20

2010

Taibah University College of Engineering Thermodynamics

Volume and Mass
By: Muhammad Ahmed Al-Subhi Riadth Ateeq Allah Al-Subhi Rami Ahmed Hasan

For:

Dr. Abdulkarim Haddad

Introduction Volume: is how much three-dimensional space a substance (solid. The SI unit for volume is the cubic metre (American spelling meter). or plasma) or shape occupies or contains. the standard unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). liquid. Volume is a function of state and is interdependant with other thermodynamic properties such as pressure and temperature. For example. i. the amount of fluid (gas or liquid) that the container could hold. gas. namely the volume of a cube whose side has the given length. an intensive property. a cubic centimetre (cm3) would be the volume of a cube whose sides are one centimetre (1 cm) in length. The specific volume. e. the volume of a system is an important extensive parameter for describing its thermodynamic state. The metric system also includes the litre (L) as a unit of volume. the cubic metre. The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container. often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit. In thermodynamics. volume is related to the pressure and temperature of an ideal gas by the ideal gas law. In the International System of Units (SI). For example. It is a central concept of classical mechanics and related subjects. is the system's volume per unit of mass. Mass is a property of physical objects that. rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces. Thus 1 . Units of Volume Any unit of length gives a corresponding unit of volume. measures the amount of matter they contain. roughly speaking.Abstract Volume (also called capacity) is a quantification of how much space an object occupies. where one litre is the volume of a 10-centimetre cube.

which may not be known (nor significant) at some stages of analysis. Specific volume Specific volume (ν) is the volume occupied by a unit of mass of a material. where 1 millilitre = 0. For an ideal gas. as an intensive property. In many cases the specific volume is a useful quantity to determine because.001 cubic metres. where. is the specific gas constant. V is the volume. Specific volume may be expressed in . where. The specific volume also allows systems to be studied without reference to an exact operating volume. 2 . it can be used to determine the complete state of a system in conjunction with another independent intensive variable.1 litre = (10 cm)3 = 1000 cubic centimetres = 0. Specific volume may also refer to molar volume. Small amounts of liquid are often measured in millilitres. m is the mass and ρ is the density of the material. . or .001 litres = 1 cubic centimeter. . T is the temperature and P is the pressure of the gas. So 1 cubic metre = 1000 litres. The specific volume of a substance is equal to the reciprocal of its mass density.

Smaller measuring spoons lack a scale and are filled and leveled to maximum capacity. In everyday usage. liquid detergents or bleach. Measuring cups may be made of plastic. or any type of liquid (urine). usually with a measuring cup not also used for food. Its mostly used to measure things such as flour. and often with fluid measure and weight of a selection of dry foodstuffs. its acceleration a is given by F/m. The cup will usually have a scale marked in cups and fractions of a cup. especially for volumes from about 50 mL (2 fl oz) upwards. Mass is often taken to mean weight. The inertial mass of an object determines its acceleration in the presence of an applied force. Mass In physics.Measuring cup A measuring cup is a kitchen utensil used primarily to measure the volume of liquid or bulk solid cooking ingredients such as flour and sugar. water. but in scientific use. though larger sizes are also available (for commercial use). glass. Maximum capacity usually ranges from 0. if a body of fixed mass m is subjected to a force F. 3 .2 to 1 litre. which have been shown experimentally to be equivalent: • Inertial mass. • active gravitational mass and • passive gravitational mass. Measuring cups are also used to measure washing powder. mass (from Ancient Greek: μᾶζα) commonly refers to any of three properties of matter. or metal. they refer to different properties. According to Newton's second law of motion.

If a first body of mass m1 is placed at a distance r from a second body of mass m2. equal to about 9. On the surface of the Earth. equal to 6. relativity adds the fact that all types of energy have an associated mass. 4 . since this energy itself has mass. and this mass is added to systems when energy is added.5 newtons. However. From the viewpoint of any single unaccelerated observer. each body experiences an attractive force F whose magnitude is where G is the universal constant of gravitation. Repeated experiments since the 17th century have demonstrated that inertial and gravitational mass are equivalent.81 m s−2. An object's weight depends on its environment. This is sometimes referred to as gravitational mass (when a distinction is necessary. on the surface of the Moon. M is used to denote the active gravitational mass and m the passive gravitational mass). carries the added or missing mass with it. the energy leaving or entering the system. while its mass does not: an object with a mass of 50 kilograms weighs 491 newtons on the surface of the Earth. this is entailed in the equivalence principle of general relativity. Mass is a conserved quantity. the weight W of an object is related to its mass m by where g is the Earth's gravitational field strength. and special relativity does not change this understanding. Special relativity shows that rest mass and energy are essentially equivalent via the well-known relationship (E = mc2).A body's mass also determines the degree to which it generates or is affected by a gravitational field.67×10−11 kg−1 m3 s−2. the same object still has a mass of 50 kilograms but weighs only 81. and the associated mass is subtracted from systems when the energy leaves. mass can neither be created or destroyed. In such cases.

and products from feathers to loaded tractor-trailers are sold by weight. in that a balance measures mass (or more specifically gravitational mass). Specialized medical scales and bathroom scales are used to measure the body weight of human beings. Conclusion Volume (also called capacity) is a quantification of how much space an object occupies. mass is measured in kilograms (kg). A spring scale measures weight by the distance a spring deflects under its load. where one litre is the volume of a 10-centimetre cube. measures the amount of matter they contain. Balances are different from scales. Weighing scales are used in many industrial and commercial applications. either the tension or compression force of constraint provided by the scale). In the International System of Units (SI). The SI unit for volume is the cubic metre (American spelling meter). roughly speaking. A balance compares the torque on the arm due to the sample weight to the torque on the arm due to a standard reference weight using a horizontal lever. It is a central concept of classical mechanics and related subjects.Units of mass In the International System of Units (SI). In the International System of Units (SI). The gram (g) is 1⁄1000 of a kilogram 5 . The gram (g) is 1⁄1000 of a kilogram Weighing scale Weighing scale a measuring instrument for determining the weight or mass of an object. Mass is a property of physical objects that. the standard unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). whereas a scale measures weight (or more specifically. mass is measured in kilograms (kg). The metric system also includes the litre (L) as a unit of volume.

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