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Mechatronics project

Linear displacement indicator

Submitted by,
Jagannathan .B
Jayaprakash .K
Sriguhan . R

To measure the linear displacement ( movement) of tool and
proportionately indicate it by

glowing LED’s. The number of LED’s glowing must be directly proportional

to the slider

movement ( shown as the tool Movement).


• LM 324 IC chip

• Battery (9 V)

• Variable resistance ( as tool movement)

• 4 LED’s

• 4 Resistors (1 kΩ)

• Voltage regulator (7805)

• General purpose board

General Features:

• Output Current up to 1A
• Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V
• Thermal Overload Protection
• Short Circuit Protection
• Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection

LM 324 IC:-
 Internally frequency compensated for unity gain
 Large DC voltage gain 100 dB
 Wide bandwidth (unity gain) 1 MHz (temperature compensated)
 Wide power supply range: Single supply 3V to 32V or dual supplies ±1.5V to ±16V
 Very low supply current drain (700 µA)-essentially independent of supply voltage
 Low input biasing current 45 nA (temperature compensated)
 Low input offset voltage 2 mV and offset current: 5 nA
 Input common-mode voltage range includes ground
 Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage
 Large output voltage swing 0V to V+ - 1.5V

The LM324 series consists of four independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated
operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single power
supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from split power supplies is also possible
and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply

Application areas include transducer amplifiers, DC gain blocks and all the conventional op
amp circuits which now can be more easily implemented in single power supply systems. For
example, the LM124 series can be directly operated off of the standard +5V power supply
voltage which is used in digital systems and will easily provide the required interface
electronics without requiring the additional ±15V power supplies.


This system can be developed easily by using the concept of comparators.

The voltage drop due to sliding movement of the potentiometer is given to
the non inverting end of the OP-AMP, and the voltage across the inverting
end is given by the resistor ladder which is connected to a battery source.
Now as soon as the voltage at non inverting end exceeds the voltage at
the inverting end there will be an output which will glow the LED. By
proper calibration of the sliding movement we can find out the distances
at which the first LED glows and so on.

This system is a mere indicator where the no. of glowing LEDs is
proportional to the displacement of tool. The same principal can be used
to measure the exact movement of tool by the help of ADC and
microprocessor to give the distance moved digitally with good precision.
In this way the operator can move the tool to exact position with less

Circuit Diagram:-
Total ladder resistance = 4 kΩ
Voltage supply = 5 V
Voltage across R1 = 5/4 * 1 = 1.25 V.
Voltage across R2 = 2.5 V
Voltage across R3 = 3.75 V
Voltage across R4 = 5 V