## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

DE LA RECHERCHE

SCIENTIFIQUE

A Globally Exponentially Convergent Immersion

and Invariance Speed Observer for Mechanical

Systems with Non–Holonomic Constraints

Romeo Ortega

Laboratoire des Signaux et Syst ` emes, Supelec

Gif–sur–Yvette, France

Collaboration with: Alessandro Astolﬁ (Imperial College, UK) and Aneesh Venkatraman (Groningen

University)

NESTER Meeting, Milano, July 4, 2009 – p. 1/13

CENTRE NATIONAL

DE LA RECHERCHE

SCIENTIFIQUE

Problem Formulation

Consider general n-dof mechanical systems with non–holonomic constraints

M(q)¨ q +C(q, ˙ q) ˙ q +∇U(q) = G(q)u +Z(q)λ,

Z

(q) ˙ q = 0,

where q, ˙ q ∈ R

n

generalized positions and velocities, u ∈ R

m

control input, Z(q)λ

constraint forces with Z : IR

n

→IR

n×k

, λ ∈ R

k

, G : IR

n

→IR

n×m

input matrix,

M : IR

n

→IR

n×n

, M = M

**> 0 mass matrix, and U : IR
**

n

→IR potential energy

function. C(q, ˙ q) ˙ q vector of Coriolis and centrifugal forces, deﬁned via the Christoffel

symbols.

Assumptions

q measurable and

the system is forward complete.

Objective

Design a globally asymptotically convergent observer for ˙ q.

NESTER Meeting, Milano, July 4, 2009 – p. 2/13

CENTRE NATIONAL

DE LA RECHERCHE

SCIENTIFIQUE

Observer Design: The I&I Approach

The dynamical system

˙ η = α(q, η),

with η ∈ R

n

, is called an I&I observer for the mechanical system if there exists a full

rank matrix T : R

n

→R

n×n

and a vector function β : R

n

→R

n

, such that the

manifold

M:= {(η, q, ˙ q) : β(q) = η +T

(q) ˙ q} ⊂ R

n

×R

n

×R

n

is positively invariant and attractive.

The asymptotic estimate of ˙ q is given by

T

−

(β −η).

NESTER Meeting, Milano, July 4, 2009 – p. 3/13

CENTRE NATIONAL

DE LA RECHERCHE

SCIENTIFIQUE

Main Result

Proposition There exist smooth mappings A : IR

3n−2k+1

×IR

n

×IR

m

→IR

3n−2k+1

,

B : IR

n

→IR

(n−k)×(3n−2k+1)

and N : IR

n

→IR

n−k

×IR

n

, with the latter left invertible,

such that the dynamical system

˙ χ = A(χ, q, u) (O1)

with state χ ∈ IR

3n−2k+1

, inputs q and u, and output

η = B(q)χ, (O2)

has the following property

lim

t→∞

e

αt

[N(q) ˙ q(t) −η(t)] = 0,

for some α > 0 and for all initial conditions (q(0), ˙ q(0), χ(0)) ∈ IR

n

×IR

n

×IR

3n−2k+1

.

That is, (O1), (O2) is a globally exponentially convergent speed observer for the mechanical

system.

NESTER Meeting, Milano, July 4, 2009 – p. 4/13

CENTRE NATIONAL

DE LA RECHERCHE

SCIENTIFIQUE

A Suitable Hamiltonian Representation

The system can be written in port-Hamiltonian form as

˙ q

˙ p

¸

¸

=

0 I

−I 0

¸

¸

¸

∇

q

H(q, p)

∇

p

H(q, p)

+

0

G(q)

¸

¸

u +

0

Z(q)

¸

¸

λ,

Z

(q)∇

p

H(q, p) = 0,

where p = M(q) ˙ q, and

H(q, p) =

1

2

p

M

−1

(q)p +U(q).

Restricted to the constrained space, it can be represented as (van der Schaft’2000)

˙ q

˙

˜ p

¸

¸

=

0

˜

S(q)

−

˜

S

(q) J(q, ˜ p)

¸

¸

¸

∇

q

H

c

(q, ˜ p)

∇

˜ p

H

c

(q, ˜ p)

+

0

G

c

(q)

¸

¸

u,

with

H

c

(q, ˜ p) =

1

2

˜ p

˜

M

−1

(q)˜ p +U(q),

NESTER Meeting, Milano, July 4, 2009 – p. 5/13

CENTRE NATIONAL

DE LA RECHERCHE

SCIENTIFIQUE

cont’d

where

˜

M : IR

n

→IR

(n−k)×(n−k)

is deﬁned as

˜

M

−1

(q) = m

11

(q) −m

12

(q)m

−1

22

(q)m

12

(q).

with m

ij

the partition of M

−1

(induced by the constraints),

˜ p =

˜

S

(q)p,

˜

S : IR

n

→R

n×(n−k)

is a full–rank right annihilator of Z

and G

c

: IR

n

→R

(n−k)×m

is the

constrained input matrix G. The (ij)-th element of J : IR

n

×IR

n−k

→IR

(n−k)×(n−k)

is

given by

J

ij

(q, ˜ p) = −p

[

˜

S

i

,

˜

S

j

], (1)

where

˜

S

i

is the i-th column of

˜

S, and [

˜

S

i

,

˜

S

j

] is the standard Lie bracket. Recalling that

[

˜

S

i

,

˜

S

j

] = −[

˜

S

j

,

˜

S

i

]

we conclude that J is skew–symmetric.

NESTER Meeting, Milano, July 4, 2009 – p. 6/13

CENTRE NATIONAL

DE LA RECHERCHE

SCIENTIFIQUE

Some Deﬁnitions

Introduce a factorization, (e.g., Cholesky)

˜

M

−1

(q) = T

(q)T(q), where

T : IR

n

→IR

(n−k)×(n−k)

is a full rank matrix.

Deﬁne

L : IR

n

→IR

n×(n−k)

, F : IR

n

×IR

m

→IR

n−k

, S : IR

n

×IR

n−k

→IR

(n−k)×(n−k)

L(q) =

˜

S(q)T

(q),

F(q, u) = T(q)[G

c

(q)u −

˜

S

(q)∇U(q)]

S(y, x) = TJT

+

n

¸

i=1

[((∇

q

i

T)T

−1

x)(L

e

i

)

−(L

e

i

)((∇

q

i

T)T

−1

x)

].

where

(y, x) = (q, T(q)˜ p),

and e

i

the i–th basis vector of R

n−k

.

Notice that, since q and u are measurable, L and F are known. Moreover, L is a

left-invertible matrix.

NESTER Meeting, Milano, July 4, 2009 – p. 7/13

CENTRE NATIONAL

DE LA RECHERCHE

SCIENTIFIQUE

A Key Lemma

The system admits a state space representation of the form

˙ y = L(y)x

˙ x = S(y, x)x +F(y, u), (♥)

and S veriﬁes the following properties.

(i) S is skew–symmetric.

(ii) S is linear in the second argument.

(iii) There exists a mapping

¯

S : IR

n

×IR

n−k

→IR

(n−k)×(n−k)

such that

S(y, x)¯ x =

¯

S(y, ¯ x)x,

for all y ∈ IR

n

, x, ¯ x ∈ IR

n−k

.

The lemma implies that the speed observer problem can be recast as an observer

problem for (♥) with output y.

NESTER Meeting, Milano, July 4, 2009 – p. 8/13

CENTRE NATIONAL

DE LA RECHERCHE

SCIENTIFIQUE

Example 1: The Chaplygin Sleigh

NESTER Meeting, Milano, July 4, 2009 – p. 9/13

CENTRE NATIONAL

DE LA RECHERCHE

SCIENTIFIQUE

cont’d

Model

M(q) =

m 0 −ma sin(q

3

)

0 m ma cos(q

3

)

−ma sin(q

3

) ma cos(q

3

) I +ma

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

, Z(q) =

−sin(q

3

)

cos(q

3

)

0

¸

¸

¸

¸

,

m is the mass of the rigid body, I is the moment of inertia of the rigid body about its

center of mass and a denotes the ﬁxed distance between the knife edge and the

center of mass. The body is moving on the ground, that is, U(q) = 0 and u = 0.

Simulation parameters and IC’s

m = 1 y(0) = (1, 3, 1.5)

a = 2 x(0) = (5, 10)

I = 5 ˆ y(0) = (2, 5, 5)

k

1

= 0.8, 1.7 ˆ x(0) = (3, 7)

k

2

= 4 ξ

1

(0) = (2, 2)

k

3

= 5 r(0) = 3

NESTER Meeting, Milano, July 4, 2009 – p. 10/13

CENTRE NATIONAL

DE LA RECHERCHE

SCIENTIFIQUE

cont’d

q, ˆ y (top row) and of ˙ q,

ˆ

˙ q (bottom row), for k

1

= 0.8 (dashed lines) and k

1

= 1.7 (dotted

lines).

0 2 4 6 8

−100

−80

−60

−40

−20

0

20

t (sec)

0 2 4 6 8

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

t (sec)

0 2 4 6 8

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

t (sec)

0 2 4 6 8

−15

−10

−5

0

5

t (sec)

0 2 4 6 8

−2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

t (sec)

0 2 4 6 8

−0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

t (sec)

PSfrag replacements

q

1

q

2

q

3

˙

q

1

˙

q

2

˙

q

3

NESTER Meeting, Milano, July 4, 2009 – p. 11/13

CENTRE NATIONAL

DE LA RECHERCHE

SCIENTIFIQUE

Example 2: A Walking Robot

NESTER Meeting, Milano, July 4, 2009 – p. 12/13

CENTRE NATIONAL

DE LA RECHERCHE

SCIENTIFIQUE

Conclusions

A deﬁnite afﬁrmative answer has been given to the question of existence of a globally

convergent speed observer for general mechanical systems with non–holonomic

constraints.

No assumption is made on the existence of an upperbound for the inertia matrix,

hence the result is applicable for robots with prismatic joints.

The only requirement is that the system is forward complete, i.e., that trajectories of

the system exist for all times t ≥ 0—which is a rather weak condition.

In some sense, our contribution should be interpreted more as an existence result than

an actual, practically implementable, algorithm. Leaving aside the high complexity of

the observer dynamics, the difﬁculty stems from the fact that a key function is deﬁned

via an integral expression, whose explicit analytic solution cannot be guaranteed a

priori.

NESTER Meeting, Milano, July 4, 2009 – p. 13/13

u ∈ Rm control input. q)q + q ˙ ˙ U (q) = = G(q)u + Z(q)λ. q)q vector of Coriolis and centrifugal forces. July 4. and U : I n → I potential energy function. 2009 – p. G : IR n → IR n×m input matrix. deﬁned via the Christoffel ˙ ˙ symbols. Assumptions q measurable and the system is forward complete. 2/1 . q ∈ Rn generalized positions and velocities. 0. C(q. Objective Design a globally asymptotically convergent observer for q. ˙ CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE NESTER Meeting.Problem Formulation Consider general n-dof mechanical systems with non–holonomic constraints M (q)¨ + C(q. Z (q)q ˙ where q. R R M : IR n → IR n×n . Z(q)λ ˙ constraint forces with Z : IR n → IR n×k . M = M > 0 mass matrix. λ ∈ Rk . Milano.

Milano. q) : β(q) = η + T ˙ is positively invariant and attractive. July 4. 2009 – p. such that the manifold M := {(η.Observer Design: The I&I Approach The dynamical system η = α(q. ˙ with η ∈ Rn . The asymptotic estimate of q is given by ˙ T − (β − η). q. η). (q)q} ⊂ Rn × Rn × Rn ˙ CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE NESTER Meeting. 3/1 . is called an I&I observer for the mechanical system if there exists a full rank matrix T : Rn → Rn×n and a vector function β : Rn → Rn .

and output R η = B(q)χ. has the following property t→∞ (O1) (O2) lim eαt [N (q)q(t) − η(t)] = 0.Main Result Proposition There exist smooth mappings A : I 3n−2k+1 × I n × I m → I 3n−2k+1 . CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE NESTER Meeting. q. ˙ R R R That is. ˙ for some α > 0 and for all initial conditions (q(0). Milano. u) ˙ with state χ ∈ I 3n−2k+1 . R R R R R R R R B : I n → I (n−k)×(3n−2k+1) and N : I n → I n−k × I n . (O2) is a globally exponentially convergent speed observer for the mechanical system. R such that the dynamical system χ = A(χ. q(0). July 4. 4/1 . with the latter left invertible. (O1). χ(0)) ∈ I n × I n × I 3n−2k+1 . inputs q and u. 2009 – p.

2 Restricted to the constrained space. and ˙ p H(q. H(q. July 4. Milano. p) = ˜ CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE 0 q ˙ = ˜ ˙ −S (q) p ˜ ˜ S(q) J(q. p) = 1 p M −1 (q)p + U (q). Z (q) where p = M (q)q. 2009 – p. p) p H(q. 1 p p M −1 (q)˜ + U (q). p) = + 0 G(q) u + 0 Z(q) λ. p) ˜ + 0 Gc (q) u. 5/1 . ˜ ˜ 2 NESTER Meeting. p) = 0. p) ˜ p Hc (q. it can be represented as (van der Schaft’2000) with Hc (q. p) ˜ ˜ q Hc (q.A Suitable Hamiltonian Representation The system can be written in port-Hamiltonian form as q ˙ p ˙ 0 −I I 0 q H(q.

˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ where Si is the i-th column of S. ˜ p = S (q)p. Sj ] = −[Sj . and [Si . ˜ ˜ R R S : I n → Rn×(n−k) is a full–rank right annihilator of Z and Gc : I n → R(n−k)×m is the R R constrained input matrix G. Si ] we conclude that J is skew–symmetric. Sj ] is the standard Lie bracket. Recalling that ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ [Si . The (ij)-th element of J : I n × I n−k → I (n−k)×(n−k) is R given by ˜ ˜ ˜ (1) Jij (q. Sj ]. CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE NESTER Meeting. p) = −p [Si . Milano. July 4. 6/1 .cont’d ˜ R where M : I n → I (n−k)×(n−k) is deﬁned as R ˜ M −1 (q) = m11 (q) − m12 (q)m−1 (q)m12 (q). 2009 – p. 22 with mij the partition of M −1 (induced by the constraints).

Milano. CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE NESTER Meeting. Cholesky) M −1 (q) = T (q)T (q). where R T : I n → I (n−k)×(n−k) is a full rank matrix. S : I n × I n−k → I (n−k)×(n−k) R L(q) F (q. ˜ T (q)[Gc (q)u − S (q) U (q)] n T JT + i=1 [(( qi T )T −1 x)(L ei ) − (L ei )(( qi T )T −1 x) ]. L is a left-invertible matrix. x) = = = ˜ S(q)T (q).Some Deﬁnitions ˜ Introduce a factorization. July 4.g. x) = (q. L and F are known. since q and u are measurable. where (y. (e. Moreover. R Deﬁne R R R R R R R L : I n → I n×(n−k) . u) S(y. p and ei the i–th basis vector of Rn−k . Notice that. T (q)˜). 7/1 . F : I n × I m → I n−k . 2009 – p..

(ii) S is linear in the second argument. CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE NESTER Meeting. u). x. 2009 – p. (i) S is skew–symmetric.A Key Lemma The system admits a state space representation of the form y ˙ x ˙ = = L(y)x S(y. 8/1 . x)x. Milano. x ¯ for all y ∈ I n . x)¯ = S(y. x ∈ I n−k . July 4. x)x + F (y. R ¯ R The lemma implies that the speed observer problem can be recast as an observer problem for (♥) with output y. ¯ R R R (iii) There exists a mapping S : I n × I n−k → I (n−k)×(n−k) such that ¯ S(y. (♥) and S veriﬁes the following properties.

2009 – p. July 4. 9/1 . Milano.Example 1: The Chaplygin Sleigh CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE NESTER Meeting.

2009 – p.8. Milano. 3. U (q) = 0 and u = 0. 1. 2) r(0) = 3 CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE NESTER Meeting. July 4. I is the moment of inertia of the rigid body about its center of mass and a denotes the ﬁxed distance between the knife edge and the center of mass. Simulation parameters and IC’s m=1 a=2 I=5 k1 = 0. Z(q) = ma cos(q3 ) I + ma2 . 10/1 . The body is moving on the ground. 7) ˆ ξ1 (0) = (2. 1. m is the mass of the rigid body.5) x(0) = (5. 10) y (0) = (2. 5) ˆ x(0) = (3.cont’d Model m 0 −ma sin(q3 ) 0 m ma cos(q3 ) −ma sin(q3 ) − sin(q3 ) cos(q3 ) 0 M (q) = . 5. that is.7 k2 = 4 k3 = 5 y(0) = (1.

q (bottom row).8 (dashed lines) and k1 = 1. 20 0 −20 9 8 7 5 4.5 0 6 1 0 −15 0 2 CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE 4 t (sec) 6 8 −2 2 4 t (sec) 6 8 NESTER Meeting.5 2 1.5 4 q1 −40 −60 −80 −100 q2 6 5 4 3 q3 0 2 4 t (sec) 6 8 3.7 (dotted ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙ lines). July 4. 11/1 . for k1 = 0.5 0 2 4 t (sec) 6 8 0 2 4 t (sec) 6 8 5 12 10 2 ments q1 ˙ 0 1.5 0 0 2 4 t (sec) 6 8 −0. y (top row) and of q. 2009 – p. Milano.cont’d q.5 3 2.5 8 −5 q2 ˙ 4 −10 2 q3 ˙ 0.

12/1 . 2009 – p. Milano. July 4.Example 2: A Walking Robot CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE NESTER Meeting.

In some sense. i. algorithm.Conclusions A deﬁnite afﬁrmative answer has been given to the question of existence of a globally convergent speed observer for general mechanical systems with non–holonomic constraints. CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE NESTER Meeting. July 4. hence the result is applicable for robots with prismatic joints. Milano. The only requirement is that the system is forward complete. our contribution should be interpreted more as an existence result than an actual.e. whose explicit analytic solution cannot be guaranteed a priori. No assumption is made on the existence of an upperbound for the inertia matrix. Leaving aside the high complexity of the observer dynamics. 13/1 .. practically implementable. 2009 – p. the difﬁculty stems from the fact that a key function is deﬁned via an integral expression. that trajectories of the system exist for all times t ≥ 0—which is a rather weak condition.

- NumericalMethods FortranCodes Set I
- mm-31
- Math Sample Paper-1 ( With Solutions)
- GoldensteinMetaxisLarge2000PubsAHEdits
- Analysis of an Anaerobic Digestion Process Using Optimization Tools
- cpam.pdf
- n10.pdf
- 20000414
- Jigsaw Paper
- 1-s2.0-S0022460X03004218-main.pdf
- 01 Linearization of matrix polynomials expressed in polynomial bases.pdf
- Nonlinear optimization
- The Semiclassical Zeta Function for Geodesic Flows on Negatively Curved Manifolds
- Maths Sample Paper 12
- Sample Exam Solutions.docx
- Stability of a Prey-Predator Model with SIS Epidemic Disease in Predator Involving Holling Type II Functional Response
- Linear Algebra Chapter 12- Complex Vector Spaces
- HBM Method and Nonlinear Oscillators Under Resosnant
- GetTRDoc
- tu_diss
- Survey.pdf
- Matlab Programs
- InTech-Robust Nonlinear Control of a 7 Dof Model Scale Helicopter Under Wind Gusts Using Disturbance Observers
- [Sayama] Introduction to the Modeling and Analysis of%0AComplex Systems.pdf
- (Www.entrance-exam.net)-Karnataka State Board Secondary Examination SSLC (Class 10) Mathematics Sample Paper 1
- Article1380893891_Zhang Et Al
- Matrices Intro
- Research on Evolution Equations Compendium Volume 1
- How to Write Mathematics
- Topics in Classical Algebraic Geometry

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading