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Questions and answers
1.1.1 Momentum Questions
What is the momentum of: a b a plane of mass 2 × 105 kg flying at 270 m s−1? a horse of mass of 400kg carrying a rider of mass 75 kg, galloping at 10 m s−1?
In the worked example on page 12, it was estimated that a cricket batsman might need to use 80 N to stop a ball dead. a b Explain why a batsman hitting a ball so that it travels away at the same speed might need less than 80 N force to play his shot. Explain why the same batsman playing the same ball might need more than 80 N force to play a shot.
An 800 kg car is travelling at 33 m s−1. How much force must the brakes apply, if they are to stop the car completely in four seconds? a b In a car crash, a passenger with a mass of 82 kg is not wearing a seatbelt. The car is travelling at 45 km h-1. What impulse must the car’s airbag provide in order to stop the passenger’s motion? Explain why hitting an airbag will cause less injury than if a passenger hits the dashboard.
A wooden mallet is being used to hammer a tent peg into hard ground.
fig. 1.1.5 a b c d e The head of the mallet is a cylinder of diameter 0.100 m and length 0.196 m. The density of the − wood is 750 kg m 3. Show that the mass of the head is approximately 1.2 kg. The head strikes the tent peg as shown at a speed of 4.20 m s 1 and rebounds at 0.58 m s 1. Calculate the magnitude of its momentum change in the collision. The head is in contact with the peg for 0.012 s. Estimate the average force exerted on the peg by the head during this period. Give a reason why your value for the force will only be approximate. With reference to your calculations above, discuss whether a mallet with a rubber head of the same mass would be more or less effective for hammering in tent pegs.
reducing injury. so more force would be needed.50 or 5. this is a smaller momentum change than in the worked example.1. so less force would be needed.Edexcel A2 Physics Questions and answers 1.15 kg b) c) d) e) .4 x 107 kg m s-1 4750 kg m s-1 If the batsman only changed the ball’s direction very slightly.74 kg m s–1/N s F = 458 or 478 N depending on ∆ p above] Handle mass/weight/ head weight/force exerted by user (handle) neglected ∆ t goes up/∆ p goes up ⇒ less force. this would be a greater momentum change than in the worked example. less effective/more force. 6600 N 1025 N s The airbag takes a longer time to remove the passenger’s momentum. This means that it applies less force to the passenger. If the ball is returned back in the direction of the bowler.2 1)a) b) 2)a) b) 3) 4) a) b) 5. more effective Momentum Answers 5) a) Mass = 1. ∆ p = 5.
and his velocity is 12 m s−1 at an angle of 80° to the river current.2 s.) If the waterfall is 100 m downstream.1. On the river below. the momentum of one trolley must increase at the same rate as the momentum of the other decreases. He gives the following answer. As a result. At what speed will the stuntman roll away? A girl in a stationary boat on a still pond has lost her oars in the water. the heroine is tied to a raft floating towards a waterfall at 3 m s−1. The lines of his answer are numbered on the left for reference. using a collision between two trolleys as an example. The raft and heroine have a total mass of 200 kg. The 8-gram bullet leaves the pistol at 358 m s−1 and embeds completely in the stuntman’s bulletproof vest. she throws her rucksack horizontally out of the boat with a speed of 4 m s−1. In which line of his argument is the candidate using Newton’s second law? In which line is he using Newton’s third law? The student is making one important assumption which he has not stated. Therefore the total momentum of the two trolleys must remain constant. and the hero landed when the raft was 16 m from the bank. mass of girl = 40 kg. a b 3 4 How fast will this action make the boat move? If she throws the rucksack by exerting a force on it for 0. mass of rucksack = 5 kg. would they plummet over the fall? (Assume the velocity remains constant after the hero has landed.) Define linear momentum. Mass of boat = 60 kg. These forces are of the same size but in opposite directions. An actor shoots the stuntman with a 9 mm pistol. b 5 a The principle of conservation of linear momentum is a consequence of Newton’s laws of motion. which is correct but incomplete. (Ignore any vertical motion.Edexcel A2 Physics Questions and answers 1. State this assumption.2 Collisions Questions 1 A movie stuntman with a mass of 90 kg stands on a stationary 1 kg skateboard. how much force does she exert? 2 How can Newton’s third law help to explain the problem suffered by the boy stepping out of the boat in Worked example 2 on page 15? In a stunt for an action movie. Describe how you could check experimentally that momentum is conserved in a collision between two trolleys. a If the hero times his jumps perfectly so as to land on the raft. Explain at what point it comes into the argument. . An examination candidate is asked to explain this. To get the boat moving again. what will be the velocity of the raft immediately after he lands? Draw a vector diagram to show the momentum addition. the 100 kg actor jumps from a train which is crossing a river bridge. i ii iii iv b c d e During the collision the trolleys push each other.
mass × velocity [Words or defined symbols.6° to the current tbank = 4 s so they would land safely on the riverbank.2 m s-1 b) 100 N In order to move forward. There is an equal and opposite force from him onto the boat which moves the boat backwards away from him.Line 2 OR 1& 2 No (net) external forces/no friction/drag. or i and ii.2 Collisions Answers 1) 2) a) 3) 4 )a) 0.Edexcel A2 Physics Questions and answers 1. (he assumes the force exerted by the other trolley is the resultant force) e) Suitable collision described and specific equipment to measure velocities [e. NOT ft] iii ii. .1.031 m s-1 0.6° twaterfall = 37 s at an angle of 55. how light gates used].g. Measure velocities before and after collision. light gates]. Line iii. Ρtotal = 1430 kg m s-1 θ υafter = 4. Measure masses / use known masses/equal masses.77 m s-1 b) 5) a) b) c) d) = tan-1 = 55.g. Describes how velocities calculated [e. Calculate initial and final momenta and compare OR for equal trolleys in inelastic collision. the boy must experience a force from the boat.
1.3 Energy in collisions Questions 1 A bowling ball travelling at 5 m s−1 strikes the only standing pin straight on.) Calculate the kinetic energy of an alpha particle which has a momentum of 1. The pin flies backward at 7 m s−1. (Mass of neutron = mass of proton = 1.35 kg.5 kg. . (Mass of bowling ball = 6.08 ×10−19 kg m s−1 a b c 3 in joules in electronvolts in MeV. Calculate: a b 2 the velocity of the bowling ball after the collision the loss of kinetic energy in this collision. mass of pin = 1.67 ×10−27 kg) Explain why the slingshot orbit of a satellite passing near a planet and then flying away at a different angle as a result of the effect of the planet’s gravity would be an elastic collision.Edexcel A2 Physics Questions and answers 1.
46 MeV 5 460 000 eV c) Non-contact collisions are always elastic. and no external forces act.0 J [or 7.1.73 x 10-13 J b) b) 7.1 J] 5.3 Energy in collisions Answers 1)a) 2)a) 3) 3.35 m s-1 8.Edexcel A2 Physics Questions and answers 1. .
also of mass 0.1.Edexcel A2 Physics Questions and answers 1.1% of the speed of light. what is the velocity of the aluminium nucleus after the collision? In a pool shot. ending up in the corner pocket. . 2 fig.17 kg. find out what happens to the cue ball.17 kg travels at 6 m s−1 and hits the stationary black ball in the middle of the table.24 m s−1. the cue ball of mass 0. By resolving the components of the black ball’s momentum.4 Real collisions Questions 1 An alpha particle moving at 3% of the speed of light collides elastically with a stationary aluminium nucleus (atomic number 13 and mass number 27). The black ball. If the alpha particle bounces backwards at 0.1. 1.22 2D momentum calculations can be very important in winning at pool. travels away at 45º with a speed of 4.
24 m s-1 at 45º to the original line.Edexcel A2 Physics Questions and answers 1.46% of the speed of light.38 x 106 m s-1 It ends up in the other corner pocket. 1.1. moving at 4. .4 Real collisions Answers 1) 2) 0.