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Ship Manoeuvring Turning Circles and Stopping Distances
The advance of a ship for a given alteration of course is the distance that her compass platform moves in the direction of her original line of advance, measured from the point where the rudder is put over. The transfer of a ship for a given alteration of course is the distance that her compass platform moves at right-angles to her original line of advance, measured from the point where the rudder is put over
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her bottom becomes fouled by weeds. The following factors determine the acceleration powers of a ship. The tanker which has finer lines than the other would be able to travel further after the engines are stopped as well as start and reach the designed speed faster. The tactical diameter is the amount that the compass platform has moved at right-angles to the ship’s original line of advance when she has turned through 180 degrees. Shallow water When a ship is moving in shallow water the gap between the ship’s hull and the bottom is restricted. Two tankers of the same displacement would have entirely different accelerating and decelerating speeds. Thus a lighter ship will gain or lose speed faster than a deeply loaded ship. and the speed attainable with a given number of revolutions is reduced. The reverse will happen when the tanker is on ballast – that is it will travel a lesser distance. Consider the paths described by various parts of a ship turning under rudder when steaming ahead. The corresponding rates for one ship will differ largely from those of another. 100 metres per knot for a heavy ship). FACTORS AFFECTING SPEED Foul bottom If a ship lies for long in harbour. and the rates for a particular ship may change considerably with her condition of loading. If the under keel clearance is low then the effect is both ways that is the ship will take longer to reach her designed speed from stop as well as she travel longer when the engines are stopped. where it is zero. usually nearer the bow than the stern.g. Usually. The angle made by the tangent to the curved path of any point with the fore-and-aft line is known as the drift angle at that point at any given instant. The shape of the underwater part of the hull also plays an important part. the restricted flow of water past the stern reduces propeller efficiency. Each point in the ship must follow a path approximately concentric with that described by the centre of gravity. Thus normal revolutions for 15 knots would give only 13 knots through the water.. When drift angle is quoted the value given is normally that measured at the centre of gravity. Forward from this point the drift angle gradually increases in the opposite direction. The energy expended in the waves formed by the ship is a loss from the power available to drive her. 2 of 4 12/22/2010 4:38 PM . and therefore in shallow water her speed is reduced. In other words. the rate of acceleration or deceleration is affected by so many factors and varies so much in different parts of the total speed range that it is difficult to recommend any practical method of allowing for accurately when manoeuvring. her draught. it is the transfer for an alteration of course of 180 degrees. and the ship handier should be prepared to make bold and rapid adjustments of speed during a manoeuvre if it appears that the estimate is wrong. her condition of loading. The drift angle has its highest value at the stern and it diminishes gradually along the Fore-and-aft line in the forward direction until a point is reached. In fact. the streamline flow of water past the hull is altered and the result is seen as a greatly increased transverse wave formation at the bows and again at the stern. These rates depend chiefly on the displacement of the ship. the size of her propellers and the depth of water. The momentum of the ship depends upon the mass of the ship and the speed of the ship. It must be realized that this method may prove extremely inaccurate in certain circumstances. Rates of gaining and losing speed Knowledge of the rate at which a ship gains or loses speed in different circumstances is invaluable when manoeuvring in congested waters. particularly in a tropical harbour. The growth accumulated during 6 months would cause a reduction of about 10 per cent. Furthermore. It is common practice to use a standard figure for the ship under all conditions (e. When increasing or decreasing speed by changing the ahead revolutions. barnacles and other marine parasites or growths. which also tends to reduce her speed.ShipManoeuvres http://thenauticalsite. If the undersides are fouled with marine growth then there would be a drag and the effect on the start up would not be that affected but the travel distance after the engines are stopped would be shorter. Another factor is the condition of the ships bottom and the underwater part of the hull.. the increased size of the stern wave is a sure indication of the presence of shallow water. the higher the speed the more pronounced is the reduction of speed. the power of her engines. For starting up also after the first movement is given a loaded tanker will come to the designed speed slower than the same tanker when it ballast. If a large tanker is taken as an example then at the same speed it will travel longer after the engine is stopped – when the tanker is in full load condition. see figure above.com/NauticalNotes/Manouev/MyMan-Lesson01-Tur.
Modern container ships are generally of great length in proportion to beam and thus tend to have large turning circles. Effect of cut-up area on turning qualities The ship with the larger cut-up area ABC will have a smaller turning circle than the one with the smaller cut-up area ADX Effect of single screw on turning circle In a ship fitted with a single right-handed fixed-pitch screw (most of the ships) the sideways force exerted by the propeller creates a tendency for the ship to turn to port when going ahead. The shape of the underwater part of the hull aft. Indeed. The effects are likely to be particularly pronounced in ships where the propeller slipstream does not play directly on to the rudder. Speed The effect of speed on tactical diameter will vary from one type of ship to another. hence the turning circle with this type of propeller is usually of smaller diameter when turning to starboard than when turning to port. are able to operate satisfactorily at higher water speeds and greater angles. A list to port decreases the tactical diameter of a ship turning to starboard. and are more likely to have dangerous results. and she is more sluggish in answering her rudder. Often higher speed may lead to a greater tactical diameter because the rudder may stall. Eddies may build up that counteract the propeller forces and the expected action of the rudder. FACTORS AFFECTING A SHIP’S HANDLING QUALITIES Draught. particularly if the ship enters such water at high speed. the ship turning more easily to starboard. List The effect of a list is to hinder a turn in the direction of the list and assist a turn away from it. and once she has started to swing it is more difficult to check her. The effect of trimming is to move the ship’s pivoting point towards the deeper end. Stopping the engines to allow the eddies to subside. and then starting again with reduced revolutions. Modern rudders. the expected effects from the rudder and the propellers may not appear.ShipManoeuvres http://thenauticalsite. so that the sideways force from the propellers may in fact be opposite to what usually occurs. on some ships there is a best speed giving the minimum tactical diameter and at higher or lower speeds the tactical diameter is greater. TURNING Effect of a turn on speed 3 of 4 12/22/2010 4:38 PM . The effects of shallow water on steering in restricted waters such as canals or rivers are usually worse than in the open sea. Effect of hull form on turning circle A ship of fine underwater form (container ship) will turn in a larger circle than a ship of similar length and draught but of fuller form (tanker). Trim by the stern usually increases the tactical diameter. has a most important effect on the size of the turning circle. as shown in Figure. and hence the tactical diameter may not vary much with speed. and the draught aft may increase so greatly as to cause the propellers to touch bottom.. When deeply laden a cargo ship has a much larger turning circle than when lightly laden.. but helps a ship to keep her course more easily when on a steady course. and vice versa. When manoeuvring at slow speed or turning at rest in a confined space in shallow water. Shallow water These effects may become excessive if the depth of water is less than one-and-a-half times the draught. The only way to regain control is to reduce speed drastically at once. Water cannot flow easily from one side of the ship to the other. however. When trimmed by the bows her turning circle is likely to be decreased.com/NauticalNotes/Manouev/MyMan-Lesson01-Tur. trim and loading On a general cargo ship or tanker the difference between the turning qualities when lightly laden and when fully laden is very marked.effect of speed on the turning qualities of their ship. is more likely to be successful. With a left-handed controllable-pitch propeller the effect is reversed. on smaller ships. she does not answer her wheel as readily as usual. Watchkeeping officers should be fully aware of the. particularly the cut-up area. She may become directionally unstable and fail to answer her rudder at all.
The rate of deceleration depends upon the initial speed of the ship and the angle of rudder applied. but it usually remains more or less steady. Heel when turning The initial heel when the wheel is put over is inwards. overcomes the tendency to heel inwards and causes her to heel outwards. and their speed will then remain steady as the turn continues. For alterations exceeding 90 degrees the speed may continue to fall slightly. This outward heel is very noticeable when turning at good speed.. because the rudder force is acting at a point below the centre of gravity of the ship. The effect of the drag of the rudder and the sideways drift of the ship will result in a progressive loss of speed while turning. the centripetal force on the hull (which is greater than the rudder force). As the ship begins to turn. Should an alarming heel develop. but for those between 20 degrees and 90 degrees the speed usually falls off rapidly.com/NauticalNotes/Manouev/MyMan-Lesson01-Tur. acting through water pressure at a point below the centre of gravity. usually the faster the speed and the greater the rudder angle the sooner will the turn be completed. and it varies greatly between different types of ship.ShipManoeuvres http://thenauticalsite. For alterations of course of up to 20 degrees the reduction of speed may not be very great. even though the engine revolutions are maintained at a constant figure. If the wheel is eased quickly the angle of outward heel will increase. because the counteractive rudder force is removed while the centripetal force remains. The time taken to turn through a given angle depends on the initial speed and the angle of rudder applied. until the rate of turning decreases. speed should be reduced instantly.. 4 of 4 12/22/2010 4:38 PM . Roughly. most medium sized ships when under full wheel will have lost about one-third of their original speed after turning through 90 degrees.
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