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, white sand, cheap wizened - old-looking dysentery - amoebic illness; severe diarrhea, fever symmetry - perfect balance lushly - opulent, luxurious sumptuous - opulent, luxurious charisma - exceptional charm empathy - sympathy haggard - tired luminosity - glowing with inner light discreet - not revealing everything feckless - ineffective existential - each person gives their own life its meaning sublime - highest possible pursuit rapturous - tripping beatifically - like a saint 1. Ansel Adams 2. view camera on tripod 3. map of Western states with principal mountain ranges (Sierra Navada Range, Tetons, Rocky Mtns) identified on the map. (The pop-up requirement was one intended as an inclass activity). - Yosemite national park - identify states, ranges, major cities 4. at least 3 sources (at bottom of page), informal citation: ex., National Geographic.com, Wikipedia.org, The Portfolios of Ansel Adams, NY Graphic Society, 1981. discussion vocab - mausoleum / ossified - vibrant - Lewis Norton, Jr, visionary - Americana - Frederick Remington, Charles Russell: kinetic sculpture History of Photography -Nicephore Niepce, French - Louis Daguerre, French: Daguerreotype (Matthew Brady), metal plate - Wm Henry Fox Talbot, British: callotypes - precursor - camera obscura ("room," "dark") - pinhole camera
WC: the impact of the long-lived British Empire. In the early 1920's, Richard W. Norton (1886-1940) became one of the discoverers of the Rodessa Oil Field in north Louisiana, says the foundation web site, Rwnaf.org. Over time, Mr. Norton's wife and son began to amass a significant collection of fine art. In 1946, to honor Mr. Norton and for the benefit of the community, Richard W. Norton, Jr. (1919-1974) and his mother, Mrs. Richard W. Norton (1886-1975) created the R.W. Norton Art Foundation.
AArts reviews guidelines
1. Vivid opening. Describe an image you thought was one of the best elements of the show. Write with color and vibe. 2. The overall impact or significance of the display or performance. Ex: "The Graffiti show at Artspace attempts to broaden visitors' sense of the definition of fine arts." 3. Principal elements of the event or display. Use detail from your notes. Mention titles. Describe pieces. 4. Your evaluation: what you think was effective or appealing. - Also, what you thought was difficult to understand or to like. - Technical successes or problems. - Philosophical approval or disagreements. 5. Names of people and / or groups responsible for the production. 6. Location, date(s). Ticket price. 7. Online source for more info. 8. Titling: snappy title, explanatory subtitle. 9. Third person voice at all times. ‘Rembrandt’ or ‘chiaroscuro’ lighting accentuates the focal point of the composition by bathing it in light and surrounding the focal point by darker recesses, says David Bennett. The Italian word ‘chiaroscuro’ means light and dark, and the alternative name of ‘Rembrandt’ lighting comes from the fact that he created that lighting effect in a lot of his
paintings and may be the finest artist to have used the technique. The contrast between light and dark areas also accentuates the three-dimensional appearance of the subject. This is traditional, timeless, lighting, says Belle Gerard. Your main light is about 45 degrees to the right of center - and slightly above your subject. Kitsch (German) is a form of art that is considered an inferior, tasteless copy of an extant style of art or a worthless imitation of art of recognised value, says Wikipedia. Example: the statue of Marilyn Monroe, skirt in the air, in the hallway at RW Norton. The concept is associated with the deliberate use of elements that may be thought of as cultural icons while making cheap mass-produced objects that are unoriginal. Kitsch also refers to the types of art that are aesthetically deficient (whether or not being sentimental, glamorous, theatrical, or creative) and that make creative gestures which merely imitate the superficial appearances of art through repeated conventions and formulae. Excessive sentimentality often is associated with the term. A handful of rules to explore: a) Rule of thirds. b) Get close. c) Turn off the flash. Steady the camera. Use soft, natural light. d) Shoot at or around sunset. e) Use high or low POV. African Americans are the best known of the participants in creating a hot music at the turn of the century. The birth of jazz seems mostly to have happened first in the port city of New Orleans. But Af-Ams were joined in the creative act by Creole men. Defining Creole: 1. Europeans born the new world: French or Spanish. 2. All peoples of the colonial era who were born in the new world (Europe being the old world): Africans, indigenous peoples, Europeans. And there was quite a bit of mixing between those groups. Jazz musicians with the highest status in this American art form -
- Jellyroll Morton - Joe King Oliver - Louis Armstrong - Fletcher Henderson - Charlie Parker - Edward Duke Ellington - William Count Basie - Benny Goodman - Glenn Miller - Lionel Hampton - Charlie Christian - Charlie Bird Parker - Dizzy Gillespie - Thelonius Monk - Miles Davis - John Coltrane - Charles Mingus - Billie Holiday - Ella Fitzgerald - Nat King Cole - Herbie Hancock - Wynton Marsalis - George Gershwin, classical / jazz - Leonard Bernstein, classical / jazz From its beginnings in the early 20th century jazz has spawned a variety of subgenres: - New Orleans Dixieland dating from the early 1910s, - big band-style swing from the 1930s and 1940s, - bebop from the mid-1940s, - Latin jazz fusions such as Afro-Cuban and Brazilian jazz, - free jazz from the 1950s and 1960s, - jazz fusion from the 1970s, - acid jazz from the 1980s (which added funk and hip-hop influences), and - Smooth and nujazz in the 1990s. While jazz may be difficult to define, improvisation is clearly one of its key elements. a) side-lighted portraiture b) S curve composition c) sunset lighting d) water reflection composition e) geometry in nature f) kinetic energy 1. African-Americans left to escape the discrimination and racial segregation of late 19th
century constitutions and Jim Crow laws. 2. The boll weevil infestation of Southern cotton fields in the late 1910s forced many sharecroppers and laborers to search for alternative employment opportunities. 3. The enormous expansion of war industries created job openings for blacks—not in the factories but in service jobs vacated by new factory workers. 4. World War I and the Immigration Act of 1924 effectively put a halt to the flow of European immigrants to the emerging industrial centers of the Northeast and Midwest, causing shortages of workers in the factories. vocab exodus - mass exit diaspora - ethnic mass migration Fine arts / photography 1. According to RWNAF.org's Ansel Adams bio, the famous photographer would probably agree with the title "landscape photographer." T / F 2. Adams was a tireless worker for the cause of a) Democratic issues b) health foods c) impoverished people d) conservation. 3. The view camera used by photographers like Adams was unusual from today's cameras in a) size of the film area b) possible length of exposure c) resemblance to the camera obscura d) the image produced. 4. One of these is not a mountain range: a) Tetons b) Sierra Nevada c) Yosemite d) Rockies. 5. Chiaroscuro: a) painter's rich coloration b) deep light and dark areas in an image c) dramatic portraiture d) side lighted image. 6. Developed an early form of photo on paper that he termed the Callotype. a) Louis Daguerre b) William Henry Fox Talbot c) Nicephore Niepce d) Auguste Lumiere. 7. Earliest of French pioneers in photography. a) Louis Daguerre b) William Henry Fox Talbot c) Nicephore Niepce d) Auguste Lumiere. 8. British pioneer in photography. a) Louis Daguerre b) William Henry Fox Talbot c) Nicephore Niepce d) Auguste Lumiere. 9. US Civil war photographer Matthew Brady used the type of metal-plate photo developed by this French inventor. a) Louis Daguerre b) William Henry Fox Talbot c) Nicephore Niepce d) Auguste Lumiere. 10. Camera obscura: the word "obscura" refers to a) darkened b) pin hole aperture c) using natural light d) historic item. 11. Vibrant visionaries created a new mausoleum for the ossified of the city. T / F 12. The Norton family's wealth was built upon success in a) banking b) natural gas c) petroleum d) railroads. 13. Norton is perhaps best known for its Remingtons and Russells. They are about a) wild west b) landscapes c) birds of America d) photo
realism. 14. To measure or judge a work: a) delineate b) describe c) evaluate d) capture in detail. 15. Rembrandt lighting begins with side lighting but locates the light source ahead of and slightly __ the subject. a) above b) below c) behind d) aside. 16. Xanadu: a) hideaway b) cozy cave c) city in the sky d) palace. 17. Art-like pieces of work that present a pop image: a) art nouveau b) bauhaus c) schlock d) kitsch. 1. No. 2. conservation 3. size of the film area 4. Yosemite 5. deep light and dark 6. Fox Talbot 7. Niepce 8. Fox Talbot 9. Daguerre 10. darkened 11. T 12. petroleum 13. wild west 14. evaluate 15. above 16. palace 17. kitsch John William Coltrane (sometimes abbreviated "Trane"; September 23, 1926 – July 17, 1967) was an American jazz saxophonist and composer, says Wikipedia. Working in the bebop and hard bop idioms early in his career, Coltrane helped pioneer the use of modes in jazz and later was at the forefront of free jazz. He was prolific, organizing at least fifty recording sessions as a leader during his recording career, and appeared as a sideman on many other albums, notably with trumpeter Miles Davis and pianist Thelonious Monk. general vocab ergonomics incendiary cerebral visceral Storyville, the fabled New Orleans red light district, is often mentioned a s a birthplace of jazz.
Storyville was the red-light district of New Orleans, Louisiana, from 1897 through 1917, says Wikipedia. In music, syncopation includes a variety of rhythms which are in some way unexpected in that they deviate from the strict succession of regularly spaced strong and weak beats in a meter (pulse). More simply, syncopation is a general term for a disturbance or interruption of the regular flow of rhythm; a placement of rhythmic stresses or accents where they wouldn't normally occur. Jazz quiz 1. First city of jazz: __ __. 2. Second city of Jazz (and of the US in general): __ . 3. Third city to which the fathers of jazz - such as Joe Oliver, Louis Armstrong and Jellyroll Morton - relocated: __ __ . 4. Movement of impoverished black Americans from the farms of the Deep South to urban centers of Upper Midwest and Northeast: a) diplomacy b) dispora c) displacement d) dislocation . 5. Approximate date for the birth of jazz: a) 1800 b) 1850's c) 1900 d) 1920's. 6. Name given to the place in New Orleans where slaves gathered on Sundays: a) river levees b) Ashanti circle c) Place Congo d) Vieux Carre. 7. Louisiana term for people of mixed ethnic background, esp. a mixture of French, Spanish, native American and Afro-Caribbean: __ . 8. Gens de couleur libre was a special ethnic category in NO. It indicated a person who was African-American, yet not a slave. T / F 9. Another name for the historic French Quarter is Vieux Carre; it means: a) Spanish Quarter b) Old Quarter c) French District d) Slave Quarters . 10. A radical change in his instrument's shape was the signature of bebop jazz artist Dizzy Gilespie. His instrumentwas the ____ . 11. Gillespie, Ella Fitzgerald and other jazzers offered vocal improvisation with random vocables and syllables or without words at all. This is called __ singing. 12. World War I and the Immigration Act of 1924 halted the flow of European immigrants to the emerging industrial centers of the Northeast and Midwest, causing shortages of workers in the factories and openings for immigrating African-Americans. T / F 13. Chronological order of the development of jazz: a) Dixieland, big band-style swing, bebop, Latin jazz, free jazz b) big band-style swing, Dixieland, bebop, Latin jazz, free jazz c) bebop, Dixieland, big band-style swing, Latin jazz, free jazz 14. In jazz the skilled performer will interpret a tune in very individual ways, never playing the same composition exactly the same way twice. Thus while jazz may be difficult to define, ______ is
clearly one of its key elements. a) swing b) improvisation c) syncopation d) concentration. 1. New Orleans 2. Chicago 3. NYC (Harlem is not a city; it is a neighborhood in NYC) 4. diaspora 5. 1900 6. Place Congo, or Congo Square 7. Creole 8. T 9. Old Quarter 10. trumpet 11.scat 12. T 13. Dixieland, swing, bebop, etc 14. improvisation Bas relief sculpture: the art of monuments, tombs and coins A relief is a sculptured artwork where a modelled form is raised, or in sunken-relief lowered, from a plane from which the main elements of the composition project (or sink), says Wikipedia. Reliefs are common throughout the world, for example on the walls of monumental buildings. The frieze in the classical Corinthian order is often enriched with bas-relief (low relief). Alto-relievo (high-relief) may be seen in the pediments of classical temples, e.g., the Parthenon. A bas-relief ("low relief", French pronunciation: [baʁəljɛf], from the Italian basso rilievo) or low relief is the quality of an projecting image where the overall depth is shallow. The background is very compressed or completely flat, as on most coins, on which all images are in low-relief. The Eye of Horus (Wedjat) (previously Wadjet and the Eye of the Moon; and afterwards as The Eye of Ra) is an ancient Egyptian symbol of protection and royal power from deities, in this case from Horus or Ra, says Wikipedia.
Art-based reviews of Egyptian history 1. Old Kingdom 2. Heliopolis 3. Memphis 4. Sphinx 5. Pyramids of Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure
6. Queens' Pyramids 7. alabaster 8. Middle Kingdom 9. Thebes / Luxor 10. New Kingdom 11. Temple of Karnak 12. Hatshepsut 13. obelisks 14. pylons 15. Akhenaten 16. Valley of Kings 17. Tutankhamun 18. Ramses II 19. Abu Simbel 20. Alexander of Macedonia, 300 BC 21. Romans 30 BC 22. Scribes / literature 23. Kush 24. Alexandria 25. Rosetta stone 26. faience 27. jewelry 28. sandals 29. clothing 30. music & dance 31. cosmetics 32. glass 33. papyrus 34. gold 35. Tut's tomb 36. Horus and the Eye of Horus A maquette (French word for scale model, sometimes referred to by the Italian names plastico or modello) is a small scale model or rough draft of an unfinished architectural work or a sculpture. An equivalent term is bozzetto, from the Italian word that means "sketch". It is used to visualize and test shapes and ideas without incurring the cost and effort of producing a full scale product. It is the analogue of the painter's cartoon, modello, oil sketch or drawn sketch. Most important sites from the ancient map of Graecia Athens Sparta Peloponnesus peninsula
Olympia temple complex Thebes Delphi Mt Olympus Mycenae Crete Aegean Sea Macedonia Ilium Troy Lesbos Ephesus Greek excellence in architecture has touched the world in the almost 3 centuries following their 450 BCE Golden Era. Pericles was sort of their George Washington. Pericles led the Athenians in military success, in trading at sea and directed the building of the Parthenon. The temple of Athena Parthenos (parthenogenesis, "virgin birth") is the largest of numerous temples atop the mesa called the Acropolis (acro, "high," see acrophobia, "fear of heights"). It is one of the few great cities named for a goddess. The Doric columns (Ionic and Corinthian columns are more elaborate) are topped by a decorative band called a frieze. Above the frieze is the pediment, which represents the footing of the roof. Inside was a 40-foot ivory and gold statue of Athena. The relief sculptures in the pediment brought to life the struggle of Athena and Poseidon. Those marble sculptures now reside in the British Museum, London (and are referred to as the Elgin Marbles). The Greeks are asking that the work be repatriated - brought back to its fatherland. So far the English government has demurred. Sparta, the great military state, was recognized as the overall leader of the combined Greek forces during the Greco-Persian Wars., says Wikipedia. Between 431 and 404 BC, Sparta was the principal enemy of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, from which it emerged victorious, though at great cost. Sparta maintained its political independence until 146 BC, when the Romans conquered Greece. Sparta was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution, which completely focused on military training and excellence.
Ethnocentrism is the tendency to believe that one's ethnic or cultural group is centrally important, and that all other groups are measured in relation to one's own. People of the following nations are known for their ethnocentrism: Americans French Italians Russians Chinese One form of ethnocentrism is nationalism. A certain amount of nationalism is considered healthy. Radical nationalism may be barbarous. When Americans judge the swastika to be a symbol of evil Nazi corruption, are they being ethnocentric? No. They're simply showing their lack of education. Ancient Greece 1. Crete 2. Mycenae 3. Sparta 4. Olympia 5. Olympic games 6. Archaic period 7. Classic period 8. Athens 9. Pericles 10. Homer 11. Sappho 12. symposium 13. Academy & Lyceum 14. Socrates 15. Plato 16. Aristotle 17. Sophists 18. Epicureans 19. Stoics 20. Greek drama 21. Greek amphitheater & stage 22. Herodotus 23. Aristophanes 24. Sophocles 25. Aristophanes 26. tragedy & comedy 27. Aesclepius 28. Alexander the Great 29. Hellenistic era 30. Roman empire / Greece 31. Greek Orthodox Church
32. Byzantine Empire 33. Greek cuisine The olive is one of the plants most often cited in literature. In Homer's Odyssey, Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock, and in the Iliad, (XVII.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains, by a spring; the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea, which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry, along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures, called xoana, referring to their wooden material; they were reverently preserved for centuries. It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. In an archaic Athenian foundation myth, Athena won the patronship of Attica from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. - hummus dip - tzatziki dip - dolmas (dolmades) - mint tea - pita bread - olives - olive oil - feta cheese - Greek salat (onions, lettuce, olives, etc) - baba ghanoush dip - moussaka (sim to lasagna) - patitsio (sim to lasagna) - baklava - souvlaki (shish kebab) - spanikopita (spinach pie) - panini - yogurt (natural flavor) with honey - herbed, buttered boiled potato bites - koulourakia - butter cookies w almonds - espresso The Minoans were primarily a mercantile people engaged in overseas trade. Their culture, from 1700 BC onward, shows a high degree of organization, says Wikipedia. Objects of Minoan manufacture suggest there was a network of trade with mainland Greece (notably Mycenae), Cyprus, Syria, Anatolia, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and westward as far as the coast of Spain.
Minoan men wore loincloths and kilts. Women wore robes that had short sleeves and layered flounced skirts. These were open to the navel allowing their breasts to be left exposed, perhaps during ceremonial occasions. Women also had the option of wearing a strapless fitted bodice, the first fitted garments known in history. The patterns on clothes emphasized symmetrical geometric designs. It must be remembered that other forms of dress may have been worn of which we have no record. The Minoan religion focused on female deities, with females officiating. The statues of priestesses in Minoan culture and frescoes showing men and women participating in the same sports such as bull-leaping, lead some archaeologists to believe that men and women held equal social status. Jump to: navigation, search The Bull-Leaping Fresco from the Great Palace at Knossos, Crete The bull-leaper, an ivory figurine from the palace of Knossos, Crete. The only complete surviving figure of a larger arrangement of figures. This is the earliest three dimensional representation of the bull leap. It is assumed that thin gold wires were used to suspend the figure over a bull. Bull-leaping is a motif of Middle Bronze Age figurative art, notably of Minoan Crete, but also found in Hittite Anatolia, the Levant, Bactria and the Indus Valley. It is often interpreted as a depiction of a ritual performed in connection with bull worship. This ritual consists of an acrobatic leap over a bull; when the leaper grasps the bull's horns, the bull will violently jerk his head upwards giving the leaper the momentum necessary to perform somersaults and other acrobatic tricks or stunts. Bull leaping may have been a rite of passage for young men in Minoan culture. The Pantheon (from Greek, meaning "to every god") is a building in Rome, commissioned by Marcus Agrippa as a temple to all the gods of Ancient Rome, and rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian in about 126 AD. The building is circular with a portico of three ranks of huge granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment opening into the rotunda, notes Wikipedia, under a coffered, concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest non-reinforced concrete dome. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43.3 metres (142 ft). A rectangular structure links the portico with the rotunda. It is one of the best preserved of all Roman buildings. It has been in continuous use throughout its history, and since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a Roman Catholic church informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda."
The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a republican form of government. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, says Wikipedia, c. 509 BC, and lasted 482 years until its subversion, through a series of civil wars, into the Principate form of government and the Imperial period. The Roman Republic was governed by a complex constitution, which centered on the principles of a separation of powers and checks and balances. The evolution of the constitution was heavily influenced by the struggle between the aristocracy (the patricians), and other Romans who were not from famous families, the plebeians. Early in its history, the republic was controlled by an aristocracy of individuals who could trace their ancestry back to the early history of the kingdom. Over time, the laws that allowed these individuals to dominate the government were repealed, and the result was the emergence of a new aristocracy which depended on the structure of society, rather than the law, to maintain its dominance. During the first two centuries, the Republic saw its territory expand from central Italy to the entire Mediterranean world. In the next century, Rome grew to dominate North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, Greece, and what is now southern France. During the last two centuries of the Roman Republic, it grew to dominate the rest of modern France, as well as much of the east. At this point, the republican political machinery was replaced with imperialism. The precise event which signalled the end of the Roman Republic and the transition into the Roman Empire is a matter of interpretation. Towards the end of the period a selection of Roman leaders came to so dominate the political arena that they exceeded the limitations of the Republic as a matter of course. Historians have variously proposed the appointment of Julius Caesar as perpetual dictator in 44 BC, the defeat of Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, and the Roman Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian (Augustus) under the first settlement in 27 BC, as candidates for the defining pivotal event ending the Republic. Upon which nations did the Romans bestow their artistic models? Consider their artistic products - Temples / to Jupiter, to Bacchus, etc - Basilicas - center of courts, law - Forum - center for discussion of issues of the day - Roads and bridges - carrying goods and artistic design - Amphitheaters (from the Greek model) / the Colosseum - Public baths - City planning - grid - Stadiums (from the Greek) - Aqueducts
- Mosaics - Murals / frescoes - Roman arch - Roman tiles - Toga - Fountains - Sculpture In vino veritas is a Latin phrase that translates, “in wine [there is the] truth", says Wikipedia. The Roman Empire ingested and dispersed the art of the Mediterranean peoples. Commit this map to thy study! Venezia Adriatic Sea Florence (region of Tuscany), aka Firenze Roma - Pantheon - Forum - Baths of Trajan - Basilica - Temple(s) - Thermae Napoli / Bay of Naples - Isle of Capri - Vesuvius - Pompeii - Herculaneum Sicily Tunisia / continent of Africa Mediterranean Greece Peloponnesus peninsula Crete Aegean Sea Asia Minor / Turkey Istanbul / Constantinople / Byzantium Black Sea Diaspora - dispersal / emigration of large group, such as - Jewish diaspora from Palestine to Europe was partly propelled by Roman occupation. - Atlantic slave trade - Native American "Trail of tears" forced diaspora
- Movement of Black Americans from Deep South to Midwest and NE states in early 20th century Cabaret A reviewer wrote, "On a historical level, a personal-story level, and as pure entertainment "Cabaret" works perfectly. The scene is Berlin, Germany, only two years before Hitler would come to total power. It is the Berlin that Christopher Isherwood lived in and wrote about: poverty, drug and alcohol escapism, criminals, sleazebags, fighting in the streets, venereal disease, the prostitution of both sexes, the desperation to escape through the film industry, the temporary escape from the harshness of life in "naughty" nightclubs like The Kit Kat Club, which encapsulates it all. It's a bad scene, and a good example of, perhaps, why so many Germans felt in need of a Hitler. There's not a single verbal reference to Hitler, and yet the presence of the growing Nazi movement all around these decadent misfits is ever present in this film. But you can't blame any of these apolitical people for that. Liza Minelli and Michael York's characters are so needy, so desperate just to find some personal happiness in life. They can't be bothered with what's going on in the bigger picture. Except for the Master Of Ceremonies at the Club: Joel Grey's character is a semi-supernatural all-seeing character, mocking, seeming to somehow know EXACTLY the further destruction Germany's headed for. His scary all-knowing grinning face pops in regularly to remind us." When Louis XIV was crowned his interest in dancing was strongly supported and encouraged by Italian-born Cardinal Mazarin, (formerly Mazarini), who assiste Louis XIV. The young king made his ballet debut as a boy, but it was in 1653 as a teenager that he accomplished his most memorable feat as a dancer. He performed a series of dances in Le Ballet de la Nuit and for his final piece he appeared as Apollo, god of the sun. Wearing a fancy golden Roman-cut corselet and a kilt of golden rays he came to be known as the Sun King, says the-ballet.com. Cardinal Mazarin promoted Italian influences in the French spectacle. The ballet master he imported from Italy was Giovanni Baptista Lulli, who was rechristened Jean Baptiste Lully for work in France. Lully became one of the king's favorite dancers and rivaled the king as the best dancer in France. In 1661 Louis established the Académie Royale de Danse in a room of the Louvre, the world's first ballet school. Also in 1661 he attended a party put on by the finance minister to show off his new home in the country. The entertainment was Molière's ballet Les Fâcheaux which pleased the king to no end, although he thought that the finance minister was a treasonous servant. As it turned out, the finance minister was arrested, and the ballet master, the home's architect, and the gardener were hired by the king. The Sun King generously financed the royal court, notes Wikipedia, and supported those who worked under him.
He brought the Académie Française under his patronage, and became its "Protector". He allowed Classical French literature to flourish by protecting such writers as Molière, Racine and La Fontaine, whose works remain greatly influential to this day. Louis also patronised the visual arts by funding and commissioning various artists, such as Charles Le Brun, Pierre Mignard, Antoine Coysevox and Hyacinthe Rigaud whose works became famous throughout Europe. In music, composers and musicians, Lully, Chambonnières and François Couperin thrived and influenced many others. Through four main building campaigns, Louis converted a hunting lodge built by Louis XIII into the spectacular Palace of Versailles. Louis officially moved the royal court to Versailles on 6 May 1682. Alvin Ailey, American modern dancer and choreographer, was born in Rogers, Texas in 1931 and moved to Los Angeles, California at the age of twelve. There, on a junior high school class trip to the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, he fell in love with concert dance. Inspired by performances of the Katherine Dunham Dance Company and classes with Lester Horton, Mr Ailey began his formal dance training. It was with Mr. Horton, the founder of the first racially integrated dance company in this country, that Mr. Ailey embarked on his professional dance career. After Horton's death in 1953, Mr. Ailey became the director of the Lester Horton Dance Theater and began to choreograph his own works. In 1954, he and his friend Carmen de Lavallade were invited to New York to dance in the Broadway show, House of Flowers, by Truman Capote. In New York, Mr. Ailey studied with many outstanding dance artists, including Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey and Charles Weidman and took acting classes with Stella Adler. The versatile Ailey won a number of acting roles, continued to choreograph and performed as a dancer. In 1958, Mr. Ailey founded his own company, the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater. Dance terms in ballet and modern are mostly derived from French, owing to the influence of Louis XIV. Arabesque [a-ra-BESK] One of the basic poses in ballet, arabesque takes its name from a form of Moorish ornament. In ballet it is a position of the body, in profile, supported on one leg, which can be straight or demi-plié, with the other leg extended behind and at right angles to it, and the arms held in various harmonious positions creating the longest possible line from the fingertips to the toes. Derrière [deh-RYEHR] Behind, back. This term may refer to a movement, step or placing of a limb in back of the body. In reference to a particular step, the addition of derrière implies that the working foot is closed at the back.
Jeté, grand [grahn zhuh-TAV] Large jeté. In this step the legs are thrown to 90 degrees with a corresponding high jump. It is done forward to attitude croisée or effacée, and to all the arabesques. It may also be done backward with the leg raised either croisé or effacé devant. Grand jeté is always preceded by a preliminary movement such as a glissade. Pirouette [peer-WET] Whirl or spin. A complete turn of the body on one foot, on point or demi-pointe. Plié [plee-AY] Bent, bending. A bending of the knee or knees. Sauté, sautée [soh-TAY] Jumped, jumping. Dictators and Monarchs in the Arts / Fine Arts review / Trudeau Please write the Word of the answer. 1. European city, location of the notably naughty Kit Kat Club. ____ 2. Approximate era of the story of Cabaret: a) 1890's b) 1930's c) 1940's d) 1960's. 3. Cabaret takes place in the realm of "big-city poverty, drug and alcohol escapism, criminals, sleazebags, fighting in the streets, venereal disease, the prostitution of both sexes" and so on. The French phrase for this non-bourgeois territory translates literally as "half the world." It is the __ __. 4. "Bourgeois" refers to the values and social place of the a) upper working class b) upper middle class c) wealthy class. 5. A cabaret is, more or less, a ____. 6. When a person is declining into a state of degeneracy or into the state of losing their morals we say they are d___ . 7. In 1930's Germany a party called the Nationalist Socialist German Worker's Party developed in the region around Munich. It was popularly known as the __ party. 8. Art approved by the government during the Third Reich: a) modern, abstract, stimulating b) traditional, realistic, inspirational c) both the above. 9. Attitude toward art by the Third Reich: a) very important b) to be avoided c) neutral. 10. The residence of Louis XIV and the preceding French kings in Paris: the Palais du __. 11. The violent rebellion of the impoverished class in la France, the French Revolution: a) 1689 b) 1718 c) 1776 d) 1789. 12. Southern European nation from which England, Germany and France derive much of their influence in cuisine, entertainment, government and art: __ . 13. Vaux le Vicomte: a splendid example of a 17 thcentury French __ .
14. Noblemen won favor with the king in court life at Versailles by increasing their skill at __ . 15. As a teen, Louis XIV performed as a gilded Apollo in a famous opera. He thereby acquired the nickname _ __ __, or,in English, _ _ __ . 16. The Greek words khorea,"to dance" and graphein, "to write," are synthesized in the modern word __ . 17. The river that connects Paris with the North Sea - and the Atlantic: a) Seine b) Rhine c) Danube. 18.France is bordered by Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Luxembourg and a) Belgium b) Netherlands c) Denmark. 19. Name the ancient Chinese-HIndu symbol for Good fortune that was used by a short-lived European military regime in the late 20th century: the __ . 20.The German word for Germany: __land. 21. This dancer was born in rural Texas and schooled in Los Angeles. His creativity, however, flowered in NYC. He was __ __ . Isadora Duncan (May 26, 1877 - September 14, 1927) was a dancer, considered by many to be the creator of modern dance. Born in the United States, she lived in Europe and the Soviet Union from the age of 22 until her death at age 50. In the United States she was popular only in New York, and then only later in her life. She performed to acclaim throughout Europe, claims Wikipedia. In her dance school in Paris she rejected traditional ballet steps to stress improvisation, emotion and the human form. Duncan believed that classical ballet, with its strict rules of posture and formation, was "ugly and against nature"; she gained a wide following. Vaslav (or Vatslav) Nijinsky ( 1890 - 1950) was a Russian ballet dancer and choreographer of Polish descent. He grew to be celebrated for his virtuosity and for the depth and intensity of his characterizations, says Wikipedia. He could perform en pointe, a rare skill among male dancers at the time (Albright, 2004) and his ability to perform seemingly gravity-defying leaps was also legendary. A turning point for Nijinsky was his meeting Sergei Diaghilev, a celebrated and highly innovative producer of ballet and opera as well as art exhibitions, who concentrated on promoting Russian visual and musical art abroad, particularly in Paris. A truffle (pronounced /ˈtrʌfəl/) is a fungi fruiting body that develops underground and are usually found in close association with trees. Pâté is a mixture of ground meat and fat minced into a spreadable paste. Common additions include vegetables, herbs, spices, and wine.
Probably Picasso's most famous work, Guernica is certainly the his most powerful political statement, painted as an immediate reaction to the Nazi's devastating casual bombing practice on the Basque town of Guernica during Spanish Civil War. Guernica shows the tragedies of war and the suffering it inflicts upon individuals, particularly innocent civilians, says pablopicasso.org. Probably Picasso's most famous work, Guernica is certainly the his most powerful political statement, painted as an immediate reaction to the Nazi's devastating casual bombing practice on the Basque town of Guernica during Spanish Civil War. Guernica shows the tragedies of war and the suffering it inflicts upon individuals, particularly innocent civilians, says pablopicasso.org. A review of the PIcasso bio 1. Like Lennon & McCartney, Pablo Picasso was competitive with his peers. He both worked with and in an effort to top fellows like: a) Jackson Pollock b) Henri Matise c) Chuck Close d) Richard Serra. 2. Picasso would have served you a supper of a) tortellini b) sauerkraut c) mughal curry d) paella. 3. The Spanish peninsula was occupied by the Romans and, later, by the North African Moors. The peninsula is called a) Apulia b) Iberia c) Anatolia d) Barcelona. 4. Seville, Cordova, Granada: these are the Moorish cities of Spain's southern region. It is known as a) Andalusia b) Navarre c) Valencia d) Aragon. 5. The region of Paris historically notable for pimps, eccentrics, anarchists, students and artists: a) Bastille b) le Louvre c) Montmartre d) Champs Elysees. 6. In stage production the Harlequin is the hungry, lecherous and acrobatic a) buffoon b) protagonist c) antagonist d) heroine. 7. Which order of production is correct? a) opium>morphine>heroin b) heroin>opium>morphine c) morphine>opium>heroin. 8. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon were a group of young women in a brothel in a) Madrid b) Paris c) Barcelona d) Malaga. 9. We can see that Picasso saw himself as a shaman, an intermediary between the human and spirit worlds, by his display of influence from a) surrealism b) cubism c) Africa d) mythology. 10. Chinese influence in Paris: a) Lapin Agile b) Les Deux Magots c) Harlequins d) opium. 11. This figure dwelled at the heart of the Cretan labyrinth: a) Harlequin b) minotaur c) Alhambra d) Odysseus. 12. The Spanish Civil War featured a Fascist force versus an anti-government rebel force. T/F 13. Gynophobia: a) fear of exercise b) fear of witches c) fear of female physicians d) fear of women.
14. Exaggerated male attitude: a) machismo b) pacifism c) misogyny d) fascism. 15. Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), Amish, Mennonites: a) machismo b) pacifism c) misogyny d) fascism. 16. Mapping the life of Picasso: 1. Malaga 2. Barcelona 3. ___ 4. Paris 17. Provence region and Cote d'Azur of France. a) London b) Valencia c) Marseille d) Seville. 18. In Paris, one of Picasso's most frequent destinations was the a) Louvre b) Tour Eiffel c) Notre Dame de Paris d) River Seine Pablo Ruiz Picasso, Spanish painter and sculptor: among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) and Guernica (1937), his portrayal of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War. This 1907 masterpiece by Picasso is the first great piece of cubist art. The influence of African masks is obvious, especially in the two figures on the right. Notes from Wikipedia - Picasso was married twice and had four children by three women. He had a neverending series of lovers - ex. Dora Maar - in addition to wives and principal mistresses. -He was publicly a Communist - from the late 1940's. Yet one would argue that he was apolitical: he remained neutral during World War I, the Spanish Civil War, and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. - During the Second World War, Picasso remained in Paris while the Germans occupied the city. - After the war he became famous and wealthy (ex: the 1946 retrospective show at MoMa). He moved permanently to Provence, near the Med. The last 12 years he lived in the small town of Mougins, near the famous beach resort of Cannes. - The climate is Mediterranean and the city enjoys 12 hours of sunshine per day during summer (May to September), while in winter (December to February) the weather is mild. Both seasons see a relatively low rainfall and most rain is during October and November, when 110 mm falls. - Mougins has been frequented and inhabited by many artists and celebrities, including Pablo Picasso, Jean Cocteau, Fernand Léger, Francis Picabia, Man Ray, Yves Klein, Yves Saint Laurent, Christian Dior, Winston Churchill, Catherine Deneuve, Édith Piaf. - The region of Mougins - Provence - has been home to artists such as Henri Matisse,Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Cezanne, Auguste Renoir, Pierre Bonnard and Claude Monet. Misogyny and machismo - hatred of women and exaggerated sense of maleness, were both part of the Spanish nature of Picasso.
Picasso quiz 1. Picasso was born in the Spanish city of a) Malaga b) Coruna c) Madrid d) Barcelona. 2. He became an accomplished painter as a teen. T / F 3. He was from a notable region of Spain called a) Basque b) Alsace c) Catalonia d) Andalusia. 4. Picasso's most-loved sport: a) futbol b) handball c) mountain hiking d) bull fights. 5. He was born in poverty but was enormously successful as a painter. T / F 6. Picasso's Big Apple was a) Paris b) Madrid c) NYC d) London. 7. Picasso was a member of the group of European artists who called themselves the surrealists. T / F 8. Picasso was a member of the group of European artists who called themselves the fauvists (French: "savages"). T / F 9. Picasso was a member of the group of European artists who called themselves the cubists. T / F 10. He felt most at home in the Spanish city of his teens: a) Malaga b) Coruna c) Madrid d) Barcelona. 11. This Spanish painter touched Picasso more than the others: a) El Greco b) Goya c) Velazquez d) Dali. 12. His lifelong friend and rival was the almost-equally famous painter a) Henri Matisse b) Salvador Dali c) Vincent Van Gogh d) Jean Renoir. 13. The Blue Period and the Rose Period paintings were part of his __ career. a) early b) late. 14. Picasso and other artists favored life in the __ section of Paris in the early 1900's. a) Montmartre b) Bastille c) Champs d'Elysees d) St Germain. 15. The famous river that flows through the heart of Paris: the __ . a) Loire b) Thames c) Rhine d) Seine. 16. Two of the faces in Demoiselles d'Avignon reflected Picasso's interest in the masks and sculptural art of the continent of __ . a) Asia b) Africa c) Eastern Europe d) South America. 17. One of Picasso's earliest Parisian lovers, Eva Gouel / Marcelle Humbert, died of __ . a) illness / cancer b) suicide c) murder d) motorcycle crash. 18. For half of his adult life Picasso was married to the former Russian ballerina, __ __. a) Olga Kohkalova b) Marie-Therese Walter c) Dora Maar d) Francoise Gilot. 19. Claude and Paloma Picasso were the children born to the artist and mistress __ __ . a) Olga Kohkalova b) Marie-Therese Walter c) Dora Maar d) Francoise Gilot. 20. During WWII the city of Paris was occupied by the __ . a) Russians b) English c) Germans d) Dutch. 21. The painting "Guernica" depicts the bombing of a Spanish village by German bombers in 1937, during the ____ . a) WWI b) WWII c) Spanish Civil War d) SpanishAmerican War. 22. The painting "Demoiselles d'Avignon" portrays a) French dancers b) Spanish prostitutes c) African laundry workers d) the five muses. 23. In the last half of his life Picasso resided mostly in large houses in the __ region. a) Ile de France b) Champagne c) Provence
d) Normandy. 24. Picasso loved the seaside region called the Riviera, or ___ . a) Cote Basque b) Cote d'Azur c) Cote d'Ivoire d) Cote du Rhone. 25. Picasso was enormously productive of paintings, sketches, etchings and sculptures during his life. He lived for __ decades. a) 5 b) 6 c) 7 d) 8 e) 9. 26. Picasso's image of a dove holding an olive branch was used by the peace movement of the 1950's. It was also frequently displayed by the a) Muslims b) Communists c) Fascists d) Nationalists. 27. After his early years as a painter and his adoption of the revolutionary spirit of cubism, Picasso never returned to anything at all realistic. T / F 1. Malaga 2. T 3. d Andalusia 4. d bull fights / corrida 5. F 6. a Paris 7. F 8. F 9. T 10. d Barcelona 11. a El Greco 12. a Henri Matisse 13. a early 14. a Montmartre 15. d Seine 16. b Africa 17. a cancer 18. a Olga 19. d Francoise Gilot 20. c Germans 21. c Span Civil War 22. b Span prostitutes 23. c Provence 24. b Cote d'Azur 25. 3 9 26. b Communists 27. F 28. F
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