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An Alternative Cooling Arrangement for the End Region of a

Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled (TEFC) Induction Motor.

c. Micallef*, S.J. Pickeringt , K.A. Simmons t , K.J. Bradley#
*Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malta
tSchool of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham
#School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Nottingham

Keywords: End Winding, Cooling, TEFC, Induction motors. the results generated from CFD. The validation was
performed by comparing the CFD predictions of the;

Abstract 1. nature of air flow field in the end region;

2. rate of heat transfer from the end windings to the
An alternative cooling arrangement for the end winding of a frame; and
high voltage, strip wound, totally enclosed fan cooled 3. windage loss
induction motor is proposed. The study is undertaken using with the experimental results.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques and this is
validated up by experiment. The cooling arrangement 3 Literature review
proposed gives a better distribution of heat transfer on the end
windings as well as enhanced heat transfer on the end region Numerous papers have been published dealing with the
frame, thus reducing the overall thermal resistance in the end thermal modelling of electric machines. Each individual
region component of the machine has been, in some way or another,
thermally investigated. However it is recognized that the end
region is the most difficult to predict and understand as the
1 Introduction heat transfer is dominated by the complex air flow pattern.
Due to industry demands for cost reduction and in order to A number of papers have been published on heat transfer in
retain their presence in this highly competitive market, the end region of electric machines. A summary of the results
electric motor manufacturers are developing electric machines relating to heat transfer coefficients on end windings is given
to their limits. The size of the machines is constantly being in Table 1 [1, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11 & 13]. Heat transfer coefficients
reduced and they are have increased loads. These effects are are found to depend upon, the machine speed, rate of
creating a thermal challenge since the power density of ventilation through flow (if present), detail of the end winding
electric machines is constantly increasing and, as a topology and the length and number of any wafter blades.
consequence, electric machines are experiencing higher
temperatures. This affects the performance and life Apart from the heat transfer coefficients on the end windings,
expectancy of the machine. the fluid flow in the end region was also investigated in some
detail. There is a general agreement in the published literature
The maximum temperature permitted in an electric machine is [3, 4, 6, 9 & 12] relating to the nature of fluid flow field in the
determined by the insulation material of the windings. If the end region of TEFC machines; this may be described as
maximum permitted insulation temperature is exceeded, the consisting of two main recirculating flows superimposed on
insulation breaks down or deteriorates more rapidly, giving the main swirling flow. A strong recirculating toroidal vortex
rise to sudden failure or reduced life expectancy. flow is present over the wafters. A weaker recirculating flow
penetrates the end windings near their base, flows upwards
Thermal analysis of electric machines is therefore essential in
behind the end windings and passes over the tips of the end
the design of modem electric machines.
windings to combine with the other main recirculating flow.
This is clearly shown in Figure 1 below. The flow field in
2 Problem Identification through ventilated machines was also investigated [1, 7 & 8].

In large TEFC induction motors, the highest temperature is Other papers investigated the effect of geometric changes on
often reached in the end windings. This paper will therefore the flow field and heat transfer in the end region of electric
investigate fluid flow and heat transfer in the end region of a machines [2, 5, 11 & 13].
high voltage, strip wound induction machine to increase In spite of this published literature, there is still a lack of
understanding and suggest improved cooling arrangements. information for the effective thermal design of the end region
The investigations were done through a series of CFD of a machine and this is largely because the investigations
analyses. Experimental methods were then used to validate were made on particular machines and the results are not

Re.ference Result Remarks
Roberts [10] Overall heat transfer coefficient (h) = 38.8 W/m2K
Zautner et al. [13] Thermal conductance = 40 - 85 W/K Explosion proof squirrel cage induction motor.
Schubert [11] hEndWinding = 15 + 6vO.9 Enclosed machines.
V - peripheral velocity of the rotor vanes.
h&aringCOl!r = 20 + 8.5vo.7
Pickering et al. h Fan End = 326 W/m K (1500 rpm) Through ventilated 4-pole strip wound induction
[8] h Inlet End = 210 W/m K (1500 rpm) motor; frame C280.
h varies with (motor speed)o.75
Hay et al. [1] h Inlet End = --250 W/m K (1500 rpm) Through ventilated low voltage lap-wound
h varies with (motor speed)o.78 electric motor; frame C280. Fan end values
were around half those of inlet end.
Pickering et al. hinletend = --450 W/m K (1500 rpm) Through ventilated low voltage concentric
[7] h Inlet End varies (motor speed) 1.11 wound induction motor; frame C280.
hfan end = --230 W/m2K (1500 rpm)
h Fan End varies (motor speed)o.8
Oslejsek [6] h varies with (motor speed)o.Ho Enclosed machines.

expressed in a sufficiently general form. The heat transfer is extensions and end ring was driven by means of a floating
dominated by the airflow in the end region and although this frame induction motor. The end windings were heated by
is generally understood qualitatively, quantitative assessments means of a DC current. This setup represented a typical
of the effects of changes in design on air flow, particularly if cooling arrangement commonly found in the end region of
novel configurations are considered, are difficult unless CFD TEFC machines.
is used. The use of CFD has now developed to a stage where
it can be used with confidence in the thermal design of
electric machines [2, 9].
In most of the literature reviewed only existing motor
configurations were considered and investigations to develop
improved cooling arrangements were not made. There is
therefore plenty of scope for the investigation of improved
cooling arrangements and these can be done effectively using

Shaft . , ; Figure 2 - Photo showing experimental test rig
The instrumentation recorded local heat fluxes and surface
i temperatures at various locations on the heated end winding
using micro foil heat flux sensors. The locations of these heat
flux sensors are clearly shown in Figure 4. The torque,
rotational speed of the rotor and local air speed at various
locations in the end region were also recorded.

5 CFD Analysis
Figure 1 - Typical flow field in the end region ofTEFC motor The general CFD software FLUENTTM V6 was used to
analyse the flow field as well as the heat transfer in the end
region. The rotating reference frame technique was used to
4 Experimental Facility account for the rotation of the rotor. This includes the
The experimental facility used consisted of a set of end acceleration of the coordinate system within the flow
windings taken from the non-connection end of a 2-pole equations so that the fluid is steady with respect to the
TEFC induction motor enclosed in a Perspex 'frame' as rotating (non-inertial) reference frame, and a steady state
illustrated in Figure 2. A model of the shaft, rotor, rotor bar analysis was performed. Two reference frames were set up,
one containing all rotating parts, i.e. the shaft, end ring,

wafters, etc. and another stationary reference frame conditions in a machine, but the thermal resistances
containing the motor frame, endshield and the end windings. calculated by CFD are not strongly dependent on temperature.

6 Experimental validation of the CFD model

A validation exercise was performed in order to gain
confidence in the CFD modelling. This was done by solving a
CFD model representing the experimental setup of the end
region. The CFD results were then compared with those
acquired experimentally. The velocity profile on a plane
located between the rotor and the end windings and local heat
SfUtft transfer coefficient at various locations on the end windings
were compared. The results are illustrated Figure 5 and Figure
6 respectively.

Reference Plane~

Figure 3 - Schematic illustrating main components and ~ 15 ~-+-----4~------"';"-'--

dimensions of model used for CFD validation. i

~ 10

o ~ ...............
....,.......-:,--_-¥-.........-~_..,......_-....-.,......,.....,..........-,. -.--.-ooy--r-.........-~

~ Experimerial - CFD

Figure 5 - Validation results; comparison of air speed on

reference plane
300 .....-~-'----------"_ .._ - - ' - - " - " - - - - - - _ . _ - - - - - - ' "

~ 250 +F-------------------------;
.. 200 ++-----=F----+---...,....----------------..---;
-! 150

Figure 4 - Locations of heat flux sensors ~


~ 50
Due to the complex geometry involved in the end windings,
an unstructured mesh consisting of tetrahedral cells was
123.567 8 9 10 11 12 13 1. 15 18 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2. 25
constructed. The standard k-e turbulence model was used
Location Reference
together with standard wall functions.
mExperimental mCFD

An initial grid size in the order of 3 nun was generated and

after arriving at an initial solution, adaption techniques based Figure 6 - Validation results; comparison of local heat
on velocity gradient, volume changes and y+ values in cells transfer coefficients on end windings.
with close proximity to the walls, was employed. The y+
values of cells near the wall are chosen so that the boundary 7 Alternative cooling arrangement.
layers near the walls can be correctly represented by wall
functions within the CFD code. The resulting refined grid The end windings may be considered as a resistance to air
was then solved again. This process was repeated until the flow. The base and tips of the end windings both have a low
solution was grid independent. Generally the grid independent resistance to air flow, as they have a relatively large degree of
solution was of the order of 800,000 cells. openness, while the middle part has a very high resistance to
air flow, due to the presence of packing pieces and the
All models employed were run at 1700 rpm. The end binding ring (see Figure 2). Therefore, in order to circulate
windings surfaces were set at a constant temperature of 140°C fluid around the end windings (not necessarily penetrating the
while the frame temperature was set to 20°C. These end windings) the base and tip parts of the end windings can
temperatures were chosen to represent typical boundary be used as part of the air flow path.

Additionally if any rotating blades or wafters are positioned the reduction in the thermal convection resistance at the frame
in the vicinity of both the end winding surfaces and the frame (65% reduction).
surface, the heat transfer will be enhanced on both surfaces,
thus lowering the total resistance to heat flow. In order to
keep windage losses to a minimum, any rotating blades must 300
be kept as close as possible to the shaft (minimum rotating :i-e
radius). i 250
~ 200
A configuration which takes all these points into u
consideration is one having rotating blades attached to the t 150

j li i
shaft near the end shield as shown in Figure 7. The blades ~
I 100 -'
will be in close proximity to the end shield and the tips of the ill I all i
end windings thus enhancing the heat transfer in these areas.
Additionally it is anticipated that the jet of fluid emerging
radially from the blades will travel over the end of the end
] 50

2 3 4 5

6 7
8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Location Reference
windings and then deflect towards the base of the end
~ Typical cooHng mAlternative cooling
windings where it penetrates them to complete the path.
Figure 8 - Chart comparing experimental values of local heat
transfer coefficients on the end winding of conventional
and alternative cooling arrangements

Figure 7 - Photo showing alternative cooling arrangement.

8 Results
The summary of CFD results (Table 2) shows that heat Figure 9 - Air flow field present in alternative cooling
transfer enhancement has been achieved in the alternative arrangement
cooling arrangement. This is attributed to the higher velocities
present in the vicinity of the end windings and frame. The The thermal resistance of the end windings experienced only
total thermal resistance decreased by 33% compared to the a slight decrease; however the distribution of heat transfer
conventional cooling arrangement. This was mainly due to coefficients on the end winding (Figure 8) is better in this

End Winding
Total Thermal Thermal Frame Thermal
Windage Loss Resistance Resistance Resistance End Winding htc Frame htc
Model (W) (K/W) (K/W) (K/W) (W/m2K) (W/m2K)

Conventional end 310 0.559 0.298 0.262 75 28.6


cooling 368 0.376 0.283 0.093 79 108

Table 2 - Summary ofCFD results comparing the two cooling arrangements

alternative cooling arrangement than in the conventional 3 Mugglestone, J., Lampard, D and Pickering S.J., 1998.
arrangement. This is because the heat transfer coefficients are Effects of end winding porosity upon the flow field and
more evenly distributed and the tips of the end windings, ventilation losses in the end region of TEFC induction
which usually suffer from hot spots, are being cooled much machines. lEE Proceedings Electrical Power Applications,
more effectively. The windage loss in the alternative cooling Vol. 145, No.5, September 1998. pp 423-428.
arrangement was slightly higher (19%) than the typical case.
4 Mugglestone, J, Pickering, S.J. and Lampard, D, 1999.
As expected, the secondary recirculating flow was reversed
Prediction of the heat transfer from the end winding of a
by this change. The air now flows downwards behind the end
TEFC strip-wound induction motor. Proc ofIEMDC'99 IEEE
windings as shown in figure 9. Also a high speed jet of air
International Electric Machines and Drives Conference,
moves over the tips of the end windings, increasing the heat
Seattle, USA, May 1999. pp 484-486.
transfer performance in the area, where it is needed most.
These CFD results were all successfully validated 5 Mugglestone, J., Pickering, S.J and Lampard, D, 1999.
experimentally. Effect of geometric changes on the flow and heat transfer in
the end region of a TEFC induction motor. lEE Conference
Publication, No. 468, 1999. pp 40-44.
9 Conclusions
6 Oslejsek, O. 1972. The cooling of the end windings of
The CFD predictions were quite reliable even though the end
small enclosed electric machines. Elektrotech Obzor, Vol. 61,
region experienced a substantial configuration change. This
No. 10. pp 548-556
gives confidence in the use of CFD techniques in the design
office and is an important outcome from this work, since
7 Pickering, S.1., Lampard, D., Hay, N. and Roylance, T.F.,
further development may take place without the need for
1995. Heat transfer from the stator end-windings ofa low
experimentation. It is anticipated that if future motor designs
voltage concentric-wound induction motor., lEE Conference
incorporate CFD analysis techniques, a substantial reduction
Publication, No. 412,1995. pp 477-481.
in development costs will result.
The alternative configuration proposed in this work, 8 Pickering, S.J., Lampard, D, Hay, N. and Roylance T.F,
employing a shaft mounted fan in the vicinity of the end 1998. Heat transfer in a through-ventilated induction motor.
shield, gives a substantial reduction in the thermal resistance lEE Proceedings - Electrical Power Applications, Vol. 145,
of the end region and would be worth using in a real machine. No.5, September, 1998. pp 429-433
It is recommended though that a full thermal analysis of the
...c. d . d . h f£ f 9 Pickering, S.J, Lampard, D., Mugglestone, J., Shanel, M.
motor should be peJlorme In or er to ascertaIn tee ect 0 and Birse, D., 1999. Using CFD In The Design Of Electric
the enhanced end region cooling on the overall thermal Motors And Generators. Computational Fluid Dynamics:
performance of the motor. Technical Developments and Future Trends, 13-14
December, 1999.
10 Roberts, T.J., 1969-70. Determination of the thermal
The financial support of the International Office at the constants of the heat flow equations of electrical machines.
University of Nottingham and the Office of Human Resources Proceedings IMechE, Vol 184, Part 3E, 1969-70. pp84-92
at the University of Malta through their respective scholarship
awards programmes is gratefully acknowledged. 11 Schubert, E., 1968. Heat Transfer Coefficients at End
Windings and Bearing Covers of Enclosed Asynchronous
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