and Bhéñma, Droëa, Karëa—
and our chief soldiers also—
are rushing into Your fearful mouths.
And some I see trapped
with heads smashed between Your teeth.


As the many waves of the rivers
flow into the ocean,
so do all these great warriors
enter blazing into Your mouths.
I see all people rushing
full speed into Your mouths,
as moths dash to destruction
in a blazing fire.
O Viñëu, I see You devouring all people
from all sides with Your flaming mouths.
Covering all the universe with Your effulgence,
You are manifest with terrible, scorching rays.
O Lord-of-Lords, so fierce of form,
please tell me who You are.
I offer my obeisances unto You;
please be gracious to me.
You are the primal Lord.
I want to know about You,
for I do not know what Your mission is.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:
Time I am,
the great destroyer of the worlds,
and I have come here to destroy all people.
With the exception of you (the Päëòavas),
all the soldiers here on both sides will be slain.


Therefore get up. Prepare to fight and win glory.
Conquer your enemies
and enjoy a flourishing kingdom.
They are already put to death by My arrangement,
and you, O Savyasäcé,
can be but an instrument in the fight.
Droëa, Bhéñma, Jayadratha, Karëa and the other
great warriors have already been destroyed by Me.
Therefore, kill them and do not be disturbed.
Simply fight, and you will
vanquish your enemies in battle.
Saïjaya said to Dhåtaräñöra:
O King, after hearing these words
from the Supreme-Personality-of-Godhead,
the trembling Arjuna offered obeisances
with folded hands again and again.
He fearfully spoke to Lord Kåñëa
in a faltering voice, as follows.
Arjuna said: O Master-of-the-Senses,
the world becomes joyful
upon hearing Your name,
and thus everyone becomes attached to You.
Although the perfected beings
offer You their respectful homage,
the demons are afraid,
and they flee here and there.
All this is rightly done.


O Great-One, greater even than Brahmä,
You are the original creator.
Why then should they not offer
their respectful obeisances unto You?
O Limitless-One, God-of-Gods,
You are the invincible source,
the cause of all causes,
transcendental to this material manifestation.
You are the original Personality of Godhead,
the oldest, the ultimate sanctuary
of this manifested cosmic world.
You are the knower of everything,
and You are all that is knowable.
You are the supreme refuge,
above the material modes.
O Limitless-Form! This whole cosmic
manifestation is pervaded by You!
You are air, and You are the supreme controller!
You are fire, You are water,
and You are the moon!
You are Brahmä, the first living creature,
and You are the great-grandfather.
I therefore offer my respectful
obeisances unto You
a thousand times, and again and yet again!


Obeisances to You from the front,
from behind and from all sides!
O Unbounded Power,
You are the master of limitless might!
You are all-pervading,
and thus You are everything!
11:41 - 11:42
Thinking of You as my friend,
I have rashly addressed You
“O Kåñëa,” “O Yädava,” “O My Friend,”
not knowing Your glories.
Please forgive whatever I may have done
in madness or in love.
I have dishonored You many times,
jesting as we relaxed, lay on the same bed,
or sat or ate together,
sometimes alone and sometimes
in front of many friends. O Infallible One,
please excuse me for all those offenses.
You are the father of this
complete cosmic manifestation,
of the moving and the nonmoving.
You are its worshipable chief,
the supreme spiritual master.
No one is equal to You,
nor can anyone be one with You.
How then could there be anyone greater than You
within the three worlds,
O Lord-of-Immeasurable-Power?


You are the Supreme Lord, to be worshiped by
every living being. Thus I fall down
to offer You my respectful obeisances
and ask Your mercy.
As a father tolerates the impudence of his son,
or a friend tolerates the impertinence of a friend,
or a wife tolerates the familiarity of her partner,
please tolerate the wrongs I may have done You.
After seeing this universal form, which
I have never seen before, I am gladdened, but
at the same time my mind is disturbed with fear.
Therefore please bestow Your grace upon me
and reveal again Your form as
the Personality-of-Godhead,
O Lord-of-Lords, O Abode-of-the-Universe.
O Universal Form, O Thousand-Armed-Lord,
I wish to see You in Your four-armed form,
with helmeted head and with club, wheel, conch
and lotus flower in Your hands.
I long to see You in that form.
The Supreme-Personality-of-Godhead said:
My dear Arjuna, happily have I shown you,
by My internal potency, this
supreme universal form
within the material world.
No one before you has ever seen this primal form,
unlimited and full of glaring effulgence.


O Best-of-the-Kuru-Warriors,
no one before you
has ever seen this universal form of Mine,
for neither by studying the Vedas,
nor by performing sacrifices, nor by charity,
nor by pious activities,
nor by severe penances can I be seen
in this form in the material world.
You have been perturbed and bewildered
by seeing this horrible feature of Mine.
Now let it be finished.
My devotee, be free again from all disturbances.
With a peaceful mind you can now see
the form you desire.
Saïjaya said to Dhåtaräñöra:
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kåñëa,
having spoken thus to Arjuna,
displayed His real four-armed form
and at last showed His two-armed form,
thus encouraging the fearful Arjuna.
When Arjuna thus saw Kåñëa
in His original form, he said:
O Janärdana,
seeing this humanlike form,
so very beautiful, I am now composed in mind,
and I am restored to my original nature.


The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:
My dear Arjuna,
this form of Mine you are now seeing
is very difficult to behold.
Even the devas are ever seeking
the opportunity to see this form,
which is so dear.

The form you are seeing with your
transcendental eyes
cannot be understood
simply by studying the Vedas,
nor by undergoing serious penances,
nor by charity, nor by worship.
It is not by these means
that one can see Me as I am.
My dear Arjuna, only by
undivided devotional service
can I be understood as I am,
standing before you,
and can thus be seen directly.
Only in this way can you enter
into the mysteries of My understanding.


My dear Arjuna, he who engages
in My pure devotional service,
free from the contaminations of fruitive activities
and mental speculation, he who works for Me,
who makes Me the supreme goal of his life,
and who is friendly to every living being—
he certainly comes to Me.

Thus ends ‘Viçvarüpa-Darçana Yoga’,

the eleventh chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad

and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,

which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,

and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section

of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,

which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva

in one-hundred-thousand verses.


Arjuna inquired:
Which are considered to be more perfect,
those who are always properly engaged
in Your devotional service
or those who worship the impersonal Brahman,
the unmanifested?
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:
Those who fix their minds on My personal form
and are always engaged in worshiping Me
with great and transcendental faith
are considered by Me to be most perfect.
12:3 - 12:4
But those who fully worship the unmanifested,
that which lies beyond
the perception of the senses,
the all-pervading, inconceivable,
unchanging, fixed and immovable—
the impersonal conception
of the Absolute Truth—
by controlling the various senses
and being equally disposed to everyone,
such persons, engaged in the welfare of all,
at last achieve Me.


For those whose minds are attached
to the unmanifested,
impersonal feature of the Supreme,
advancement is very troublesome.
To make progress in that discipline
is always difficult for those who are embodied.
12:6 - 12:7
But those who worship Me,
giving up all their activities unto Me
and being devoted to Me without deviation,
engaged in devotional service
and always meditating upon Me,
having fixed their minds upon Me,
O Son-of-Påthä—for them I am the swift deliverer
from the ocean of birth and death.
Just fix your mind upon Me,
the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
and engage all your intelligence in Me.
Thus you will live in Me always, without a doubt.
My dear Arjuna, O Winner-of-Wealth,
if you cannot fix your mind
upon Me without deviation,
then follow the regulative principles of bhakti-yoga.
In this way develop a desire to attain Me.


If you cannot practice
the regulations of bhakti-yoga,
then just try to work for Me,
because by working for Me
you will come to the perfect stage.
If, however, you are unable to work
in this consciousness of Me,
then try to act giving up all results of your work
and try to be self-situated.
If you cannot take to this practice,
then engage yourself
in the cultivation of knowledge.
Better than knowledge, however,
is meditation, and better than meditation
is renunciation of the fruits of action,
for by such renunciation
one can attain peace of mind.
12:13 - 12:14
One who is not envious but
is a kind friend to all living entities,
who does not think himself a proprietor
and is free from false ego, who is equal
in both happiness and distress,
who is tolerant, always satisfied, self-controlled,
and engaged in devotional service
with determination, his mind and intelligence
fixed on Me—such a devotee of Mine
is very dear to Me.


He for whom no one is put into difficulty
and who is not disturbed by anyone,
who is equipoised in happiness and distress,
fear and anxiety, is very dear to Me.
My devotee who is not dependent
on the ordinary course of activities,
who is pure, expert, without cares,
free from all pains,
and not striving for some result,
is very dear to Me.
One who neither rejoices nor grieves,
who neither laments nor desires,
and who renounces both
auspicious and inauspicious things—
such a devotee is very dear to Me.
12:18 - 12:19
One who is equal to friends and enemies,
who is equipoised in honor and dishonor,
heat and cold, happiness and distress,
fame and infamy, who is always free
from contaminating association,
always silent and satisfied with anything,
who doesn’t care for any residence,
who is fixed in knowledge and
who is engaged in devotional service—
such a person is very dear to Me.


Those who follow this imperishable path
of devotional service
and who completely engage
themselves with faith,
making Me the supreme goal,
are very, very dear to Me.

Thus ends ‘Bhakti Yoga’,

the twelfth -chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad

and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,

which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,

and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section

of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,

which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva

in one-hundred-thousand verses.


13:1 - 13:2
Arjuna said: O My Dear Kåñëa,
I wish to know about prakåti (nature),
puruña (the enjoyer), and the field
and the knower of the field,
and of knowledge
and the object of knowledge.
The Supreme-Personality-of-Godhead said:
This body, O Son-of-Kunté,
is called the field,
and one who knows this body
is called the knower of the field.
O Scion-of-Bharata, you should understand
that I am also the knower in all bodies,
and to understand this body
and its knower
is called knowledge.
That is My opinion.
Now please hear My brief description
of this field of activity
and how it is constituted,
what its changes are,
whence it is produced,
who that knower of the field of activities is,
and what his influences are.


That knowledge of the field of activities
and of the knower of activities
is described by various sages
in various Vedic writings.
It is especially presented in Vedänta-sütra
with all reasoning as to cause and effect.
13:6 - 13:7
The five great elements,
false ego, intelligence,
the unmanifested, the ten senses
and the mind, the five sense objects, desire,
hatred, happiness, distress, the aggregate,
the life symptoms, and convictions—
all these are considered, in summary,
to be the field of activities and its interactions.
13:8 - 13:12
Humility; pridelessness;
nonviolence; tolerance; simplicity;
approaching a bona fide spiritual master;
cleanliness; steadiness; self-control;
renunciation of the objects of sense gratification;
absence of false ego;
the perception of the evil of
birth, death, old age and disease;
detachment; freedom from entanglement
with children, wife, home and the rest;
even-mindedness amid
pleasant and unpleasant events;


constant and unalloyed devotion to Me;
aspiring to live in a solitary place;
detachment from the general mass of people;
accepting the importance of self-realization;
and philosophical search
for the Absolute Truth—
all these I declare to be knowledge,
and besides this
whatever there may be is ignorance.

I shall now explain the knowable,
knowing which you will taste the eternal.
Brahman, the spirit,
beginningless and subordinate to Me,
lies beyond the cause and effect
of this material world.

Everywhere are His hands and legs,
His eyes, heads and faces,
and He has ears everywhere.
In this way the Supersoul exists,
pervading everything.


The Supersoul is the original
source of all senses,
yet He is without senses. He is unattached,
although He is the maintainer
of all living beings.
He transcends the modes of nature,
and at the same time He is the master of all
the modes of material nature.
The Supreme Truth exists
outside and inside of all living beings,
the moving and the nonmoving.
Because He is subtle, He is beyond the power
of the material senses to see or to know.
Although far, far away, He is also near to all.
Although the Supersoul appears
to be divided among all beings,
He is never divided. He is situated as one.
Although He is the maintainer
of every living entity, it is to be understood that
He devours and develops all.
He is the source of light in all luminous objects.
He is beyond the darkness of matter
and is unmanifested.
He is knowledge, He is the object of knowledge,
and He is the goal of knowledge.
He is situated in everyone’s heart.


Thus the field of activities (the body),
knowledge and the knowable
have been summarily described by Me.
Only My devotees can understand this thoroughly
and thus attain to My nature.
Material nature and the living entities
should be understood to be beginningless.
Their transformations and the modes of matter
are products of material nature.
Nature is said to be the cause
of all material causes and effects,
whereas the living entity is the cause
of the various sufferings
and enjoyments in this world.
The living entity in material nature
thus follows the ways of life,
enjoying the three modes of nature.
This is due to his association with that material
nature. Thus he meets with good and evil
among various species.
Yet in this body there is another,
a transcendental enjoyer, who is the Lord,
the supreme proprietor,
who exists as the overseer and permitter,
and who is known as the Supersoul.


One who understands this philosophy
concerning material nature, the living entity
and the interaction of the modes of nature
is sure to attain liberation.
He will not take birth here again,
regardless of his present position.
Some perceive the Supersoul within themselves
through meditation,
others through the cultivation of knowledge,
and still others through working
without fruitive desires.
Again there are those who,
although not conversant in spiritual knowledge,
begin to worship the Supreme Person
upon hearing about Him from others.
Because of their tendency to hear from authorities,
they also transcend the path of birth and death.
O Chief-of-the-Bhäratas,
know that whatever you see in existence,
both the moving and the nonmoving,
is only a combination of
the field of activities and the knower of the field.


One who sees the Supersoul
accompanying the individual soul in all bodies,
and who understands that
neither the soul nor the Supersoul
within the destructible body
is ever destroyed, actually sees.
One who sees the Supersoul
equally present everywhere,
in every living being,
does not degrade himself by his mind.
Thus he approaches
the transcendental destination.
One who can see that all activities
are performed by the body,
which is created of material nature,
and sees that the self does nothing,
actually sees.
When a sensible man ceases to see
different identities due to
different material bodies
and he sees how beings
are expanded everywhere,
he attains to the Brahman conception.


Those with the vision of eternity
can see that the imperishable soul
is transcendental, eternal,
and beyond the modes of nature.
Despite contact with the material body,
O Arjuna, the soul neither does anything
nor is entangled.

The sky, due to its subtle nature,
does not mix with anything,
although it is all-pervading.
Similarly, the soul situated in Brahman vision
does not mix with the body,
though situated in that body.

O Son-of-Bharata, as the sun alone
illuminates all this universe,
so does the living entity,
one within the body,
illuminate the entire body
by consciousness.


Those who see with eyes of knowledge
the difference between the body
and the knower of the body,
and can also understand
the process of liberation
from bondage in material nature,
attain to the supreme goal.

Thus ends ‘Kñetra-Kñetrajïa-Vibhäga Yoga’,

the thirteenth chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad

and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,

which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,

and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section

of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,

which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva

in one-hundred-thousand verses.


The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:
Again I shall declare to you
this supreme wisdom,
the best of all knowledge,
knowing which all the sages
have attained the supreme perfection.

By becoming fixed in this knowledge,
one can attain to the
transcendental nature like My own.
Thus established, one is
not born at the time of creation
or disturbed at the time of dissolution.

The total material substance,
called Brahman, is the source of birth,
and it is that Brahman that I impregnate,
making possible the births of all living beings,
O Son-of-Bharata.

It should be understood that all species of life,
O Son-of-Kunté, are made possible
by birth in this material nature,
and that I am the seed-giving father.


Material nature consists of three modes—
goodness, passion and ignorance.
When the eternal living entity
comes in contact with nature,
O Mighty-Armed-Arjuna,
he becomes conditioned by these modes.
O Sinless One, the mode of goodness,
being purer than the others, is illuminating,
and it frees one from all sinful reactions.
Those situated in that mode become conditioned
by a sense of happiness and knowledge.
The mode of passion is born of
unlimited desires and longings, O Son-of-Kunté,
and because of this the embodied living entity
is bound to material fruitive actions.
O Son-of-Bharata, know that
the mode of darkness, born of ignorance,
is the delusion of all embodied living entities.
The results of this mode are madness,
indolence and sleep,
which bind the conditioned soul.
O Son-of-Bharata, the mode of goodness
conditions one to happiness;
passion conditions one to fruitive action;
and ignorance, covering one’s knowledge,
binds one to madness.


Sometimes the mode of goodness
becomes prominent,
defeating the modes of passion and ignorance,
O Son-of-Bharata.
Sometimes the mode of passion
defeats goodness and ignorance,
and at other times ignorance
defeats goodness and passion.
In this way there is always
competition for supremacy.
The manifestations of the mode of goodness
can be experienced
when all the gates of the body
are illuminated by knowledge.
O Chief-of-the-Bhäratas,
when there is an increase in the mode of passion
the symptoms of great attachment, fruitive activity,
intense endeavor, and uncontrollable
desire and hankering develop.
When there is an increase
in the mode of ignorance,
O Son-of-Kuru, darkness, inertia,
madness and illusion are manifested.
When one dies in the mode of goodness,
he attains to the pure higher planets
of the great sages.


When one dies in the mode of passion,
he takes birth among those
engaged in fruitive activities;
and when one dies in the mode of ignorance,
he takes birth in the animal kingdom.
The result of pious action is pure
and is said to be in the mode of goodness.
But action done in the mode of passion
results in misery, and action performed
in the mode of ignorance results in foolishness.
From the mode of goodness,
real knowledge develops; from the mode of passion,
greed develops; and from the mode of ignorance
develop foolishness, madness and illusion.
Those situated in the mode of goodness
gradually go upward to the higher planets;
those in the mode of passion
live on the earthly planets;
and those in the abominable mode of ignorance
go down to the hellish worlds.
When one properly sees that in all activities
no other performer is at work
than these modes of nature
and he knows the Supreme Lord,
who is transcendental to all these modes,
he attains My spiritual nature.


When the embodied being is able to transcend
these three modes
associated with the material body,
he can become free from birth, death, old age
and their distresses
and can enjoy nectar even in this life.
Arjuna inquired: O My Dear Lord,
by which symptoms is one known
who is transcendental to these three modes?
What is his behavior?
And how does he transcend the modes of nature?
14:22 - 14:25
The Supreme-Personality-of-Godhead-said:
O Son-of-Päëòu, he who does not hate
illumination, attachment and delusion
when they are present
or long for them when they disappear;
who is unwavering and undisturbed
through all these reactions of the material qualities,
remaining neutral and transcendental,
knowing that the modes alone are active;
who is situated in the self
and regards alike happiness and distress;
who looks upon a lump of earth,
a stone and a piece of gold with an equal eye;
who is equal toward the desirable
and the undesirable; who is steady,
situated equally well in praise and blame,
honor and dishonor; ..../


who treats alike both friend and enemy;
and who has renounced all material activities—
such a person is said
to have transcended the modes of nature.
One who engages in full devotional service,
unfailing in all circumstances,
at once transcends the modes of material nature
and thus comes to the level of Brahman.
And I am the basis of the impersonal Brahman,
which is immortal, imperishable and eternal
and is the constitutional position
of ultimate happiness.

Thus ends ‘Guëatraya-Vibhäga Yoga’,

the fourteenth chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad

and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,

which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,

and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section

of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,

which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva

in one-hundred-thousand verses.


The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:
It is said that there is an imperishable banyan tree
that has its roots upward and its branches down
and whose leaves are the Vedic hymns.
One who knows this tree
is the knower of the Vedas.
The branches of this tree
extend downward and upward,
nourished by the three modes of material nature.
The twigs are the objects of the senses.
This tree also has roots going down,
and these are bound to
the fruitive actions of human society.
15:3 - 15:4
The real form of this tree
cannot be perceived in this world.
No one can understand where it ends,
where it begins, or where its foundation is.
But with determination one
must cut down this strongly rooted tree
with the weapon of detachment.
Thereafter, one must seek that place
from which, having gone, one never returns,
and there surrender to that Supreme
Personality of Godhead from whom everything
began and from whom everything
has extended since time immemorial.


Those who are free from false prestige,
illusion and false association,
who understand the eternal,
who are done with material lust,
who are freed from the dualities
of happiness and distress,
and who, unbewildered,
know how to surrender
unto the Supreme Person
attain to that eternal kingdom.
That supreme abode of Mine
is not illumined by the sun or moon,
nor by fire or electricity.
Those who reach it
never return to this material world.
The living entities in this conditioned world
are My eternal fragmental parts.
Due to conditioned life,
they are struggling very hard
with the six senses,
which include the mind.
The living entity in the material world
carries his different conceptions of life
from one body to another
as the air carries aromas.
Thus he takes one kind of body
and again quits it to take another.


The living entity, thus taking
another gross body, obtains a certain type
of ear, eye, tongue, nose and sense of touch,
which are grouped about the mind.
He thus enjoys a particular set of sense objects.
The foolish cannot understand how
a living entity can quit his body,
nor can they understand what sort of body
he enjoys under the spell of the modes of nature.
But one whose eyes are trained in knowledge
can see all this.
The endeavoring transcendentalists,
who are situated in self-realization,
can see all this clearly.
But those whose minds are not developed
and who are not situated in self-realization
cannot see what is taking place,
though they may try to.
The splendor of the sun,
which dissipates the darkness of this whole world,
comes from Me. And the splendor of the moon
and the splendor of fire are also from Me.
I enter into each planet,
and by My energy they stay in orbit.
I become the moon and
thereby supply the juice of life to all vegetables.


I am the fire of digestion
in the bodies of all living entities,
and I join with the air of life,
outgoing and incoming,
to digest the four kinds of foodstuff.
I am seated in everyone’s heart,
and from Me come remembrance,
knowledge and forgetfulness.
By all the Vedas, I am to be known.
Indeed, I am the compiler of Vedänta,
and I am the knower of the Vedas.
There are two classes of beings,
the fallible and the infallible.
In the material world every living entity is fallible,
and in the spiritual world
every living entity is called infallible.
Besides these two,
there is the greatest living personality,
the Supreme Soul, the imperishable Lord Himself,
who has entered the three worlds
and is maintaining them.
Because I am transcendental,
beyond both the fallible and the infallible,
and because I am the greatest,
I am celebrated both in the world and in the Vedas
as that Supreme Person.


Whoever knows Me as
the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
without doubting, is the knower of everything.
He therefore engages himself
in full devotional service to Me, O Son-of-Bharata.
This is the most confidential part
of the Vedic scriptures,
O Sinless One, and it is disclosed now by Me.
Whoever understands this
will become wise,
and his endeavors will know perfection.

Thus ends ‘Puruñottamma Yoga’,

the fifteenth chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad

and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,

which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,

and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section

of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,

which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva

in one-hundred-thousand verses.


16:1 - 16:3
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:
Fearlessness; purification of one’s existence;
cultivation of spiritual knowledge;
charity; self-control;
performance of sacrifice;
study of the Vedas;
austerity; simplicity;
nonviolence; truthfulness;
freedom from anger;
renunciation; tranquillity;
aversion to faultfinding;
compassion for all living entities;
freedom from covetousness;
gentleness; modesty;
steady determination; vigor;
forgiveness; fortitude; cleanliness;
and freedom from envy
and from the passion for honor—
these transcendental qualities,
O Son-of-Bharata,
belong to godly men
endowed with divine nature.
Pride, arrogance, conceit, anger,
harshness and ignorance—
these qualities belong to those
of demoniac nature, O Son-of-Påthä.


The transcendental qualities
are conducive to liberation,
whereas the demoniac qualities
make for bondage.
Do not worry, O Son-of-Päëòu,
for you are born with the divine qualities.
O Son-of-Påthä, in this world there are
two kinds of created beings.
One is called the divine and the other demoniac.
I have already explained to you at length
the divine qualities.
Now hear from Me of the demoniac.
Those who are demoniac
do not know what is to be done
and what is not to be done.
Neither cleanliness nor proper behavior
nor truth is found in them.
They say that this world is unreal,
with no foundation, no God in control.
They say it is produced of sex desire
and has no cause other than lust.
Following such conclusions, the demoniac,
who are lost to themselves
and who have no intelligence,
engage in unbeneficial, horrible works
meant to destroy the world.


Taking shelter of insatiable lust
and absorbed in the conceit
of pride and false prestige,
the demoniac, thus illusioned,
are always sworn to unclean work,
attracted by the impermanent.
16:11 - 16:12
They believe that to gratify the senses
is the prime necessity of human civilization.
Thus until the end of life
their anxiety is immeasurable.
Bound by a network
of hundreds of thousands of desires
and absorbed in lust and anger,
they secure money by illegal means
for sense gratification.
16:13 - 16:15
The demoniac person thinks:
“So much wealth do I have today,
and I will gain more
according to my schemes.
So much is mine now, and
it will increase in the future, more and more.
He is my enemy, and I have killed him,
and my other enemies will also be killed.
I am the lord of everything. I am the enjoyer.
I am perfect, powerful and happy.
I am the richest man,
surrounded by aristocratic relatives.


There is none so powerful and happy as I am.
I shall perform sacrifices,
I shall give some charity,
and thus I shall rejoice.”
In this way, such persons
are deluded by ignorance.
Thus perplexed by various anxieties
and bound by a network of illusions,
they become too strongly attached
to sense enjoyment and fall down into hell.
Self-complacent and always impudent,
deluded by wealth and false prestige,
they sometimes proudly perform
sacrifices in name only,
without following any rules or regulations.
Bewildered by false ego, strength, pride, lust
and anger, the demons become envious
of the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
who is situated in their own bodies
and in the bodies of others,
and blaspheme against the real religion.
Those who are envious and mischievous,
who are the lowest among men,
I perpetually cast into
the ocean of material existence,
into various demoniac species of life.


Attaining repeated birth amongst
the species of demoniac life, O Son-of-Kunté,
such persons can never approach Me.
Gradually they sink down to
the most abominable type of existence.

There are three gates leading to this hell—
lust, anger and greed.
Every sane man should give these up,
for they lead to the degradation of the soul.

The man who has escaped
these three gates of hell,
O Son-of-Kunté,
performs acts conducive to self-realization
and thus gradually attains
the supreme destination.

He who discards scriptural injunctions
and acts according to his own whims
attains neither perfection,
nor happiness, nor the supreme destination.


One should therefore understand
what is duty and what is not duty
by the regulations of the scriptures.
Knowing such rules and regulations,
one should act so that
he may gradually be elevated.

Thus ends ‘Daiväsura-Saàpad-Vibhäga Yoga’,

the sixteenth chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad

and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,

which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,

and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section

of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,

which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva

in one-hundred-thousand verses.


Arjuna inquired: O Kåñëa,
what is the situation of those
who do not follow the principles of scripture
but worship according to their own imagination?
Are they in goodness,
in passion or in ignorance?
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:
According to the modes of nature
acquired by the embodied soul,
one’s faith can be of three kinds—
in goodness, in passion or in ignorance.
Now hear about this.
O Son-of-Bharata, according to one’s existence
under the various modes of nature,
one evolves a particular kind of faith.
The living being is said to be of a particular faith
according to the modes he has acquired.
Men in the mode of goodness
worship the devas;
those in the mode of passion
worship the demons;
and those in the mode of ignorance
worship ghosts and spirits.


17:5 - 17:6
Those who undergo severe
austerities and penances
not recommended in the scriptures,
performing them out of pride and egoism,
who are impelled by lust and attachment,
who are foolish and who torture
the material elements of the body
as well as the Supersoul dwelling within,
are to be known as demons.
Even the food each person prefers
is of three kinds, according to
the three modes of material nature.
The same is true of sacrifices,
austerities and charity.
Now hear of the distinctions between them.
Foods dear to those in the mode of goodness
increase the duration of life,
purify one’s existence
and give strength, health,
happiness and satisfaction.
Such foods are juicy, fatty, wholesome,
and pleasing to the heart.
Foods that are too bitter, too sour, salty, hot,
pungent, dry and burning
are dear to those in the mode of passion.
Such foods cause distress, misery and disease.


Food prepared more than three hours
before being eaten,
food that is tasteless, decomposed and putrid,
and food consisting of remnants
and untouchable things
is dear to those in the mode of darkness.
Of sacrifices, the sacrifice performed
according to the directions of scripture,
as a matter of duty, by those who desire no reward,
is of the nature of goodness.
But the sacrifice performed
for some material benefit,
or for the sake of pride, O Chief-of-the-Bhäratas,
you should know to be in the mode of passion.
Any sacrifice performed
without regard for the directions of scripture,
without distribution of prasädam (spiritual food),
without chanting of Vedic hymns
and remunerations to the priests, and without faith
is considered to be in the mode of ignorance.
Austerity of the body consists in worship of
the Supreme Lord, the brähmaëas,
the spiritual master,
and superiors like the father and mother,
and in cleanliness, simplicity,
celibacy and nonviolence.


Austerity of speech consists in
speaking words that are truthful,
pleasing, beneficial,
and not agitating to others,
and also in regularly reciting Vedic scriptures.
And satisfaction, simplicity,
gravity, self-control and
purification of one’s existence
are the austerities of the mind.
This threefold austerity,
performed with transcendental faith
by men not expecting material benefits
but engaged only for the sake of the Supreme,
is called austerity in goodness.
Penance performed out of pride
and for the sake of gaining respect,
honor and worship
is said to be in the mode of passion.
It is neither stable nor permanent.
Penance performed out of foolishness,
with self-torture or
to destroy or injure others,
is said to be in the mode of ignorance.


Charity given out of duty,
without expectation of return,
at the proper time and place,
and to a worthy person
is considered to be
in the mode of goodness.
But charity performed
with the expectation of some return,
or with a desire for fruitive results,
or in a grudging mood,
is said to be charity
in the mode of passion.
And charity performed at an impure place,
at an improper time, to unworthy persons,
or without proper attention and respect
is said to be in the mode of ignorance.
From the beginning of creation,
the three words oà tat sat were used
to indicate the Supreme Absolute Truth.
These three symbolic representations
were used by brähmaëas
while chanting the hymns of the Vedas
and during sacrifices
for the satisfaction of the Supreme.


Therefore, transcendentalists
undertaking performances
of sacrifice, charity and penance
in accordance with scriptural regulations
begin always with oà, to attain the Supreme.

Without desiring fruitive results,
one should perform various kinds of
sacrifice, penance and charity
with the word tat.
The purpose of such transcendental activities
is to get free from material entanglement.

17:26 - 17:27
The Absolute Truth is the objective
of devotional sacrifice,
and it is indicated by the word sat.
The performer of such sacrifice
is also called sat,
as are all works of sacrifice,
penance and charity which,
true to the absolute nature,
are performed to please
the Supreme Person,
O Son-of-Påthä.



Anything done as sacrifice,

charity or penance
without faith in the Supreme,
O Son-of-Påthä, is impermanent.
It is called asat and is useless
both in this life and the next.

Thus ends ‘Çraddhätraya-Vibhäga Yoga’,

the seventeenth chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad

and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,

which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,

and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section

of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,

which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva

in one-hundred-thousand verses.


Arjuna said: O Mighty-Armed-One,
I wish to understand the purpose
of renunciation (tyäga) and
of the renounced order of life (sannyäsa),
O Killer-of-the-Keçé-Demon,
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:
The giving up of activities that
are based on material desire
is what great learned men call
the renounced order of life (sannyäsa).
And giving up the results of all activities
is what the wise call renunciation (tyäga).
Some learned men declare that
all kinds of fruitive activities
should be given up as faulty,
yet other sages maintain that acts of
sacrifice, charity and penance
should never be abandoned.
O Best-of-the-Bhäratas,
now hear My judgment about renunciation.
O Tiger-Among-Men, renunciation is
declared in the scriptures to be of three kinds.


Acts of sacrifice, charity and penance
are not to be given up; they must be performed.
Indeed, sacrifice, charity and penance
purify even the great souls.
All these activities should be performed
without attachment or any expectation of result.
They should be performed as a matter of duty,
O Son-of-Påthä. That is My final opinion.
Prescribed duties should never be renounced.
If one gives up his prescribed duties
because of illusion,
such renunciation is said to be
in the mode of ignorance.
Anyone who gives up prescribed duties
as troublesome or out of fear of bodily discomfort
is said to have renounced in the mode of passion.
Such action never leads
to the elevation of renunciation.
O Arjuna, when one performs his prescribed duty
only because it ought to be done,
and renounces all material association
and all attachment to the fruit,
his renunciation is said to be
in the mode of goodness.


The intelligent renouncer
situated in the mode of goodness,
neither hateful of inauspicious work
nor attached to auspicious work,
has no doubts about work.
It is indeed impossible
for an embodied being to give up all activities.
But he who renounces the fruits of action
is called one who has truly renounced.
For one who is not renounced,
the threefold fruits of action—
desirable, undesirable and mixed—
accrue after death.
But those who are in the renounced order of life
have no such result to suffer or enjoy.
O Mighty-Armed-Arjuna, according to the Vedänta
there are five causes for
the accomplishment of all action.
Now learn of these from Me.
The place of action [the body],
the performer, the various senses,
the many different kinds of endeavor,
and ultimately the Supersoul—
these are the five factors of action.


Whatever right or wrong action
a man performs by body, mind or speech
is caused by these five factors.
Therefore one who thinks himself the only doer,
not considering the five factors,
is certainly not very intelligent
and cannot see things as they are.
One who is not motivated by false ego,
whose intelligence is not entangled,
though he kills men in this world, does not kill.
Nor is he bound by his actions.
Knowledge, the object of knowledge,
and the knower
are the three factors that motivate action;
the senses, the work and the doer
are the three constituents of action.
According to the three different
modes of material nature,
there are three kinds of
knowledge, action and performer of action.
Now hear of them from Me.


That knowledge by which
one undivided spiritual nature
is seen in all living entities,
though they are divided into innumerable forms,
you should understand to be
in the mode of goodness.
That knowledge by which one sees
that in every different body
there is a different type of living entity
you should understand to be
in the mode of passion.
And that knowledge by which
one is attached to one kind of work as the all in all,
without knowledge of the truth,
and which is very meager,
is said to be in the mode of darkness.
That action which is regulated
and which is performed without attachment,
without love or hatred,
and without desire for fruitive results
is said to be in the mode of goodness.
But action performed with great effort
by one seeking to gratify his desires,
and enacted from a sense of false ego,
is called action in the mode of passion.


That action performed in illusion,
in disregard of scriptural injunctions,
and without concern for
future bondage or for violence
or distress caused to others
is said to be in the mode of ignorance.
One who performs his duty
without association with
the modes of material nature,
without false ego,
with great determination and enthusiasm,
and without wavering in success or failure
is said to be a worker in the mode of goodness.
The worker who is attached to work
and the fruits of work,
desiring to enjoy those fruits,
and who is greedy,
always envious, impure,
and moved by joy and sorrow,
is said to be in the mode of passion.
The worker who is always engaged in
work against the injunctions of the scripture,
who is materialistic, obstinate, cheating
and expert in insulting others, and who is lazy,
always morose and procrastinating
is said to be a worker in the mode of ignorance.


O Winner-of-Wealth, now please listen
as I tell you in detail of the
different kinds of understanding and determination,
according to the three modes of material nature.

O Son-of-Påthä, that understanding by which
one knows what ought to be done
and what ought not to be done,
what is to be feared and what is not to be feared,
what is binding and what is liberating,
is in the mode of goodness.

O Son-of-Påthä, that understanding
which cannot distinguish
between religion and irreligion,
between action that should be done and
action that should not be done,
is in the mode of passion.

That understanding which considers
irreligion to be religion and
religion to be irreligion,
under the spell of illusion and darkness,
and strives always in the wrong direction, O Pärtha,
is in the mode of ignorance.


O Son-of-Påthä, that determination
which is unbreakable, which is sustained
with steadfastness by yoga practice,
and which thus controls the activities
of the mind, life and senses
is determination in the mode of goodness.
But that determination by which
one holds fast to fruitive results in
religion, economic development
and sense gratification
is of the nature of passion, O Arjuna.
And that determination which
cannot go beyond dreaming, fearfulness,
lamentation, moroseness and illusion—
such unintelligent determination,
O Son-of-Påthä, is in the mode of darkness.
O Best-of-the-Bhäratas, now please hear from Me
about the three kinds of happiness
by which the conditioned soul enjoys,
and by which he sometimes
comes to the end of all distress.
That which in the beginning may be
just like poison but at the end is just like nectar
and which awakens one to self-realization
is said to be happiness
in the mode of goodness.


That happiness which is derived from
contact of the senses with their objects
and which appears like nectar at first
but poison at the end
is said to be of the nature of passion.
And that happiness
which is blind to self-realization,
which is delusion from beginning to end
and which arises from sleep, laziness and illusion
is said to be of the nature of ignorance.
There is no being existing,
either here or among the devas
in the higher planetary systems,
which is freed from these three modes
born of material nature.
Brähmaëas, kñatriyas, vaiçyas and çüdras
are distinguished by the qualities
born of their own natures in accordance
with the material modes,
O Chastiser-of-the-Enemy.
Peacefulness, self-control, austerity, purity,
tolerance, honesty, knowledge, wisdom and
these are the natural qualities
by which the brähmaëas work.


Heroism, power, determination, resourcefulness,
courage in battle, generosity and
leadership are the natural
qualities of work for the kñatriyas.
Farming, cow protection and business
are the natural work for the vaiçyas,
and for the çüdras
there is labor and service to others.
By following his qualities of work,
every man can become perfect.
Now please hear from Me
how this can be done.
By worship of the Lord,
who is the source of all beings
and who is all-pervading,
a man can attain perfection
through performing his own work.
It is better to engage in one’s own occupation,
even though one may perform it imperfectly,
than to accept another’s occupation
and perform it perfectly.
Duties prescribed according to one’s nature
are never affected by sinful reactions.


Every endeavor is covered by some fault,
just as fire is covered by smoke.
Therefore one should not give up the work
born of his nature, O Son-of-Kunté,
even if such work is full of fault.
One who is self-controlled and unattached
and who disregards all material enjoyments
can obtain, by practice of renunciation,
the highest perfect stage
of freedom from reaction.
O Son-of-Kunté, learn from Me
how one who has achieved this perfection
can attain to the supreme
perfectional stage, Brahman,
the stage of highest knowledge,
by acting in the way I shall now summarize.
18:51 - 18:53
Being purified by his intelligence
and controlling the mind with determination,
giving up the objects of sense gratification,
being freed from attachment and hatred,
one who lives in a secluded place, who eats little,
who controls his body, mind and power of speech,
who is always in trance and who is detached,
free from false ego, false strength, false pride,
lust, anger, and acceptance of material things,
free from false proprietorship, and peaceful—


such a person is certainly elevated
to the position of self-realization.
One who is thus transcendentally situated
at once realizes the Supreme Brahman
and becomes fully joyful.
He never laments or desires to have anything.
He is equally disposed toward every living entity.
In that state he attains
pure devotional service unto Me.
One can understand Me as I am,
as the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
only by devotional service.
And when one is in full consciousness of Me
by such devotion,
he can enter into the kingdom of God.
Though engaged in all kinds of activities,
My pure devotee, under My protection,
reaches the eternal and imperishable abode
by My grace.
In all activities just depend upon Me
and work always under My protection.
In such devotional service,
be fully conscious of Me.


If you become conscious of Me,
you will pass over all
the obstacles of conditioned life by My grace.
If, however, you do not work
in such consciousness
but act through false ego, not hearing Me,
you will be lost.
If you do not act according to My direction
and do not fight, then you will be falsely directed.
By your nature,
you will have to be engaged in warfare.
Under illusion you are now declining
to act according to My direction.
But, compelled by the work
born of your own nature,
you will act all the same, O Son-of-Kunté.
The Supreme Lord is situated
in everyone’s heart, O Arjuna,
and is directing the wanderings
of all living entities,
who are seated as on a machine,
made of the material energy.
O Scion-of-Bharata, surrender unto Him utterly.
By His grace you will attain
transcendental peace and
the supreme and eternal abode.


Thus I have explained to you
knowledge still more confidential.
Deliberate on this fully,
and then do what you wish to do.
Because you are My very dear friend,
I am speaking to you My supreme instruction,
the most confidential knowledge of all.
Hear this from Me, for it is for your benefit.
Always think of Me,
become My devotee,
worship Me and offer your homage unto Me.
Thus you will come to Me without fail.
I promise you this because
you are My very dear friend.
Abandon all varieties of religion
and just surrender unto Me.
I shall deliver you from all sinful reactions.
Do not fear.
This confidential knowledge
may never be explained to those
who are not austere, or devoted,
or engaged in devotional service,
nor to one who is envious of Me.


For one who explains this supreme secret
to the devotees, pure devotional service
is guaranteed, and at the end
he will come back to Me.

There is no servant in this world
more dear to Me than he,
nor will there ever be one more dear.

And I declare that he who studies
this sacred conversation of ours
worships Me by his intelligence.

And one who listens with faith and without envy
becomes free from sinful reactions and
attains to the auspicious planets
where the pious dwell.

O Son-of-Påthä, O Conqueror-of-Wealth,
have you heard this with an attentive mind?
And are your ignorance and illusions now


Arjuna said:
My dear Kåñëa, O Infallible One,
my illusion is now gone.
I have regained my memory by Your mercy.
I am now firm and free from doubt
and am prepared to act
according to Your instructions.

Saïjaya said:
Thus have I heard
the conversation of two great souls,
Kåñëa and Arjuna.
And so wonderful is that message
that my hair is standing on end.

By the mercy of Vyäsa,
I have heard these
most confidential talks directly
from the master of all mysticism, Kåñëa,
who was speaking personally to Arjuna.

O King, as I repeatedly recall
this wondrous and holy dialogue
between Kåñëa and Arjuna,
I take pleasure, being thrilled at every moment.


O King, as I remember
the wonderful form of Lord Kåñëa,
I am struck with wonder more and more,
and I rejoice again and again.
Wherever there is Kåñëa, the master of all mystics,
and wherever there is Arjuna, the supreme archer,
there will also certainly be opulence, victory,
extraordinary power, and morality.
That is my opinion.

Thus ends ‘Mokña-Sannyäsa Yoga’,

the eighteenth and last chapter of the Perfect Upaniñad

and beautiful Yoga Çästra, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,

which was spoken by Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to Arjuna,

and which is found in the Bhéñma-parva section

of the great epic, the Mahäbhärata,

which was composed by the great sage Vyäsadeva

in one-hundred-thousand verses.


Gitaa mahaatmyam
- the glories of Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä
as recorded in the Vedic scripture
the Padma Puräëa, in the form of
a conversation between the presiding deity
of planet earth, Bhümé Devé and
Lord Varähadev, the third of the
Das-Avatäras of Lord Viñëu

GaqTaa MaahaTMYa& (vrah Paura<a)

é[q Ga<aeXaaYa NaMa: )) é[q raDaarMa<aaYa NaMa: ))

Obeisances to Lord Gaëeça. Obeisances to Lord
Kåñëa, who gives transcendental pleasure to
Çrimati Rädhäräëé.
>aGavNa( ParMaeXaaNa >ai¢-rVYaibcair<aq )
Pa[arBDa& >auJYaMaaNaSYa k-Qa& >aviTa he Pa[>aae )) 1
Dharä (Mother Earth) said:
O Blessed Lord, O Ruler Supreme, O Adorable
One, how may he, who is bound by his Prärabdha
Karma gain constant devotion?
Pa[arBDa& >auJYaMaaNaae ih GaqTaa>YaaSarTa: Sada )
Sa Mau¢-: Sa Sau%q l/aeke- k-MaR<aa NaaePail/PYaTae )) 2
Lord Viñëu (Varähadev) said:
Even he who is dominated by Prärabdha Karma
can be a Mukta (liberated soul) and a happy
man in this world, if he be devoted to the
constant practice of the Gétä. No new karma
ever taints him.
MahaPaaPaaidPaaPaaiNa GaqTaaDYaaNa& k-raeiTa cTa(e )
KvicTSPaXa| Na ku-vRiNTa Nail/Naqdl/Ma&buvTa( )) 3
No sin, however heinous, can ever affect him
who meditates on the Gétä, any more than water
affects the lotus leaf.

GiTaa mahaatmyam 383

GaqTaaYaa: PauSTak&- Ya}a Ya}a Paa#=: Pa[vTaRTae )
Ta}a SavaRi<a TaqQaaRiNa Pa[YaaGaadqiNa Ta}a vE )) 4
SaveR devaê ‰zYaae YaaeiGaNa: PaàGaaê Yae )
GaaePaal/a GaaeiPak-a vaiPa NaardaeÖvPaazRdE: )) 5

Wherever the Bhagavad Gétä book is kept or

wherever the Gétä is studied, that place
becomes the dwelling place of all the sacred
places such as Prayäg. At that place reside
all the Devas, Åñis, Yogis, divine serpents, the
Gopas, the Gopés, Närada, Uddhava and the
whole host of their associates.

SahaYaae JaaYaTae Xaqga]& Ya}a GaqTaa Pa[vTaRTae )

Ya}a GaqTaaivcarê Pa#=Na& Paa#=Na& é[uTaMa( )
Ta}aah& iNaiêTa& Pa*iQv iNavSaaiMa SadEv ih )) 6

Wherever the Gétä is read, inquired into,

heard, taught or chanted, O Mother Earth,
there undoubtedly and unfailingly do I Myself
reside. Whenever help is needed in that place,
it will come quickly.

GaqTaaé[Yae_h& iTaïaiMa GaqTaa Mae caetaMa& Ga*hMa( )

GaqTaajaNaMauPaaié[TYa }aqNl/aek-aNPaal/YaaMYahMa( )) 7

Of all the places that I dwell, Gétä is my best

abode. It is My highest refuge and I protect the
three worlds with the knowledge of the Gétä.

GiTaa mahaatmyam 385

GaqTaa Mae ParMaa ivÛa b]øæPaa Na Sa&XaYa: )
ADaRMaa}aa+ara iNaTYaa SvaiNavaRCYaPadaiTMak-a )) 8
The Gétä is My highest science; it is undoubtedly
the very form of Brahman this knowledge is
absolute; it is imperishable, eternal, and is the
essence of My indefinable nature.
icdaNaNdeNa k*-Z<aeNa Pa[ae¢-a SvMau%Taae_JauRNaMa( )
ved }aYaq ParaNaNda TatvaQaR jaNa Sa&YauTaa )) 9
It contains the essence of the three Vedas, it is
all-blissful it comprises the knowledge of self-
realization; and it has emanated from the mouth
of the Omniscient Lord Çré Kåñëa Himself to
Yaae_íadXaJaPaae iNaTYa& Narae iNaêl/MaaNaSa: )
jaNaiSaiÖ& Sa l/>aTae TaTaae YaaiTa Par& PadMa( )) 10
That person who recites all 18 chapters daily
with a firm mind, gains perfection in knowledge
and thereby reaches the supreme state.
Paa#e= SaMaGa]e_SaMPaU<aeR TaTaaee_Da| Paa#=MaacreTa( )
Tada GaaedaNaJa& Pau<Ya& l/>aTae Naa}a Sa&XaYa: )) 11
If the whole Gétä cannot be recited, then half of
it may be recited; by doing so, the aspirant
undoubtedly acquires benefit on par with having
given a cow in charity.

GiTaa mahaatmyam 387

i}a>aaGa& Pa#=MaaNaSTau Ga®aòaNaf-l&/ l/>aeTa( )
z@&Xa& JaPaMaaNaSTau SaaeMaYaaGaf-l&/ l/>aeTa( )) 12
Whoever recites one-third of the Gétä obtains the
merit of bathing in the Gaìgä. He who recites
one-sixth achieves the fruit of performing a Soma-
Wk-aDYaaYa& Tau Yaae iNaTYa& Pa#=Tae >ai¢-Sa&YauTa: )
åd]l/aek-MavaPanaeiTa Ga<aae >aUTva vSaeiÀrMa( )) 13
He who reads even a chapter a day with devotion
attains to Rudraloka and lives there long, having
become an attendent to Lord Çiva.
ADYaaYa& ëaek-Paad& va iNaTYa& Ya: Pa#=Tae Nar: )
Sa YaaiTa NarTaa& YaavNMaNvNTar& vSauNDare )) 14
O Mother Earth, whoever reads a quarter of a
chapter or merely a quarter of a verse daily will
be assured of birth as a human being throughout
one Manvantara (the life of a Manu).
GaqTaaYaa: ëaek-dXak& Saá PaÄ cTauíYaMa( )
ÜaE }aqNaek&- TadDa| va ëaek-aNaa& Ya: Pa#e=àar: )) 15
c&d]l/aek-MavaPanaeiTa vzaRNaaMaYauTa& Da]uvMa( )
GaqTaaPaa#=SaMaaYau¢-ae Ma*Taae MaaNauzTaa& v]JaeTa( )) 16
Text 15 & 16: The man who recites ten, seven,
five, four, three or two verses, or even one half of
a verse of the Gétä, certainly attains to Candraloka
for ten thousand years. He who leaves his body
while reading the Gétä will definitely attain a
human birth.

GiTaa mahaatmyam 389

GaqTaa>YaaSa& PauNa: k*-Tva l/>aTae Maui¢-MautaMaaMa( )
GaqTaeTYauÀarSa&Yau¢-ae iMa]YaMaa<aae GaiTa& l/>aeTa( )) 17

Again practising the Géta, he will eventually

attain liberation. The dying man who merely
utters the word ‘gétä’ will attain liberation.

GaqTaaQaRé[v<aa_Sa¢-ae MahaPaaPaYauTaae_iPa va )
vEku-<#&= SaMavaPanaeiTa ivZ<auNaa Sah MaaedTae )) 18

Even one who has commited heinous sins goes

to Vaikuëöha and lives in communion with
Lord Viñëu if he has developed the urge to
hear the Gétä.

GaqTaaQa| DYaaYaTae iNaTYa& k*-Tva k-MaaRi<a >aUirXa: )

JaqvNMau¢-: Sa ivjeYaae dehaNTae ParMa& PadMa( )) 19

He is to be regarded as a Jévanmukta (one who

is already liberated in his present body) who
constantly meditates on the meaning of the
Gétä while in the midst of performing his
duties. At the time of his death he will surely
attain the spiritual world.

GiTaa mahaatmyam 391

GaqTaaMaaié[TYa bhvae >aU>auJaae JaNak-adYa: )
iNaDaURTak-LMaza l/aeke- GaqTaa YaaTaa: Par& PadMa( )) 20
Many kings like Janaka have been completely
purified and have attained the highest goal by
taking refuge in the Gétä.
GaqTaaYaa: Pa#=Na& k*-Tva MaahaTMYa& NaEv Ya: Pa#e=Ta( )
v*Qaa Paa#=ae >avetaSYa é[Ma Wv ùudaôTa: )) 21
His reading is in vain and his effort wasted who
does not recite this Mähätmyaà after completing
his reading of the Gétä.
WTaNMaahaTMYaSa&Yau¢&- GaqTaa>YaaSa& k-raeiTa Ya: )
Sa TaTf-l/MavaPanaeiTa dul/R>aa& GaiTaMaaPanuYaaTa( )) 22
He who studies this Gétä together with this
discourse on its glories will get the benefits
mentioned herein, and will attain that rarest and
highest of goals.
SaUTa ovac
MaahaTMYaMaeTaÓqTaaYaa MaYaa Pa[ae¢&- SaNaaTaNaMa( )
GaqTaaNTae c Pa#e=ÛSTau Yadu¢&- TaTf-l&/ l/>aeTa( )) 23
Süta Gosvämé said:
He who recites this Mähätmyaà which I have
thus declared after studying the Gétä, will obtain
the results described herein.
wiTa é[q varah Paura<ae é[qGaqTaaMaahaTMYa& Sa&PaU<aRMa( )
Thus concludes the Varäha Puräëa’s discourse known
as The Greatness of the Gétä, Gétä Mähätmyaà.

GiTaa mahaatmyam 393


- spoken by Lord Brahmä

to Lord Çré Kåñëa after
he was enlightened by receiving
Vedic knowledge from Him,
after which he was able to begin his
acts of secondary creation
of the 14 planetary systems and
the 8,400,000 different
varieties of bodies (species).

Kåñëa who is known as Govinda is the Supreme Godhead. He has
an eternal blissful spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no
other origin and He is the prime cause of all causes.
I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, the first progenitor who is
tending the cows, yielding all desire, in abodes built with spiritual
gems, surrounded by millions of purpose trees, always served
with great reverence and affection by hundreds of thousands of
lakñmés or gopés.
I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is adept in playing on His
flute, with blooming eyes like lotus petals with head decked with
peacock’s feather, with the figure of beauty tinged with the hue of
blue clouds, and His unique loveliness charming millions of Cupids.
I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, round whose neck is
swinging a garland of flowers beautified with the moon-locket,
whose two hands are adorned with the flute and jeweled
ornaments, who always revels in pastimes of love, whose graceful
threefold-bending form of Çyämasundara is eternally manifest.
I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose transcendental form
is full of bliss, truth, substantiality and is thus full of the most dazzling
splendor. Each of the limbs of that transcendental figure possesses
in Himself, the full-fledged functions of all the organs, and
eternally sees, maintains and manifests the infinite universes, both
spiritual and mundane.
I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is inaccessible to the
Vedas, but obtainable by pure unalloyed devotion of the soul,
who is without a second, who is not subject to decay, is without
a beginning, whose form is endless, who is the beginning, and
the eternal puruña; yet He is a person possessing the beauty of
blooming youth.
I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, only the tip of the toe of
whose lotus feet is approached by the yogés who aspire after the
transcendental and betake themselves to präëäyäma by drilling
the respiration; or by the jïänés who try to find out the
nondifferentiated Brahman by the process of elimination of the
mundane, extending over thousands of millions of years.

brahma samhitaaa 399

He is an undifferentiated entity as there is no distinction between
potency and the possessor thereof. In His work of creation of
millions of worlds, His potency remains inseparable. All the
universes exist in Him and He is present in His fullness in every one
of the atoms that are scattered throughout the universe, at one
and the same time. Such is the primeval Lord whom I adore.
I adore the same Govinda, the primeval Lord, in whose praise men,
who are imbued with devotion, sing the mantra-süktas told by the
Vedas, by gaining their appropriate beauty, greatness, thrones,
conveyances and ornaments.
I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, residing in His own realm,
Goloka, with Rädhä, resembling His own spiritual figure, the
embodiment of the ecstatic potency possessed of the sixty-four
artistic activities, in the company of Her confidantes (sakhés), ..../
embodiments of the extensions of Her bodily form, permeated and
vitalized by His ever-blissful spiritual rasa.
I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is Çyämasundara, Kåñëa
Himself with inconceivable innumerable attributes, whom the pure
devotees see in their heart of hearts with the eye of devotion tinged
with the salve of love.
I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who manifested Himself
personally as Kåñëa and the different avatäras in the world in the
forms of Räma, Nåsiàha, Vämana, etc., as His subjective portions.
I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose effulgence is the
source of the nondifferentiated Brahman mentioned in the
Upaniñads, being differentiated from the infinity of glories of the
mundane universe appears as the indivisible, infinite, limitless, truth.
I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is the absolute
substantive principle being the ultimate entity in the form of the
support of all existence whose external potency embodies the
threefold mundane qualities, viz., sattva, rajas, and tamas and
diffuses the Vedic knowledge regarding the mundane world.

brahma samhitaaa 401

I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose glory ever
triumphantly dominates the mundane world by the activity of His
own pastimes, being reflected in the mind of recollecting souls
as the transcendental entity of ever-blissful cognitive rasa.
Lowest of all is located Devé-dhäma [mundane world], next above
it is Maheça-dhäma [abode of Maheça]; above Maheça-dhäma
is placed Hari-dhäma [abode of Hari] and above them all is
located Kåñëa’s own realm named Goloka. I adore the primeval
Lord Govinda, who has allotted their respective authorities to the
rulers of those graded realms.
The external potency Mäyä who is of the nature of the shadow of
the cit potency, is worshiped by all people as Durgä, the creating,
preserving and destroying agency of this mundane world. I adore
the primeval Lord Govinda in accordance with whose will Durgä
conducts herself.
Just as milk is transformed into curd by the action of acids, but
yet the effect curd is neither same as, nor different from, its cause,
viz., milk, so I adore the primeval Lord Govinda of whom the state
of Çambhu is a transformation for the performance of the work of
The light of one candle being communicated to other candles,
although it burns separately in them, is the same in its quality. I
adore the primeval Lord Govinda who exhibits Himself equally in
the same mobile manner in His various manifestations.
I adore the primeval Lord Govinda who assuming His own great
subjective form, who bears the name of Çeña, replete with the all-
accommodating potency, and reposing in the Causal Ocean with
the infinity of the world in the pores of His hair, enjoys creative
sleep (yoga-nidrä).
Brahmä and other lords of the mundane worlds, appearing from
the pores of hair of Mahä-Viñëu, remain alive as long as the
duration of one exhalation of the latter [Mahä-Viñëu]. I adore the
primeval Lord Govinda of whose subjective personality Mahä-
Viñëu is the portion of portion.

brahma samhitaaa 403

I adore the primeval Lord Govinda from whom the separated
subjective portion Brahmä receives his power for the regulation
of the mundane world, just as the sun manifests some portion of
his own light in all the effulgent gems that bear the names of
süryakänta, etc.
I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, whose lotus feet are always
held by Gaëeça upon the pair of tumuli protruding from his elephant
head in order to obtain power for his function of destroying all the
obstacles on the path of progress of the three worlds.
The three worlds are composed of the nine elements, viz., fire, earth,
ether, water, air, direction, time, soul and mind. I adore the primeval
Lord Govinda from whom they originate, in whom they exist and
into whom they enter at the time of the universal cataclysm.
The sun who is the king of all the planets, full of infinite effulgence,
the image of the good soul, is as the eye of this world. I adore
the primeval Lord Govinda in pursuance of whose order the sun
performs his journey mounting the wheel of time.
I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, by whose conferred power
are maintained the manifested potencies, that are found to exist,
of all virtues, all vices, the Vedas, the penances and all jévas,
from Brahmä to the meanest insect.
I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, who burns up to their roots
all fruitive activities of those who are imbued with devotion and
impartially ordains for each the due enjoyment of the fruits of
one’s activities, of all those who walk in the path of work, in
accordance with the chain of their previously performed works,
no less in the case of the tiny insect that bears the name of
indragopa than in that of Indra, king of the devas.
I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, the meditators of whom, by
meditating upon Him under the sway of wrath, amorous passion,
natural friendly love, fear, parental affection, delusion, reverence
and willing service, attain to bodily forms befitting the nature of
their contemplation.

brahma samhitaaa 405

I worship that transcendental seat, known as Çvetadvépa
where as loving consorts the Lakñmés in their unalloyed
spiritual essence practice the amorous service of the
Supreme Lord Kåñëa as their only lover; where every tree
is a transcendental purpose tree; where the soil is the
purpose gem, all water is nectar, every word is a song,
every gait is a dance, the flute is the favorite attendant,
effulgence is full of transcendental bliss and the supreme
spiritual entities are all enjoyable and tasty, where
numberless milk cows always emit transcendental
oceans of milk; where there is eternal existence of
transcendental time, who is ever present and without
past or future and hence is not subject to the quality of
passing away even for the space of half a moment. That
realm is known as Goloka only to a very few self-realized
souls in this world.

On hearing these hymns containing the essence of the
truth, the Supreme Lord Kåñëa said to Brahmä, “Brahmä,
if you experience the inclination to create offspring by
being endowed with the real knowledge of the glory of
Godhead, listen, My beloved, from Me to this science
set forth in the following five çlokas.

brahma samhitaaa 407

When the pure spiritual experience is excited by means
of cognition and service [bhakti], superexcellent
unalloyed devotion characterized by love for Godhead
is awakened towards Kåñëa, the beloved of all souls.
The highest devotion is attained by slow degrees by the
method of constant endeavor for self-realization with
the help of scriptural evidence, theistic conduct and
perseverance in practice.
These preliminary practices of devotion [sädhana-
bhakti] are conducive to the realization of loving
devotion. [Loving devotion]—than whom there is no
superior well-being, who goes hand in hand with the
attainment of the exclusive state of supreme bliss and
who can lead to Myself.
Abandoning all meritorious performances serve Me
with faith. The realization will correspond to the nature
of one’s faith. The people of the world act ceaselessly
in pursuance of some ideal. By meditating on Me by
means of those deeds one will obtain devotion
characterized by love in the shape of the supreme
“Listen, O Vidhi, I am the seed, i.e., the fundamental
principle, of this world of animate and inanimate
objects. I am pradhäna [the substance of matter], I am
prakåti [material cause] and I am puruña [efficient
cause]. This fiery energy that belongs specially to the
Brahman, that inheres in you, has also been conferred
by Me. It is by bearing this fiery energy that you regulate
this phenomenal world of animate and inanimate

brahma samhitaaa 409







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Romanized Sa‰skt
¾ · ¾ · ¾ · ¾ · ¾ · ¾ · ¾ · ¾
a ā i … u ™ e ai o au  Ž † aˆ aƒ

h ha hā hi h… hu h™ he hai ho hau h hŽ h† haˆ haƒ

k ka kā ki k… ku k™ ke kai ko kau k kŽ k† kaˆ kaƒ
kh kha khā khi kh… khu kh™ khe khai kho khau kh khŽ kh† khaˆ khaƒ

g ga gā gi g… gu g™ ge gai go gau g gŽ g† gaˆ gaƒ

gh gha ghā ghi gh… ghu gh™ ghe ghai gho ghau gh ghŽ gh† ghaˆ ghaƒ
‰ ‰a ‰ā ‰i ‰… ‰u ‰™ ‰e ‰ai ‰o ‰au ‰ ‰Ž ‰† ‰a ‰aƒ
c ca cā ci c… cu c™ ce cai co cau c cŽ c† caˆ caƒ
ch cha chā chi ch… chu ch™ che chai cho chau ch chŽ ch† chaˆ chaƒ

j ja jā ji j… ju j™ je jai jo jau j jŽ j† jaˆ jaƒ

jh jha jhā jhi jh… jhu jh™ jhe jhai jho jhau jh jhŽ jh† jhaˆ jhaƒ
ñ ña ñā ñi ñ… ñu ñ™ ñe ñai ño ñau ñ ñŽ ñ† ñaˆ ñaƒ
˜ ˜a ˜ā ˜i ˜… ˜u ˜™ ˜e ˜ai ˜o ˜au ˜ ˜Ž ˜† ˜aˆ ˜aƒ
˜h ˜ha

˜hā ˜hi ˜h… ˜hu ˜h™ ˜he ˜hai ˜ho ˜hau ˜h ˜hŽ ˜h† ˜haˆ ˜haƒ
 a ā i … u ™ e ai o au  Ž † aˆ aƒ
h ha hā hi h… hu h™ he hai ho hau h hŽ h† haˆhaƒ
Š Ša Šā Ši Š… Šu Š™ Še Šai Šo Šau Š ŠŽ Š† Šaˆ Šaƒ
t ta tā ti t… tu t™ te tai to tau t tŽ t† taˆ taƒ
th tha thā thi th… thu th™ the thai tho thau th thŽ th† thaˆ thaƒ

d da dā di d… du d™ de dai do dau d dŽ d† daˆ daƒ

dh dha dhā dhi dh… dhu dh™ dhe dhai dho dhau dh dhŽ dh† dhaˆdhaƒ
n na nā ni n… nu n™ ne nai no nau n nŽ n† naˆ naƒ
p pa pā pi p… pu p™ pe pai po pau p pŽ p† paˆ paƒ
ph pha phā phi ph… phu ph™ phe phai pho phau ph phŽ ph† phaˆphaƒ

b ba bā bi b… bu b™ be bai bo bau b bŽ b† baˆ baƒ

bh bha bhā bhi bh… bhu bh™ bhe bhai bho bhau bh bhŽ bh† bhaˆbhaƒ
m ma mā mi m… mu m™ me mai mo mau m mŽ m† maˆ maƒ
y ya yā yi y… yu y™ ye yai yo yau y yŽ y† yaˆ yaƒ

r ra rā ri r… ru r™ re rai ro rau r rŽ r† raˆ raƒ

l la lā li l… lu l™ le lai lo lau l lŽ l† laˆ laƒ
v va vā vi v… vu v™ ve vai vo vau v vŽ v† vaˆ vaƒ
 a ā i … u ™ e ai o au  Ž † aˆ aƒ

 a ā i … u ™ e ai o au  Ž † aˆ aƒ

s sa sā si s… su s™ se sai so sau s sŽ s† saˆ saƒ
Romanized Sa‰skt Chart v1.1.0 July 2004 Prepared by D…nānukampana Dāsa
This is the BACK COVER of the
Gita Slokas Book
"For Daily Recitation"
by Dina-Anukampana Das

ADYaeZYaTae c Ya wMa& DaMYa| Sa&vadMaavYaae” )
jaNaYajeNa TaeNaahiMaí” SYaaiMaiTa Mae MaiTa” )) 70 ))

çré bhagavän uväca

adhyeñyate ca ya imaà
dharmyaà saàvädam ävayoù(o)
jïäna-yajïena tenäham
iñöaù syäm iti me matiù

Lord Çré Kåñëa said:

“And I declare that

he who studies this
sacred conversation of ours
worships Me by his intelligence.”

– Bhagavad Gétä, Chapter 18, Text 70

adhyeñyate dharmyam jïäna iñöaù—worshiped

—will study —sacred —of knowledge syäm—shall be
ca—also; saàvädam yajïena—by the iti—thus
yaù—he who —conversation sacrifice me matiù(i)
imam—this ävayoù—of ours tena—by him — My opinion

End of Book
Click CTRL+L
“Oh my beloved Mother Gita
to view this as
a slideshow
How Much We Have Forgotten Thee…”

For most hindus today have been ‘educated’ by ‘faithless preachers’

to believe that Gita is only a collection of symbols

and that Kurukshetra doesn’t exist.

May the sacred powers of the holy land of Kurukshetra

Renew the faith of the faithful


Help awaken and respiritualize us all

In Praise of Sri Kurukshetra Dhaam

(Extracts from the internet)

May a deep yearning to visit

the 360 holy places in Kurukshetra,
the Dharmakshetra (place of pilgrimage)
awaken within the hearts of all the pious souls
who read this book.

Kurukshetra the holy pilgrimage in which 360 places of pilgrimage related to the
Mahabharata can be seen. Kurukshetra has been the germinating ground of the essence of
what we call Hinduism. The call to duty is the supreme religion. The dictate to action
without the thought, the hope, the wish, or reward is a philosophy that has guided the
Indian psyche for thousands of years. It is one of those holy towns that have borne the
imprint of Lord Krishna's footsteps.

Prime Attractions

• Ban Ganga
• Bhishma Kund
• Brahma Sarovar
• Gurudwara at Kurukshetra
• Panorama
• Sannihit Sarovar
• Sri Krishna Museum
• Sheikh Chehli Mausoleum
• Sthaneshvara Mahadev Temple

Travel Information

How To Get There

Air: The Airports close to Kurukshetra are at Delhi and Chandigarh, which are well
connected by road and rail. Taxi service is also available.
Rail: Kurukshetra is a railway junction, well connected with all important towns and cities
of the country. The Shatabadi Express halts here.
Road: Buses of Haryana Roadways and other State Corporations ply through Kurukshetra
and connect it to Delhi, Chandigarh and other important places.

See also:

Kurukshetra town lies in the North Eastern part of Haryana State and is about 160
Kilometers North of Delhi, 39 Kilometers North of Karnal and 40 Kilometers South
of Ambala. It is at distance of about 6 kilometer from Pipli an important road
junction on the National Highway No.1 popularly called the Grand Trunk Road.

Kurukshetra Railway Station, also called the Kurukshetra Junction is located on

main Delhi-Ambala Railway line. There are two bus stands in Kurukshetra and one
is at Pipli which is on the National Highway and easily accessible for the visitors
coming from every corner of world.
The Following is from

5 km from the town of Kurukshetra, lies the Jyotisar tirth. The place holds special
reverence as the site that marks the place where Lord Krishna delivered the doctrine of
Bhagwad Gita to Arjun.

In order to assist pilgrims tourist movement to the

area, Haryana Tourism Corporation has built its
Jyotisar complex at the site. A sound & light show

Places of interest : Kurukshetra, Pehowa, Jind,


Facilities: Restaurant, Lawns , Guest rooms.

Tariff (in Rs.)

A.C. Accommodation
Room One 700/-
Non A.C. Accommodation
Air Cooled Dormitory
One 150/- Per Bed
(4 beds each)
Taxes if applicable will be extra.
For Booking and Reservations. Please Contact:
Tel :01744-239326

Jyotisar to have Krishna’s chariot

Our Correspondent

Kurukshetra, November 24, 2003

A chariot depicting Lord Krishna delivering his message to Arjuna before the Mahabharata
battle will be set up at Jyotisar in Kurukshetra district at a cost of Rs 2 crore.

This was stated by the Transport Minister, Mr Ashok Kumar Arora, while talking to
mediapersons here yesterday.

He said the Kurukshetra Utsav-Gita Jayanti festival would be celebrated from November 30
to December 4, 2003.
Population : 641,943
Languages : Hindi, English
Best time to Visit : October to March
STD Code : 01744


Kurukshetra is situated in the north Indian state of Haryana. The name Kurukshetra was
originally given to an area covered by 48 kosas (an Indian form of measuring land) where 860
places of pilgrimage related to the Mahabharata exist today. Extending between 29.97°N and
76.85°E, Kurukshetra is in the district of Karnal, about 150 km northwest of Delhi.


Climatically, Kurukshetra has three major seasons. The summer season

(April–June) raises the mercury to as high as 110°F. Rainy season is from
July to September. The average annual rainfall is 58 cm. Winter months are
from October to March, when the temperature dips to as low as 40°F. This is
the best season to visit Kurukshetra.


The region of Kurukshetra lies east of the Punjab where the Aryans first settled when they
began migrating into the subcontinent some time between 2000 and 1500 bc. It is believed that
the Rig Veda was composed between 1500 and 1000 bc in this place.

From a historical perspective, it was here that the theological and philosophical framework of
Hinduism was forged between the 5th century bc and the 5th century ad. It was here that
nascent Hinduism, as we know it today emerged.

Tradition holds that the great 18-day battle between the Pandavas and Kauravas in which Lord
Krishna played his enigmatic part, as described in the pages of the epic Mahabharata, was
fought on the plains of Kurukshetra.

The sacred sites of Kurukshetra today preserve the memory of the struggle at both levels. Very
appropriately, Kurukshetra is also known as Dharmakshetra—the region of the Dharma. Today,
Kurukshetra, more than any other place in India, is the reduced image of the religious universe
of the Hindus.


Among the holiest of water tanks in India, the Brahma Sarovar is an important place to visit in
Kurukshetra. It is the cradle of Indian civilization because Lord Brahma, the Creator of the
Universe, conceived the Earth here. The tank has been renovated and it measures 8600 ´ 1500
feet. Its growing feature is a small but highly sacred temple that stands within the Sarovar
devoted to Lord Mahadev. A dip in the Sarovar bears the sanctity of performing Ashwamedha
Yajna, which, the scriptures say, absolves one of all the sins. The months of November and
December are the time when migratory birds flock around Brahma Sarovar and add an
exhilarating environmental setting to the sanctity of the place.

Sannihit Sarovar is yet another sacred water tank. It measures 1500 ´ 450 feet and is
considered to be the permanent abode of Lord Vishnu. Legend has it that hundreds of years ago
people, burdened by their sins, sought help from the Lord. At this, the Lord said “On the days
of Amavasyas (nights of total darkness) or on the days of an eclipse, if you collect the water of
Sannihit tank, your sins will be absolved.” Ever since, the tank has been the venue of millions
of devotees who perform the Ashwamedha Yajna. The Kumbh Mela is yet another major event
related to the legendary Sannihit Sarovar. There are also temples of Vishnu, Druv Bhagat,
Laxmi Narayan, Lord Hanuman and the Mother Goddess besides the Sannihit Sarovar. It is
believed that Lord Krishna had taken a dip in the Sarovar after the battle of Mahabharata.

A few gurdwaras at Kurukshetra have acquired great sanctity and have become places of
pilgrimage. The site where Guru Nanak stayed is now worshipped as Gurdwara Sadbhiti.
Another gurdwara stands besides it where the sixth Guru Har Gobind stayed during a visit.
Again, the ninth Guru, Shri Tegh Bahadur stayed at a spot near the Sthaneshwar Tirtha that is
marked by a gurdwara. Another prominent gurdwara called Raj Ghat is devoted to the memory
of the tenth Guru, Gobind Singh.


Near Kurukshetra, Thanesar is a sacred town for Hindus because Shiva in the form of linga
(organ) was first worshipped here. Kuru, the Kauravas and Pandavas’ ancestors meditated on
the banks of the Yamuna and Parasurama killed many Kshatriyas here. King Harsha was born
here, ascended the throne at the age of 16 and ruled for 41 years, sharing his seat of power with
his widowed sister whom he had rescued from Sati (self-immolation). During his rule, the
renowned Chinese traveler Huen Tsang lived in Thanesar for a number of years and Bana
Bhatt, the celebrated Sanskrit scholar, met Harsha here.

Sultan Muhammad plundered the city in ad 1014, destroyed most of its temples and carried
away as much gold as he could. Akbar brought peace, but Aurangzeb just messed things up for
the Hindus because it was a sacred place for them. The tomb of Sheikh Chilhi Jalal is a
fascinating monument, octagonal in shape, crowned with a dome of white marble and
surrounded by a white marble courtyard. Tourists may also check out Chini Masjid and Pathar
Masjid, two outstanding monuments built in the Mughal architectural style.

Twenty-seven kilometers from Thanesar, Pehowa was built sometime in ad 882 although an
inscription on a temple claims that it was actually built in ad 895 during King Mahendrapal’s
rule. Numerous ghats and temples have been built in memory of king Prithu.

The legend of the Ban Ganga goes back to the final days of the Mahabharata battle when the
patriarch, Bhishma, lay mortally wounded on a bed of arrows. In his dying moments, he felt
thirsty and, as the patriarch of both the Kauravas and Pandavas, sent for Arjun. It is said that
Arjuna’s arrow brought the waters of the holy Ganga to quench the thirst of Bhishma. Today
the site is worshipped as Bhishma Kund and lies some 12 km from Kurukshetra.

Each year in November and December, the Brahma Sarovar attracts large crowds to observe
Deep Daan and Aarti, the ceremonies especially held to celebrate Gita Jayanti. There are
also theatre performances, music recitals and pageants that bring the atmosphere to life.


Kurukshetra is close to the airfields of Chandigarh and Delhi. It is a road and rail junction
serviced by taxis and buses of the Haryana Roadways and other state corporations.


Haryana, an agricultural state, has retained its simplicity in cuisine. One can try a glass of lassi
or chaaj (buttermilk) followed by angakda, small thick rotis made of barley (jau) cooked
directly on fire. Butter made at home, onion, red chilly, and garlic chutney often accompany the
Gita was spoken in Kurukshetra,
north-eastern Haryana State,
India, 160 km from New Delhi

Following info is From

Kurukshetra town is situated 160 km north of Delhi on the national highway no. 1, “NH1”. Other
towns of the district are Pehowa, Ladwa, Ismailabad and Shahabad. The total area of Kurukshetra
district is 1,682 sq kms and its population is 6,41,000. Total area under cultivation is 1,68,000
hectares out of this, 1,47,000 is irrigated area. The Kurukshetra district lies between latitude
29o-52' to 30o- 12' and longitude 76o-26' to 77o-04' in the North Eastern part of Haryana State.
The district has a total of 419 villages. Ghaggar, Markanda and Saraswati are the important rivers
of the district.

Geography: The district is a plain which slopes generally from North East to South West. The
plain is remarkable flat and within it, are the narrow low-lying flood plains, known as either Betre
Khadar of Naili. A good network of canals is providing irrigational facilities. Underground water
level is not relatively high. Tube well irrigation is also common in the district. It is one of the
prosperous district from agriculture point of view. Kurukshetra along with Karnal and Kaithal
districts is known as the 'Rice Bowl of India'. The soil is generally alluvial, loam and clay does not
constitute average texture of the soil.

Climate of the district is very hot in summer (upto 47 C) and cold in winter (down to 1 C) with
rains in July and August.

Kurukshetra is a place of great historical and religious importance, revered all over the country
for its sacred association with the Vedas and the Vedic Culture. It was here that the battle of
Mahabharat was fought and Lord Krishna preached his Philosophy of 'KARMA' as enshrined in the
Holy Bhagwad-Gita, to Arjuna at Jyotisar. In the very first verse of Bhagwad-Gita, Kurukshetra is
described as DHARAMKSHETRA i.e. 'Region of righteousness'. According to Hindu mythology, the
name Kurukshetra applied to a circuit of about 48 KOS or about 128 Km which includes a large
number of holy places, temples and tanks connected with the ancient Indian traditions and the
Mahabharat War and Kurus, the ancestor of Kouravs and Pandavs. Kurukshetra is intimately
related to the Aryan civilization and its growth along the Saraswati river.

Places to visit: There are about 360 Tirthas of

religious and historic importance. The foremost
among the Kurukshetra tirthas are Brahmsarovar or
Kurukshetra Tank, Sannihit Tank, Sthanesvra
Mahadev Mandir, Jyotisar, Baan-ganga, Bhisam Kund
(Narkatari) Chandrakupa, Nabhi Kamal, Bhadarkali
Mandir, Arnai Temple, Prachi Tirath Pehowa,
Saraswati Tirath Pehowa, Prithduk Tirath Pehowa,
Rantuk Yaksh Bir pipli, Karan Ka Tila,etc.

A few archaeological sites which have yielded various

objects of interest and a distinctive class of pottery known as the Painted Grey Ware (PGW) are
Raja Karan Ka Tila, Asthipura, Bhor Saidan, Bhagpura and Daulatpur.

Kurukshetra is one of the very few places visited by all the Sikh Gurus and Gurdwaras have been
erected to commemorate their visit, the most prominent among them being the Gurdwara Patshahi
dedicated to the sixth Guru Hargobind. Hundreds of devotees visit this shrine every day whose
design is simply marvelous. The eighth Sikh guru Harkishan performed a miracle of making a deaf
and dumb boy recite verses from the Bhagvad-Gita. The ninth Guru, Teg Bahadur, set camp near
Sthaneshwar tirtha where a gurdwara now stands. Gurdwara Rajghat, the biggest all the
Kurukshetra gurdwaras, is located near the main bank of the Kurukshetra tank. This was built in
the memory of the Guru Gobind Singh who came here.

Tomb of Sufi saint Sheikh Chilhi Jalal is a fascinating monument, octagonal in shape, crowned with
a dome of white marble and surrounded by a white marble courtyard. Also worth a visit are, Chini
Masjid and Pathar Masjid.


Mukesh Khosla

In historic continuity Kurukshetra in Haryana surpasses ancient civilizations

of Babylon, Akkad and Assyria that have long ceased to exist, but little
thought has been given to the tourism aspect of the town where history
blends with legend.

Gita Dwaar (Gateway) - Kurukshetra

On the banks of River Saraswati, history is almost palpable. Sages once recited the
Vedas here; Brahma and his deities performed yajnas; Vashishtha and Vishwamitra
attained divinity. Kauravas and Pandavas fought a bloody battle and Lord Krishna
delivered the message of Gita to Arjuna. It was here on this tract of land that the
Hindus surrendered their crowns, Muslims lost their thrones and Marathas and Sikhs
frittered away their power.
This is Kurukshetra. Eons ago, goes the legend, King Kuru came here on his golden
chariot, which was magically transformed into a plough. Yoked to the bull of Lord Shiva
and the buffalo of Lord Yama, the King began to till the land. Lord Vishnu descended
on the fields and asked Kuru to sow the virtues of mankind. Kuru shred his right arm in
a thousand pieces with Vishnu's Chakra and planted them. Vishnu granted Kuru two
boons--the land would be named after him and anyone dying here would go straight to

Kurukshetra is just 160 kilometres from Delhi. We cruise down Sher Shah Suri Marg in
a Haryana Tourism coach on a bright Sunday morning. Past Panipat, our first halt is at
the Karnal Tourist complex, where passengers refresh themselves with cups of tea,
sandwiches and South Indian delicacies cooked in Punjabi style. The land of the
Mahabharata is barely 30 minutes and some 30 centuries away.

In Kurukshetra we meet our host, Ram Sewak Sharma in his Tata Safari. " Almost 18
crore soldiers fought the Battle of Kurukshetra. The fields turned red with blood," he
says eloquently. But, 18 crores would have been rather cramped in a small town like
this. He has an answer ready: "Don't forget, Kurukshetra was not just this town. In
ancient times it was a vast region covering 50 kosas [around 150 kilometres]."

Sharma's assertion is supported by Sage Manu who places the ancient city between
the old sacred rivers, Saraswati and Drishadwati comprising modern Panipat, the
north-west corner of Jind and the eastern part of Patiala district. It was then called
Brahma-Varta. It acquired many names: Brahmadevi, Dharamkshetra and finally,
Kurukshetra, as it is known today.

As we weave through the town along the Pehowa Road, there are signs of a booming
agro-economy. Tractors and bullock carts co-exist with Marutis, Lancers, Hyundais,
Indicas and the ubiquitous trucks and tempos. Evidently little thought has been given
to the tourism aspect of the town though Kurukshetra surpasses in its historic
continuity the ancient civilizations of Babylon, Akkad and Assyria which have long
ceased to exist.

Land Of Empires

Kurukshetra has seen the rise and fall of many empires. When the Vardhanas rose to
power from Sthanvishvara [now called Thanesar] in the sixth century, it regained much
of its lost gory. The period of King Harsha Vardhana was the golden age of
Kurukshetra. After his demise it began to decline and later, the British reduced it to a
small district."
Sannihit Sarovar

Our first halt is at the Sannihit Sarovar which is also the first place where pilgrims take
a dip during a solar eclipse. Sannihit means the assembly of the entire range of
titathas and legend has it that a prayer performed here during amavas (moonless
night) guarantees the benefit equal to one thousand Ashvamedha sacrifices.

Pandit Pawan Kumar, a local godman, walks up to us and offers to trace our ancestry
for a consideration. He takes us into a dingy room and works out our lineage in under a
minute. Even computers would be hard put to achieve this feat.

"These pattas [records] have been handed down from generation to generation," he
tells us. "I can trace my family history down to the days of the Mahabharata. I am
blessed to be born here in this holy place."

Sannihit Sarovar the Pandit tells us, is the only place that has been visited by all but
one of the Sikh Gurus. For each Guru there is a Gurudwara to commemorate his visit.
This is also the only place where even the British came for a holy dip. On our left, is
the fading plaque commemorating the visit of Sir Edward McLogan, the Governor of
Punjab in 1921.
Brahmasar Sarovar

An eight kilometre drive brings us to the Brahmasar Sarovar, the central point where
pilgrims converge after a dip in the Sannihit. A row of deodar trees and two islands in
the middle of the tank add to Brahmasar's beauty considerably. One of the islands is
said to be the place where Brahma first performed his yajna.

Believed to have been excavated by King Kuru long before the epic battle of
Mahabharata, the Brahmasar Sarovar is flanked by temples and places of Puranic
interest. Ruins of some structures standing on the bigger island are said to be the
remains of a small castle which Aurangzeb built. "This is one of the most sacred
tanks," Sharma tells us. "A part of the ashes of Mahatma Gandhi were immersed in it."

As the Safari makes its way to Jyotisar, we are assailed by a feeling of awe. We are
treading on history itself---not just ancient history, we are in the land of folklore. Here
great empires rose and fell: a mighty city reached its pinnacle of glory and decayed
slowly into oblivion to be rediscovered and reconstructed centuries later by
Banyan Tree

TThhee eexxaacctt ssppoott w Krriisshhnnaa ssppookkee tthhee G

whheerree LLoorrdd K Arrjjuunnaa
Giittaa ttoo A
One survivor from that time is a banyan tree, 5,000 years old under whose gnarled and
twisted branches is a marble chariot in which sit Lord Krishna and Arjuna. In case you
doubt its antiquity, nailed to the trunk is a mutilated tin board which says: "Immortal
banyan tree - witness of the celestial song of Bhagwad Gita."

Legend has it that it was at this spot that Lord Krishna stopped the chariot between the
two warring armies to deliver the teachings of Gita to Arjuna. Carved out in marble, are
the footprints of Lord Krishna.
Though some scholars put it around 10 B.C., no one knows the exact date of this
historical battle or when the Mahabharata was actually written. But scholars are of the
view that it is one of the greatest Epics in the world. Also probably one of the oldest
and longest.

The epic as we know it today, contains 100,000 stanzas and is eight times longer than
Homer's Iliad and Odyssey put together. In religious parlance, the Epic is called the
fifth Veda, for it is said to contain every branch of knowledge. Woven in it is legend and
history, myth and folklore, fable and parable, philosophy and religion, morals and
romance, governance and warcraft.

Ban Ganga/Bhishma Kund

At Ban Ganga, also known as Bhishma Kund, the grand sire of the Kauravas and
Pandavas, Bhisma, lay on a bed of arrows on the tenth day of the battle, struck by
perfidy. But before he died, to quench his parched throat and lips, Arjuna shot an arrow
into the earth from where a fountain of water from river Ganges sprang out and
reached the mouth of Bhishma.

Here, at the very spot where we stand, the site of this dramatic gesture, is now called
Ban Ganga or more appropriately Bhishma Kund. It is roughly five kilometres from
Kurukshetra on the Pehowa Road in the Narkatari village where pilgrims bathe in this
holy tank and earn the combined merit of all the tirthas (pilgrimages).

But we see no pilgrims nor tourists around, except some picnickers. For this, the local
guide has a religious explanation: "According to the Vedas," he says, "there are three
types of outings - tirath [visiting holy places], sair [stroll] and aish [enjoyment], Kalyug
hai na. No one comes for tirath or sair anymore. Just aish and picnic."
But despite these pessimistic observations, Kurukshetra is a place revered by the
devout for its sacred associations. The history of Kurukshetra is the history of ancient
India. A place that has witnessed the rise and fall of powerful kings and mighty

Bana, the Hindu poet, described it as a splendid city with busy, well-lit bazars, elegant
temples, splendid palaces, artist's studios, sculptors' work-shops, colleges and
schools. Today it is bustling town, with haphazard development and pockets of
prosperity, but largely oblivious to its tourist potential.

But this does not deter, the pilgrims who congregate here during amavas to wash off
their sins and ensure a place in heaven.


Copyright © 2002 []. Intellectual Property. All rights reserved.

More Info on places of pilgrimage in Kurukshetra at


One of the most revered of holy centers of Kurukshetra is Jyotisar. Renovated

recently, it retains its sanctity and the birthplace of the Holy Bhagwad Gita. A vat
(Banyan) tree stands on a raised plinth here August. Spreading Venerated. It is
believed that it was under this holy Banyan that Lord Krishna delivered the doctrine
of Karma a wavering Arjun. He showed too, His Virat Roop the image of Himself as
the Creator, the Preserver, the Destroyer-under whose will every leaf, every bud,
every event, every man moved as automation. A marble chariot depicting Lord
Krishna delivering to Arjun marks the site the Shrimad Bhagwad Gita. In one
secluded section of this center an old Shiv temple can also be seen. Hundreds of
years ago, a holy water tank was built here. Today the Kurukshetra Development
Board has renovated the site. A mango shaped lake has been constructed here.
Covered bathing ghats for the ladies have been provided. Cement parapets and
enclosures have been built for protection. A restaurant and accommodation wings of
Yatries has been built here. The area has been landscaped with flowering bushes and
eucalyptus trees.

Jyotisar lies on Pehowa road, 5 Km from Kurukshetra.

This information on Pehowa Town is from

The town Pehowa derives its name from Prithu who was called the first king. He
finds mention in the Rigveda as the son who performed the usual funeral ceremonies
of his father & for 12 days after the cremation, he sat on the bank of the Saraswati
offering water to all visitors. The place, therefore, came to be known as Prithudaka
or Prithu's pool and the city which he afterwards built on the spot was called by the
same name. It is an ancient place of pilgrimage. It is believed that Prajapati created
the world and the four varanas of the Hindus at this place. The town contains two
specially famous tanks, one sacred to Brahma and the other to the goddess Saraswati.
This photo is from

Krishna Museum

The following article is from

Kurukshetra situated in the state of Haryana is one of the most sacred places in India.
It is hallowed by its association with Lord Krishna’s sermon to Arjuna and mankind
in the form of Shrimad Bhagavad-Gita. It is but appropriate that there should be a
museum to present and preserve the multifaceted personality of Lord Krishna, the
episodes of his childhood, his rasalila, philosophy and teachings in the form of rare
manuscripts, paintings, sculptures and other artistic creations as well as
archaeological material unearthed in Kurukshetra and its neighborhood. These
artifacts present Lord Krishna as a revered God, an avatar of Lord Vishnu, a great
philosopher, an epic hero, an astute statesman and a supreme lover. Personality and
teachings of Lord Krishna have permeated the national ethos and the cultural
personality of the Indian people for thousands of years and continue to serve as its
beacon light.

Awakening the people ethically, morally and culturally through the ideas and ideals
of Krishna, is the aim of this museum, which was established in 1987 and was
shifted, to the present building in 1991. Museum continues to grow with additions of
new artistic representations of the Krishna theme and archaeological finds.

As a visitor enters the Museum, he finds himself face to face with a huge sculpture of
Sri Ganesha in dancing posture. This gallery also preserves stones sculptures
pertaining to the Krishna legend ranging from 1st Century AD to 11th Century AD.
Some of them have been acquired on loan from the Archaeological Survey of India
and the department of Archaeological and Museum, Government of Haryana.
The following is extracted from

Kurukshetra Utsav-Gita Jayanti Samaroh 30-11-2003 to 04-12-2003 at Kurukshetra

(Organised by Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Govt. of India, all Zonal Cultural Centres,
Govt. of India, Haryana Tourism and Kurukshetra Development Board)

Everyone should come and enjoy the unprecedented aura of cultural extravaganza at the
legendary Brahmasarovar in the holy city of Kurukshetra on the occasion of Kurukshetra
Utsav-Gita Jayanti Samaroh, to be celebrated from 30-11-2003 to 4-12-2003.

Kurukshetra in Haryana has the great privilege of celebrating a festival called "Kuruykshetra
Utsav", associated with the Bhagwad Gita. Earlier, this festival was celebrated as the Gita
Jayanti festival at the local level. However, with the gigantic efforts of the State Government
and Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Govt. of India this year again, like last year, the festival
will be a grand event incorporating Dance dramas, music, archeological heritage, ballet, crafts
etc. It would feature,

• A musical spectacle on the message of Bhagwad Gita for the modern man to be held at
Purushotampura Bagh, Kurukshetra.
• A state level exhibition on the achievements of Govt. of Haryana at the Brahamsarover
Bays for four days.
• A crafts mela organised by all the Zonal Cultural Centres of the country under the
Department of Culture, Govt. of India for four days.
• An exhibition of translides on renowned heritage/archeological sites of Haryana/India
on a 360 wall at the Brahamsarovar Bays for four days. This will include an exhibition
on the "Incredible India".
• A one day conclave on "Heritage Tourism-discourse on Gita and marketing a new
destination-Kurukshetra University, ITDC and the Departments of Tourism, Govt. of
India/Haryana on 1st December, 2003.
• A solo performance by a renowned artists like Hema Malini or Sonal Man Singh or Pt.
Jasraj or Birju Maharaj at Jyotisar (in view of the Tourism investments being made in
and around the Jyotisar tirath) on 3rd December, 2003.
• Cultural Programmes by the North Zone Cultural Centre, Zonal Cultural Centres and
Cultural affairs Department, Haryana on all four days of the festival at the
Brahamsarover stage, Kurukshetra University Auditorium and five villages (i.e. Amin,
Dayalpur, Kirmach, Sarsa and Pehowa) associated with the Kurukshetra war.
• Various competitions involving school children, Nagar Shobha Yatra and Aarti/Deep-
Daan traditionally held by the Kurukshetra Development Board.

For the first time a sustained effort has been initiated to market and promote Kurukshetra as a
pilgrimage tourist destination. Hopefully, this second national festival would draw attention
though the media towards making kurukshetra an attractive hub with tourists spots such as
Brahmsarovar, Sheikh chaheli's tomb, Kurukshetra panorama/science Centre, Sri Krishna
Museum, Jyotisar, Pehowa and new attraction like the Sound and light show and the
Mahabharata Utsav to be celebrated annually: Chautala

KURUKSHETRA, Dec 16, 2002: Haryana Chief Minister Om Prakash Chautala today announced that
the National Festival of Mahabharata Utsav - Gita Jayanti Samaroh — would be celebrated every year
as it would help in propagating the message of the Gita in its true spirit.

The Chief Minister, speaking at the concluding function of the five-day festival here this evening,
described the Gita as a source of great inspiration for humanity.

He complimented the people of Kurukshetra and the district administration for the successful completion
of the celebrations.

He also appreciated the cultural programmes presented by the artists drawn from seven zonal cultural
centres of the country, and said the Kurukshetra Development Board was given Rs 13.5 crore last year
to renovate religious places and assured that more funds would be allotted to the board.

Earlier, the Chief Minister performed ‘Aarti’ and ‘Deep Daan’ at Brahmasarover amidst chanting of
hymns, and the ringing of bells. At the same time, while the sky over the Brahmasarover was lit with
marvellous fire works, numerous earthern lamps were floated as a part of the ‘Deep Daan’ ceremony.

The Chief Minister honoured noted theatre director and choreographer Bansi Kaul and students of ten
local schools and colleges for their outstanding performance in ‘Samar Manthan’, a ballet based on the
different episodes of Mahabharata. (UNI)

Kurukshetra - A Cradle Of Secularism.

Kurukshetra besides being a seat of learning and knowledge for Hundus has also
been a place of great interest for Sikhs. This land has become holier with the advent
of all the Sikh Gurus who have visited this place from time to time. This place thus
becomes one of the very few places ever visited by all the Sikh Gurus and it is in this
background that Gurudwaras have been erected in the city to commemorate their
visit, the most prominent among them being the Gurudwara 6th Patshahi. Hundreds
of devotees visit the shrine every day whose architectural design is simply
marvellous. It lies in the immediate vicinity of Sannehit Sarover and Sri Krishna

Visitors also pay their obeisance at the tomb of Sufi Saint Sheikh Chaheli. Its
architectural beauty reminds hundreds of scholars and tourists visiting every day the
splendour of the Taj.

Apart from the religious places already described above, the places of historical
interest connected with the medieval period comprise an ancient fort and mounds,
Sheikh Chehli's tomb and Madrasah, Pathar Masjid and Chini Masjid.
Reforms, in the name of Krishna
(An interesting article which shows how useful to society the Bhagavad Gita can be)
by Syed Firdaus Ashraf in Mumbai | December 23, 2003 05:24 IST

They were unclean, unshaven, appeared tired and ill-fed. All of them have a common friend
that is a 20-feet high wall, which surrounds and cuts them off from the rest of the world.
No wonder than that over 500 inmates of Arthur Road Jail turned up on Monday morning for an
hour-long meditation course organised by International Society for Krishna Consciousness with
the help of Anagha Charitable Trust. The jail in south Mumbai was reverberating to the chants
of Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna.
"It gives me a great feeling," said Hariram Jaiswal who is accused of murdering his friend and
is an undertrial (a court is seized of his case). "I never participated in such programmes so far.
But after spending three months in jail, I feel this (the meditation course) is the best thing that
has happened to me ever," he said.
Shailendra Tripathi, another murder accused, said, "So far, I did not know the meaning of
Bhagwad Gita. But now I know the importance of the Gita in my life and more important, my
religion, of which I had no clue till date."
The organisers had set up a stage and loudspeakers that spewed slogans praising Lord Krishna
while some ISKCON members explained the meaning of the Gita to the inmates.
ISKCON organises such functions for jail inmates across India in 23 states every year in the
month of December.
"We have found that these kind of programmes help prisoners realise their mistakes. The
quality of their life improves if they continue to follow the teachings of the Gita," says Amit
Vyas, a trustee of Anagha Charitable Trust, which had arranged for distribution of copies of the
book free of cost to the inmates.
R N Parde, Deputy Superintendent of Arthur Road jail, says, "We want more and more inmates
to know about religion and God. It will help them to lead a more decent life after they are
released from jail."
The impact of the event on the inmates could be gauged from their reaction when one of the
organiser took to the stage and announced the distribution of copies of the Bhagwad Gita in
various languages.
There was a clamour and inmates could be heard saying: "Please pass on a Marathi Bhagwad
Gita." "For me a Gujarati," shouted another.
Bhim Das, president of the Hare Krishna Temple in Juhu, explained, "The common man feels
more attached to the Gita when he reads it in his mother tongue."
Asked if there was any lasting impact on the lives of the prison inmates, Vyas says, "There are
many examples of jail inmates reforming after participating in our programmes. Two years ago,
we held a programme in Nashik Jail. One of the inmates was so moved by the teachings in the
Gita that he dedicated two years of his life, after his release, to our trust and went on to become
a life member."
Concludes Parde, "We are just trying to build a better future for the inmates. A drug addict
won't give up his addiction overnight. But he may change his viewpoint or his habits if he
attends such programmes. We encourage such events hoping the inmates will continue to
follow the good path after their release from here."

End of Presentation on Kurukshetra

His Divine Grace A.C.
Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
Founder-Acharya of ISKCON &
greatest exponent of Krsna
consciousness in the western world.

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Srila Bhaktsiddhanta Sarasvati
Gosvami Maharaja Prabhupada
(1874-1937) The spiritual master
of His Divine Grace A.C.
Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupada and foremost scholar
and devotee in the recent age
Srila Gaura Kisora Das
Babaji Maharaja
( ? – 1915) The spiritual
master of Srila
Bhaktsiddhanta Sarasvati
Gosvami & intimate student
of Srila Thakur Bhaktivinode
Srila Thakur Bhaktivinode (1838 –
1914) The pioneer of the program
to benedict the entire world with
Krsna consciousness & intimate
student of
Srila Jagannath Das Babaji
Bhagavad-gita 1.1
Dhrtarastra is on the throne,
and Sanjaya, his secretary,
is describing what is
happening on the Battlefield
of Kuruksetra. Because of
Sanjaya's mystic powers, the
discourse on the battlefield
between Krsna and Arjuna is
revealed in his heart. [1]

Please click on the blue text for the verse

Bhagavad-gita 1.3
Dronacarya is seated in his
tent, and Duryodhana is
pointing to the two armies
outside. [2]

[ All these pictures are

available online at ]
Bhagavad-gita 1.3 A view of the military phalanx on the
Battlefield of Kuruksetra. The chariot of Krsna and Arjuna
is in the midst of the two armies. [3]
Bhagavad-gita 1.14 Krsna
blows His transcendental
conchshell to herald the battle.
Arjuna is seen in the
background. [4]
Bhagavad-gita 1.26-29 Arjuna
laments upon seeing his
relatives standing opposed to
him in battle. Krsna, smiling, is
ready to console His friend by
His transcendental teachings.
1.33-35 Draupadi,
the wife of the
Pandava brothers
(Arjuna, Maharaja
Yudhisthira, Bhima,
Sahadeva and
Nakula), is being
disrobed by
Duryodhana and
Duhsasana, two
sons of Dhrtarastra,
after being lost to
them in a gambling
match. Dhrtarastra
is sitting on the
throne. Krsna is
Draupadi's infinite
robe to save her from being seen naked by the assembly.
Because of this incident and other offenses to the
Pandavas, Krsna wanted the battle to take place and the
miscreants to be killed. [6]
Bhagavad-gita 2.11 A devotee of
the Lord comes upon a man lying
dead on the ground and beside
him two other men in conditions
of bodily misery. [7]
Bhagavad-gita 2.13 The
conditioned spirit soul is seen
changing bodies from childhood to
youth to old age to death and then
into the womb of another mother.
Verse 22 is also illustrated by this
same picture. Above, a man is
changing garments, and below the
soul is changing bodies. [8]
2.13 The many,
many frames on a
reel of movie film,
when seen
appear as one
picture on the
screen, although
there are actually
many different
pictures. Similiarly,
we see a man as
localized (above),
but actually his
body is changing
at every second.
All this is
happening without
the notice of the
viewer. However
the soul within the
heart (seen as a
sparkling star)
does not change; he remains eternally the same. [9]
Bhagavad-gita 2.22 The bird on
the left (the ordinary living beings,
jiva-atma) is captivated by the
fruits of the tree, while the friendly
bird on the right (Supersoul,
Param-atma, God) acts as
witness and waits for His friend to
turn to Him. [10]
Bhagavad-gita 2.62-63
The path of destruction of
the conditioned soul's
intelligence due to
dictation of the senses
and mind is portrayed:-
contemplating sense
objects Î attachment Î
lust (desire) Î anger Î
complete delusion Î
bewilderment of memory
Î loss of intelligence Î
fall down again into the
material pool. [11]
Bhagavad-gita 3.10
Lord Caitanya,
wearing yellow
robes, leads
thousands of
followers in the
chanting of the holy
names of Sri Krsna.
His four associates
1. Nityananda
Prabhu, wearing
purple robes, at
Lord Caitanya's
immediate right.
2. Advaita Prabhu,
wearing white
robes, at
Nityananda's immediate right.
3. Gadadhara Pandit at Lord Caitanya's immediate left.
4. Srivasa Pandit at Gadadhara's immediate left. [12]
Bhagavad-gita 3.12
Devotees are pictured
engaged in sankirtana-
yajna (dancing and singing
the names of God). Above
the clouds are the devas,
and above them the Lord,
who is pleased by the
singing of His holy names.
The devas are, left to right,
Chandra (the moon-god),
Indra (the god of rain),
Vivasvan (the sun-god)
and Vayu (the god of air).
At the right is Laksmi, the
Goddess of fortune. [13]
Bhagavad-gita 3.37-39 The
living entity in the center is
being enveloped by fiery lust.
The analogy in verse 38 is
illustrated here. At the top is
fire covered by smoke,
symbolizing human life. At the
bottom left is a mirror covered
by dust, symbolizing animal
life. At the bottom right is an
embryo covered by the womb,
symbolizing tree and plant life.
Bhagavad-gita 4.1 At the
top, Krsna teaches the
science of Bhagavad-gita
to Vivasvan, the sun-god.
Below Vivasvan teaches
his son, Manu, and in the
circle at the right, Manu
teaches his son Iksvaku.
4 6

3 7

2 8

1 9

Bhagavad-gita 4.7 In the center square, Krsna is shown

in His original two-handed form, holding a flute.
Surrounding Him are ten of His eternal incarnations,
pictured in the order in which they appear in the material
world, beginning clockwise from the lower left-hand
1. Matsya, the fish incarnation, is saving the Vedas.
2. Kurma, the tortoise incarnation, is holding the hill
on His back.
3. Varaha, the boar incarnation, is fighting with the
demon Hiranyaksa.
4. Nrsimhadeva, the lion incarnation, is killing the
demon Hiranyakasipu.
5. Vamanadeva, the dwarf incarnation, is begging
some land from King Bali.
6. Parasurama is killing the demoniac ksatriyas.
7. Lord Ramacandra is going off into exile with His
wife, Sita, and brother, Laksmana.
8. Krsna is lifting Govardhana Hill, and beside Him is
His brother Balarama.
9. Lord Buddha.
10. Lord Kalki is riding on His horse, killing all the
demons and thus liberating them. [16]
4 6

3 7

2 8

1 9

Bhagavad-gita 4.7 In the center square, Krsna is shown

in His original two-handed form, holding a flute.
Surrounding Him are ten of His eternal incarnations,
pictured in the order in which they appear in the material
world, beginning clockwise from the lower left-hand
1. Matsya, the fish incarnation, is saving the Vedas.
2. Kurma, the tortoise incarnation, is holding the hill
on His back.
3. Varaha, the boar incarnation, is fighting with the
demon Hiranyaksa.
4. Nrsimhadeva, the lion incarnation, is killing the
demon Hiranyakasipu.
5. Vamanadeva, the dwarf incarnation, is begging
some land from King Bali.
6. Parasurama is killing the demoniac ksatriyas.
7. Lord Ramacandra is going off into exile with His
wife, Sita, and brother, Laksmana.
8. Krsna is lifting Govardhana Hill, and beside Him is
His brother Balarama.
9. Lord Buddha.
10. Lord Kalki is riding on His horse, killing all the
demons and thus liberating them. [16]
Bhagavad-gita 4.8
Lord Krsna is killing His
wicked uncle, Kamsa;
Balarama, Krsna's brother,
is standing on Krsna's
right. Behind Krsna are His
parents, Devaki and
Vasudeva, and
grandfather Ugrasena,
who were all imprisoned
by Kamsa but are here
freed by Krsna. This scene
takes place in Kamsa's
wrestling arena in Mathura
Bhagavad-gita 4.11
At the top Krsna is
dancing with His
purest devotees as a
lover. On the lotus
petals the Lord is
reciprocating with His
devotees as a son, as
a friend and as a
master. Below left, a
devotee in the material
world is associating
with Krsna personally
by painting His
transcendental form.
Next, an
impersonalist, by his
meditation, is merging with the brahmajyoti, the spiritual
effulgence emanating from the Lords body. On the right a
mystic yogi is walking on the water. On the far right a
fruitive worker is receiving the fruits of his labor. [18]
5.4-6 Above, a
devotee is
engaged in
activities for the
incarnations of
the Lord, who
comes in this
form to accept our service). Below, a sankhya-yogi
engages in the analytical study of matter and spirit. After
some time he realizes the Lord (the forms of Radha and
Krsna include all other forms of the Lord) within his heart,
and then he engages in devotional service. [19]
Bhagavad-gita 5.18 A sage
sees the Supersoul
accompanying the sparklike
individual soul in each body.

[ All these pictures are

available online at ]
Bhagavad-gita 6.11-14 The
goal of yoga is seen as Visnu
in the yogi's heart. [21]
Bhagavad-gita 6.24 The little
sparrow is shown here trying to
drink up the ocean to retrieve her
eggs. Because of her
determination, Lord Visnu has
sent Garuda, who is standing
behind her, to threaten the ocean
into returning the eggs to the
sparrow. [22]
Bhagavad-gita 6.34 The chariot of the body. The five
horses represent the 5 senses (tongue, eyes, ears, nose
& skin). The reins (driving instrument) symbolize the mind.
The driver is the intellect. The passenger is the spirit soul
within the body. [23]
Bhagavad-gita 6.47 Lord
Syamasundara, Krsna, Who is
blackish in complexion and
exquisitely beautifu, plays His
flute. He is the object of the ideal
yogi's meditation. [24]
Bhagavad-gita 7.4-5 Spirit soul
sustains the material universe of
earth, water, fire, etc.
(represented as the body). The
subtle body-mind, intelligence
and fales ego-is represented by
the red dot on the forehead. The
soul is seated in the heart of the
gross body. [25]
Bhagavad-gita 7.15-16 At the top
Laksmi-Narayana are shown in
the Lord's transcendental abode.
Below are four kinds of
miscreants who do not surrender
to God and four kinds of pious
men who turn to Him in devotional
service. [26]
Bhagavad-gita 8.21 Krsna brings
His thousands of surabhi cows
back home from the fields at the
end of the day. [27]
Bhagavad-gita 9.11 The fools
mock the humanlike form of Lord
Krsna, but the devotee offers his
obeisances. Behind Krsna are
Maha-Visnu, Garbhodakasayi
Visnu and the entire cosmic
manifestation-all working under
Krsna's direction. [28]
Bhagavad-gita 10.12-13

Arjuna offers prayers to Krsna.


(clockwise beginning from the upper left-hand

corner): Indra carrying the thundrebolt, the Himalayas,
Lord Siva with the Ganges River in his hair, the moon, the
horse Ucchaihsrava, the transcendental om, Kapila,
Rama, flower-bearing Spring, Kamadhuk, Arjuna,
Vyasadeva, Prahlada, the shark, Vasuki, Skanda, Varuna,
Yamaraja, the lion, Kuvera, Agni and Airavata. Inner circle,
clockwise (beginning from four-headed Lord Brahma
sitting on the lotus flower): Brahma, Narada, Garuda, the
sun, the ocean, Lord Visnu, Ananta, and the chanting of
the holy names-Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna,
Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare
Hare. [30]
Bhagavad-gita 10.41 A sampling of Krsna's infinite
manifestations, both in the spiritual and material worlds.
Outer circle (clockwise beginning from the upper left-hand
corner): Indra carrying the thundrebolt, the Himalayas,
Lord Siva with the Ganges River in his hair, the moon, the
horse Ucchaihsrava, the transcendental om, Kapila,
Rama, flower-bearing Spring, Kamadhuk, Arjuna,
Vyasadeva, Prahlada, the shark, Vasuki, Skanda, Varuna,
Yamaraja, the lion, Kuvera, Agni and Airavata. Inner circle,
clockwise (beginning from four-headed Lord Brahma
sitting on the lotus flower): Brahma, Narada, Garuda, the
sun, the ocean, Lord Visnu, Ananta, and the chanting of
the holy names-Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna,
Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare
Hare. [30]
Bhagavad-gita 11.13 Krsna's
universal form is displayed to
Arjuna. Still the Lord does not
loose His original eternal
identy,. He remains seated on
the chariot with Arjuna. [31]
Bhagavad-gita 11.50 After
showing Arjuna His
universal form, Krsna shows
him His four-handed
Narayana form in which He
presides over all the spiritual
planets. Then He changes
to His two-handed form to
show everyone that He is
the source of the universe
and the source of Narayana.
Bhagavad-gita 12.6-7 Krsna is
riding towards the devotee on
Garuda, His feathered carrier,.
In order to lift him out of the
ocean of birth and death. [33]
Bhagavad-Gita 14.14-18
Life in the higher planetary
system, life in the society of
human beings and life in the
animal kingdom are
Krsna and His eternal consort,
Radharani, are shown in Their eternal abode, Goloka
Vrndavana. The upside-down tree below Them is the banyan
tree, representing the material world, which is a perverted
reflection of the spiritual world. The devas are on the top
branches, the human beings are on the middle branches,
and the animals are on the lower branches. On the right a
man is disentangling himself from the tree by cutting it with
the weapon of detachment. [35]
Bhagavad-gita 15.1-3 Krsna and His eternal consort,
Radharani, are shown in Their eternal abode, Goloka
Vrndavana. The upside-down tree below Them is the banyan
tree, representing the material world, which is a perverted
reflection of the spiritual world. The devas are on the top
branches, the human beings are on the middle branches,
and the animals are on the lower branches. On the right a
man is disentangling himself from the tree by cutting it with
the weapon of detachment. [35]
Bhagavad-gita 15.6 The huge lotus is the original spiritual
planet Goloka Vrndavana the abode of Radha and Krsna.
The spiritual effulgence around this planet is the brahmajoyti
which is the ultimate goal of the impersonalists. Within the
universal brahmajoyti are innumerable spiritual planets which
are dominated by plenary expansions of Lord Krsna and
inhabited by ever-liberated living beings. Sometimes a
spiritual cloud overtakes a corner of the spiritual skyand the
covered portion is called mahat-tattva or the material sky.
The Lord as Maha Visnu lies down in the water within the
mahat-tattva which is called the Causal Ocean. Maha Visnu
enters each universe as Garbhodakasayi Visnu and lies in
the Garbha Ocean on the serpentine Sesa incarnation. From
His navel a lotus stem sprouts and from the lotus Brahma the
Lord of the universe is born. Brahma creates all the living
beings in different shapes in terms of their desires within the
universe. He also creates the sun moon and other devas.
Bhagavad-gita 15.8 Top
section: On the left, a boy is
dancing before the Deities of
Radha-Krsna. The result of
such devotional
consciousness is shown on
the right, where he is dancing
with Krsna as a playmate in
the Lord's spiritual abode.
Second section: On the left a
man is offering charity to a
brahmana; on the right he has
taken the body of a deva and
is enjoying heavenly delights.
Third section: A man is eating meat and other abominable
foods; in his next life he is seen in the body of a hog who
eats anything and everything. Bottom section: A man is
approaching a women with lust. This bestial
consciousness carries him to a dog's body. [37]
16.5, 21 Two
men (standing
where the
stairway makes
its turn) are
being offered
both liberation
and bondage.
One man looks
following the
spiritual master
who points
toward Sri
The other man
embraces the
qualities by
accepting the
garland offered
by Maya, Krsna's illusory energy. Drawn by ropes which
are held by the personifications of lust, greed, and anger,
he follows her down the steps. At the bottom he is
reaching for Maya, and gliding towards hell. [38]
Bhagavad-gita 16.10-18 A
sample of the demonic qualities is
illustrated here. [39]
Bhagavad-gita 17.4 On the top,
three devas, Vivasvan, Brahma
and Lord Siva, are being
worshipped by their respective
devotees. Just below a man is
worshipping a famous mundane
personality. At the bottom, women
are worshipping a tree which is
inhabited by a ghost, and a man
is worshipping the tomb of a dead
man. [40]
Bhagavad-gita 18.14 Endeavor means energy which is
employed. For anything
one does there must be
some activity; that is the
endeavor. The place must
be favorable, the activities
must be authorized, the
doer (the man who is
acting) must be expert,
the instruments must be
fit, and the help from the
Supersoul must be
adiquate. These are the
five causes for success,
and the opposite are the
five causes for failure.

[41] con't /...

customers. Similarly, one looking for spiritu o
where there are devotees and associates w
must go to a particular type of place for a p
activity, and the person acting must be wel
expert, just like an expert salesman whose
business is bona fide. The senses must be

y that


.../con't [41]
Here a man is conducting business. If he goes to the
marketplace it will be very nice, since there are so many
customers. Similarly, one looking for spiritual life goes to
where there are devotees and associates with them. One
must go to a particular type of place for a particular type of
activity, and the person acting must be well-versed, or
expert, just like an expert salesman whose method of
business is bona fide. The senses must be in order, to
guard against cheating, hear offers, etc. Above all is the
help from Supersoul, who dictates in such a way that
everything is successful, spiritually or materially. Among
the five factors portrayed here, the endeavor is the
business which is being conducted.
Bhagavad-gita 18.41-46
While engaged in their
prescribed duties, these four
representatives of the four
social orders (varnas) are
thinking of Lord Krsna and
offering Him the results of
their work. [42]
Bhagavad-gita 18.65
Gopala Krsna, the beautiful
original form of the Lord. [43]
Bhagavad-gita 18.73 Arjuna's
illusion is now gone, and he is
acting according to Krs'sna
instructions. Arjuna’s last words in
the Gita: “Karishye vacanam tava”
– “I am now prepared to carry out
your instructions.”
Krsna, the driver of countless
universes, is now driving the
chariot of Arjuna, who has got
back into action. [44]
-the end-