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208 views7 pagesMy attempt in deriving the Riemann zeta(2k) Function using Fourier Analysis.

Riemann zeta(2k) Using Fourier Analysis

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My attempt in deriving the Riemann zeta(2k) Function using Fourier Analysis.

© All Rights Reserved

0 ratings0% found this document useful (0 votes)

208 views7 pagesRiemann zeta(2k) Using Fourier Analysis

My attempt in deriving the Riemann zeta(2k) Function using Fourier Analysis.

© All Rights Reserved

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Zeta(2k)

Introduction

A continous periodic function can be expressed as an infinite series

∞

a0 X 2πnx 2πnx

f (x) = + an cos( ) + bn sin( )

2 n=1

p p

where Z

2 2πnx

an = f (x)cos( )dx(n ≥ 0)

p I p

and Z

2 2πnx

an = f (x)sin( )dx(n ≥ 0)

p I p

where I is any interval of length p.

Bernoulli polynomials

Usual definition: Lets look at the case of the usual way how the bernoulli’s

polynomail is defined

∞

(text ) X tn

= B n (x)

(et − 1) n=0 n!

23

24 CHAPTER 7. ZETA(2K)

bernoulis number.

Let

1

pn (x) = Bn (x)

n!

then ∞

(text ) X

= pn (x)tn

(et − 1) n=0

Proposition 1:

po (x) = 1

pn (0) = pn (1)∀n ≥ 2

Proof:

∞

(t2 ext ) X

= p0 (x)tn

(et − 1) n=0 n

∞

X

= p0n (x)tn

n=1

0

because p (x) = 0. Dividing both sides by t and using the defining

relation again, we obtain

∞

X ∞

X

n

pn (x)t = p0n (x)tn−1

n=0 n=1

∞

X

= p0n+1 (x)tn

n=0

25

3)

∞

X (tet )

pn (1)tn =

n=0

(et − 1)

(tet − 1) + t

=

(et − 1)

t

=t+ t

(e − 1)

X∞

=t+ pn (0)tn

n=0

po (x) = 1

R1

0 pn (x)dx = 0∀n ≥ 1

Note also that it is obvious that properties (1)’, (2)’, and (3)’ define a

family of polynomials pn (x)n≥0 . One could therefore use these proper-

ties to define the pn (x).

Proposition 2:

That is ∀n ≥ 0

pn (1 − x) = (−1)n (pn (x))

Proof ∞

X (te(1−x)t )

pn (1 − x)tn =

n=0

(et − 1)

(tet e−xt )

= t

(e − 1)

(−ue−u eux )

=

(e−u − 1)

where u = -t

(ueux )

=

(eu − 1)

26 CHAPTER 7. ZETA(2K)

∞

X

= pn (x)un

n=0

∞

X

= (−1)n pn (x)tn

n=0

polynomial pn (x) on [0, 1). Note that, if n ≥ 2, then

Z 1

pn (1) − pn (0) = pn−1 (x)dx = 0

0

so fn is continuous on R.

We will compute the fourier series of pn (x) where n is even .More precisely

we extend pn (x) to a periodic function fn such that

fn (x) = pn (x)

if 0 ≤ x < 1 ,

fn (x + 1) = fn (x)∀x ∈ R

if

n 6= 1, fn (0) = pn (0) = pn (1) = fn (1)

therefore fn is continuous.

Lemma 3

Proof :

Let {a} = a − bac denote the fractional part of a real number a, and note

that {−a} = 1 - {a} if a ∈ R − Z. Then if x ∈ R − Z,

fn (−x) = pn ({−x})

= pn ({1 − x})

= pn ({x})

27

by Proposition 2

= fn (x)

Fourier Series

∞

an,0 X

+ (an,m cos(2πmx) + bn,m sin(2πmx))

2 m=1

Z 1 Z 1

an,0 = 2 fn (x)dx = 2 pn (x)dx = 0∀n ≥ 1

0 0

Z 1

an,m = 2 fm (x)cos(2πmx)dx =

0

Z 1

2 pn (x)cos(2πmx)dx =

0

1 Z 1

2 2

[pn (x)sin(2πmx)] −

pn−1 (x)sin(2πmx)dx =

2πm 0 2πm 0

1 Z 1

−2 1 1

−[ [pn−1 (x)cox(2πmx)] + pn−2 (x)cos(2πmx)dx =

2πm 2πm 0 0 2πm

1

−1 2

Z

2( ) pn−2 (x)cos(2πmx)dx =

2πm 0

1

1 2

Z

2( ) pn−2 (x)cos(2πmx)dx

2πim 0

so, not because it is necessary.

28 CHAPTER 7. ZETA(2K)

Z 1

pn (x)cos(2πmx)dx

0

1 Z 1 !

1 1 1

= )[p2 (x)sin(2πmx)] − p1 (x)sin(2πmx)dx

(2πim)n−2 2πm 0 2πm 0

1 Z 1 !

1 −1 −1 1

= )[p1 (x)cos(2πmx)] + cos(2πmx)dx

(2πim)n−2 2πm 2πm 0 2πm 0

1 −1 −1

= +0

(2πim)n−2 2πm 2πm

1

=

(2πim)n

Thus

1

1 2

Z

p2 (x)cos(2πmx)dx = −( )

0 2πim

−2

an,m =

(2πim)n

Now an,m = 0 when n is even and when n ≥ 4 and m ≥ 1, and the equality

holds when n = 2 as well. The remaining case where n = 2 and m = 0 is

immediate from the fact that pn (0) = pn (1) when n ≥ 2; specifically, an,0 = 0.

Hence, when n ≥ 2 is even. By fourier convergence

∞

X

fn (x) = an,m cos(2πmx) =

m=1

∞

X −2 cos(2πmx)

m=1

(2πi)n mn

Hence now, as we have already remarked, fn is continuous when n 6= 1, so

we may evaluate the Fourier series at x = 0 to find that

29

∞

X −2

fn (0) =

m=1

(2πi m)n

as cos(0) = 1

∞

−2 X 1 −2

= ζ(n)

(2πi)n m=1 mn (2πi)n

Rearranging gives us

−1

ζ(n) = (2πi)n fn (0) =

2

−1

(2πi)n pn (0) =

2

−1 B2k

(2πi)2k =

2 2k!

(−1)k+1 (2π)2k B2k

2(2k!)

where k = n2 .

Hence Done

QED