Edition No.

29

January 2008

ENGINEERING
S Y S T E M S O L U T I O N S

E

dition 29 of Engineering System Solutions provides a brief tutorial on the ventilation rate procedure (VRP) from ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004 and examines its impact on energy savings and indoor air quality. In May 2007, the VRP was adopted into the International Mechanical Code, replacing ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-1989 to define minimum outdoor air ventilation rates. This change reduces the ventilation requirements for many applications, providing an opportunity for energy savings. At the same time, the VRP provides for improved indoor air quality by better defining outdoor air required to dilute contaminants originating from occupants (cfm/person) and the building environment (cfm/ft2). This article was prepared by Duane Rothstein, Applications Engineer for McQuay and a Member of SSPC 62.1. For more information on the equations presented in this newsletter, we encourage you to refer to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004. For help in designing your next ventilation system, contact your local McQuay representative or visit www.mcquay.com. Jay Eldridge Applications Manager McQuay International

The International Mechanical Code And ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004
For nearly 20 years, the International Mechanical Code (IMC), published by the International Code Council (ICC), has used ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-1989 (Standard 62.1-1989), Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, to define the minimum outdoor air ventilation rates required for commercial, institutional and high-rise residential buildings. Using advancements in indoor air quality (IAQ) research, and the experience gained in designing ventilation systems, the ASHRAE Standing Standard Project Committee 62.1 (SSPC 62.1) introduced new minimum ventilation rates in breathing zones and calculation procedures in 2004. Most notable about the new minimum ventilation rates in the revised ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004 (Standard 62.1-2004) is that the rates are lower than those listed in Standard 62.1-1989 for most applications. This change provides opportunities for energy savings in treating outside air, improved indoor air quality and equipment cost reductions. In May 2007, the ICC adopted the ventilation rate procedure (VRP) from ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004 into the IMC. The new requirements will be included in the 2007 IMC Supplement. The IMC is used as the mechanical code at the state or local level in 47 states and Washington D.C. (Figure 1).

Figure 1 – State-by-state adoption of the IMC1

1Map

courtesy of the International Code Council. For updates, visit http://www.iccsafe.org/government/adoption.html.

1-2004. It is intended to more accurately address the amount of outdoor ventilation air required to dilute building contaminants from the occupied space.1-1989 and -2004 ventilation rates2 62. the new procedure does a better job of defining where buildings need ventilation. Rp = outdoor airflow rate required per person as determined from Table 6-1. In all other categories.06 0. known as the Area Outdoor Air Rate (Ra). Referring to Table 1. Thus.ashrae.1-2004. the drop in the cfm per person rate is modified by adding a cfm per area rate.06 0.5 5 7. including outdoor air treatment.2 (Ventilation Rate Procedure) of Standard 62.1-1989 Outdoor Air Requirements 62.06 #/1000ft2 25 35 25 5 30 50 70 120 40 150 cfm/ft2 0. Ra = outdoor airflow rate required per unit area as determined from Table 6-1.org. . causing many buildings to be over-ventilated. although the rates in Standard 62. The VRP in Standard 62. Inc.18 0.06 0. The following is a brief tutorial of the VRP calculations. It is important to note that there are a number of items to address when determining minimum ventilation requirements. Comparing Ventilation Rates Table 1 lists commonly referenced occupancy categories with their corresponding outdoor air ventilation rates (additional occupancy categories are listed in Table 6-1 of the Standard). In most cases.1-1989 defined ventilation rates only as cfm per person based on an estimated maximum occupancy and the application. The first part of the equation (RpPz) is the per-person ventilation rate. ASHRAE Standard—62.1-2004 are generally lower.. which was increased by adding a cfm/person rate. occupancy and floor area. The minimum ventilation rates prescribed by the VRP are based on contaminant sources and strengths that are typical for the occupancy categories listed in Table 6-1 in Standard 62. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.2. the per-area ventilation rate is relatively small compared to the perperson rate. The second part of the equation (Ra Az) is new and represents the per-area ventilation rate.1-2004 was adopted.2 - #/1000ft2 50 50 30 7 60 50 70 120 20 150 cfm/person 10 10 10 5 5 5 7.1-2004 Estimated People Area Maximum Outdoor Air Outdoor Air Occupancy Rate Rate Rp cfm/person Classrooms (ages 5-8) Classrooms (age 9+) Laboratories Office Space Reception Areas Conference Rooms Restaurant Dining Rooms Hotel Multipurpose Assembly Retail Mall Auditorium 22004 Occupancy Category Occupant Density Ra cfm/ft2 0. www. Ventilation Rate Procedure Standard 62.18 0.06 0. If the number of people expected to occupy the zone fluctuates.What does this mean? Designing with the VRP can provide improved ventilation and indoor air quality in buildings.06 0. Pz may be estimated based on averaging approaches described in Section 6. The equation is as follows: Vbz = Rp Pz + Ra Az (6-1) where: Az = zone floor area: the net occupiable floor area of the zone ft2 (m2) Pz = zone population: the largest number of people expected to occupy the zone during typical usage.5 5 15 15 20 20 15 20 20 15 15 Breathing Zone Outdoor Airflow. These rates could be excessive. the outdoor air ventilation rates in Standard 62. © American Society of Heating. An exception is the retail category.12 0. copy of Standard 62.1-2004 have been lowered compared to Standard 62-1-1989. particulate matter and contaminants.1-2004 defines the VRP as a prescriptive procedure to determine minimum outdoor airflow rates based on the application. It calculates the design outdoor airflow required in the breathing zone for the occupiable space or in a zone.12 0. Vbz The heart of the ventilation rate procedure is the equation used to calculate the breathing zone outdoor airflow.2.1.1-2004 fixed two factors in determining minimum ventilation rates – people and area – which account for contaminants originating from occupants (cfm/person) and the building environment (cfm/ft2). Obtain a Table 1: Comparison of Standard 62. It coincides with the ventilation rates used in the IMC before Standard 62. The VRP can be found in Section 6. How can a building have improved ventilation and indoor air quality with lower ventilation rates? The simple answer is that Standard 62.1-2004 to find out more about each of these items.6.

if both the supply diffusers and return grills are located in the ceiling. Note that the values for Ez in Table 2 are default values and can be adjusted by the design engineer.5 "Cool air" is air cooler than space temperature.8. it is important to remember that the zone air distribution effectiveness value needs to be determined for both the cooling and heating modes. www. which requires the highest amount of outdoor air in its supply air stream. can be calculated for each ventilation zone using the following equation: Voz = Vbz / Ez (6-2) Voz represents the outdoor airflow that must be supplied to the zone by the supply air distribution system. As an alternative to using the above values.7 0. Since multi-zone systems provide the same mixture of outdoor air and return air to each zone.1-2004). Ceiling Supply of Warm Less Than 15oF (8°C) Above Space Temperature & Ceiling Return Provided That The 150 fpm (0. 5. Floor Supply of Warm Air & Floor Return Floor Supply of Warm Air & Ceiling Return Makeup Supply Drawn In On The Opposite Side of The Room From The Exhaust &/or Return.8 Outdoor Air Intake Flow. not all supply air will be distributed evenly throughout the breathing zone in a given space. Provided Low-Velocity Displacement Ventilation Achieves Unidirectional Flow & Thermal Stratification. For multi-zone systems. "Floor" includes any point below the breathing zone. the supply air will be colder and denser in the cooling mode than the air in the occupied space.ashrae. The outdoor air intake flow for this system is calculated by adding all zone outdoor airflow requirements together.8 m/s) Supply Jet Reaches 4.Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness.org.. Floor Supply of Cool Air & Ceiling Return Provided That The 150 fpm (0.0. Note: For Lower Velocity Supply Air. The process varies for calculating the outdoor air intake flow for each of these systems.8 0. "Warm air" is air warmer that space temperature.4 m) or More Above The Floor. Inc. Ez The zone air distribution effectiveness is determined using Table 2 (Table 6-2 in Standard 62. Makeup Supply Drawn In Near To The Exhaust &/or Return Location. causing it to fall into the breathing zone. the required ventilation in the critical zone can result in other zones being overventilated. Vot Once the zone outdoor airflow has been calculated for each zone. As a result. Once in the breathing zone. the zone outdoor airflow.8. 32004 ASHRAE Standard—62. 3. 1. Depending on the zone air distribution configuration (diffuser and return grill location and supply air temperature). These systems are also known as dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS). Ez 1 1 0. its temperature will increase. The calculation for outdoor air intake flow is a bit more complex due to system ventilation efficiency. Zone Outdoor Airflow. the outdoor air intake flow for single zone systems it equal to the zone outdoor airflow. The ventilation rate procedure accounts for three types of systems – single-zone. during the heating mode. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. there will always be a critical zone. "Ceiling" includes any point above the breathing zone. 4. This is an example of good zone air distribution with an effectiveness value of 1. contain an air handler supplying outdoor air and recirculated return air to more than one zone. As the warm air enters the space at ceiling level. This shortcycled or bypassed warm supply air results in an effectiveness value of 0. some of it will exit through the return grill and not reach the breathing zone. causing it to rise to the ceiling and exit the space via the return grill. the supply air is usually less dense than the air in the space. 100% outdoor air systems contain an air handler supplying only outdoor air (no recirculated air) to one or more zones. Note: Most Underfloor Air Distribution Systems Comply With This Provisio.5 ft (1.5 ft (1. Ez = 0. 2. However. Ez may be regarded as equal to air change effectiveness determined in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 129 for all air distribution configurations except unidirectional flow. Vot = Σall zones Voz (6-4) Multiple-zone recirculating systems 1 1 1. The outdoor air intake flow for single-zone systems is calculated using the following equation: Vot = Voz (6-3) Simply put. Voz.1.2 1 0.4 m) of Floor Level. 100% outdoor air and multiple-zone recirculating systems. Table 2: Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness3 Air Distribution Configuration Ceiling Supply of Cool Air Ceiling Supply of Warm Air & Floor Return Ceiling Supply of Warm Air 15°F (8°C) or More Above Space Temperatures & Ceiling Return. For example. regardless of whether the system is in heating or cooling mode. .8 m/s) Supply Jet Reaches To Within 4. Single-zone systems supply a mixture of outdoor air and recirculated air to only one ventilation zone. © American Society of Heating. the outdoor air intake flow (Vot) can be calculated for the entire system. Floor Supply of Cool Air & Ceiling Return. Voz Once the zone air distribution effectiveness has been determined.

Voz = Vbz / Ez Determine Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness. Table 4: Steps to determine outdoor air intake using the VRP Single-Zone Systems 1 Determine Zone Population. Voz = Vbz / Ez Determine Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness. if all the occupants were in their offices.1-2004) Max (Zp) ≤ 0. Vou = D Σall zones Rp Pz + Σall zones Ra Az (6-6) Finally. the conference rooms would be below design occupancy. Fraction. 100% outdoor air (DOAS) and multiple-zone recirculating systems.35 ≤ 0. Within the equation. causing the outdoor air demand to decrease. www.Two things can happen to the extra outdoor air in over-ventilated zones. Ez (Use Table 6-2) Calculate Zone Outdoor Airflow. Inc. the variable Vpz represents the zone primary airflow or the total amount of supply air (both outdoor and return air) from the air handler. the designer can determine the outdoor air intake. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Now that diversity has been factored in. © American Society of Heating.25 ≤ 0. needs to be determined using the following equation: (6-5) Zp = Voz / Vpz The zone primary outdoor air fraction is the ratio of zone outdoor air to zone primary air for each zone served by the system.ashrae.org. D. Vbz = Rp Pz + Ra Az (Use Table 6-1) Vbz = Rp Pz + Ra A (Use Table 6-1) Vbz = Rp Pz + Ra Az (Use Table 6-1) Determine Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness. It can exit the zone via the return air stream. Interpolation is allowed within the table. Voz = Vbz / Ez 4 5 6 Calculate Primary Outdoor Air Calculate Outdoor Air Intake Flow.7 0. Pz Determine Zone Floor Area. For example.9 0. the system ventilation efficiency.. causing the outdoor air demand to increase. Pz is the zone population which is defined as the largest number of people expected to occupy the zone during typical use. the multipurpose assembly room or auditorium are more than likely unoccupied. Airflow. Calculate Outdoor Air Intake Flow.6 Use Appendix A 10 N/A N/A 9 N/A N/A 8 N/A N/A ASHRAE Standard—62. for the multiple-zone recirculated system using the following equation: Vot = Vou / Ev (6-8) VRP Summary Table 4 summarizes the steps for determining the required minimum outdoor air intake using the VRP for single-zone. or it could exit the zone via the exhaust and exfiltration air streams. Az 3 Calculate Breathing Zone Outdoor Calculate Breathing Zone Outdoor Calculate Breathing Zone Outdoor Airflow. Once the zone primary air fraction has been determined for the system. it is usually safe to assume that people are not at peak occupancy in every space at the same time. D = Ps / Σall zones Pz Calculate Uncorrected Outdoor Air Intake. For multiple-zone systems. the following equation is used: D = Ps / Σall zones Pz (6-7) Ps is the system population and represents the total population in the area served by the system. Ez (use Table 6-2) Calculate Zone Outdoor Airflow. The uncorrected outdoor air intake is the minimum outdoor air required by all zones before adjusting for system ventilation efficiency. if all of the students are in the classrooms.55 ≤ 0. this will be the value of Zp that represents the primary outdoor air fraction for the system.8 0. Zp. mix with the incoming outdoor air and re-enter the supply air stream. The same can be said for schools. . Pz 2 Determine Zone Floor Area.55 42004 the approach in Appendix A of the Standard must be used to determine the value. There are multiple steps required to calculate the outdoor air intake flow for multiple-zone recirculating systems. in an office building. Vou = D Σall zones Rp Pz + Σall zones Ra Az Calculate Outdoor Air Intake Flow. Pz Determine Zone Floor Area. Az 100% Outdoor Air Systems Determine Zone Population.15 ≤ 0. Ev (Use Table 6-3 or Appendix A) Calculate Occupant Diversity. Zp must be calculated for each zone and the highest value must be chosen among all zones. Vot = Vou / Ev 7 Ev 1 0.1. the primary outdoor air fraction. Table 3 cannot be used and Table 3: System Ventilation Efficiency4 (Table 6-3 Standard 62. Diversity is more likely to happen in larger systems. Ev. Alternative methods can be used to calculate population diversity. provided the alternative method does not produce a value for the uncorrected outdoor air intake less than equation 6-6. the uncorrected outdoor air intake rate can be determined using equation 6-6. Note: if Zp is greater than 0. The first is to use the default maximum value in Table 3 below and the second is to calculate the value using Appendix A located in the back of the Standard. Ez (use Table 6-2) Calculate Zone Outdoor Airflow. Vot = Voz Vot = Σall zones Voz Zp = Voz / Vpz N/A N/A Determine System Ventilation Efficiency. can also be determined in one of two ways. Az Multiple-Zone Systems Determine Zone Population.45 ≤ 0. Vot. To account for occupant diversity. First. Airflow.55.

00 $ 40. This is most likely due to the free cooling effect of the outside air.36% .81% Electric ($) $ 51.394. Minneapolis.1-2004 example. In fact. TX.00 $ 47.06 0. and Houston.73 $ 7.218. TX).8 0.8 0.161. Table 5 shows the office zone details. TX Gas ($) $ 1.8 0.8 0. The zone outdoor airflow for the IMC example was derived using the ventilation rates in Chapter 4 of the 2006 IMC.1-1989) Outdoor Air Zone Outdoor Airflow cfm/per 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Total cfm 600 540 1500 600 540 1500 4000 9280 Total Zone-Level Outdoor Airflow Single-Zone Systems Total Intake Air * 37% reduction Table 6: Office building energy use comparison in Minneapolis. The total zone outdoor airflow of this system is 4.574.00 Gas ($) $ 10. As Table 5 demonstrates.06 Pz people 30 27 75 30 27 75 200 Az ft2 5000 4000 1500 5000 4000 1500 18000 Breathing Zone Outdoor Airflow Vbz cfm 450 375 465 450 375 465 2080 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Zone Ventilation Efficiency Ez Zone Outdoor Airflow Voz cfm 450 375 465 450 375 465 2080 4660 0. The same system designed using the 2006 IMC will require a total zone outdoor airflow of 9280 cfm.97 $ 997. there is a 37% reduction in the total amount of outdoor airflow required for the office building when it is designed using the VRP in Standard 62. To illustrate the potential energy savings.1-2004 example was derived using the steps outlined in Table 4. MN and Houston. The zone outdoor airflow for the Standard 62. The building uses seven single zone rooftop systems. What is surprising from Table 6 is that the bulk of the energy savings result from reduced energy consumed in the heating mode.000 square foot office building with seven zones. MN.1-2004 and the Table 5: Office building ventilation design 2006 IMC. MN Electric ($) IMC Std 62.06 0. further cost savings may be available in the form of reduced installed costs (i.8 0.333. While it is not addressed in this newsletter. Standard 62.8 Heating Zone Ventilation Efficiency Ez Zone Outdoor Airflow Voz cfm 563 469 581 563 469 581 2600 5825 5825* 2006 IMC (Standard 62.06 0.06 0.560.63 Total ($) $ 50.1-2004 to design a ventilation system (versus the 2006 IMC or Standard 62.15 Total ($) $ 52.00 $ 51.Calculating Energy Savings The reduction in outdoor airflow that can result from using Standard 62. In both locations. population density and zone outdoor air comparison using Standard 62.06 0.00 Houston.8 0.825 cfm for the heating mode.179.00 % Savings — 2. TX. the higher value (5825 cfm in the heating mode) should be used to size the system. the electric cost for cooling was actually higher for the Standard 62. smaller equipment. In order to avoid underventilating. each in two different climate zones (Minneapolis. Table 6 compares the electric and gas consumption of each system using eQuest for this same office building located in Minneapolis. MN and Houston.06 0.564.00 % Savings –– 5.00 $ 50. Office Building The first example is a 39. in the Minneapolis example. with each zone containing a constant volume rooftop unit with gas heat.1-2004.1-2004 Cooling Ventilation Zone People Area Zone Zone Floor Outdoor Air Outdoor Air Population Area Rate Rate Rp cfm/per West Offices North Offices North Conference Room East Offices South Offices South Conference Room Interior Offices 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Ra cfm/ft2 0.726.779.1-1989) can have a significant impact on the energy use of an HVAC system. The gas savings in Houston were significantly less due to its warmer climate zone. smaller ducts).1-2004 $ 40.e. we will examine an office building and a school.660 cfm for the cooling mode and 5.336. there are energy savings resulting from bringing in less outdoor air during the heating and cooling seasons.

For the classrooms using floor model unit ventilators.0 1. during the cooling season Ez will have a value of 1.8 0.5 Ra cfm/ft2 0. the ventilation system was designed using the rates found in the 2006 IMC for each ventilation zone of the school.8 0. Standard 62.8 0. MN. and Houston.0 1.743.1-2004 involves several variables depending upon the zone. As the table indicates there are minimal energy savings (~1%) using Standard 62. Table 8 compares the electric and gas consumption of each system using eQuest for this same school located in Minneapolis.00 Houston.978.0 1. TX Gas ($) $ 3.0.8 0. Added together they total 14.92% Electric ($) $ 26.225 cfm.8 Total Heating Zone Ventilation Efficiency Ez 2006 IMC (Standard 62.60 $ 13.521 cfm of outdoor air for the school.12 0. Table 7 shows the school zone details.12 0.0 1. TX.0 1.8 0.8 1.Energy usage: school single zone rooftops and unit ventilators Minneapolis.0 0. In the heating mode.134.000 square foot elementary school building using a constant volume single zone system.04% .1-2004 ventilation rates.06 0. the zones containing rooftop units will use ceiling supply diffusers and return grills in the same manner as the office example. multi-use assembly room and other zones each have a dedicated rooftop unit. The offices.18 0. This is a 16% reduction in total outdoor air for the school compared to the 2006 IMC rates.12 0.0 0.925.8 1.8 0.0 0.847 $ 30.1-2004 $ 23. population density and zone outdoor air comparison using Standard 62.92 $ 3. Depending on the zone type. Designing the school using the VRP in Standard 62. Table 7: School building ventilation design resulting in a total system volume of 17.00 Total ($) $ 3.12 0.00 % Savings – 0.1-2004 and the 2006 IMC.525 % Savings – 1.8279. To avoid under-ventilating any particular zone. These values are shown in bold italic font in Table 7. the ventilation requirement is 15 cfm/person or 20 cfm/person.06 Pz people 30 35 35 100 40 30 30 20 30 30 40 700 Az ft2 1575 2500 2100 1575 1500 900 900 2700 900 900 1500 7200 Vbz cfm 58445 475 728 109545 580 408 408 262 408 408 580 5682 1.8 1. Therefore. As in the office building example.8 0. the larger value for the zone outdoor airflow between the heating and cooling mode should be used to size the ventilation system for that particular zone.12 0.8.741.0 0.School Building The second example is a 24.1-1989) Zone Zone Outdoor Outdoor Air Outdoor Airflow Airflow Voz cfm cfm/per 20 15 20 15 15 15 15 20 15 15 15 15 cfm 600 525 700 1500 600 450 450 400 450 450 600 10500 17225 729 594 910 1368 580 408 408 725 510 510 262 328 408 408 580 510 510 725 5682 7103 14521* Table 8 .00 Gas ($) $ 14. Ez will have a value of 0. the classrooms will have an Ez of 1.868.0 1.00 $ 37.18 0.1-2004 Cooling Ventilation Zone People Area Zone Zone Zone Floor Breathing Zone Outdoor Air Outdoor Air Ventilation Population Area Outdoor Airflow Rate Rate Efficiency Rp cfm/per Wood/Metal Shop Library Laboratory Music Room East Classroom #3 East Classroom #2 East Classroom #1 South Offices West Classroom #1 West Classroom #2 West Classroom #3 Multi-Use Asssembly Total Intake Air * 16% reduction 10 5 10 10 10 10 10 5 10 10 10 7. The classrooms each have a floor-mounted unit ventilator.58 Total ($) $ 30.12 0.06 0.781. For example.12 0.8 1.537. In the heating mode Ez will have a value of 0.791. MN Electric ($) IMC Std 62.0 1.00 $ 26.8 in the cooling mode due to the short cycling of cool dense air.00 $ 24.0 due to the warm air rising in the space and the cooler return air entering at the base of the unit.0 Ez Zone Outdoor Airflow Voz cfm 584 475 728 1095 0.

1-2004.1-2007.1-2004 ventilation rates versus the cfm/person rate used in the 2006 IMC. etc. Further analysis would need to be performed to demonstrate the impact on 100% outdoor air systems and multiple-zone systems.1-2004 cfm/person 24 16 26 13 18 17 17 16 17 17 18 10 IMC cfm/person 20 15 20 15 15 15 15 20 15 15 15 15 total building cfm results from the lower cfm/person in the offices and multi-use assembly room/auditorium.Table 9: Ventilation air for school zones compared VRP versus IMC in cfm/person.org. ANSI/ASHRAE 62. Table 9 shows the cfm per person using Standard 62. To purchase a copy of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62. d. This increased ventilation will improve the classroom indoor air quality and the learning environment for the students. Standard 62. f. The ventilation rate procedure also allows designers to properly ventilate for pollutant sources from the building and the building’s occupants while taking into account system efficiencies for different ventilation systems such as single-zone. Ventilation Zone Wood/Metal Shop Library Laboratory Music Room East Classroom #3 East Classroom #2 East Classroom #1 South Offices West Classroom #1 West Classroom #2 West Classroom #3 Multi-Use Asssembly 62. the designer can investigate using smaller equipment sizes to reduce installed costs.1-2004 and Addenda a.1-2004 is that classrooms will receive more ventilation to provide a better learning environment without raising the operating or installed cost expenses for the school building. there is an important benefit to using Standard 62. This article only analyzed the effect of Standard 62.1-2007 Since the ICC has adopted the minimum ventilation rates and the Conclusion The minimum ventilation rates in the breathing zone and the ventilation rate procedure from ANSI/ASHRAE 62.1-2004 ventilation rates.1-2004 into the IMC. indoor air quality and first/installed costs. e. The reduction in the Installed Cost Savings The analysis performed in this article is solely focused on energy savings and improved indoor air quality. Further analysis would need to be performed in order to validate these potential savings. However. c. and h to 62. It appears that the largest savings will result from systems that are built-to-order and systems that can save material costs with smaller duct sizes. g. ventilation rate procedure found in ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62. 100% outdoor air and multiple-zone systems.1-2007 incorporates 62. For these zones. b.ashrae. . The net result of designing a school ventilation system using 62. The amount of fresh outdoor air being brought into the classroom has clearly been increased over the 2006 IMC rates. The decrease in minimum ventilation rates may result in first cost and installed cost savings due to smaller equipment sizes. smaller duct sizes. ASHRAE has published the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004 can have a positive impact on energy savings.1-2007 go to www.1-2004 rates for singlezone systems.

©2008 McQuay International . For comments or suggestions. or to speak with your local representative. Editor McQuay International 13600 Industrial Park Boulevard Minneapolis.com. call (800) 432-1342. experienced professional service. but they are not a substitute for trained.sackrison@mcquay.com For more information on McQuay products and services. The reader must satisfy him/herself regarding the applicability of any article and seek professional evaluation of all materials. or visit our web page at www. McQuay disclaims any responsibility for actions based on this document. please call or write: Chris Sackrison. Individual applications and site variations can significantly affect the results and effectiveness of any information.The data and suggestions in this document are believed current and accurate at the time of publication. MN 55441 Phone: (763) 553-5419 E-mail: chris.mcquay.

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