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Diffusion is the net

movement of molecules or ions
The Generalized Animal Cell: from an area of higher
concentration to an area of lower
1. A cell is the basic, living, concentration until an equilibrium
structural and functional unit of the is reached.
body. 3. In facilitated diffusion,
2. A generalized cell is a certain molecules, such as glucose,
composite that represents various combine with a carrier to become
cells of the body. soluble in the phospholipid portion
3. Cytology is the science of the membrane.
concerned with the study of cells. 4. Osmosis is the movement of
4. The principal parts of a cell water through a selectively
are the plasma (cell) membrane, permeable membrane from an area
cytoplasm, organelles, and of higher water concentration to an
inclusions. Extracellular materials area of lower water concentration.
are manufactured by the cell and 5. In an isotonic solution, red
deposited outside the plasma blood cells maintain their normal
membrane. shape; in a hypotonic solution, they
undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic
solution, they undergo crenation.
Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 6. Filtration is the movement
of water and dissolved substances
1. The plasma (cell) across a selectively permeable
membrane, surrounds the cell and membrane by pressure.
separates it from other cells and 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of
the external environment. solute particles across a selectively
2. It is composed primarily of permeable membrane and involves
proteins and phospholipids. the separation of small molecules
According to the fluid mosaic from large molecules.
model, the membrane consists of a
phospholipid bilayer with integral Active processes involve the use of ATP by the
and peripheral proteins. cell.

1. Active transport is the movement of ions
across a cell membrane from lower to
1. Functionally, the higher concentration. Movement of
plasma membrane substances across a membrane, usually
facilitates contact with other against a gradient, requires energy
cells, provides receptors, expenditure and a carrier molecule.
and mediates the passage 2. Endocytosis in the movement of
of materials. substances through plasma membranes in
2. The membrane's which the membrane surrounds the
selectively permeable substance, encloses it, and brings it into
nature restricts the passage the cell.
of certain substances.
Substances can pass
a. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of
through the membrane
solid particles by pseudopodia. It is
depending on their
an important process used by
molecular size, lipid
white blood cells to destroy
solubility, electrical charges,
bacteria that enter the body.
and the presence of
b. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a
liquid by the plasma membrane. In
this process, the liquid becomes
Movement of Materials Across Plasma surrounded by a vacuole.
Membranes: c. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in
the selective uptake of large
1. Passive processes involve molecules and particles by cells.
the kinetic energy of individual
molecules. Cytoplasm:
1. Cytoplasm is the substance or smooth ER does not contain
inside the cell that contains ribosomes.
organelles and inclusions. 3. The ER provides mechanical
2. It is composed mostly of support, conducts intracellular
water plus proteins, carbohydrates, nerve impulses in muscle cells,
lipids, and inorganic substances. exchanges materials with
The chemicals in cytoplasm are cytoplasm, transports substances
either in solution or in a colloid intracellularly, stores synthesized
(suspended) form. molecules. and helps export
3. Functionally, cytoplasm is chemicals from the cell.
the medium in which chemical
reactions occur. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body):

Organelles: 1. The Golgi complex consists

of four to eight stacked,
1. Organelles are specialized membranous sacs called cisternae.
portions of the cell that carry on 2. In conjunction with the ER,
specific activities. the Golgi complex secretes
2. They assume specific roles proteins and lipids and synthesizes
in cellular growth, maintenance, and secretes glycoproteins.
repair, and control. 3. It is particularly prominent
in secretory cells such as those in
Nucleus: the pancreas or salivary glands.

1. Usually the largest Mitochondria:

organelle, the nucleus controls
cellular activities and contains the 1. Mitochondria consist of a
genetic information. smooth outer membrane and a
2. Cells without nuclei, such as folded inner membrane
mature red blood cells, do not grow surrounding the interior matrix.
or reproduce. The inner folds are called cristae.
3. The parts of the nucleus 2. The mitochondria are called
include the nuclear membrane, "powerhouses of the cell" because
karyolymph, nucleoli, and genetic ATP is produced in them.
material (DNA), comprising the 3. Today mitochondria are
chromosomes. generally considered to be
4. Chromosomes consist of endosymbionts rather than simply
DNA and histones and consist of cellular organelles.
subunits called nucleosomes.
1. Lysosomes are spherical
1. Ribosomes are granular structures that contain digestive
structures consisting of ribosomal enzymes. They are formed from
RNA and ribosomal proteins. Golgi complexes.
2. They occur free (singly or in 2. They are found in large
clusters) or in conjunction with numbers in white blood cells, which
endoplasmic reticulum. carry on phagocytosis.
3. Functionally, ribosomes are 3. If the cell is injured,
the sites of protein synthesis. Iysosomes release enzymes and
digest the cell. Thus they are called
Endoplasmic Reticulum: "suicide packets."
4. Lysosomes are also involved
1. The ER is a network of in bone removal and remodeling.
parallel membranes continuous
with the plasma membrane and Peroxisomes:
nuclear membrane.
2. Granular or rough ER has 1. Peroxisomes are similar in
ribosomes attached to it. Agranular structure to Iysosomes, but
2. They contain enzymes (e.g., Extracellular Materials:
catalase) involved in the
metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. 1. These are all the substances
that lie outside the cell membrane.
Microfilaments and Microtubules - The 2. They provide support and a
Cytoskeleton: medium for the diffusion of
nutrients and wastes.
1. Together microfilaments 3. Some, like hyaluronic acid
and microtubules form the and chondroitin sulfate, are
cytoskeleton. amorphous. Others, like
2. Microfilaments are rodlike collagenous, reticular, and elastic
structures consisting of the fibers, are fibrous.
protein actin or myosin. They
are involved in muscular
contraction, support, and
3. Microtubules are
cylindrical structures consisting of Cell Division:
the protein tubulin. They support,
provide movement, and form the 1. Cell division is the process
structure of flagella, cilia, by which cells reproduce
centrioles, and the mitotic themselves. It consists of nuclear
spindle. division and cytoplasmic division
Centrosome and Centrioles: 2. Cell division that results in
the production of sperm and eggs
1. The dense area of is called reproductive cell division
cytoplasm containing the centrioles and consists of a nuclear division
is called a centrosome. It is called meiosis and cytokinesis.
located near the nucleus. 3. Cell division that results in
2. Centrioles are paired an increase in body cells is called
cylinders arranged at right angles somatic cell division and involves a
to one another. They assume an nuclear division called mitosis and
important role in cell reproduction. cytokinesis.

Flagella and Cilia: Somatic Cell Division:

1. These cellular projections 1. Prior to mitosis and

have the same basic structure and cytokinesis, the DNA molecules, or
are used in movement. chromosomes, replicate
2. If projections are few and themselves so the same
long, they are called flagella. If chromosomal complement can be
they are numerous and hairlike, passed on to future generations of
they are called cilia. cells.
3. The flagellum on a sperm 2. A cell carrying on such
cell moves the entire cell. The cilia every life process except division is
on cells of the respiratory tract said to be in interphase or
move foreign matter trapped in metabolic interphase.
mucus along the cell surfaces 3. Mitosis is the distribution of
toward the throat for elimination. two sets of chromosomes into
separate and equal nuclei following
Cellular Inclusions: their replication.
4. It consists of prophase,
metaphase, anaphase, and
1. Cell inclusions are chemical telophase.
substances produced by cells. They 5. Cytokinesis begins in late
are usually organic and may have anaphase and terminates in
recognizable shapes telophase.
2. Examples are melanin, 6. A cleavage furrow forms at
glycogen, lipids, and mucus. the cell's equator and progresses
inward, cutting through the cell to 1. Aging is a progressive
form two separate portions of failure of the body's homeostatic
cytoplasm. adaptive responses.
2. Many theories of aging have
Gene Action - Protein Synthesis: been proposed, including
genetically programmed cessation
1. Most of the cellular of cell division and excessive
machinery is concerned with immune responses, but none
synthesizing proteins. successfully answers all questions.
2. Cells make proteins by 3. All of the various body
translating the genetic information systems exhibit definitive and
encoded in DNA into specific sometimes extensive changes with
proteins. This involves transcription aging
and translation.
3. In transcription, genetic Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
information encoded in DNA is
copied by a strand of messenger 1. Cancerous tumors are
RNA (mRNA); the DNA strand that referred to as malignant;
serves as the template is called the noncancerous tumors are called
sense strand. benign; the study of tumors is
4. DNA also synthesizes called oncology.
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 2. The spread of cancer from
template or transfer RNA (tRNA). its primary site is called
5. The process of using the metastasis.
information in the nitrogen base 3. Carcinogens include
sequence of mRNA to dictate the environmental agents and viruses.
amino acid sequence of a protein is
known as translation. Mitosis
6. mRNA associates with
ribosomes, which consist of rRNA Body growth, replacement of cells that have a
and protein. short lifespan, and repair of injured tissues
7. Specific amino acids are
depend on the reproduction of cells. The most
attached to molecules of tRNA.
Another portion of the tRNA has a common form of cell division is mitosis.
triplet of bases called an anticodon;
a codon is a segment of three 1. Interphase- This is the stage or period when
bases of mRNA. cells are not undergoing cell division. It is in this
8. tRNA delivers a specific phase that duplication of DNA takes place.
amino acid to the codon; the
ribosome moves along an mRNA DNA- molecule basis of heredity.
strand as amino acids are joined to
form a growing polypeptide. 2. Prophase- The centrioles separate and begin
to move to opposite sides of the cell.
"SOS" Genes - DNA Repair: Chromosome threads become more tightly coiled
and the two halves called chromatids can be
1. The structure of DNA is seen.
vulnerable to damage by harmful
radiations and various chemicals. 3. Metaphase- The nuclear membrane
2. Damage could lead to dissolves, and fine tubules are seen extending
cellular malfunction that might lead toward the midline of the cell. The chromosomes
to cancer.
form a line in the middle of the cell attaching
3. In response to DNA damage,
an "SOS response" occurs; certain themselves to the tubules.
genes produce enzymes that repair
genetic damage. DNA Polymerase 4. Anaphase- The two chromatids of each
is an example. chromosome are completely separated from each
other and can be considered chromosomes. The
Cells and Aging: tubules pull them to their respective sides of the
5. Telephase- The cell membrane constricts at
the midpoint, the chromosomes begin to uncoil,
and the nuclear membranes of the daughter cells
are formed. Finally, mitosis is complte with two
new cells formed, each with 46 chromosomes
containing the hereditary code of the cell.


The sex cells, the female ovum and male sperm,

are formed not by mitosis but meiosis, or a
process called reduction division, because
during division the number of chromosomes is
reduced. Each mature sex cell formed in this
process has half the number of chromosomes of
the parent cell. Thus, when the ovum with 23
chromosomes is fertilized by sperm with 23
chromosomes, the cell produced will have the
proper number of 46.