NOTE TO EDITORS

:

This f a c t s h e e t o u t l i n e s t h e mission and b a s i c s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l e f o r Voyager. I t i s sugg e s t e d t h a t it be r e t a i n e d i n your f i l e s f o r f u t u r e reference.

For F u r t h e r I n f o r m a t i o n :
Nicholas Panagakos H e a d q u a r t e r s , Washington, D.C. (Phone: 202/755-36 8 0 )

Frank B r i s t o w J e t P r o p u l s i o n L a b o r a t o r y , Pasadena, C a l i f . (Phone: 213/354-5011)

RELEASE NO:

77-114

VOYAGER

The N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and Space A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i l l l a u n c h t w o Voyager s p a c e c r a f t i n l a t e summer 1 9 7 7 f o r a n ext e n s i v e r e c o n n a i s s a n c e of t h e o u t e r p l a n e t s . R i d i n g a t o p a T i t a n C e n t a u r r o c k e t , t h e Voyagers w i l l be l a u n c h e d from Kennedy Space C e n t e r , F l a . , on a d e c a d e l o n g o d y s s e y t h a t c o u l d t a k e them t o a s many a s 1 5 major heavenly bodies. These i n c l u d e g i a n t J u p i t e r and r i n g e d S a t u r n and s e v e r a l moons o f b o t h p l a n e t s , p r o b a b l y Uranus and p o s s i b l y Neptune. The i n f o r m a t i o n r e t u r n e d by t h e s p a c e c r a f t i s e x p e c t e d t o s h e d new l i g h t on t h e o r i g i n and e a r l y h i s t o r y o f t h e s o l a r s y s t e m and o u r own p l a n e t E a r t h . Vovaaer Next S t e r , t o S t u d v O u t e r P l a n e t s
NASA h a s a l r e a d y s e n t s p a c e c r a f t t o Venus, Mercury, J u p i t e r P r o j e c t Voyager i s t h e n e x t s t e p i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Mars. program o f s y s t e m a t i c p l a n e t a r y e x p l o r a t i o n i n which t h e s o l a r system i s used a s a n a t u r a l l a b o r a t o r y .

The o u t e r r e q i o n of t h e s o l a r s y s t e m i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e s o u r c e o f much i m p o r t a n t d a t a a b o u t t h e Sun and i t s p l a n e t s . The i n n e r p l a n e t s -- Mercury, Venus, E a r t h and Mars -- have gone t h r o u g h c o n s i d e r a b l e e v o l u t i o n i n t h e l a s t f o u r t o f i v e Today w e w i t n e s s a t t h e i r s u r f a c e s and i n t h e i r b i l l i o n years. atmospheres t h e end r e s u l t o f long e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s e s . In t h e case o f t h e o u t e r p l a n e t s and t h e i r moons, m a i n l y b e c a u s e of t h e l o w t e m p e r a t u r e t h a t p r e v a i l e d i n t h e p a s t of t h e s o l a r s y s t e m , w e c a n s t i l l f i n d o b j e c t s where e v o l u t i o n h a s b e e n so s l o w t h a t t o d a y c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o t so v e r y d i f f e r e n t from what they w e r e a t t h e t i m e of formation. By e x p l o r i n g t h e o u t e r p l a n e t s , w e c a n go back i n t i m e and s a m p l e t h e c o n d i t i o n s from which t h e Sun and t h e p l a n e t s a r e b e l i e v e d t o have condensed.

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O u t e r P l a n e t s Have Manv S a t e l l i t e s J u p i t e r and S a t u r n are d r a s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e

t e r r e s t r i a l p l a n e t s , a p p e a r i n g t o be composed p r i m a r i l y of
hydrogen and helium. J u p i t e r i s larger t h a n a l l t h e o t h e r p l a n e t s i n t h e s o l a r system combined. J u p i t e r has 1 3 o r 1 4 known s a t e l l i t e s ( t h e r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d 1 4 t h h a s n o t y e t been c o n f i r m e d ) . J u p i t e r o r b i t s t h e Sun more t h a n f i v e t i m e s f a r t h e r away t h a n E a r t h . One J o v i a n y e a r e q u a l s a b o u t 12 Earth years. J u p i t e r ' s day i s a b o u t 1 0 h o u r s long. S a t u r n o r b i t s t h e Sun almost 1 0 t i m e s as f a r away a s A day on E a r t h , c o m p l e t i n g one o r b i t e v e r y 30 E a r t h y e a r s . S a t u r n i s a l s o a b o u t 1 0 h o u r s long. Telescopic observations of S a t u r n ' s r i n g s a r e ' d a z z l i n g . The w i d e s t v i s i b l e r i n g h a s an o u t e r r a d i u s of 1 3 7 , 0 0 0 kilometers ( 8 5 , 0 0 0 m i l e s ) . S a t u r n has more t h a n 1 0 s a t e l l i t e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e l a r g e s t , T i t a n , which h a s an a t m o s p h e r i c d e n s i t y comparable t o t h a t of E a r t h . T r a j e c t o r i e s , Speeds D i f f e r P l a n s c a l l f o r t h e f i r s t launched Voyager t o f l y a s l o w e r t r a j e c t o r y , a l l o w i n g t h e second s p a c e c r a f t launched a b o u t 12 d a y s l a t e r t o o v e r t a k e i t and r e a c h J u p i t e r a b o u t f o u r months e a r l i e r . J u p i t e r ' s g r a v i t y w i l l s l i n g s h o t t h e Voyagers toward t h e r i n g e d p l a n e t S a t u r n , w i t h t h e t w o s p a c e c r a f t r e a c h i n g S a t u r n a b o u t n i n e months a p a r t .

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Photography of J u p i t e r w i l l b e g i n i n December 1 9 7 8 , 8 0 d a y s b e f o r e t h e f i r s t Voyager r e a c h e s t h e p l a n e t . A t that t i m e , images of t h e b r i g h t l y banded p l a n e t w i l l a l r e a d y exceed t h e r e s o l u t i o n of Earth-based photographs. For a b o u t t w o months photography w i l l b e c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e s p a c e c r a f t ' s narrow-angle camera, which has a 1,500mm f o c a l - l e n g t h l e n s . I n l a t e F e b r u a r y , e i g h t d a y s from J u p i t e r , Voyager w i l l b e g i n coverage of t h e e n t i r e p l a n e t w i t h i t s wide-angle camera (200mm f o c a l l e n g t h ) , w h i l e t h e narrow-angle i n s t r u m e n t p r o v i d e s . h i g h - r e s o l u t i o n photography of selected f e a t u r e s of J u p i t e r ' s clouds. A t t h e same t i m e , t h e i n f r a r e d and u l t r a v i o l e t spect r o m e t e r s and t h e photopolarimeter w i l l be o b t a i n i n g d a t a on a t m o s p h e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n , t e m p e r a t u r e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e atmosp h e r e and a e r o s o l s i n t h e c l o u d s .

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P l a n e t s ' Moons t o G e t Close Look
S h o r t l y b e f o r e closest approach t o J u p i t e r on March 5 , 1979 Voyager 1 w i l l f l y a b o u t 415,000 km (258,000 m i . ) from Amalthea, g i v i n g s c i e n t i s t s t h e i r f i r s t close l o o k a t t h e innermost of J u p i t e r ' s satellites. Closest approach t o J u p i t e r w i l l b e 3.9 r a d i i (RJ) from t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e p l a n e t ( a b o u t 280,000 k o r 1 1 0 , 0 0 0 m i . ) . m J u p i t e r w i l l o c c u l t t h e Sun and E a r t h , a s s e e n by i n s t r u m e n t s on t h e s p a c e c r a f t , a l l o w i n g s c i e n t i s t s t o make p r e c i s e measurements o f t h e s t r u c t u r e and composition o f i t s atmosphere.

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A f t e r p a s s i n g J u p i t e r , t h e f i r s t Voyager w i l l examine a l l four of t h e b i g Galilean satellites: Io f r o m 2 2 , 0 0 0 k m ( 1 4 , 0 0 0 m i . ) , Europa from 733,000 krn ( 4 5 5 , 0 0 0 m i . ) and Ganymede and C a l l i s t o from a b o u t 1 2 0 , 0 0 0 k m (74,000 m i . ) . O b s e r v a t i o n s of J u p i t e r w i l l c o n t i n u e f o r a b o u t a month a f t e r c l o s e s t a p p r o a c h , u n t i l e a r l y A p r i l 1979. The s e c o n d Voyager will b e g i n i t s o b s e r v a t o r y p h a s e about t w o weeks l a t e r , a g a i n 80 d a y s b e f o r e c l o s e s t a p p r o a c h . It w i l l o b s e r v e f o u r s a t e l l i t e s d u r i n g t h e inbound l e g : C a l l i s t o from 2 2 0 , 0 0 0 k m (136,000 m i , ) , Ganymede from 5 5 , 0 0 0 km ( 3 4 , 0 0 0 m i . ) , Europa from 2 0 1 , 0 0 0 km ( 1 2 5 , 0 0 0 m i . ) and Amalthea from 5 5 0 , 0 0 0 km (342,000 m i . ) . Encounters Scheduled
Closest approach t o J u p i t e r w i l l occur J u l y 1 0 , 1979. The s p a c e c r a f t , f o l l o w i n g a m o r e d i s t a n t p a t h t h a n i t s p r e d e c e s s o r , w i l l p a s s 643,000 km (399,000 m i . ) from t h e c e n t e r of t h e p l a n e t . The J u p i t e r e n c o u n t e r p e r i o d w i l l c o n t i n u e i n t o August.

The f i r s t S a t u r n e n c o u n t e r w i l l b e g i n i n August 1980 and w i l l c o n t i n u e t h r o u g h December. On t h e inbound l e g , Voyager w i l l pass within 4,000 k m ( 2 , 5 0 0 m i . ) o f t h e s u r f a c e of t h e During t h e e n c o u n t e r it w i l l a150 scan major s a t e l l i t e T i t a n . t h e s a t e l l i t e s T e t h y s , M i m a s , E n c c l a d u s , Dione and Rhea a s w e l l as o b s e r v e c l o s e l y t h e r i n g s o f S a t u r n . C l o s e s t a p p r o a c h t o Saturn 209,300 km ( 1 3 0 , 0 0 0 m i . ) w i l l o c c u r Nov. 1 2 , T i t a n , S a t u r n and t h e r i n g s w i l l o c c u l t t h e Sun and t h e 1980. E a r t h as seen by i n s t r u m e n t s on t h e s p a c e c r a f t ,

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Second S a t u r n e n c o u n t e r w i l l b e g i n i n J u n e 1 9 8 1 . C l o s e s t a p p r o a c h t o S a t u r n w i l l occur Aug. 2 7 , 1981. The s p a c e c r a f t w i l l a l s o o b s e r v e s i x s a t e l l i t e s and S a t u r n ' s r i n g s . Encounter w i l l c o n t i n u e t h r o u g h September 1981. -more-

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The Voyager spacecraft each weigh 810 kilograms (1,785 pounds). The scientific instruments weigh a total of 105 kg (231 lb.) for each spacecraft. The new Voyager spacecraft differ from past planetary Mariner spacecraft, due primarily to the environment into which they will venture and the great distance across which they must communicate with Earth. Since the outer planets receive only a small fraction of the sunlight that strikes Earth and Mars, the Voyagers cannot depend on solar energy but must use nuclear power -- radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Another obvious difference is the large antenna: the antenna on the Voyager spacecraft is 3.7 meters (12 feet) in diameter. Onboard Instruments Listed Each Voyager will use 10 instruments and the spacecraft radio to study the planets, their satellites, the rings of Saturn, the magnetospheres surrounding the planets and interplanetary space. In addition to wide-angle and narrow-angle television cameras, the Voyagers carry cosmic-ray detectors, infrared spectrometers and radiometers, low-energy charged-particle detectors, magnetometers, photopolarimeters, planetary radioastronomy instruments, plasma and plasma wave experiments and ultraviolet spectrometers.
The television cameras are expected to provide scientists with the best pictures of Jupiter and Saturn ever obtained and the first high-resolution close-up images of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, the major satellites of Saturn and Saturn's rings.

Other instruments will probe the atmospheres of the. planets and satellites, their magnetospheres and the interactions between these regions and the solar wind, radio bursts from Jupiter (which emits the strongest radio noise in our sky except the Sun). Other objectives include occultation of Earth and Sun by the planets, Saturn's rings and Titan, allsky surveys of interplanetary space and location and definition of the heliosphere or boundary of the solar wind.

Trajectories C a r e f u l l y Chosen
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-9I o , Europa, Ganymede and C a l l i s t o -- J u p i t e r ' s G a l i l e a n s a t e l l i t e s -- and T i t a n q u a l i f y a s o b j e c t s f o r c l o s e s t u d y i n t h e i r own r i g h t . They r a n g e from l a r q e r t h a n t h e p l a n e t Mercury down t o t h e s i z e of E a r t h ' s ffoon; T i t a n i s t h e o n l y s a t e l l i t e i n t h e s o l a r s y s t e m known t o h a v e a n a p p r e c i a b l e
atmosphere. The Voyager t r a j e c t o r i e s make u s e of t h e f a v o r a b l e o u t e r p l a n e t a l i g n m e n t i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g p r o p o s e d Grand Tour m i s s i o n s t u d i e s t o a c h i e v e f l y b y s of b o t h J u p i t e r and S a t u r n . The m o s t favorable o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a close approach t o J u p i t e r w i t h r e l a t i v e l y short f l i g h t t i m e s t o Saturn (less than four y e a r s ) i s t h e 1 9 7 7 l a u n c h window.
The m i s s i o n a l s o b u i l d s on i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d a b o u t J u p i t e r by t h e P i o n e e r 1 0 and 1 s p a c e c r a f t -- p a r t i c u l a r l y 1 a b o u t J u p i t e r ' s magnetosphere.

Uranus F l y b y O p t i o n a l
NASA o f f i c i a l s have a n o p t i o n t o s e n d t h e s e c o n d Voyager s p a c e c r a f t on t o t h e p l a n e t U r a n u s , w i t h e n c o u n t e r o c c u r r i n g The Uranus o p t i o n w i l l b e e x e r c i s e d o n l y i f i n January 1986. p r i m a r y S a t u r n s c i e n c e o b j e c t i v e s h a v e been m e t by t h e f i r s t s p a c e c r a f t and t h e o p e r a t i n g h e a l t h o f t h e s e c o n d w a r r a n t s such an u n d e r t a k i n g . There i s a l s o a p o s s i b i l i t y because of t h e a l i g n m e n t o f t h e o u t e r p l a n e t s -- t h a t t h e s e c o n d s p a c e c r a f t c o u l d be t a r g e t e d t o c o n t i n u e on t o Neptune a f t e r i t s encounter with Saturn.

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Both s p a c e c r a f t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y e s c a p e from t h e s o l a r system a f t e r t h e y have completed t h e i r e n c o u n t e r s w i t h t h e They w i l l be t r a c k e d by r a d i o f r o m g i a n t sister planets. E a r t h a s l o n g a s p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n s c i e n c e d a t a on t h e h e l i o s p h e r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o s t u d y i n t e r a c t i o n s between s o l a r and cosmic r a d i a t i o n .

Tracking F a c i l i t i e s
A f t e r l a u n c h , t r a c k i n g and d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n w i l l be p e r formed by t h e Deep S p a c e Network w i t h s t a t i o n s i n C a l i f o r n i a , A u s t r a l i a and S p a i n . A t p l a n e t e n c o u n t e r , h i g h r a t e d a t a w i l l b e r e c e i v e d t h r o u g h t h e DSN's 64-rn ( 2 1 0 - f t . ) a n t e n n a s u b n e t . Maximum d a t a r a t e a t J u p i t e r i s 115,000 b i t s p e r s e c o n d ; a t S a t u r n it i s 4 4 , 0 0 0 .

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The Voyager program is managed by NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Project management responsibility has been assigned to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., which is managed for NASA by the California Institute of Technology. JPL designed, developed and built the two spacecraft. Launch vehicle responsibility has been assigned to NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. Prime contractors to Lewis are Martin Marietta Corp., Denver, Colo. (the Titan), and General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, Calif. (the Centaur). Tracking, communications and mission operations are conducted by JPL, which operates the Deep Space Network for NASA's Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition. The spacecraft's radioisotope thermoelectric generators are provided to NASA by the Energy Research and Development Administration. Prime contractor to ERDA is General Electric. Co., Space Division, Philadelphia, Pa. Cost of, the Voyager project, exclusive of launch vehicles and launch operations and tracking and data acquisition, is estimated at $ 3 4 6 million. Launch vehicles for the mission will cost $71.6 million; and tracking and data acquisition, $32.7 million.

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Experiment Imaging Science

Principal Investigator Team Leader, Bradford Smith University of Arizona, Tucson

Instruments and Functions
Two TV cameras with 1,5OOmm, f/8.5 and 200mm, f/2 optics, multiple filters, variable shutter speeds and scan rates. Wide-angle field of view, 5 6 x 55 millirad (about 3 degrees square). On scan platform.

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Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer Rudolf Hanel Goddard Space Flight Center

Spectrometer-radiometer measuring temperatures and molecular gas compositions, with narrow, 1/4degree field of view, producing measurements every 48 seconds; on scan platform. Grating spectrometer measuring ion, atomic, and small-molecular gas abundances; spectral range 4001600 angstroms; on scan platform, Telescope with variable apertures: filters, polarization analyzers and Proof Test Model (PTM) detector; on scan platform. Dual plasma detectors, one aligned toward Earth/Sun and one perpendicular, with detection ranges from 4v to 6kv. Dual rotating solid-state detector sets, covering various ranges from 10 kev to more than 30 Mev/nucleon.
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Ultraviolet Spectrometer

A.

Lyle Broadfoot Kitt Peak National Observatory Charles Lillie University of Colorado Herbert Bridge Massachusetts Institute of Technology
S. M. Krimigis Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory

P I-J

Photopolarimeter

Plasma

Energy Charged Particles

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Experiment
C o s m i c Ray

Principal Investigator
F.

I n s t r u m e n t s and F u n c t i o n s High-energy, low-energy and e l e c t r o n t e l e s c o p e systems u s i n g a r r a y s of solid-state d e t e c t o r s , s e v e r a l r a n g e s from 0 . 1 5 t o 500 Mev/nucleon.
Two low-f i e l d t r i a x i a l f l u x g a t e magnetometers l o c a t e d r o u g h l y 10m ( 3 3 f t . ) from s p a c e c r a f t on boom, two h i g h - f i e l d ( 2 0 g a u s s ) i n s t r u m e n t s mounted o n s p a c e c r a f t .

Vogt C a l i f o r n i a I n s t i t u t e of Technology

Magnetometer

Norman N e s s Goddard Space F l i g h t C e n t e r

P l a n e t a r y Radio Astronomy

J a m e s Warwick U n i v e r s i t y of Colorado

TWO 1 0 - m ( 3 3 - f t . ) whip a n t e n n a s and two-band receiver (20.4-1300 kHz, 2.3-40.5 MHz) , d e t e c t i n g p l a n e t a r y r a d i o e m i s s i o n s and b u r s t s and solar/stellar bursts.
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Plasma

F r e d e r i c k L. S c a r f TRW Systems Group

U s e s 10-m ( 3 3 - f t . ) p l a n e t a r y r a d i o a s t r o n m i y a n t e n n a s w i t h step f r e q u e n c y d e t e c t o r and waveform a n a l y z e r t o measure plasma w a v e s , t h e r m a l plasma d e n s i t y p r o f i l e a t J u p i t e r and S a t u r n , s a t e l l i t e / m a g n e t o s p h e r e i n t e r a c t i o n s , wave/ particle interactions. Eshleman

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Radio S c i e n c e

T e a m L e a d e r , Von R.

Stanford University

Uses s p a c e c r a f t S-band/X-band links during planet, satellite and S a t u r n r i n g o c c u l t a t i o n s t o p e r c e i v e changes i n r e f r a c t i v i t y and a b s o r p t i o n ; c e l e s t i a l m e c h a n i c s i n f o r m a t i o n c a l c u l a t e d from tracking data.

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