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Introduction 1 2 2 31 31 37 65 65 71 92 92 96 96 105 105 121 121 124 124 126 126
Annus Mirabilis and special relativity
Annus Mirabilis papers History of special relativity
Light and general relativity
History of general relativity Relativity priority dispute
Unified field theory
Classical unified field theories
Collaboration and conflict
List of things named after Albert Einstein
Effect on popular culture
Albert Einstein in popular culture
List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 182 185
. The supporting articles are those referenced as major expansions of selected sections. This book is based on the Wikipedia article "Albert Einstein".Introduction 1 Introduction Note.
New Jersey. Switzerland. (1919–1936) Alma mater Known for Spouse . USA Jewish • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Württemberg/Germany (until 1896) Stateless (1896–1901) Switzerland (from 1901) Austria (1911–12) Germany (1914–33)  United States (from 1940) ETH Zurich University of Zurich General relativity Special relativity Photoelectric effect Brownian motion Mass-energy equivalence Einstein field equations Unified Field Theory Bose–Einstein statistics Mileva Marić (1903–1919) Elsa Löwenthal. Italy. Residence Ethnicity Citizenship Germany. Kingdom of Württemberg. née Einstein. USA Resting place Grounds of the Institute for Advanced Study.2 Main article Albert Einstein Albert Einstein Albert Einstein. New Jersey. German Empire 18 April 1955 (aged 76)Princeton. Princeton. 1921 Born Died 14 March 1879Ulm.
however. As a result. German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] ( listen). becoming the first and only country to possess nuclear weapons during the war. He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics. he is often regarded as the father of modern physics.Albert Einstein 3 Awards • • • • Nobel Prize in Physics (1921) Copley Medal (1925) Max Planck Medal (1929) Time Person of the Century Signature Albert Einstein (pronounced /ˈælbərt ˈaɪnstaɪn/. which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. Roosevelt that Germany might be developing an atomic weapon. philosopher and author who is widely regarded as one of the most influential and best known scientists and intellectuals of all time. international relations and the existence of God. On the eve of World War II in 1939. Near the beginning of his career. A German-Swiss Nobel laureate. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole.S. medicine and philosophy from many European and American universities. he personally alerted President Franklin D. and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916. His great intelligence and originality has made the word "Einstein" synonymous with genius. 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a theoretical physicist. leading to the creation of the top secret Manhattan Project. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light.S. He realized. and received honorary doctorate degrees in science. he also wrote about various philosophical and political subjects such as socialism. Einstein published more than 300 scientific along with over 150 non-scientific works. he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. and the U. begin uranium procurement and nuclear research. Roosevelt advocated such research. and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory. In 1917. that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields. . Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. and recommended that the U.
in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire on 14 March 1879. Einstein at the age of 4. Einstein wrote his first scientific work. In 1889. first to Milan and then. "The Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields". his father's company failed: direct current (DC) lost the War of Currents to alternating current (AC). Einstein studied Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. a few months later. Switzerland. As he grew. he fell in love with the family's daughter. despite the apparent "empty space". Einstein applied directly to the Eidgenössische Polytechnische Schule (ETH) in Zürich. to Pavia. When the family moved to Pavia. The Einsteins were non-observant Jews.  His father once showed him a pocket compass. Their son attended a Catholic elementary school from the age of five until ten. The Einsteins sent Albert to Aarau. where his father and his uncle founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. His mother was Pauline Einstein (née Koch).  Albert Einstein in 1893 (age 14). The Jewish community arranged for Talmud to take meals with the Einsteins each week on Thursdays for six years. Einstein realized that there must be something causing the needle to move. including Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and Euclid's Elements (which Einstein called the "holy little geometry book"). In 1894. Talmud was a poor Jewish medical student from Poland. In 1880. Max Talmud (later changed to Max Talmey) introduced the ten-year old Einstein to key texts in science. In the spring of 1895. Lacking the requisite Matura certificate. Einstein & Cie. During this time. he took an entrance examination. During this time Talmud wholeheartedly guided Einstein through many secular educational interests. Marie. His father was Hermann Einstein. Einstein stayed in Munich to finish his studies at the Luitpold Gymnasium. although he got exceptional marks in mathematics and physics. Einstein built models and mechanical devices for fun and began to show a talent for mathematics. renounced his citizenship in the German Kingdom of . the Einstein family moved to Italy.) In Aarau. he graduated. he withdrew to join his family in Pavia. with his father's approval. (His sister Maja later married the Wintelers' son Paul. in northern Switzerland to finish secondary school. Although Einstein had early speech difficulties. but Einstein clashed with authorities and resented the school's regimen and teaching method. At age 17. a salesman and engineer. While lodging with the family of Professor Jost Winteler. and. a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current. He later wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought were lost in strict rote learning. In search of business. which he failed. he was a top student in elementary school.Albert Einstein 4 Biography Early life and education Albert Einstein was born in Ulm. His father intended for him to pursue electrical engineering. mathematics and philosophy. the family moved to Munich. convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor's note.
but a former classmate's father helped him secure a job in Bern.    5 Marriages and children In early 1902. the only woman among the six students in the mathematics and physics section of the teaching diploma course. also enrolled at the Polytechnic that same year. Maurice Solovine and Einstein. In 1933. Her full name is not known. although he was passed over for promotion until he "fully mastered machine technology". self-mockingly named "The Olympia Academy". Their readings included the works of Henri Poincaré. Ernst Mach. after having had a relationship with her since 1912. There have been claims that Marić collaborated with Einstein on his celebrated 1905 papers. In 1914. Einstein's home in Bern . Marie Winteler moved to Olsberg. Einstein and Marić married in January 1903. was born in Zurich in July 1910. Their second son. was born in Bern.Albert Einstein Württemberg to avoid military service. Einstein's position at the Swiss Patent Office became permanent. Patent office After graduating. but Marić failed the examination with a poor grade in the mathematics component. having lived apart for five years. With a few friends he met in Bern. who founded the Olympia Academy Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical-mechanical synchronization of time. as an assistant examiner. the couple's first son. Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal (née Einstein) on 2 June 1919. In 1935. He evaluated patent applications for electromagnetic devices. while his wife remained in Zurich with their sons. Elsa Einstein was diagnosed with heart and kidney problems and died in December 1936. In 1903. In 1900 Einstein was awarded the Zurich Polytechnic teaching diploma. She was his first cousin maternally and his second cousin paternally.  but historians of physics who have studied the issue find no evidence that she made any substantive contributions. they emigrated permanently to the United States. and her fate is uncertain after 1903. theory of functions. Einstein moved to Berlin. Eduard. Left to right: Conrad Habicht. Over the next few years. which influenced his scientific and philosophical outlook. Einstein and Mileva Marić had a daughter they named Lieserl in their correspondence. and David Hume. who was born in Novi Sad where Marić's parents lived. In May 1904. at the Federal Office for Intellectual Property. Einstein spent almost two frustrating years searching for a teaching post. the patent office. Mileva Marić. two technical problems that show up conspicuously in the thought experiments that eventually led Einstein to his radical conclusions about the nature of light and the fundamental connection between space and time. and in 1896 he enrolled in the four year mathematics and physics teaching diploma program at the Polytechnic in Zurich. Switzerland. Hans Albert Einstein. and they read books together on extra-curricular physics in which Einstein was taking an increasing interest. Einstein started a small discussion group. which met regularly to discuss science and philosophy. Marić and Einstein divorced on 14 February 1919. Einstein and Marić's friendship developed into romance. Switzerland for a teaching post. Einstein's future wife.
intelligent. as if he were a head of state rather than a theoretical physicist". He became a full professor at Karl-Ferdinand University in Prague in 1911. His first lecture in Tokyo lasted four hours. Sir Herbert Samuel. he returned to Germany after being appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics (1914–1932) and a professor at the Humboldt University of Berlin. Travels abroad Einstein visited New York City for the first time on 2 April 1921. During one reception given to him. with consistent explanations that apply in all instances and avoid contradicting each other.  In 1911. light from another star would be bent by the Sun's gravity. The following year. Einstein was awarded a PhD by the University of Zurich. Einstein later gave his impressions of the Japanese in a letter to his sons: :307 Of all the people I have met. although with a special clause in his contract that freed him from most teaching obligations. On 7 November 1919. and that is the forgetfulness of its own people. and the equivalence of matter and energy. on the photoelectric effect. Because relativity was still considered somewhat controversial. His dissertation was entitled "A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions". :308 On his return voyage. as they are modest. which has been called Einstein's annus mirabilis or "miracle year". he also visited Palestine for twelve days in what would become his only visit to that region. and have a feel for art. where he gave a series of lectures to thousands of Japanese. he completed his thesis. In 1916. Before. and Japan. 1919. On 30 April 1905. :308 . he traveled throughout Asia and later to Palestine. I like the Japanese most. and he was appointed lecturer at the University of Berne.(Einstein 1954) In 1922. When asked where he got his scientific ideas. I have always found something to regret in the Jewish soul.Albert Einstein 6 Academic career In 1901. it was officially bestowed for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. questions were raised whether the measurements were accurate enough to support Einstein's theory. the leading British newspaper The Times printed a banner headline that read: "Revolution in Science – New Theory of the Universe – Newtonian Ideas Overthrown". International media reports of this made Einstein world famous. He also recommended theories with visualizable results. In 1914. He became a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. writes Isaacson. Einstein explained that he believed scientific work best proceeds from an examination of physical reality and a search for underlying axioms. Einstein had a paper on the capillary forces of a straw published in the prestigious Annalen der Physik. he quit the patent office and the lectureship to take the position of physics docent at the University of Zurich. which were to bring him to the notice of the academic world. serving as pro-forma advisor. That same year. he expressed his happiness over the event: I consider this the greatest day of my life. after which he met the emperor and empress at the Imperial Palace where thousands came to watch. Ceylon. the building was "stormed by throngs who wanted to hear him". "He was greeted with great British pomp. special relativity. He also received the Copley Medal from the Royal Society in 1925. Professor of Experimental Physics. Brownian motion. Today. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. (Much later. Einstein was appointed president of the German Physical Society (1916–1918). considerate. he had calculated that. I have been made happy by the sight of the Jewish people learning to recognize themselves and to make themselves recognized as a force in the world. he was recognized as a leading scientist. His travels included Singapore. as part of a six-month excursion and speaking tour.) In 1921. with Alfred Kleiner. he published four groundbreaking papers. By 1908. based on his new theory of general relativity. In Einstein's talk to the audience. This included a cannon salute upon his arrival at the residence of the British high commissioner. That prediction was claimed confirmed by observations made by a British expedition led by Sir Arthur Eddington during the solar eclipse of May 29.
Enrico Fermi. There. became close friends." and believed that the U. Roosevelt and warn him that Nazi Germany might be developing an atomic bomb. "not yet hanged".' he told his military aide." In another letter he writes. with Einstein also recommending that the U.S.S. written with the help of Hungarian emigre physicist Leo Szilard. New Jersey. 'This needs action. he learned that the new German government had passed a law barring Jews from holding any official positions. Adolf Hitler. he tried unsuccessfully to develop a unified field theory and to refute the accepted interpretation of quantum physics. the Being protected in England after escaping Nazi . a few months before the beginning of World War II. A month later.Albert Einstein 7 Emigration from Germany In 1933. entry into World War II". Department of Energy. One German magazine included him in a list of enemies of the German regime with the phrase. They would take long walks together discussing their work. with a "$5. and Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels proclaimed. Szilard. that Washington at first "brushed off with disbelief" the fears they expressed." Einstein also learned that his name was on a list of assassination targets." British columnist Ambrose Evans-Pritchard notes. Gosling of the U. 1933.  Among other German scientists forced to flee were fourteen Nobel Germany in 1933 laureates and twenty-six of the sixty professors of theoretical physics in the country. "regarded it as their responsibility to alert Americans to the possibility that German scientists might win the race to build an atomic bomb. adoption of serious investigations into nuclear weapons on the eve of the U.000 bounty on his head". Other weapons historians agree that the letter was "arguably the key stimulus for the U. often working side by side. were Edward Teller. before the Nazis. "could not take the risk of allowing Hitler" to possess nuclear bombs. Einstein wrote to a friend. gave the letter more prestige . The letter. eventually getting a personal envoy into the Oval Office. the Nazi book burnings occurred.G. "In my whole life I have never felt so Jewish as now. Victor Weisskopf. Einstein was compelled to immigrate to the United States due to the rise to power of the Nazis under Germany's new chancellor." He took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton. Einstein was persuaded to write a letter to President Franklin D. many of whom made certain that the Allies would develop nuclear weapons first. He then describes how quickly Roosevelt changed his mind: "Albert Einstein interceded through the Belgian queen mother. another Institute member. and other refugees including Edward Teller and Eugene Wigner. "For me the most beautiful thing is to be in contact with a few fine Jews—a few millennia of a civilized past do mean something after all.  an affiliation that lasted until his death in 1955. World War II and the Manhattan Project In the summer of 1939. Among the other scientists who left Germany. His last assistant was Bruria Kaufman. It was the birth of the Manhattan Project. however.S. As a result of Einstein's letter. begin uranium enrichment and nuclear research. with Einstein's works being among those burnt. and Lise Meitner. He and Kurt Gödel. who later became a renowned physicist. and his meetings with Roosevelt." Gosling adds that "the President was a man of considerable action once he had chosen a direction. Hans Bethe. With so many other Jewish scientists now forced by circumstances to live in America. then made up his mind within minutes. and to warn that Hitler would be more than willing to resort to such a weapon.S. Roosevelt initially fobbed him off. Otto Stern. He listened more closely at a second meeting over breakfast the next day. or the other countries it came to dominate. Niels Bohr.S. "Jewish intellectualism is dead. Einstein. While visiting American universities in April. According to F. including teaching at universities.
S. . It became the only country to develop an atomic bomb during World War II as a result of its Manhattan Project. drawing on its "immense material. Not long after settling into his career at Princeton. :432 Taking oath of allegiance for U. entered the "race" to develop the bomb first. Einstein declined. and "at once saddened and ashamed" that he could not accept it: Einstein with David Ben Gurion. citizenship. Linus Pauling. but there was some justification — the danger that the Germans would make them. he expressed his appreciation of the "meritocracy" in American culture when compared to Europe. He later stated. :522 However." U. citizenship Einstein became an American citizen in 1940. E. and wrote in his response that he was "deeply moved". in 1954. Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion offered Einstein the position of President of Israel. 1951 All my life I have dealt with objective matters.Albert Einstein U. in November 1952. "Race prejudice has unfortunately become an American tradition which is uncritically handed down from one generation to the next. Chaim Weizmann. I am the more more distressed over these circumstances because my relationship with the Jewish people became my strongest human tie once I achieved complete clarity about our precarious position among the nations of the world. and scientific resources".. Einstein writes: What makes the new arrival devoted to this country is the democratic trait among the people. Einstein said to his old friend. the individual was "encouraged" to be more creative. hence I lack both the natural aptitude and the experience to deal properly with people and to exercise official function. According to Isaacson. The offer was presented by Israel's ambassador in Washington.. who explained that the offer "embodies the deepest respect which the Jewish people can repose in any of its sons". Abba Eban. The only remedies are enlightenment and education". Einstein corresponded with civil rights activist W. and in 1946 Einstein called racism America's "worst disease". financial. American youth has the good fortune not to have its outlook troubled by outworn traditions. he recognized the "right of individuals to say and think what they pleased". the last year of his life: "I made one great mistake in my life — when I signed the letter to President Roosevelt recommending that atom bombs be made. and as result.S. . (1940) 8 As a member of the NAACP at Princeton who campaigned for the civil rights of African Americans. B. After the death of Israel's first president. a trait he valued from his own early education. without social barriers. No one humbles himself before another person or class. Du Bois.S. a mostly ceremonial post. :522   .
socialism. it is time to go. 1955. While Boltzmann's statistical interpretation of entropy is universally accepted today.  During the autopsy. who had struggled for years to gain acceptance for atoms. the pathologist of Princeton Hospital. At the time of his first paper in 1902. but a few expressed leftist political opinions about pacifism.  In addition to the work he did by himself he also collaborated with other scientists on additional projects including the Bose–Einstein statistics. removed Einstein's brain for preservation.Albert Einstein 9 Death On April 17. in hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent. Boltzmann had given an interpretation of the laws of thermodynamics. Most were about physics. Intuitively. which had previously been reinforced surgically by Dr. because the mean free path of atoms becomes large at low densities. Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. it was not yet completely accepted by physicists that atoms were real. without the permission of his family. Scientific career Throughout his life. the entropy is the logarithm of the number of ways a system could be configured inside. had found the distribution of velocities of atoms in a gas. The reason the entropy goes up is only because it is more likely for a system to go from a special state with only a few possible internal configurations to a more generic state with many. the friction in a gas would seem to go to zero as the density goes to zero. Thomas Stoltz Harvey. but he did not live long enough to complete it. The statistical idea was most successful in explaining the properties of gases. the Einstein refrigerator and others. and Einstein believed it. Einstein published hundreds of books and articles. Ludwig Boltzmann was a leading 19th century atomist physicist. but this is not so. Albert Einstein in 1904. James Clerk Maxwell. Einstein refused surgery. having continued to work until near the end. Physics in 1900 Einstein's early papers all come from attempts to demonstrate that atoms exist and have a finite nonzero size. another leading atomist. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. at the turn of the 20th century it was a minority position." He died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the age of 76. I will do it elegantly. saying: "I want to go when I want. Einstein's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered around the grounds of the Institute for Advanced Study. I have done my share. A subsequent . even though chemists had good evidence ever since Antoine Lavoisier's work a century earlier. and zionism. He took the draft of a speech he was preparing for a television appearance commemorating the State of Israel's seventh anniversary with him to the hospital. The reason physicists were skeptical was because no 19th century theory could fully explain the properties of matter from the properties of atoms. Rudolph Nissen in 1948. and derived the surprising result that the viscosity of a gas should be independent of density. In Boltzmann's way of thinking. suggesting that the law of entropy increase is statistical.
and this is the way it will always be. a gas made up of a molecule with two atoms can be thought of as two balls on a spring. At temperatures near zero. and the papers as the Annus Mirabilis Papers. like a mirror suspended on spring. and the thermodynamic identity. Certain experiments could then be explained by atomic theory. Einstein pointed out that the statistical fluctuations of a macroscopic object. This led him first to thermodynamics. This spring has energy kBT at high temperatures. It does at temperatures of about 1000 degrees. underneath it all. the finite nonzero size of atoms leads to effects which can be observed. Similarly. and should contribute an extra kB to the specific heat. according to the statistical interpretation. showed that atoms in a gas had velocities distributed according to Maxwell's distribution law. and to the theory of specific heats of solids. His research in 1903 and 1904 was mainly concerned with the effect of finite atomic size on diffusion phenomena. all other contributions to the specific heat from rotations and vibrations also disappear. that in reality they could be assumed to be infinitesimally small. every spring-like motion has thermal energy kBT on average at temperature T. but at lower temperature. so the specific heat of every solid is 3NkB.Albert Einstein experiment by Maxwell and his wife confirmed this surprising prediction. the specific heat goes to zero. As in Maxwell's work. so the total specific heat of a continuous wave like light should be infinite in classical mechanics. he was a realist. In addition to these successes. He wrote a paper establishing a thermodynamic identity in 1902. because it would mean that all energy in the universe would be instantly sucked up into light waves. Einstein opposed this position. The most glaring inconsistency was in the theory of light waves. So he set out to show that the atomic point of view was correct. or so large that it might as well be infinite. This research. a result which became known as the Dulong–Petit law. but other experiments could not. Continuous waves in a box can be thought of as infinitely many spring-like motions. They would eventually form the content of his PhD thesis. but mathematical. a system has a maximum entropy and. the leading German language physics journal Annalen der Physik published four of Einstein's papers. At zero temperature. This is obviously wrong. while he was working in the patent office. Each standing wave has a specific heat of kB. and everything would slow down and stop. this contribution disappears. that Avogadro's number was infinite. Mach believed that atoms were a useful fiction. Other experiments on gases and vacuum. A monatomic solid with N atoms can be thought of as N little balls representing N atoms attached to each other in a box grid with 3N springs. atomic theory predicted specific heats that are too large. He believed that a single consistent theory should explain all observations. This law is true at room temperature. so that the specific heat of every spring is Boltzmann's constant kB. but not for colder temperatures. 10 Thermodynamic fluctuations and statistical physics Einstein's earliest papers were concerned with thermodynamics. then to statistical physics. one for each possible standing wave. Throughout his career. would be completely . it should be possible to see them directly. In classical statistical mechanics. Maxwell noted that at cold temperatures. This behavior was inconsistent with classical physics. His first major result in this field was the theory of thermodynamic fluctuations. using a rotating slitted drum. These inconsistencies led some people to say that atoms were not physical. When in equilibrium. In 1905. The four papers eventually were recognized as revolutionary. Notable among the skeptics was Ernst Mach. were well within the mainstream of physics in his time. whose positivist philosophy led him to demand that if atoms are real. there were also inconsistencies. and that this theory would be a description of what was really going on. and 1905 became known as Einstein's "Miracle Year". and kB was infinitesimally small. it can fluctuate a little bit. and a few other papers which attempted to interpret phenomena from a statistical atomic point of view.
is fiercely debated. measuring the precise amount of Brownian motion using Einstein's theory would show that Boltzmann's constant is non-zero and would measure Avogadro's number. Einstein sought new principles of this sort. These relations are known as Einstein relations. and to the radius of the particle (see Stokes' law). and has become a standard tool in modern theoretical physics. without thought. Einstein's required very few theoretical assumptions or new physics. and the time decay of the fluctuations would be entirely determined by the law of friction. but in the Brownian motion paper he showed that dynamical relaxation rates calculated from classical mechanics could be used as statistical relaxation rates to derive dynamical diffusion laws. Other principles postulated by Einstein and later vindicated are the principle of equivalence and the principle of adiabatic invariance of the quantum number. The first general a-priori principle he found was the principle of relativity. The law of friction for a small ball in a viscous fluid like water was discovered by George Stokes. as Brownian motion. and would move around randomly. He had come to understand that quantum properties of light mean that Maxwell's equations were only an approximation. A well accepted example of an a-priori principle is rotational invariance. This was understood by Hermann Minkowski to be a generalization of rotational invariance from space to space-time. These experiments were carried out a few years later by Jean Baptiste Perrin. The use of a-priori principles is a distinctive unique signature of Einstein's early work. to guide the production of physical ideas. it is assumed to be rotationally invariant almost automatically. and Einstein noted that such a ball. The theory of Brownian motion was the least revolutionary of Einstein's Annus mirabilis papers. He felt that guessing formal relations would not go anywhere. had actually been observed by the botanist Robert Brown. So he decided to focus on a-priori principles instead. he realized. 11 Thought experiments and a-priori physical principles Einstein's thinking underwent a transformation in 1905. just like an individual atom. then the new physics will be the simplest theory consistent with the principles and with previously known laws. and had an important role in securing the acceptance of the atomic theory by physicists. The theory of fluctuations. Another of Einstein's general principles. Unlike the other methods. It established that thermodynamic fluctuations were related to dissipation. Einstein was able to identify this motion with that predicted by his theory. Einstein's theory of Brownian motion was the first paper in the field of statistical physics. Since the fluctuations which give rise to Brownian motion are just the same as the fluctuations of the velocities of atoms. Mach's principle. This was shown by Einstein to be true for time-independent fluctuations. If a new force is discovered in physics. would have a visible effect for an object which could move around freely. but it is the most frequently cited. would travel about a few micrometres per second. his great breakthrough came in 1905. Such an object would have a velocity which is random. This motion could be easily detected with a microscope and indeed. Searching for ways to test this relation. which are statements about physical laws which can be understood to hold in a very broad sense even in domains where they have not yet been shown to apply. This relation could be used to calculate how far a small ball in water would travel due to its random thermal motion. . and whether it holds in our world or not is still not definitively established. The average kinetic energy of the object would be . the friction force would be proportional to the velocity. and gave a rough estimate of Avogadro's number consistent with the more accurate estimates due to Max Planck's theory of blackbody light and Robert Millikan's measurement of the charge of the electron.Albert Einstein determined by the second derivative of the entropy with respect to the position of the mirror. that uniform motion is indistinguishable from rest. but he did not know how to go about finding those laws. He showed that for small velocities. since it was directly measuring atomic motion on visible grains. Once enough principles are found. of size about a micrometre. He knew that new laws would have to replace these.
according to the Planck law. where h is Planck's constant. But he does suggest that this idea would explain certain experimental results. so that each independent spring motion has energy which is an integer multiple of hf. where the light is described by Wien's law. has an entropy which looks exactly the same as the entropy of a gas of classical particles. which did not confirm his theory until fifteen years later. The high-frequency part. starting with Max Planck. which showed that the observed independence of the speed of light on the observer's state of motion required fundamental changes to the notion of simultaneity. Instead of connecting all the atoms to each other. Einstein concludes that the number of states of short wavelength light waves in a box with volume V is equal to the number of states of a group of localizable particles in the same box. Consequences of this include the time-space frame of a moving body slowing down and contracting (in the direction of motion) relative to the frame of the observer. since the number of independent oscillations stays the same. He was not at all motivated by the detailed experiments on the photoelectric effect. With this assumption.  Photons In a 1905 paper. including Max Planck and Niels Bohr. notably the photoelectric effect. This paper also argued that the idea of a luminiferous aether – one of the leading theoretical entities in physics at the time – was superfluous. Einstein's 1905 work on relativity remained controversial for many years. Einstein imagined that each atom was attached to a fixed point in space by a spring. This is not physically correct. the same idea could be applied to solids to fix the specific heat problem there. Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally rejected by all physicists. with Robert Millikan's detailed experiments on the photoelectric effect. as this is the only reasonable interpretation of the entropy. by explaining the specific heat anomaly in solids.  This equation suggests that tiny amounts of mass could be converted into huge amounts of energy and presaged the development of nuclear power. This was the first application of quantum theory to a mechanical system. This idea only became universally accepted in 1919. Since (unlike others) he was comfortable with the statistical interpretation. He does not say much more. which leads to standing waves with all sorts of different frequencies. Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles (quanta). Einstein then assumes that the motion in this model is quantized. because he is not sure how the particles are related to the wave. which had previously been considered to be distinct concepts. The . and decomposes it into a low-frequency part and a high-frequency part. Einstein's model treats each atom as connected to a single spring.Albert Einstein 12 Special relativity His 1905 paper on the electrodynamics of moving bodies introduced his theory of special relativity. Einstein's paper on the light particles was almost entirely motivated by thermodynamic considerations. he confidently postulates that the light itself is made up of localized particles. he applied Boltzmann's statistical method to calculate the average energy of the spring. In his paper on mass–energy equivalence. where f is the frequency of oscillation. and with the measurement of Compton scattering. Einstein considers the entropy of light at temperature T. Since Planck's distribution for light oscillators had no problem with infinite specific heats. Since the entropy is the logarithm of the number of possible states. but it still predicts that the specific heat is 3NkB. but was accepted by leading physicists. Quantized atomic vibrations Einstein continued his work on quantum mechanics in 1906. This leads him to conclude that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each. Einstein deduced from his equations of special relativity what has been called the 20th century's best-known equation: E = mc2. Einstein showed in a simple model that the hypothesis that solid motion is quantized explains why the specific heat of a solid goes to zero at zero temperature.
and long wavelength vibration modes freeze out at colder temperatures than short wavelength ones. quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. At the critical point. and the periodic table of the elements. This was done by Peter Debye. he had not given up on academia. This paper introduced the photon concept (although the name photon was introduced later by Gilbert N. 13 Adiabatic principle and action-angle variables Throughout the 1910s. on the quantization of light. point-like particles. Then each normal mode has a different frequency. Niels Bohr was able to show that the same quantum mechanical postulates introduced by Planck and developed by Einstein would explain the discrete motion of electrons in atoms. giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point. So Einstein concluded that quantum mechanics would solve the main problem of classical physics. and which explains why the sky is blue. Wien had shown that the hypothesis of adiabatic invariance of a thermal equilibrium state allows all the blackbody curves at different temperature to be derived from one another by a simple shifting process. and the specific heat goes to zero.Albert Einstein result was the same as the one that Planck had derived for light: for temperatures where kBT is much smaller than hf. After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets. he became a privatdozent at the University of Bern. In 1908. leading to large fluctuations. Einstein noted in 1911 that the same adiabatic principle shows that the quantity which is quantized in any mechanical motion must be an adiabatic invariant. Theory of critical opalescence Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations. and after this modification Einstein's quantization method reproduced quantitatively the behavior of the specific heats of solids at low temperatures. Einstein showed that Max Planck's energy quanta must have well-defined momenta and act in some respects as independent. In "über die Entwicklung unserer Anschauungen über das Wesen und die Konstitution der Strahlung" ("The Development of Our Views on the Composition and Essence of Radiation"). and to quantize those. this derivative is zero. Lewis in 1926) and inspired the notion of wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics. Arnold Sommerfeld identified this adiabatic invariant as the action variable of classical mechanics. The particles of sound implied by this formulation are now called phonons. the motion is frozen. they all freeze out at the same temperature. Einstein relates this to Raleigh scattering. making the fluid look milky white. the specific heat anomaly. Ordinarily the density fluctuations are controlled by the second derivative of the free energy with respect to the density. which is what happens when the fluctuation size is much smaller than the wavelength. This work was the foundation of condensed matter physics. . The effect of density fluctuations is that light of all wavelengths is scattered. The law that the action variable is quantized was the basic principle of the quantum theory as it was known between 1900 and 1925. and in an earlier 1909 paper. Because all of Einstein's springs have the same stiffness. Wave-particle duality Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in 1906. Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the 1898 arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. The solution to this problem is to solve for the independent normal modes individually. and this leads to a prediction that the specific heat should go to zero exponentially fast when the temperature is low.
and that the difference in rate is proportional to the gravitational potential to first approximation. Einstein at the Solvay conference in 1911. and show that it is nonzero. to half the energy spacing between levels. because the approximation he used doesn't work well for things moving at near the speed of light. the circumference would seem to be longer because the ruler would be contracted. He noted that such an observer would find a different value for the mathematical constant pi than the one predicted by Euclidean geometry. He thought about the case of a uniformly accelerated box not in a gravitational field. studying its properties by means of simple thought experiments. Since Einstein believed that the laws of physics were local. But the actual value for the deflection that he calculated was too small by a factor of two. he would rectify this error and predict the correct amount of light deflection by the sun. was based on the thermodynamics of a diatomic molecule which can split apart into two free atoms. he concluded from this that spacetime could be locally curved. described by local fields. From Prague. . Einstein had what he would call his "happiest thought". When Einstein finished the full theory of general relativity. which was made in 1913 in collaboration with Otto Stern. Einstein thought about the nature of the gravitational field in the years 1909–1912. but. according to special relativity. A notable one is the rotating disk. while still working at the patent office. and noted that it would be indistinguishable from a box sitting still in an unchanging gravitational field. Einstein imagined an observer making experiments on a rotating turntable. and to formulate general relativity in this language. Although this approximation is crude. Principle of equivalence In 1907. The paper challenged astronomers to detect the deflection during a solar eclipse. He modified Planck's hypothesis by stating that the lowest energy state of an oscillator is equal to 1⁄2hf. it allowed him to calculate the deflection of light by gravity.Albert Einstein 14 Zero-point energy Einstein's physical intuition led him to note that Planck's oscillator energies had an incorrect zero point. This argument. He concludes that the rates of clocks depend on their position in a gravitational field. German astronomer Erwin Finlay-Freundlich publicized Einstein's challenge to scientists around the world. This led him to study Riemannian geometry. Einstein published a paper about the effects of gravity on light. This gave him confidence that the scalar theory of gravity proposed by Gunnar Nordström was incorrect. specifically the gravitational redshift and the gravitational deflection of light. He used special relativity to see that the rate of clocks at the top of a box accelerating upward would be faster than the rate of clocks at the bottom. The reason is that the radius of a circle would be measured with an uncontracted ruler. He realized that the principle of relativity could be extended to gravitational fields.
As its name suggests. he immediately visited his old ETH classmate Marcel Grossmann. In 1917. He gave up looking for fully generally covariant tensor equations. especially 1902 Nobel Prize-winner Hendrik Lorentz and Willem de Sitter of Leiden University. accepting a contract as an Extraordinary Professor. to differential geometry. although its findings were not published. which confirmed Einstein's theory that light "bends". more generally. in May 1919. by late 1915.. a team led by the British astronomer Arthur Stanley Eddington claimed to have confirmed Einstein's prediction of gravitational deflection of starlight by the Sun while photographing a solar eclipse with dual expeditions in Sobral. more accurate observations. There have been claims that scrutiny of the specific photographs taken on the Eddington expedition showed the experimental uncertainty to be comparable to the same magnitude as the effect Eddington claimed to have demonstrated. with the equations of motion supplemented by additional gauge fixing conditions. he travelled to Holland regularly to lecture. In 1918. Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory.S. and searched for equations that would be invariant under general linear transformations only. fellow laureate Paul Dirac was quoted saying it was "probably the greatest scientific discovery ever made". from 1920 to 1930. after more than two years of intensive work Einstein abandoned the theory in November. The deflection of light during a solar eclipse was confirmed by later. Some resented the newcomer's fame. He formulated an argument that led him to conclude that a general relativistic field theory is impossible. Some of Einstein's work did reach the United Kingdom and the United States through the efforts of the Austrian Paul Ehrenfest and physicists in the Netherlands.Albert Einstein 15 Hole argument and Entwurf theory While developing general relativity. 1915 after realizing that the hole argument was mistaken. After the war ended. Einstein began exploring the usefulness of general covariance (essentially the use of tensors) for his gravitational theory. now a professor of mathematics. In June. several astronomers accepted Einstein 's 1911 challenge from Prague. for ten years. Simultaneously less elegant and more difficult than general relativity. northern Brazil. The international media guaranteed Einstein's global renown. General relativity In 1912. affecting the inertial motion of other matter. Einstein returned to Switzerland to accept a professorship at his alma mater. On the recommendation of Italian mathematician Tullio Levi-Civita. the work of Central Powers scientists was available only to Central Powers academics. During World War I. The Mount Wilson Observatory in California. and that a 1962 British expedition concluded that the method was inherently unreliable. the ETH. had published his general theory of relativity in the form in which it is used today. . and Príncipe. Nobel laureate Max Born praised general relativity as the "greatest feat of human thinking about nature". This theory explains gravitation as distortion of the structure of spacetime by matter. notably among some German Eddington's photograph of a solar eclipse. who introduced him to Riemannian geometry and. also in California. Einstein maintained his relationship with Leiden University. for national security reasons. published a solar spectroscopic analysis that showed no gravitational redshift. it was a sketch of a theory. but he later returned to it and. the Lick Observatory. announced that it too had disproved Einstein's prediction. 1913 the Entwurf ("draft") theory was the result of these investigations. Once back in Zurich. U. However. a west African island. For a while Einstein thought that there were problems with the approach.
  16 Cosmology In 1917. Einstein modified the general theory by introducing a new notion. the universe could be an eternal static sphere Einstein believed a spherical static universe is philosophically preferred. Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose. Modern quantum theory In 1917. . It was not until 1995 that the first such condensate was produced experimentally by Eric Allin Cornell and Carl Wieman using ultra-cooling equipment built at the NIST–JILA laboratory at the University of Colorado at Boulder. the cosmological constant. Einstein's sketches for this project may be seen in the Einstein Archive in the library of the Leiden University. Einstein gave a wave equation for de Broglie waves. Einstein applied the General theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole. but this type of universe is not consistent with relativity. and submitted his translation of Bose's paper to the Zeitschrift für Physik. With a positive cosmological constant. Einstein in his office at the University of Berlin. Einstein published an article in Physikalische Zeitschrift that proposed the possibility of stimulated emission. Bose–Einstein statistics In 1924. In a closed universe. In another major paper from this era. which were received skeptically at first. at the height of his work on relativity. the physical process that makes possible the maser and the laser. which Einstein suggested was the Hamilton–Jacobi equation of mechanics. Bose–Einstein statistics are now used to describe the behaviors of any assembly of bosons. because it was the first paper to show that the statistics of atomic transitions had simple laws. He had shown that general relativity incorporates Mach's principle to a certain extent in frame dragging by gravitomagnetic fields. he believed that Mach's principle would hold. This article showed that the statistics of absorption and emission of light would only be consistent with Planck's distribution law if the emission of light into a mode with n photons would be enhanced statistically compared to the emission of light into an empty mode. because it would obey Mach's principle. among them the Bose–Einstein condensate phenomenon that some particulates should appear at very low temperatures. To fix this. Mach's principle has generated much controversy over the years.Albert Einstein physicists. based on a counting method that assumed that light could be understood as a gas of indistinguishable particles. Einstein discovered Louis de Broglie's work. but he knew that Mach's idea would not work if space goes on forever. This paper would inspire Schrödinger's work of 1926. and supported his ideas. Einstein also published his own articles describing the model and its implications. Einstein noted that Bose's statistics applied to some atoms as well as to the proposed light particles. This paper was enormously influential in the later development of quantum mechanics. He wanted the universe to be eternal and unchanging. who later started the Deutsche Physik (German Physics) movement.
The energy and momentum derived within general relativity by Noether's presecriptions do not make a real tensor for this reason. where geometrical fields emerge in a unified quantum-mechanical setting. and by Roy Kerr for spinning objects. Mainstream physics. These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs of particles and antiparticles could be described in this way. He maintained that the non-covariant energy momentum pseudotensor was in fact the best description of the energy momentum distribution in a gravitational field. because the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates. Einstein became increasingly isolated in his research. Einstein–Cartan theory In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity. Noether's theorem allows these quantities to be determined from a Lagrangian with translation invariance. So Einstein proposed that the path of a singular solution. Unified field theory Following his research on general relativity. This approach has been echoed by Lev Landau and Evgeny Lifshitz.Albert Einstein 17 Energy momentum pseudotensor General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime. Although he continued to be lauded for his work. The use of non-covariant objects like pseudotensors was heavily criticized in 1917 by Erwin Schrödinger and others. Einstein argued that this is true for fundamental reasons. These solutions cut and pasted Schwarzschild black holes to make a bridge between two patches. Wormholes Einstein collaborated with others to produce a model of a wormhole. His motivation was to model elementary particles with charge as a solution of gravitational field equations. Einstein's dream of unifying other laws of physics with gravity motivates modern quests for a theory of everything and in particular string theory. Einstein ignored some mainstream developments in physics. Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation. Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear. would be determined to be a geodesic from general relativity itself. This was established by Einstein. the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part. which were not well understood until many years after his death. and has become standard. and his efforts were ultimately unsuccessful. in turn. in line with the program outlined in the paper "Do Gravitational Fields play an Important Role in the Constitution of the Elementary Particles?". but general covariance makes translation invariance into something of a gauge symmetry. like a black hole. a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields. This modification was made by Einstein and Cartan in the 1920s. most notably the strong and weak nuclear forces. and others. the geodesic equation which describes how particles move may be derived from the Einstein equations. like a black hole. If one end of a wormhole was positively charged. largely ignored Einstein's approaches to unification. In his pursuit of a unification of the fundamental forces. called the torsion. so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum. not by a new law. the other end would be negatively charged. would move on a trajectory which is determined by the Einstein equations themselves. Equations of motion The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law – the Einstein equations which describe how space curves. which would allow the explanation of electromagnetism. In 1950. Infeld and Hoffmann for pointlike objects without angular momentum. he described his "unified field theory" in a Scientific American article entitled "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation". .
because gravitational instabilities can lead to a concentration of energy density into black holes. so as to incorporate Mach's principle in a reasonable way. as was done. but no such theory has ever been found. As Miller points out. given specific definitions of "realism". This shows that in comparing different theories. spinning at the speed of light with infinite energy well before the point where it is about to collapse into a black hole. for plane waves of the type Einstein and Rosen considered in their paper. we must proceed very cautiously. Einstein subsequently entertained doubts about whether they could be physically realized. This differs from the accepted expression today. and the conclusions are well understood to be wrong. "locality". In 1937 he published a paper saying that the focusing properties of geodesics in general relativity would lead to an instability which causes plane gravitational waves to collapse in on themselves. He stabilized his solution by introducing a cosmological constant. superconductivity is not well understood. but Einstein wanted a universe which is an unchanging three dimensional sphere. While this is true to a certain extent in some limits. as noted in the footnotes to Einstein's paper added in the 1913 reprint. • Einstein himself considered the introduction of the cosmological term in his 1917 paper founding cosmology as a "blunder". thirty years after the establishing of modern quantum mechanics. and in particular the implications of the central singularity implicit in these models are still not understood. However. and when the universe was shown to be expanding. The modern consensus is that Einstein's concept of realism is too restrictive. • Closely related to his rejection of black holes. the extent to which the models of black holes in classical general relativity correspond to physical reality remains unclear. and "completeness". given a specific definition of the word "force" (a definition which he later agreed was not advantageous). Einstein retracted this position a short time later. we should naturally obtain other expressions for the masses. for example.. but by 1927 he had become convinced that it was valid. he retracted the constant as a blunder. This paper predated modern quantum mechanics. This is not really much of a blunder – the cosmological constant . by Max Planck in 1906. then one arrives at as the expression for the transverse mass of a fast moving particle. even today.. especially to account for high-temperature superconductors. who gave the now familiar expression for the transverse mass. In 1939 he published a paper that argues that a star collapsing would spin faster and faster. because. • In the early days of quantum mechanics. He wanted this for philosophical reasons. and alternative theories continue to be put forward. Einstein argued that quantum mechanics cannot be a complete realistic and local representation of phenomena. • In the EPR paper. since he only shows that stable spinning objects have to spin faster and faster to stay stable before the point where they collapse. and if we choose to maintain (by convention) the equation mass x acceleration = force. Einstein tried to show that the uncertainty principle was not valid. The theory of general relativity predicted an expanding or contracting universe. like the surface of a three dimensional ball in four dimensions.Albert Einstein 18 Einstein's controversial beliefs in physics In addition to his well-accepted results."  • Einstein published (in 1922) a qualitative theory of superconductivity based on the vague idea of electrons shared in orbits. But it is well understood today (and was understood well by some even then) that collapse cannot happen through stationary states the way Einstein imagined. Efforts to conclusively prove the existence of event horizons have still not been successful. This paper received no citations. • Einstein denied several times that black holes could form. this is equivalent to the transverse mass predictions of both Einstein and Lorentz. Einstein believed that the exclusion of singularities might restrict the class of solutions of the field equations so as to force solutions compatible with quantum mechanics. Einstein had commented already in the 1905 paper that "With a different definition of force and acceleration. • After introducing the concept of gravitational waves in 1917. Einstein noted that. the instabilities are under control. "it is more to the point to define force in such a way that the laws of energy and momentum assume the simplest form". Einstein's argument itself is inconclusive. Nevertheless. The current theory of low temperature superconductivity was only worked out in 1957. some of Einstein's views are regarded as controversial: • In the special relativity paper (in 1905). and today is regarded as being incorrect.
• Finding it too formal. Schrödinger urged Einstein to add his name as co-author. In order to show this. although within a few years he had adopted it as the basis for his theory of gravitation. This experiment needed to be sensitive. U. • Einstein did not immediately appreciate the value of Minkowski's four-dimensional formulation of special relativity. Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd co-invented (and in 1930. each level will have an integer occupation number. nowadays known to be the spin. based on Einstein's wave-particle duality was equivalent to Heisenberg's matrices. Schrödinger gas model Einstein suggested to Erwin Schrödinger that he might be able to reproduce the statistics of a Bose–Einstein gas by considering a box. Their invention was not immediately put into commercial production.Albert Einstein is necessary within general relativity as it is currently understood. patented) the Einstein refrigerator. This Absorption refrigerator was then revolutionary for having no moving parts and using only heat as an input. Erwin Schrödinger applied this to derive the thermodynamic properties of a semiclassical ideal gas. Einstein believed that Heisenberg's matrix mechanics was incorrect. Quantizing these oscillators. because the electron's angular momentum changes as the magnetization changes. Nathan Rosen. Then to each possible quantum motion of a particle in a box associate an independent harmonic oscillator. they reversed the magnetization in an iron bar suspended on a torsion pendulum. which will be the number of particles in it. Einstein-de Haas experiment Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons. because the angular momentum associated with electrons is small. He changed his mind when Schrödinger and others demonstrated that the formulation in terms of the Schrödinger equation. On 11 November 1930. Peter Bergmann and others. but it predates modern quantum mechanics. This formulation is a form of second quantization. . as the most promising of their patents were quickly bought up by the Swedish company Electrolux to protect its refrigeration technology from competition. and it is widely believed to have a nonzero value today. but it definitively established that electron motion of some kind is responsible for magnetization. 19 Collaboration with other scientists In addition to long time collaborators Leopold Infeld. although Einstein declined the invitation. They confirmed that this leads the bar to rotate. Einstein also had some one-shot collaborations with various scientists.S. Patent 1781541  was awarded to Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd for the refrigerator. Einstein refrigerator In 1926.
Einstein returned to the question of quantum mechanics. A public debate between Einstein and Bohr followed. Einstein wrote: "I. In a 1926 letter to Max Born. lasting on and off for many years (including during the Solvay Conferences). am convinced that He [God] does not throw dice."  Einstein was never satisfied by what he perceived to be quantum theory's Einstein and Niels Bohr intrinsically incomplete description of nature. that by performing different measurements on the distant particle. which were all rebutted by Bohr. . quantum mechanics developed into a more complete theory. it has since been shown to be incompatible with experiments. with definite states resulting only upon interaction with classical systems.Albert Einstein 20 Bohr versus Einstein In the 1920s. He then used a hypothesis of local realism to conclude that the other particle had these properties already determined. quantum phenomena are inherently probabilistic. either of position or momentum. The principle he proposed is that if it is possible to determine what the answer to a position or momentum measurement would be. He noted. both in its outcomes and its instrumentalist methodology. then the particle actually has values of position or momentum. He considered how a measurement on one of two entangled particles would affect the other. The EPR experiment has since been performed. Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox In 1935. without in any way disturbing the particle. and in 1935 he further explored the issue in collaboration with Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen. noting that the theory seems to require non-local interactions. at any rate. along with his collaborators. this is known as the EPR paradox. different properties of the entangled partner could be discovered without disturbing it in any way. Einstein being a scientific realist. Einstein was unhappy with the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory developed by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. In this interpretation. Einstein formulated thought experiments against the Copenhagen interpretation. Repercussions of the Einstein–Bohr debate have found their way into philosophical discourse. This principle distilled the essence of Einstein's objection to quantum mechanics. As a physical principle. with results confirming quantum theory's predictions.
woman. Einstein was a member of several civil rights groups. accompanied by an educational system which would be oriented toward social goals. would distribute the work to be done among all those able to work and would guarantee a livelihood to every man. and child. Throughout the November Revolution in Germany Einstein signed an appeal for the foundation of a nationwide liberal and democratic party. A planned economy. Rankin of Mississippi of being a "foreign-born agitator" who sought "to further the spread of Communism throughout the world". Einstein lobbied to stop nuclear testing and future bombs. Einstein said "Politics is for the moment.  However Ami Isseroff in his article Was Einstein a Zionist. administrative. The education of the individual. published in 1949 in the Monthly Review. and social organizations. In his article Why Socialism?.” Instead. He also participated in the 1927 congress of the League against Imperialism in Brussels. would attempt to develop in him a sense of responsibility for his fellow men in place of the glorification of power and success in our present society. including the Princeton chapter of the NAACP.Albert Einstein 21 Political views Einstein flouted the ascendant Nazi movement and later tried to be a voice of moderation in the tumultuous formation of the State of Israel. Vera Weizmann. seen here with his wife Elsa Einstein and Zionist leaders. Einstein described a chaotic capitalist society. his wife Dr. and Ben-Zion Mossinson on arrival in New York City in 1921. Days before his death.  Albert Einstein. namely through the establishment of a socialist economy. When the aged W. an army. lasted twenty years. . Menahem Ussishkin. equation for the eternity." He declined the presidency of Israel in 1952. In such an economy. he preferred a bi-national state with “continuously functioning. with whom he served as co-chair of the American Crusade to End Lynching. Du Bois was accused of being a Communist spy. He braved anti-communist politics and resistance to the civil rights movement in the United States. but I can tell you what they will use in the Fourth – rocks!" (Einstein 1949) With Albert Schweitzer and Bertrand Russell. economic. Einstein was accused by John E. in addition to promoting his own innate abilities. Wallace’s Progressive Party which advocate pro-Soviet and pro-Israel foreign policy. Einstein's friendship with activist Paul Robeson. mixed. Einstein volunteered as a character witness. E. Einstein signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto. and a measure of temporal power.  which was published in the Berliner Tageblatt on 16 November 1918. and became a member of the German Democratic Party. the means of production are owned by society itself and are utilized in a planned fashion. which adjusts production to the needs of the community. a source of evil to be overcome. On the floor of the US Congress. which led to the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. including future President of Israel Chaim Weizmann. as the "predatory phase of human development". After World War II. Fred Jerome in his Einstein on Israel and Zionism: His Provocative Ideas About the Middle East argues that Einstein was a Cultural Zionist who supported the idea of a Jewish homeland but opposed the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine “with borders. B. as enmity between the former allies became a serious issue. "I do not know how the third World War will be fought. He came to the following conclusion: I am convinced there is only one way to eliminate these grave evils [capitalism]. argues that Einstein supported the recognition of the State of Israel and declared it "the fulfillment of our dream" when President Harry Truman recognize Israel in May 1948 and in presidential election 1948 Einstein supported Henry A.”. and the case was dismissed shortly afterward. Einstein wrote.
Einstein was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics.  In popular culture In the period before World War II. Margot Einstein permitted the personal letters to be made available to the public. Einstein bequeathed the royalties from use of his image to The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Awards and honors In 1922. He finally figured out a way to handle the incessant inquiries. Mileva Marić. This refers to his 1905 paper on the photoelectric effect. The presentation speech began by mentioning "his theory of relativity [which had] been the subject of lively debate in philosophical circles [and] also has astrophysical implications which are being rigorously examined at the present time". I prefer an attitude of humility corresponding to the weakness of our intellectual understanding of nature and of our own being. He told his inquirers "Pardon me. "On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light". successor to The Roger Richman Agency. Corbis." Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels.. Barbara Wolff. for extraordinary achievements in theoretical physics. his expressive face and distinctive hairstyle have been widely copied and exaggerated. films.500 pages of private correspondence written between 1912 and 1955. sorry! Always I am mistaken for Professor Einstein.. Max Planck presented Einstein with the Max Planck medal of the German Physical Society in Berlin. which was well supported by the experimental evidence by that time. of The Hebrew University's Albert Einstein Archives. and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. However. but requested that it not be done until twenty years after her death (she died in 1986 ). told the BBC that there are about 3. The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics named 2005 the "World Year of Physics" in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the publication of the annus mirabilis papers. and works of music. or in a god. In 1929. Einstein was so well-known in America that he would be stopped on the street by people wanting him to explain "that theory". "for his services to Theoretical Physics. and saw much of it wiped out in the Great Depression. .Albert Einstein 22 Religious views The question of scientific determinism gave rise to questions about Einstein's position on theological determinism. He is a favorite model for depictions of mad scientists and absent-minded professors. and whether or not he believed in God. as agent for the university. In 1936. in compliance with their 1919 divorce settlement. plays. Time magazine's Frederic Golden wrote that Einstein was "a cartoonist's dream come true". Einstein was awarded the Franklin Institute's Franklin Medal for his extensive work on relativity and the photo-electric effect. The letters were included in the papers bequeathed to The Hebrew University. Non-scientific legacy While travelling. personal correspondence made public in 2006 shows that he invested much of it in the United States. (Einstein 1923) It was long reported that Einstein gave the Nobel prize money to his first wife. He once said: You may call me an agnostic. I do not share the crusading spirit of the professional atheist whose fervor is mostly due to a painful act of liberation from the fetters of religious indoctrination received in youth. licenses the use of his name and associated imagery.
 The Albert Einstein Peace Prize is given yearly by the Chicago. in Bavaria. Switzerland. D. It was first awarded in 1951 and included a prize money of $ 15. four months after Einstein's death. In 1990. The chemical element 99. commissioned in 1979.S. Winners of the prize receive $50. In 1999 Time magazine named him the Person of the Century. is located in a grove of trees at the southwest corner of the grounds of the National Academy of Sciences on Constitution Avenue. It was endowed by the Lewis and Rosa Strauss Memorial Fund in honor of Albert Einstein's 70th birthday.000. which is located east of Regensburg.  which was later reduced to $ 5. which administers the award. Germany.000.000. an opinion poll of 100 leading physicists ranked Einstein the "greatest physicist ever". "to the scientifically literate and the public at large.C. The Albert Einstein Medal is an award presented by the Albert Einstein Society in Bern. First given in 1979. The Tower is an astrophysical observatory that was built to perform checks of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. The Albert Einstein Memorial in central Washington. See also • • • • • • • • • • • German inventors and discoverers Heinrich Burkhardt Hermann Einstein Historical Museum of Bern (Einstein museum) History of gravitational theory Introduction to special relativity List of coupled cousins Relativity priority dispute Sticky bead argument Summation convention The Einstein Theory of Relativity (educational film about the theory of relativity) . Also in 1999. Oppenheimer. is a monumental bronze statue depicting Einstein seated with manuscript papers in hand. Germany. his name was added to the Walhalla temple for "laudable and distinguished Germans". among others. 23 Awards named after him The Albert Einstein Award (sometimes called the Albert Einstein Medal because it is accompanied with a gold medal) is an award in theoretical physics.  ahead of Mahatma Gandhi and Franklin Roosevelt. Illinois-based Albert Einstein Peace Prize Foundation.  2001 Einstein is an inner main belt asteroid discovered on 5 March 1973. A Gallup poll recorded him as the fourth most admired person of the 20th century in the U. was named for him in August 1955. The statue. von Neumann and Weyl ) of the Institute for Advanced Study. The best known building in the park is the Einstein Tower which has a bronze bust of Einstein at the entrance. The United States Postal Service honored Einstein with a Prominent Americans series (1965–1978) 8¢ postage stamp. established to recognize high achievement in the natural sciences.  The winner is selected by a committee (the first of which consisted of Einstein. the award is presented to people who have "rendered outstanding services" in connection with Einstein. Einstein is synonymous with genius". einsteinium. In the words of a biographer.Albert Einstein The Albert Einstein Science Park is located on the hill Telegrafenberg in Potsdam.
The chasing a light beam thought experiment is described on pages 48–51. • Einstein. Autobiographical Notes. Annalen der Physik 17: 891–921. Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften • Einstein. Physics 1901–1921. J. Albert. doi:10. "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?". "On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light"  . Paul Arthur Schilpp (Centennial ed.47. Rosen. First of a series of papers on this topic. Albert (1917a). Albert (1905d). Annalen der Physik 17: 549–560. • Einstein. Nobel Lectures. 1–10 . On Baer's law and meanders in the courses of rivers. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company. "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?". Albert (11 July 1923). doi:10. Albert (1954). Albert et al.1038/146605a0. Albert Einstein. Hedwig und Max Born: Briefwechsel 1916–1955. • Einstein. • Einstein. This annus mirabilis paper on the photoelectric effect was received by Annalen der Physik 18th March. retrieved 16 January 2006 • Einstein.). Chicago: Open Court. R. Nathan (15 May 1935). Albert (1905e). Albert (1940). Albert (1926). retrieved 25 March 2007 • Einstein. Albert (1915). Michel Janssen. New York Times (Melville. A new determination of molecular dimensions. Albert (1905c). "Die Ursache der Mäanderbildung der Flussläufe und des sogenannten Baerschen Gesetzes". ISBN 388682005X • Einstein. Scientific American CLXXXII (4): 13–17 • Einstein. Boris. NY: AIP. ISBN 0-517-00393-7 • Einstein. "Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases (Quantum theory of monatomic ideal gases)". Vol. Albert (1950). Physikalische Zeitschrift 18: 121–128 • Einstein. a. This annus mirabilis paper on mass-energy equivalence was received 27th September. This PhD thesis was completed 30th April and submitted 20th July. American Inst. New York: Random House.777 • Einstein. "Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung (On the Quantum Mechanics of Radiation)". • Einstein. "On the Motion – Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat – of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid". "To the editors" . Albert (1924). John. Albert (May 1949). A more complete list of his publications may be found at List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein. Albert (1901). • Einstein. • Einstein. Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften: 844–847 • Einstein. Annalen der Physik 4: 513. Ideas and Opinions. Klein. "Fundamental Ideas and Problems of the Theory of Relativity" . The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein. ISBN 0-875-48352-6. Sitzungsberichte der Preussichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Physikalisch-Mathematische Klasse: 261–267. This annus mirabilis paper on special relativity was received 30th June. Munich: Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung. Albert (1979). "Why Socialism?" . Kox. (4 December 1948). This annus mirabilis paper on Brownian motion was received 11th May. "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies". Martin J. Albert (1917b). Podolsky. • Collected Papers: Stachel. "On Science and Religion". "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation (The Field Equations of Gravitation)". doi:10. Monthly Review. Albert (1905b). "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen (Conclusions Drawn from the Phenomena of Capillarity)". Diana Komos Buchwald and others (Eds. Albert (1969) (in German). Annalen der Physik 18: 639–641.Albert Einstein 24 Publications The following publications by Albert Einstein are referenced in this article. "Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie (Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity)". Princeton University Press Further information about the volumes published so far can be found on the webpages of the . "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation". ISBN 0707304539 • Einstein. Annalen der Physik 17: 132–148 . Albert (1905a). • Einstein. of Physics).1103/PhysRev. Physical Review 47 (10): 777–780. Die Naturwissenschaften 14: 223–224.) (1987–2006).19013090306 • Einstein. Nature (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic) 146: 605.1007/BF01510300. doi:10. ISBN 0735403597 • Einstein.1002/andp. Schulmann.
Penguin Group. J. de/ z_information/ variousthings. II. Birkhäuser. Küpper (2000). retrieved 4 March 2007  Highfield. 2002. ISBN 0-8126-9435-X. G. London: Faber and Faber.. Nobel Foundation. pdf  Pais.  Stachel. His name was Max Talmud. com/ ?id=jJl2JAqvoSAC). 1990. pp.” School Science Review. as a result Einstein began preaching to his schoolmates about Kant. H. These included a series of twenty popular science books that convinced Albert "a lot in the Bible stories could not be true". pdf): Max Talmud visited on Thursdays for six years.. html). 21. ase. "Why War?" (1933. 41. Nobel Foundation. World Scientific. USA. co-authored by Leopold Infeld). Albert Einstein – Derrière l'image. a poor Jewish medical student from Poland. Uncle Jakob challenged Albert with mathematical problems.Albert Einstein Einstein Papers Project  and on the Princeton University Press Einstein Page  25 Notes  Hans-Josef. . 1987. no.harvard. webcitation. pp. Basic Books. edu/ perl/ webwn?s=Einstein)  Albert Einstein – Biography (http:/ / nobelprize.  Troemel-Ploetz. 5. and he began his weekly visits when he was 21 and Einstein was 10. and "invested his whole person in examining everything that engaged [Albert's] interest". google. . Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology.  Albrecht Fölsing (1998). document 134). chem. princeton. google. 29. editor (1951). Carus Publishing Company. http:/ / philoscience. 21.  E. The Einstein Syndrome: Bright Children Who Talk Late.31. co-authored by Sigmund Freud). and a textbook of plane geometry that launched Albert on avid self-study of mathematics. com/ books?id=jJl2JAqvoSAC& pg=PA41)  The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921 (http:/ / www. 8–9  Dudley Herschbach. page 3. "Albert Einstein's first paper" (http:/ / www. archived from the original (http:/ / nobelprize. p. 1989. 49-56. 13. and Other Passions. Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. The Golden Age of Physics. pp.org  Paul Arthur Schilpp. pp. March 2005. 1994. "Einstein as a Student". org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1921/ einstein. pp.pdf Albert's intellectual growth was strongly fostered at home. see section I. H. His father regularly read Schiller and Heine aloud to the family. vol. time. web: HarvardChem-Einstein-PDF (http:/ / www. google. pp. Oxford University Press. 1996. 41 (http:/ / books. A. org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1921/ ) on 5 October 2008. and a book on science for the general reader. org. Forum. Einstein from B to Z. "for whom the Jewish community had obtained free meals with the Einstein family". ch/ lehre/ winter99/ einstein/ Walker_Stachel. unibe. The Private Lives of Albert Einstein. pdf  This conclusion is from Einstein's correspondence with Marić. ISBN 0-571-17170-2  Highfield & Carter (1993. By Ronald William Clark (http:/ / books. a talented pianist.  www. pp. Roger. p. Lieserl is first mentioned in a letter from Einstein to Marić (who was staying with her family in or near Novi Sad at the time of Lieserl's birth) dated 4 February 1902 (Collected papers Vol. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers (Harper Torchbook edition). 26-38. 1-29. Women's Studies Int. ISBN 0140237194. pdf  Martinez. Cambridge. . Out of My Later Years (1950). Carter. 415-432. pp. 67.9171. vol. ISBN 0-465-08140-1  Schilpp (Ed.00. harvard. pp. ISBN 9810249853.56–57)  Albert Einstein Collected Papers. (1979). com/ books?id=6IKVA0lY6MAC& pg=PA28& lpg=PA28& dq=einstein+ "Catholic+ elementary+ school"& source=bl& ots=rn-6c9y5U9& sig=jEmNcKzdh42rgKpgxeNnfOqOpkk& hl=en& ei=KCKLSrH7Ioe6MJfk2ckP& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1#v=onepage& q=einstein "Catholic elementary school"& f=false)  Rosenkranz. "Did Einstein Espouse his Spouse's Ideas?". einstein-website. p.. A. MA. ISBN 3-03823-182-7  Sowell. Jagdish (2001). years ahead of the school curriculum. Talmud had Albert read and discuss many books with him.1607298-1. uk/ htm/ members_area/ journals/ ssr/ ssr_march_05pdf/ eins_wife-pg49.  WordNet for Einstein (http:/ / wordnetweb. Thomas (2001). http:/ / philoscience. Chapter 2. the Einsteins modified the tradition by hosting instead a medical student on Thursdays. Walker.  Holton. “Handling evidence in history: the case of Einstein’s Wife. ensured the children's musical education. Physics Today. html)  Mehra. P. 39-55. Volume II. Élie (2001)..edu/herschbach/Einstein_Student.. org/ 5bLXMl1V0). "Mileva Einstein-Marić: The Woman Who Did Einstein's Mathematics". com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0. Paul (1993). (http:/ / www. Talmud came on Thursday nights for about six years. retrieved 6 March 2007  "Einstein Biography" (http:/ / nobelprize. Feb. ch/ lehre/ winter99/ einstein/ Stachel1966. Poincaré's Philosophy. edu/ herschbach/ Einstein_Student. . 86 (316). Most remarkable was Max Talmud. which he solved with "a deep feeling of happiness". p. A. D. Einstein Lived Here. Albert Einstein – Autobiographical Notes. A.. It was an old Jewish custom to take in a needy religious scholar to share the Sabbath meal. doc. 730–746 His non-scientific works include: About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein (1930). retrieved 18 July 2009  Zahar. html) Nobelprize.). Einstein. The Evolution of Physics (1938. From Conventionalism to Phenomenology (http:/ / books. html). com/ phy_etextbook/ 4454/ 4454_chap1.de. pdf) (PDF). Ze'ev (2005). Harvard University Press. Open Court Publishing Company. His mother. Neue Zürcher Zeitung. with "forcefulness"  Einstein's greatest intellectual stimulation came from a poor student who dined with his family once a week. retrieved 7 March 2007  Einstein: the life and times. Various things about Albert Einstein (http:/ / www. Harvard University. History. 89–150. 177-193. Talmud even had Albert read Kant. 1. . org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1921/ einstein-bio. unibe. E. einstein-website. worldscibooks. . 1. The World As I See It (1934). http:/ / www. Albert Einstein: A Biography.chem.
. ISBN 0-313-33080-8. php?storyId=4602913). 18 April 1955. pp. Walter. princetonhistory. com/ books?id=4d79VQdOfFUC& pg=PR10& dq=Einstein+ on+ Race+ and+ Racism+ america's+ worst+ disease& hl=en& ei=rGkNTP-OB9DY4gaN6f1-& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q& f=false) Rutgers University Press. leidenuniv. one of the great thinkers of the ages. 19 April 1955. Rutherford invited Mach to take a look at the scintillation screen in a dark room. Walter. medscape. Einstein: His Life and Universe. ch/ E/ institut/ i1. com/ viewarticle/ 436253).9171. xix (http:/ / books. p. ac.  "In Breif (Albert Einstein)" (http:/ / www. htm). edu/ people/ einstein/ in-brief). net/ ?en/ press/ albanian-muslims-sheltered. com/ ?id=5eWh2O_3OAQC).817454. ipi. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. "Princeton. 2005. co. The Center for History of Physics. Lipscombe. ." Ed.  Calaprice..  "Einstein in Princeton / Scientist. University of St. "Myths in science" (http:/ / www. xix. Peter (2003). retrieved 31 March 2007  See Albert Einstein. Horst.148-149 Princeton University Press. and Advising Five Presidents (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=dLhVn-McDDgC& pg=PA226& dq=racism+ americas+ worst+ disease+ 1946& hl=en& ei=cWINTOqjGpKX4gavnK22AQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage& q& f=false)  "ISRAEL: Einstein Declines" (http:/ / www. .. . google. p. National Public Radio. April 1955 (last statement ever written)" (http:/ / www. See also their FAQ about Einstein and the Institute (http:/ / www. ABC-CLIO (2008) p.W. 4808. "Einstein's Clocks: The Question of Time" Critical Inquiry 26. "Obama could kill fossil fuels overnight with a nuclear dash for thorium" (http:/ / www. "Albert Einstein and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics in Berlin". 2000. 216  Now the Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property (http:/ / www. Moltz. shtm). p. "Albert Einstein – Chief Engineer of the Universe: One Hundred Authors for Einstein. Poincaré's Maps: Empires of Time. . page 752  Fred Jerome. Retrieved 31 March 2010. E.  Dunn.. Robertson. The Daily Telegraph (London). retrieved 16 October 2006. 2006. U. . do?DocumentID=20078& Page=1). vii  Evans-Pritchard. html).  Peter Galison. com/ books?id=3PN-NEfl_U0C& pg=PA218& dq=Einstein+ Roosevelt& lr=& as_drrb_is=q& as_minm_is=0& as_miny_is=& as_maxm_is=0& as_maxy_is=& num=30& as_brr=3& ei=3LkCTNjODJzykwS-qb3kBA& cd=4#v=onepage& q=Letter from Einstein Roosevelt& f=false).embor. . Dr. com/ books?id=5eWh2O_3OAQC& pg=PR19)  Heilbron. google.00. where the impact of individual alpha particles (Helium nuclei) are directly 26 .  This did not become possible until the development of alpha particle scintillation detectors early in the twentieth century. PMID 2183375. info/ ). ISBN 0393020010  (Einstein 1905b)  Universität Zürich: Geschichte (http:/ / www. "Draft of projected Telecast Israel Independence Day.S.  Isaacson. Global Warming. 2 (Winter 2000): 355–389. Jürgen. .Albert Einstein  Highfield & Carter 1993. html). Graver.  Galison. Simon & Schuster (2007) pp. Alice. Rodger Taylor (2006) Einstein on Race and Racism (http:/ / books.J. 1 December 1952. no. Jürgen.  Gosling. uzh. Sarah J. 84. raoulwallenberg."  The Long. Time magazine.  O'Connor. Einstein: His Life and Universe. ias. mcs. Wiley-VCH. Jean (2010-07-07). Gynecology & Obstetrics 170 (5): 455–8. EMBO reports 4 (3): 236. org/ templates/ story/ story. Norton. History Division (January. Einstein's Clocks. reprinted in Ideas and Opinions.R. New York Times. alberteinstein. time. Ambrose (29 August 2010). Einstein Archives Online (http:/ / www. ch/ E/ institut/ i1094. html)  Kant. alberteinstein. nature. Retrieved on 21 November 2005.embor779.  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Nuclear Weapons and Nonproliferation: a Reference Handbook (http:/ / books.M. org/ museum_alberteinstein. died in his sleep here early today. Strange Journey of Einstein's Brain (http:/ / www.. Department of Energy. retrieved 14 March 2007  Dr. edu/ titles/ 7921. Retrieved 4 March 2010. retrieved 11 June 2007  Albert Einstein Archives (April 1955). lorentz. google. "Geometry and Experience". Renn. Albert Einstein Dies in Sleep at 76. 14 June 2002. 2005. ch/ about/ portrait/ history. New Jersey. J. uk/ Biographies/ Einstein. princeton. Albert Einstein: a biography (http:/ / books. ISSN 0039-6087. Alice (2005) The new quotable Einstein (http:/ / press. Albert Einstein. James Clay. See also Odyssey in Climate Modeling. Timeline. Trevor (2005). info/ db/ ViewImage. Historical Society of Princeton. Instituut-Lorentz. Simon & Schuster (2007)  Isaacson. Stasiak (2003). Cultural Icon" (http:/ / www. Question of Time. in Renn. shtm). 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p. Retrieved on 21 November 2005. W. Arthur I. Jeroen (2010) Einstein's Unification Cambridge University Press. (2001).  Einstein. M. leidenuniv. Albert (1905). Princeton University Press. Birkhaeuser Verlag. htm). Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity (http:/ / www. .  Pais. 2006. "Relativitätsprinzip und die aus demselben gezogenen Folgerungen (On the Relativity Principle and the Conclusions Drawn from It)". (1979). 1998. Schrödinger: Life and Thought.. retrieved 27 June 2009  (Einstein 1905a). Einstein fridge design can help global cooling (http:/ / www. 9 October 2001. ISBN 0-39-450588-3  (Einstein 1905e)  For a discussion of the reception of relativity theory around the world. pupress. Jahrbuch der Radioaktivität (Yearbook of Radioactivity) 4: 411–462 page 454 (Wir betrachen zwei Bewegung systeme .00. 325–331. Retrieved on 13 March 2007. Oxford University Press. edu/ ~jdnorton/ Goodies/ Einstein_stat_1905/ index. 9. 103–108. measured by Millikan. Subtle is the Lord.23. html)".)  Einstein. Jha (21 September 2008). Annalen der Physik 17: 132–148. edu/ titles/ 8165. " Albert Einstein (1879–1955) and the 'Greatest Scientific Discovery Ever' (http:/ / www. . and the different controversies it encountered. idsia. html)  The charge of a mole of electrons was known and measured as Faraday's constant. ISBN 978-0-691-12310-3.  (Einstein 1915)  Two friends in Leiden (http:/ / www. Oxford University Press. Princeton University Press. Walter (1989). The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein. . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. zbp. ed.  an account may be found here (http:/ / www.  (Einstein 1905d)  Hawking. guardian. 522. Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity. 10 and 11. co. Dividing by the charge of a single electron. com/ rr/ s6-03/ 6-03. doi:10. . 382–386. "On the Influence of Gravity on the Propagation of Light". retrieved 31 March 2007  Jürgen Schmidhuber. Jeffrey (2006). ISBN 0691123101. see Crelinsten. document 23)  Crelinsten. uk/ science/ 2008/ sep/ 21/ 27 . especially chapters 6. Gary. McGuinness. ISBN 0-55-380202-X  Schwartz. com/ patents?vid=1781541  In September 2008 it was reported that Malcolm McCulloch of Oxford University was heading a three-year project to develop more robust appliances that could be used in locales lacking electricity. The Comparative Reception of Relativity (Kluwer Academic Publishers. retrieved 13 March 2007  Crelinsten. html)". see the articles in Thomas F.  Pais. 2005. gov/ public_affairs/ releases/ n01-04. The Universe in short. " Einstein's Big Idea (http:/ / www. Karen (30 September 2004). Glick. nist. Jeffrey (2006). html). ac. Einstein for Beginners. pp. Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity. Albert (1911). a Hungarian physicist who later worked on the Manhattan Project.. html). pp. S. Abraham (1982). 2006. ISBN 0-201-04679-2  Wright. pdf). The genius of space and time (http:/ / books.. 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ISBN 978-0-691-12310-3.Albert Einstein visible to the dark adapted eye. . at/ dokumente/ einstein1. ch/ ~juergen/ einstein. ISBN 019853907X  Levenson. He was quoted as saying that improving the design and changing the types of gases used might allow the design's efficiency to be quadrupled. edu/ titles/ 8165. pupress. html) Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine. pp. pitt. Subtle is the Lord. and that his team had completed a prototype Einstein refrigerator. Physics and National Socialism: An Anthology of Primary Sources. ISBN 0-521-43767-9  Goettling. A. 114–119. ISBN 9027724989. html). Emergence (1905) and early interpretation (1905–1911). Annalen der Physik 35: 898–908. (1981). princeton. Discover Magazine. ISBN 3-76-435312-0  For a discussion of astronomers' attitudes and debates about relativity. htm)  Hentschel.. J. com/ 2004/ sep/ the-masters-mistakes/ article_view?b_start:int=1& -C=). ISBN 019853907X  Einstein.  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retrieved 8 August 2008  The New Yorker April 1939 pg 69 Disguise (http:/ / www. html/ ) Jewish Tribune. climatechange).Albert Einstein scienceofclimatechange. net/ index2. 18 April 1955. org/ web/ */ http:/ / www. ISBN 9780521541268. 1848–1933 (http:/ / books. Bantam Books. retrieved 21 October 2009  Geller. ISBN 9780553802023  Feldman. Frederic (3 January 2000). x=10& submit. . Jews in post-Holocaust Germany.  New York Times obituary (http:/ / query. Cambridge University Press. . uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 5168002. html). forward.1103/PhysRevLett. net/ index2. IOS Press. Monthly Review. Hajo (1971) (in German). com/ gst/ fullpage. google. 12/ 01-einstein. (2001). beck. co. Albert Einstein. . "Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using time-varying analyzers". . Peter G. 11 July 2006. . y=5)  (http:/ / www. org/ 598einstein. archive. .J. html) at the Wayback Machine. retrieved 25 February 2006  Albert Einstein – Frequently Asked Questions (http:/ / nobelprize. . (2003). newyorker. news. com/ articles/ ALBERT-EINSTEIN-ON-PALESTI-by-Edward-Corrigan-100110-905. com/ ezine/ Einstein_and_Zionism. com/ search/ query?queryType=nonparsed& query=Einstein+ & bylquery=Maloney& month1=01& day1=14& year1=1939& month2=01& day2=14& year2=1939& page=& sort=& submit. . . July 24. html) Einstein's Dream for orchestra by Cindy McTee  Golden. 141. 2009  "Albert Einstein on Zionism" (http:/ / www. archived from the original (http:/ / www. harvard. p. . ISBN 9783486432510. edu/ titles/ 7921. Jean. htm) Zionism and Israel Information Center  "Albert Einstein was a political activist" (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=xnckeeTICn0C& pg=PA141)  "Albert Einstein (1879–1955)" (http:/ / www. . pugwash. 12/ 01-einstein. "Albert Einstein Licensing" (http:/ / www. The new quotable Einstein (http:/ / press. The Nobel prize: a history of genius. Civil Rights activist (http:/ / web.  Butcher. com/ articles/ 109560/ ) Jewish Daily Forward. Harvard University Gazette. fes. Jews and the German state: the political history of a minority. BBC News (BBC). Sandra Ionno (May 2005) (PDF). Edward Corrigan  "Was Einstein a Zionist" (http:/ / www. Arcade Publishing. 1945–1953 (http:/ / books. "Why Socialism?" (http:/ / monthlyreview. London: The Guardian. Deutsche Geschichte in der Neuzeit. . Roger. html?res=9A0DEFD9153FF931A25754C0A960948260)  "Letters Reveal Einstein Love Life" (http:/ / news. biz/ ). BBC News (BBC). retrieved 3 October 2007  Calaprice. html) on 29 May 2007. cindymctee. retrieved 21 October 2009  Albert Einstein (May 1949). princeton. stephenjaygould. com/ ?id=xnckeeTICn0C).49. com/ einsteins_dream. google. com/ ?id=bbuQzfFmXv4C& pg=PA147& dq=einstein+ deutsche+ demokratische+ partei& q=einstein deutsche demokratische partei). George Mason University's History News Network. . time. org/ ctrl/ quotes_einstein. Retrieved 2007-05-21. 2007). Jay (2008) Maverick Guide to Berlin (http:/ / books.  Einstein (http:/ / einstein. opednews. stm). nytimes. com/ books?id=3LylIwXu0xsC& pg=PA422& dq=albert+ einstein+ science+ park& hl=en& ei=aKFgTJG8HYyOjAeVqrmLCQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=2& 28 . html). and prestige (http:/ / books. ISBN 0-691-12075-7 Other versions of the quote exist. albert-einstein.  Nationalist-Communist Civil War 1927–1937 (http:/ / san. jewishtribune. . archive. Council of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. retrieved 11 June 2007  Hawking. htm). III (http:/ / books.1804 The first of many experimental tests relating to EPR. html). Sozialdemokratischer Pressedienst. . Dalibard. Albert Einstein and Zionism (http:/ / www. php). Weimars liberale Parteien DDP und DVP (http:/ / library. oldenbourg. . Page 141 (http:/ / books. org/ publication/ phs/ history9.5. de/ spdpd/ 1993/ 930316. retrieved 25 March 2007. The universe in short. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 5168002.org. com/ Albert_Einstein/ Albert_Einstein_about_zionism. Alain. Archive copy (http:/ / web. 2005  World Year of Physics 2005 (http:/ / www. retrieved 14 March 2007  Roger Richman Agency (2007). edu/ gazette/ 2007/ 04. news. harvard. co.  Zionism and Israel Information Center. retrieved 14 August 2008  "Einstein and Complex Analyses of Zionism" (http:/ / www. A reprint of this book was published by Edition Erbrich in 1982. 173. org/ web/ 20070529080415/ http:/ / www. us/ articles/ 39445.  (Einstein 1969). html). html). Corbis Rights Representation. Stephen W. "Letters Reveal Einstein Love Life" (http:/ / news. ISBN 388682005X  (Einstein 1935)  Aspect.  David E. 26. albert-einstein.14 April 2010  Pulzer. retrieved 25 November 2008  Marco Mamone Capria (2005) Physics before and after Einstein p. bbc. html). Blackwell Publishers. edu/ gazette/ 2007/ 04. org/ overview. retrieved 21 October 2009  Holborn. ISBN 9780814331309. "What Were Einstein's Politics?" 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html http:/ / press. Gary (2004): The complete idiot's guide to understanding Einstein (http://books. ISSN 0519-2366  Sigmund. html http:/ / www. com/ time/ time100/ poc/ magazine/ who_mattered_and_why4a. ISBN 9201023979. princeton. org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1921/ einstein-lecture. acs. Abraham (1994): Einstein Lived Here. Walter (3 January 2000). 3. Oxford University Press. pugwash. • Parker.  Isaacson. edu/ 153/ 01/ themonth. . • Schweber. Don.  Mother Teresa Voted by American People as Most Admired Person of the Century (http:/ / www. 30. html). einstein. Indianapolis IN: Alpha books (Macmillan USA). p. . Muhlberger (2006). The definitive biography to date. 20 (Last accessed on 4 September 2007). pdf http:/ / phys4. html#papers http:/ / www. Dawson. Sylvan S. gallup. Kurt Godel: The Album. pdf). Time. com/ poll/ 3367/ Mother-Teresa-Voted-American-People-Most-Admired-Person-Century. Scientific and Technical Information Branch. BBC News. (April 1990).  The Month at Caltech. p. 159. Springer (2000)  "Einstein the greatest" (http:/ / news. pdf http:/ / nobelprize. walhalla-regensburg. ISBN 0028631803 • Pais. 2002  (in German) Walhalla Ruhmes. edu/ einstein/ writings.und Ehrenhalle (http:/ / www. A review of Einstein's career and accomplishments. html). Christopher E. org/ about/ history. aspx). 1879–1909. and Stachel. html) from University of St Andrews. International Atomic Energy Agency. stm). . org/ MTCD/ publications/ PDF/ Pub1032_web. htm). Translated by Helen Stellner and David Hiley. 84. edu/ AnnusMirabilis/ AeReserveArticles/ eins_lq. . MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive (Last accessed 17 December 2006). retrieved 20 December 2009 http:/ / lorentz. Prometheus Books. "The Hungaria group of minor planets" (http:/ / adsabs. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. 1967. phl. . Bernhard Bosse Verlag Regensburg. Einstein: The Formative Years. Barry (2000): Einstein's Brainchild.google. co. library.  The Americana Annual 1962: An Encyclopedia of the Events of 1961. official guide booklet. . caltech. 1962. einstein-website.Albert Einstein ved=0CDQQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q=albert einstein science park& f=false) Pelican Publishing Company  Einsteinium and Fermium (http:/ / pubs. "Person of the Century: Why We Chose Einstein" (http:/ / www. Oxford University Press. st-and. 31 December 1999. ac. iaea. org/ 598einst. htm http:/ / press. dcs. retrieved 6 June 2009  Spratt. Wiesbaden: Vieweg. harvard. html) retrieved 17 July 2010         Pugwash Online (http:/ / www. edu/ einstein/ 29 Further reading • Moring. de/ z_information/ einsteinsociety. harvard. retrieved 3 October 2007  Biography of J. ISBN 978-0674028289. . edu/ abs/ 1990JRASC. org/ cen/ 80th/ einsteiniumfermium. written for the lay public. Harvard University Press. edu/ index. monthlyreview. caltech. 1968. edu/ ~wilson/ NYTimes1948. uk/ ~history/ Printonly/ Schwinger. pdf). shtml). retrieved 16 July 2007  Howard. 123S). John J. (2008): Einstein and Oppenheimer: The Meaning of Genius. retrieved 6 June 2009  (pdf) History of the International Atomic Energy Agency – The First Forty Years (http:/ / www-pub. retrieved 13 August 2008  Walhalla. Americana Corporation. Schwinger (http:/ / www-groups. . Journal (ISSN 0035-872X) 84 (2): 123–131. jhu. Abraham (1982): Subtle is the Lord: The science and the life of Albert Einstein. ISSN 0196-0180  Astronautics and Aeronautics. bbc. NASA. April 1954 issue (http:/ / calteches. time. 2000). de/ deutsch/ index. p. 29 November 1999. • Pais. .com/ books?id=875TTxildJ0C&dq=idiots+guide+to+einstein&printsec=frontcover&source=bl& ots=W9rxRk0Ukn&sig=gbJach7BrzngSiFjODx95k8e1DU&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=6& ct=result) ( 1st ed. Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. . ISBN 3834801739  Albert Einstein Society in Bern (http:/ / www. princeton. p.
html).st-andrews. April 1997. oclc.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1921/ einstein-bio.org Biography:Albert Einstein (http://nobelprize.slideshow by Life magazine • Albert Einstein (http://www. May 1949 • Nobelprize. Scotland.ac. Monthly Review. info/ gnd/ 118529579) | LCCN: n79022889 (http:/ / errol.org/viaf/75121530) .org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bpeins.php) by Albert Einstein.life.com/image/first/in-gallery/41492/ the-einstein-you-never-knew) . org/laf/n79022889.monthlyreview. University of St Andrews.html) • The Einstein You Never Knew (http://www.Albert Einstein 30 External links • Works by Albert Einstein (public domain in Canada) • The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive (http://www-history.org/598einstein.com/topics/albert-einstein)--Watch Videos • Science Odyssey People And Discoveries (http://www.html) | VIAF: 75121530 (http://viaf.uk/Biographies/ Einstein. School of Mathematics and Statistics.pbs.html) Authority control: PND: 118529579 (http:/ / d-nb. retrieved 14 June 2009 • Why Socialism? (http://www.mcs.history.
Einstein tackles some of the era's most important physics questions and problems. his wife. In 1900. and he later said of a co-worker there.   Through these papers. . may have had some influence on Einstein's work but how much is unclear. In addition to co-workers and papers the other members of the self-styled "Olympian Academy" (Solovine and Habicht). scientific colleagues available to discuss his theories were few. The Annus Mirabilis is often called the "Miracle Year" in English or Wunderjahr in German. Despite the greater fame achieved by his other works. As introduced. Additionally. that he "could not have found a better sounding Einstein. however none was forthcoming until the time dilation experiments of Ives and Stilwell (1938).31 Annus Mirabilis and special relativity Annus Mirabilis papers The Annus Mirabilis papers (from Latin annus mīrābilis." The Nobel committee had waited patiently for experimental confirmation of special relativity. although he did regularly read and contribute reviews to Annalen der Physik. special relativity provided an account for the results of the Michelson-Morley experiments. Background At the time the papers were written. time. Mileva Marić. it was his work on the photoelectric effect which won him his Nobel Prize in 1921: "For services to theoretical physics and especially for the discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. a lecture titled "Nineteenth-Century Clouds over the Dynamical Theory of Heat and Light". "extraordinary year") are the papers of Albert Einstein published in the Annalen der Physik scientific journal in 1905. suggested that physics had no satisfactory explanations for the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment and for black body radiation. These four articles contributed substantially to the foundation of modern physics and changed views on space. when he wrote the Annus Mirabilis board for his ideas in all of Europe". (1941) and Rossi and Hall (1941). Switzerland. in 1905. Einstein's theories for the photoelectric effect extended the quantum theory which Max Planck had developed in his successful explanation of black body radiation. such as that on special relativity. Einstein did not have easy access to a complete set of scientific reference materials. He worked as an examiner at the Patent Office in Bern. and matter. by Lord Kelvin. Michele Besso.
called quanta. Arthur Compton's X-ray scattering experiment helped more of the scientific community to accept this formula. Energy.. The simplest conception is that a light quantum transfers its entire energy to a single electron [. even low intensity light produced electrons. the assumption of infinite divisibility of energy in physical systems. his explanation was not universally accepted. but it consists of a finite number of energy quanta localised at points in space. some physicists accepted that the equation ( ) was correct and light quanta were possible. as Einstein illustrates. While we consider the state of a body to be completely determined by the positions and velocities of an indeed very large yet finite number of atoms and electrons. even intense light produced no electrons.. In 1923. as well. we make use of continuous spatial functions to determine the electromagnetic state of a volume of space.] Einstein noted that the photoelectric effect depended on the wavelength.]. He compared this to Planck's hypothesis that light could be emitted only in packets of energy given by hf. and Maxwell's theory of electromagnetic processes in so-called empty space. He then postulated that light travels in packets whose energy depends on the frequency. once a certain frequency was reached. and therefore only light above a certain frequency would bring sufficient energy to liberate an electron. However. At too low a frequency. this] leads to contradictions when applied to the phenomena of emission and transformation of light. the production of cathode rays by light can be conceived in the following way. assumes that luminous energy can be absorbed or emitted only in discrete amounts. in his 1922 Nobel address. In explaining the photoelectric effect. According to the view that the incident light consists of energy quanta [. The theory of light quanta was a strong indicator of wave-particle duality. Niels Bohr. a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics. The idea of light quanta contradicts the wave theory of light that follows naturally from James Clerk Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic behavior and. Einstein states.... motivated by Max Planck's earlier derivation of the law of black body radiation. moving without dividing and capable of being absorbed or generated only as entities. is not continuously distributed over steadily increasing spaces. the hypothesis that energy consists of discrete packets. "On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light". [.. can be directly applied to black bodies. more generally. where h is Planck's constant and f is the frequency. A profound formal difference exists between the theoretical concepts that physicists have formed about gases and other ponderable bodies. "The hypothesis of light-quanta is not able to throw light on the nature of radiation. during the propagation of a ray of light.Annus Mirabilis papers 32 Papers Photoelectric effect The paper. stated. . This idea." By 1921. and hence the frequency of the light. The body's surface layer is penetrated by energy quanta whose energy is converted at least partially into kinetic energy of the electrons. when Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize and his work on photoelectricity was mentioned by name in the award citation. so that a finite number of quantities cannot be considered as sufficient for the complete determination of the electromagnetic state of space. A complete picture of the theory of photoelectricity was realized after the maturity of quantum mechanics. Even after experiments confirmed that Einstein's equations for the photoelectric effect were accurate. proposed the idea of energy quanta.
mass. and that it had not been possible to discover any motion of the Earth relative to the 'light medium'. Einstein proposes that the speed of light has the same value in all inertial frames of reference. according to the molecular kinetic theory of heat. James Clerk Maxwell. which had not detected a medium of conductance (or aether) for light waves unlike other known waves that require a medium (such as water or air)." suggest that the phenomena of electrodynamics as well as of mechanics possess no properties corresponding to the idea of absolute rest. Christian Doppler. and thus not relative to the movement of the observer. he applies the classic principle of relativity. At the time. In this paper it will be shown that. Special relativity is thus consistent with the result of the Michelson–Morley experiment.Annus Mirabilis papers 33 Brownian motion The article "Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen" ("On the Motion of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid. It also lent credence to statistical mechanics. one of the leaders of the anti-atom school.. to the laws of electrodynamics and optics as well as mechanics.. We will raise this conjecture (the purport of which will hereafter be called . the article established the phenomenon. However. and Hendrik Lorentz. his third paper that year. This later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity. … the unsuccessful attempts to discover any motion of the earth relatively to the "light medium. led to asymmetries. as a result of thermal molecular motions. as detailed in history of special relativity. Wilhelm Ostwald. … the same laws of electrodynamics and optics will be valid for all frames of reference for which the equations of mechanics hold good. First. Special relativity Einstein's "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" ("On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies") . In the second postulate. independent of the state of motion of the emitting body. was published on June 30. perform motions of such magnitudes that they can be easily observed with a microscope. Before this paper. when applied to moving bodies. Einstein's paper introduces a new theory of time. Using the kinetic theory of fluids. The paper mentions the name of only five other scientists. which was lacking a satisfactory explanation even decades after the first observation. later told Arnold Sommerfeld that he had been convinced of the existence of atoms by Einstein's complete explanation of Brownian motion. distance. by introducing major changes to mechanics close to the speed of light. Many of the ideas had already been published by others. but physicists and chemists debated whether atoms were real entities. The speed of light is fixed. which had been controversial at that time. This was impossible under Newtonian classical mechanics. the data available to me on the latter are so imprecise that I could not form a judgment on the question . it was known that Maxwell's equations. but omitted the force of gravity. It does not have any references to any other publications. which states that the laws of physics remain the same for any non-accelerating frame of reference (called an inertial reference frame). Brownian motion generates expressions for the root mean square displacement of particles. as Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat") delineated a stochastic model of Brownian motion. as well. which at the time was controversial. Einstein puts forward two postulates to explain these observations. and energy that was consistent with electromagnetism. Einstein's statistical discussion of atomic behavior gave experimentalists a way to count atoms by looking through an ordinary microscope. atoms were recognized as a useful concept. Isaac Newton. It reconciles Maxwell's equations for electricity and magnetism with the laws of mechanics. Einstein argues. bodies of a microscopically visible size suspended in liquids must. however. Heinrich Hertz. It is possible that the motions to be discussed here are identical with so-called Brownian molecular motion. Einstein states. provided empirical evidence for the reality of the atom.
Special relativity gained widespread acceptance remarkably quickly. which differed from the explanations given by FitzGerald. whether the ray be emitted by a stationary or by a moving body. the theory was supported by an ever-increasing body of confirmatory experimental evidence.. Any ray of light moves in the "stationary" system of co-ordinates with the determined velocity c. that light is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity c which is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body. and electromagnetic processes.Annus Mirabilis papers the "Principle of Relativity") to the status of a postulate. Einstein revealed the underlying causes for this geometrical oddity. Hendrik Lorentz (1899. "Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig?" ("Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?"). whether these changes of state be referred to the one or the other of two systems of co-ordinates in uniform translatory motion. that the Michelson-Morley result could be accounted for if moving bodies were contracted in the direction of their motion. and most importantly. Some of the paper's core equations. The second is the rule that the speed of light is the same for every observer. clocks. Einstein writes. The theory […] is based—like all electrodynamics—on the kinematics of the rigid body. now called the special theory of relativity. Insufficient consideration of this circumstance lies at the root of the difficulties which the electrodynamics of moving bodies at present encounters. Larmor.. confirming Einstein's comment that it had been "ripe for discovery" in 1905. 1903. 34 Matter and energy equivalence On September 27 Annalen der Physik published a fourth paper. the "rest energy". distinct from its classical kinetic and potential energies. and also introduce another postulate. the Lorentz transforms. together with the Maxwellian expression for the electromagnetic energy of space . The previous investigation was based "on the Maxwell-Hertz equations for empty space. in a development of Lorentz's 1904 paper. and Lorentz. 1900). distinguishes it from his later general theory of relativity. independent of each other. Acknowledging the role of Max Planck in the early dissemination of his ideas. the axioms of relativity. which is only apparently irreconcilable with the former. It had previously been conjectured. The introduction of a "luminiferous ether" will prove to be superfluous in as much as the view here to be developed will not require an "absolutely stationary space" provided with special properties. the improved mathematical formulation of the theory by Hermann Minkowski in 1907 was influential in gaining acceptance for the theory. which considers all observers to be equivalent. since the assertions of any such theory have to do with the relationships between rigid bodies (systems of co-ordinates). but were similar in many respects to the reasons given by Poincaré (1905). These two postulates suffice for the attainment of a simple and consistent theory of the electrodynamics of moving bodies based on Maxwell's theory for stationary bodies. First. Einstein considered the equivalency equation to be of paramount importance because it showed that a massive particle possesses an energy. Galileo's idea that the laws of nature should be the same for all observers that move with constant speed relative to each other. In addition. which is here to be deduced. Einstein wrote in 1913 "The attention that this theory so quickly received from colleagues is surely to be ascribed in large part to the resoluteness and warmth with which he [Planck] intervened for this theory". His explanation arises from two axioms. 1904) and Henri Poincaré (1905). The results of the previous investigation lead to a very interesting conclusion. in addition. nor assign a velocity-vector to a point of the empty space in which electromagnetic processes take place. Also. had been published by Joseph Larmor (1897." . The laws by which the states of physical systems undergo change are not affected. The theory. in which Einstein developed an argument for arguably the most famous equation in the field of physics: E = mc². by George FitzGerald in 1894 and by Lorentz 1895. The paper is based on James Clerk Maxwell's and Heinrich Rudolf Hertz's investigations and. as Einstein states. namely.
physik.1364/JOSA. pdf). . (1941). The result shows how much energy will be released or consumed.. When applied to certain nuclear reactions. com/ topics/ Annalen-der-Physik): about annus mirabilis as "miraculous year" in English. The mass-energy relation can be used to predict how much energy will be released or consumed by nuclear reactions. and the mass in grammes. org/ abstract/ PR/ v59/ i3/ p223_1). pdf).000215. uni-augsburg. as they release binding energy during nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. in uniform motion of parallel translation relatively to each other. "An experimental study of the rate of a moving clock".com. Retrieved 2006-10-01. volume 2. Oregon Public Broadcasting. Einstein-Marity (Marity .. Hall. "An experimental study of the rate of a moving clock II". Series 6. Abram Joffe wrote "In 1905. if the energy changes by L.  Rossi. much larger than in the combustion of chemical explosives. This explains why nuclear weapons produce such phenomenal amounts of energy.. pbs. Annalen der . R. Journal of the Optical Society of America 28: 215–226. htm)". or E = mc². "Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen" (http:/ / www.223. 35 Commemoration The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) resolved to commemorate the 100th year of the publication of Einstein's extensive work in 1905 as the 'World Year of Physics 2005'. The equation sets forth that energy of a body at rest (E) equals its mass (m) times the speed of light (c) squared. the mass changes in the same sense by L/9 × 1020. usually in the form of light or heat. . appended to the author's name by Swiss custom. Annalen der Physik 17: 132–148. 2005.59.the maiden name of his wife. Johns Hopkins University Press. Journal of the Optical Society of America 31: 359–374. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1905_17_549-560. doi:10. 2003. 1941). one simply measures the mass of all constituents and the mass of all the products and multiplies the difference between the two by c2.  The suggestion that Mileva actually co-authored some of Einstein's early papers was based largely on what is now generally agreed to have been a misunderstanding. Herbert E. Albert (1905).Factbites" (2005). or German Wunderjahr.  Einstein.. The fact that the energy withdrawn from the body becomes energy of radiation evidently makes no difference. uni-augsburg. radiation conveys inertia between the emitting and absorbing bodies. Joffe's comment was later mis-quoted in a way that suggested co-authorship of the husband and wife. G.28. R. In an obituary for Einstein in 1955. Stilwell.Annus Mirabilis papers The laws by which the states of physical systems alter are independent of the alternative. This was subsequently endorsed by the United Nations. and that Marity was the maiden name of the author's wife.  The London.] If the theory corresponds to the facts. doi:10. G. Albert (1905). its mass diminishes by L/c².. Baltimore. where the mass difference is hardly measurable at all.  "Einstein's Wife : The Mileva Question (http:/ / www. aps. (1938). Physical Review 59 (3): 223–228. to which of two systems of coordinates.  Ives. Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science. Factbites." Thus Joffe did not claim co-authorship. was a bureaucrat at the Patent Office in Bern. David B. so that we are led to the more general conclusion that The mass of a body is a measure of its energy-content. Md. org/ opb/ einsteinswife/ science/ mquest. The author of these articles. he merely stated that the papers were by an unknown individual.. "The Einstein almanac". the energy being measured in ergs. [. three articles appeared in the Annalen der Physik. Stilwell.1103/PhysRev. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1905_17_132-148. the equation shows that an extraordinarily large amount of energy will be released. (February 1. If a body gives off the energy L in the form of radiation. "Variation of the Rate of Decay of Mesotrons with Momentum" (http:/ / prola. "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt" (http:/ / www. web: Factbites-Annalen (http:/ / www. Bruno. page 1 (1901)  Ives. physik. an unknown person at the time. factbites. which by Swiss custom is added to the husband's family name).  Calaprice. these alterations of state are referred (principle of relativity). Retrieved 2008-02-18. and also convert a much larger portion of subatomic mass to energy. Herbert E.  Physical systems can display both wave-like and particle-like properties  Einstein. Notes  "Annalen der Physik . Alice.
uni-augsburg. Einstein's Miraculous Year.. 1998. 1920. Ltd. Translation by George Barker Jeffery and Wilfrid Perrett in The Principle of Relativity. ch/ etexts/ einstein/ E_mc2/ www/ )". de/ ~kleinert/ files/ eins_brownian. • On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies (1923 edition) . Retrieved 2008-08-25. pdf)". .collection of the Annus Mirabilis papers and their English translations. Translation by Megh Nad Saha in The Principle of Relativity: Original Papers by A. fourmilab. Annalen der Physik 18: 639–641. Phys. Retrieved 2008-02-18. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1905_18_639-641. fu-berlin. • English translations: • " Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content? (http:/ / www. Translated by A. Annalen der Physik 17: 891–921. "Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig?" (http:/ / www.fu-berlin. pp. "1905 — a miraculous year". Princeton University Press. pro-physik. John. Einstein and H.D Cowper  Einstein. Phys. London: Methuen and Company. Translation by George Barker Jeffery and Wilfrid Perrett in The Principle of Relativity. et al. Mol. ch/ etexts/ einstein/ specrel/ www/ )". Opt. .physik. 2005 J. Ltd. Albert (1905-06-30). "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" (http:/ / www. Albert (1905). 1–34:  Einstein. 36 English translation: " Investigations on the theory of Brownian Movement (http:/ / users. • English translations: " On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies (http:/ / www. Works by Einstein Further reading • Stachel. de/ Phy/ pdfs/ ger_890_921. Jürgen. fourmilab. pdf). See also a digitized version at Wikilivres:Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper. (1923).de/~kleinert/files/) . physik. 38 S437-S448 (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science) [Issue 9 (14 May 2005)] External links • (http://users. Minkowski. pdf). (1923) • "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies". and Dieter Hoffmann. . B: At. ISBN 0-691-05938-1 • Renn. physik. London: Methuen and Company.Annus Mirabilis papers Physik 17: 549–560. University of Calcutta.
Thus it seemed possible to determine absolute motion relative to the aether and therefore to disprove Galileo's Principle. and subsequent work of Max Planck. he was not able to provide a coherent mechanical description of the aether. Subsequent work of Hermann Minkowski laid the foundations of Relativistic Field Theories. it was believed that light propagates as a transverse wave within an elastic medium called luminiferous aether. During the 19th century the aether theory was widely accepted. It culminated in the theory of special relativity proposed by Albert Einstein. Hendrik Lorentz. Introduction Although Isaac Newton based his theory on absolute space and time. However. Other important contributions to Maxwell's theory were made by George FitzGerald. Henri Poincaré in 1905 proposed the Relativity Principle as a general law of nature. According to Maxwell all optical and electrical phenomena propagate in a medium. This stated that all observers who move uniformly relative to each other are equal and no absolute state of motion can be attributed to any observer. Henri Poincaré and others. In addition. After Heinrich Hertz in 1887 demonstrated the existence of electromagnetic waves. This paved the way to General Relativity. He first proposed that light was in fact undulations (Electromagnetic radiation) in the same aetherial medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. but after considerable work by many scientists. Maxwell's theory was widely accepted. Attempts to unify those models or to create a complete mechanical description of them did not succeed. The "Maxwell-Hertz" or "Heaviside-Hertz" Equations subsequently formed an important basis for the further development of electrodynamics. John Henry Poynting. Hermann Minkowski and others. mostly in the form given by James Clerk Maxwell. named Maxwell's equations.  . James Clerk Maxwell (1864) developed an accurate theory of electromagnetism by deriving a set of equations in electricity. he also adhered to the principle of relativity of Galileo Galilei. In 1905 Albert Einstein published what is now called Special Relativity (SR) – he radically reinterpreted Lorentzian Electrodynamics by changing the concepts of space and time and abolishing the aether. Based on Lorentz's aether.History of special relativity 37 History of special relativity The history of special relativity consists of many theoretical results and empirical findings obtained by Albert Michelson. including Michael Faraday and Lord Kelvin. The failure of any experiment to detect motion through the aether led Hendrik Lorentz in 1892 to develop a theory based on an immobile aether and the Lorentz transformation. and while he was able to present a complete mathematical model. magnetism and inductance. Aether and Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies Aether models and Maxwell's equations Following the work of Thomas Young (1804) and Augustin-Jean Fresnel (1816). Joseph John Thomson. Hendrik Lorentz. Maxwell's theory was unsatisfactory regarding the optics of moving bodies. including electrodynamics and gravitation. and Joseph Larmor. Oliver Heaviside and Hertz further developed the theory and introduced modernized versions of Maxwell's equations. However. and Heaviside's notation is still used today. a distinction was made between optical and electrodynamical phenomena so it was necessary to create specific aether models for all phenomena.
History of special relativity
Search for the aether
Regarding the relative motion and the mutual influence of matter and aether, two theories were considered: The one of Fresnel (and subsequently Lorentz), who developed a Stationary Aether Theory in which light propagates as a transverse wave and aether was partially dragged with a certain coefficient by matter. Based on this assumption, Fresnel was able to explain the Aberration of light and many optical phenomena. On the other hand, George Gabriel Stokes stated in 1845 that the aether was fully dragged by matter (later this view was also shared by Hertz). In this model the aether might be (by analogy with pine pitch) rigid for fast objects and fluid for slower objects. Thus the Earth could move through it fairly freely, but it would be rigid enough to transport light. Fresnel's theory was preferred because his dragging coefficient was confirmed by the Fizeau experiment of Hippolyte Fizeau in 1851, who measured the speed of light in moving liquids. Albert Abraham Michelson (1881) tried to measure the relative motion of earth and Aether (Aether-Wind), as it was expected in Fresnel’s theory, by using an interferometer. He could not determine any relative motion, so he interpreted the result as a confirmation of the thesis of Stokes. However, Lorentz (1886) showed Michelson's calculations were wrong and that he overestimated the accuracy of the measurement. This, together with the large margin of error, made the result of Michelson's experiment inconclusive. In addition, Lorentz showed that Stokes' completely dragged aether lead to contradictory consequences, and therefore he supported an aether theory similar to Fresnel's. To check Fresnel's theory Michelson and Edward Morley (1886) performed a repetition of the Fizeau experiment. Fresnel's dragging coefficient was confirmed very exactly on that occasion, and Michelson was now of the opinion that Fresnel's stationary aether Albert Abraham Michelson theory is correct. To clarify the situation, Michelson and Morley (1887) repeated Michelson's 1881-experiment, whereby they corrected the former errors of calculation, and they substantially increased the accuracy of the measurement. However, this now famous Michelson-Morley experiment again yielded a negative result, i.e., no motion of the apparatus through the aether was detected. So the physicists were confronted with two seemingly contradictory experiments: The 1886-experiment as an apparent confirmation of Fresnel's stationary aether, and the 1887-experiment as an apparent confirmation of Stokes' completely dragged aether. A possible solution to the problem was shown by Woldemar Voigt (1887), who investigated the Doppler Effect for waves propagating in an incompressible elastic medium and deduced transformation relations that left the Wave equation in free space unchanged, and explained the negative result of the Michelson-Morley Experiment. The Voigt-Transformations include the Lorentz factor for the y- and z-coordinates, and a new time variable which later was called "local time". However, Voigt's work was completely ignored by his contemporaries.  FitzGerald (1889) offered another explanation of the negative result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. Contrary to Voigt, he speculated that the intermolecular forces are possibly of electrical origin so that also material bodies would contract in the line of motion (length contraction). This was in connection with the work of Heaviside (1887), who determined that the electrostatic fields were contracted in the line of motion (Heaviside Ellipsoid), which leads to physically undetermined conditions at the speed of light. However, Fitzgerald's idea remained widely unknown and was not discussed before Oliver Lodge published a summary of the idea in 1892. Also Lorentz (1892b) proposed length contraction independently from Fitzgerald in order to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment. For plausibility reasons, Lorentz referred to the analogy of the contraction of electrostatic fields. However, even Lorentz admitted that that was not a necessary reason and length-contraction consequently remained as a purely
History of special relativity ad-hoc hypothesis. 
Lorentz's theory of electrons
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz
Lorentz (1892a) set the foundations of Lorentz aether theory, by assuming the existence of electrons which he separated from the aether, and by replacing the "Maxwell-Hertz" Equations by the "Maxwell-Lorentz" Equations. In his model, the aether is completely motionless and, contrary to Fresnel's theory, also is not partially dragged by matter. An important consequence of this notion was that the velocity of light is totally independent of the velocity of the source. Lorentz gave no statements about the mechanical nature of the aether and the electromagnetic processes, but, vice-versa, tried to explain the mechanical processes by electromagnetic ones and therefore created an abstract electromagnetic æther. In the framework of his theory, Lorentz calculated, like Heaviside, the contraction of the electrostatic fields. Lorentz (1895) also introduced what he called the "Theorem of Corresponding States" for terms of first order in . This theorem states that a moving observer (relative to the aether) in his "fictitious" field makes the same observations as a resting observers in his "real" field. An important part of it was local time , which paved the way to the Lorentz Transformation and which he introduced independently of Voigt. With the help of this concept, Lorentz could explain the aberration of light, the Doppler Effect and the Fizeau experiment as well. However, Lorentz's local time was only an auxiliary mathematical tool to simplify the transformation from one system into another – it was Poincaré in 1900 who recognized that "local time" is actually indicated by moving watches.   Lorentz also recognized the fact that his theory violated the principle of action and reaction, since the aether acts on matter, but matter cannot act on the immobile aether. A very similar model was created by Joseph Larmor (1897, 1900). Larmor was the first to put Lorentz's 1895-transformation into a form algebraically equivalent to the modern Lorentz transformations, however, he stated that his transformations preserved the form of Maxwell's equations only to second order of . Lorentz later noted that these transformations did in fact preserve the form of Maxwell's equations to all orders of . Larmor noticed on that occasion, that not only can length-contraction be derived from it, but he also calculated some sort of Time Dilation for electron orbits. Larmor specified his considerations in 1900.  Independently of Larmor, also Lorentz (1899) extended his transformation for second order terms and noted a (mathematical) Time Dilation effect as well. However, besides Lorentz and Larmor also other physicists tried to develop a consistent model of electrodynamics. For example, Emil Cohn (1900, 1901) created an alternative Electrodynamics in which he, as one of the first,
History of special relativity discarded the existence of the aether (at least in the previous form) and would use, like Ernst Mach, the fixed stars as a reference frame instead. Due to internal failures (like different light speeds in different directions) his theory was superseded by Lorentz's and Einstein's.
During his development of Maxwell's Theory, J. J. Thomson (1881) recognized that charged bodies are harder to set in motion than uncharged bodies. He also noticed that the mass of a body in motion is increased by a constant quantity. Electrostatic fields behave as if they add an "electromagnetic mass" to the mechanical mass of the bodies. I.e., according to Thomson, electromagnetic energy corresponds to a certain mass. This was interpreted as some form of self-inductance of the electromagnetic field.  Thomson's work was continued and perfected by FitzGerald, Heaviside (1888), and George Frederick Charles Searle (1896, 1897). For the electromagnetic mass they gave — in modern notation — the formula , where is the electromagnetic mass and is the electromagnetic energy. Heaviside and Searle also recognized that the increase of the mass of a body is not constant and varies with its velocity. Consequently, Searle noted the impossibility of superluminal velocities, because infinite energy would be needed to exceed the speed of light. Also for Lorentz (1899), the integration of the speed-dependence of masses recognized by Thomson was especially important. He noticed that the mass not only varied due to speed, but is also dependent on the direction, and he introduced what Abraham later called "longitudinal" and "transverse" mass. (The transversal mass corresponds to what later was called Relativistic Mass). Wilhelm Wien (1900) assumed (following the works of Thomson, Heaviside, and Searle) that the entire mass is of electromagnetic origin and the formula for the mass-energy-relationship is . This was formulated in the context that all forces of nature are electromagnetic ones (the Electromagnetic World View). Wien stated that, if it is assumed that gravitation is an electromagnetic effect too, then there has to be a proportionality between electromagnetic energy, inertial mass and gravitational mass. In the same paper Henri Poincaré (1900b) found another way of combining the concepts of mass and energy. He recognized that electromagnetic energy behaves like a fictitious fluid with mass density of (or ) and defined a fictitious electromagnetic momentum as well. However, he arrived at a radiation paradox which was fully explained by Einstein in 1905. Walter Kaufmann (1901-1903) was the first to confirm the velocity dependence of electromagnetic mass by analyzing the ratio (where is the charge and the mass) of cathode rays. He found that the value of decreased with the speed, showing that, assuming the charge constant, the mass of the electron increased with the speed. He also believed that those experiments confirmed the assumption of Wien, that there is no "real" mechanical mass, but only the "apparent" electromagnetic mass, or in other words, the mass of all bodies is of electromagnetic origin. Max Abraham (1902 - 1904), who was a supporter of the electromagnetic world view, quickly offered an explanation for Kaufmann's experiments by deriving expressions for the electromagnetic mass. Together with this concept, Abraham introduced (like Poincaré in 1900) the notion of "Electromagnetic Momentum" which is proportional to . But unlike Poincaré, he considered it as a real physical entity. Abraham also noted (like Lorentz in 1899) that this mass also depends on the direction and coined the names "Longitudinal" and "Transverse" Mass. In contrast to Lorentz, he didn't incorporated the Contraction Hypothesis into his theory, and therefore his mass terms differed from those of Lorentz.  Based on the preceding work on electromagnetic mass, Friedrich Hasenöhrl suggested that part of the mass of a body (which he called apparent mass) can be thought of as radiation bouncing around a cavity. The apparent mass of radiation depends on the temperature (because every heated body emits radiation) and is proportional to its energy, and he first concluded that . Hasenöhrl stated that this energy-apparent-mass relation only holds as long a body radiates, i.e., if the temperature of a body is greater than 0 K. However, Abraham and Hasenöhrl himself in 1905 changed the result to , the same value as for the electromagnetic mass for a body at rest.
He also said that even accelerated motion such as rotation could be related to the fixed stars without using Newton's absolute space. However. in which space and time were only two sides of some sort of "spacetime". Heinrich Streintz (1883) argued that if gyroscopes don't measure any signs of rotation. or the order of their succession. Wells in his novel The Time Machine (1895). Eventually. He concluded by saying. He also rejected any connection with the existing constructions of n-dimensional spaces and non-Euclidean geometry and consequently rejected the spacetime formalism of Einstein and Minkowski. He used time as an imaginary fourth dimension.History of special relativity 41 Absolute space and time Some scientists started to criticize Newton's definitions of absolute space and time. 1900a) argued that experiments like that of Michelson-Morley show the impossibility of detecting the absolute motion of matter or the relative motion of matter in relation to the aether. as Ole Rømer did based on observations of the moons of Jupiter.e. On that occasion. Palagyi's time coordinate is not connected to the speed of light like it is in Lorentz's theory. which he gave the form (where . which included: philosophical assessments on the relativity of space. and that this speed is the same in all directions. which represents some sort of rigid and fixed body for defining inertial motion. so physicists like Max Born argued that his model bears only little resemblance with relativity. Poincaré also noted that the propagation speed of light can be (and in practice often is) used to define simultaneity between spatially separate events. as it was done by some authors in the 19th century like H. i. There were also some attempts to use time as a Fourth Dimension. the possible non-existence of the aether but also some arguments supporting the aether. And in 1902. Based on the definition of Neumann. many remarks on non-Euclidean geometry. the equality of two durations. Without this postulate it would be impossible to infer the speed of light from astronomical observations. In other words. Carl Neumann (1870) introduced a "Body alpha". time. imaginary number). then one can speak of inertial motion which is related to a "Fundamental body" and a "Fundamental Coordinate System". Henri Poincaré published the philosophical and popular-science book "Science and Hypothesis"." Henri Poincaré In some other papers. all these rules. Ludwig Lange (1885) was the first to coin the expression inertial frame of reference and inertial time scale as operational replacements for absolute space and time. So Henri Poincaré (1898) in his paper The Measure of Time drew some important consequences of this process and explained that astronomers. And in 1901 a philosophical model was published by Menyhért Palágyi.  This was done as early as 1754 by Jean le Rond d'Alembert in the Encyclopédie. in determining the speed of light. Light constancy and the Principle of relative motion In the second half of the 19th century there were many attempts to develop a worldwide clock network synchronized by electrical signals. all these definitions are only the fruit of an unconscious opportunism.   For example. He . and simultaneity. Ernst Mach (1883) argued that absolute time and space are meaningless and only relative motion is a useful concept. simply assume that light has a constant speed. the finite propagation speed of light had to be considered as well. G. by defining "a reference frame in which a mass point thrown from the same point in three different (non co-planar) directions follows rectilinear paths each time it is thrown is called a inertial frame". that "The simultaneity of two events. are to be so defined that the enunciation of the natural laws may be as simple as possible. the opinion that a violation of the Relativity Principle can never be detected. Poincaré (1895.
 Therefore. Poincaré draw some consequences from Lorentz's theory and defined (in modification of Galileo's Relativity Principle and Lorentz's Theorem of Corresponding States) the following principle: "The Principle of Relativity." He also specified his clock synchronization method and explained the possibility of a "new method" or "new mechanics". And in June 1904. from the point of view of an observer at rest in the aether. because in Lorentz's theory of the contracted electrons. He assumed that 2 observers A and B. which were in agreement with Kaufmann's experiments. of determining whether or not we are being carried along in such a motion. the theory that was created by him later in 1906 was incorrect and not self-consistent.e. However. Wien (1903) recognized an important consequence of the velocity dependence of mass. Poincaré-defined local time can be measured and indicated by clocks. he could explain the negative result of the Trouton-Noble experiment. However. Lorentz's theory was criticized by Abraham. he noticed the same in relation to length contraction. Lorentz's 1904 model In his paper Electromagnetic phenomena in a system moving with any velocity smaller than that of light. However. not mechanical mass. and can have none. because that would require an infinite amount of energy — the same was already noted by Thomson (1893) and Searle (1897). Abraham showed. Since they believe themselves to be at rest. Louis named The Principles of Mathematical Physics. i. synchronize their clocks by optical signals. and on the other side the electromagnetic origin of all forces is assumed. in Abraham's theory of the rigid electron. And using the electromagnetic momentum. in which a charged parallel-plate capacitor moving through the aether should orient itself perpendicular to the motion. Another important step was the postulate that the Lorentz Transformation has to be valid for non-electrical forces as well.History of special relativity 42 called this the "principle of relative motion. He tried to prove the validity of the Lorentz transformation for all orders. because at superluminal velocities the factor becomes imaginary. after he had read Lorentz's 1904 paper. those experiments were not precise enough to distinguish between the theories of Lorentz and Abraham. So. But because the moving observers do not know anything about their movement. that both assumptions were incompatible. that two events at different place could appear as simultaneous. although they are not simultaneous in reality. the clocks are not synchronous and indicate the local time . non-electric forces were needed in order to guarantee the stability of matter. the relativity principle. the Conservation of Mass and the Conservation of Energy are not fully established and are even threatened by some experiments. and the Lorentz transformation was absent within his theory as well. Lorentz (1904) was following the suggestion of Poincaré and attempted to create a formulation of Electrodynamics. no such forces were needed. contrary to Lorentz. In a September 1904 lecture in St. who demonstrated that on one side the theory obeys the relativity principle. Newton's action and reaction. they do not recognize this. Poincaré argued that Lorentz has convincingly explained the negative outcome of the aether drift experiments by inventing the "diminished time". Like Wien and Abraham. Like Poincaré. he argued that there exists only electromagnetic mass. when Lorentz worked out his theory.e. Bucherer even assumed that this implies the nonexistence of the aether. so that we have no means. He argued that superluminal velocities were impossible. i. according to which the laws of physical phenomena must be the same for a stationary observer as for one carried along in a uniform motion of translation. However. in which no velocity can surpass that of light for all observers. although he didn't succeed completely. but contrary to Poincaré. which explains the failure of all known aether drift experiments. Alfred Bucherer (1903) believed in the validity of the relativity principle within the domain of electrodynamics." In the same year he interpreted Lorentz's local time as the result of a synchronization procedure based on light signals. and derived the correct expression for longitudinal and transverse mass. . However. they must consider only the transmission time of the signals and then cross-reference their observations to examine whether their clocks are synchronous. Thus the question arose whether the Electromagnetic conception of the world (compatible with Abraham's theory) or the Relativity Principle (compatible with Lorentz's Theory) was correct. he critically noted that the Relativity Principle. which are moving in the aether. in his recommendation of Lorentz for the Nobel Prize in 1902. At the same time.
 43 Poincaré's Dynamics of the electron On 5 June 1905. because no experiment can distinguish between them. He spoke literally of „the postulate of relativity“. which is based on the assumption of isotropic propagation of light. but this problem was quickly solved. (This short paper contained the results of a more complete work which was published in January 1906). which he called the Lorentz group. and if they are moving. and he corrected Lorentz's formulas for the transformations of charge density and current density (which implicitly contained the relativistic velocity-addition formula. in his physical papers he continued to refer to an (undetectable) aether. received 23 July. 1906. and he gave them the symmetrical form which is used to this day. He introduced a non-electrical binding force (the so called "Poincaré stresses") to ensure the stability of the electrons and to explain length contraction. He showed that the transformations are a consequence of the Principle of Least Action and developed the properties of the Poincaré stresses. Yet according to Cohn's own theory. published January 1906 ). 1908b) to describe coordinates and phenomena as local/apparent (for moving observers) and true/real (for observers at rest in the aether).History of special relativity Also Emil Cohn (1904) continued to develop his alternative model (as described above). Contrary to Lorentz and Poincaré it was noticed by Cohn. and he showed that the combination is invariant.  So with a few exceptions   most historians of science argue that Poincaré did not invent what is now called special relativity. He illustrated (like Joseph Larmor in the same year) this transformation by using rods and clocks: If they are at rest in the aether. While elaborating his gravitational theory. Cohn defined local time as the time. He demonstrated in more detail the group characteristics of the transformation. he said the Lorentz transformation is merely a rotation in four-dimensional space about the origin.      . and he used an early form of four-vectors. Like Poincaré. However. He showed that Lorentz's equations of electrodynamics were not fully Lorentz-covariant. and while comparing his theory with that of Lorentz. Poincaré used for the first time the term "Lorentz transformation". He also continued (1900b. by introducing as a fourth imaginary coordinate (contrary to Palagyi. although it is admitted that Poincaré anticipated much of Einstein's methods and terminology. He wrote that the discovery of magneto-cathode rays by Paul Ulrich Villard (1904) seems to threaten the entire theory of Lorentz.  Eventually Poincaré (independently of Einstein) finished a substantially extended work of his June paper (the so called „Palermo paper“. he included the speed of light). although in his philosophical writings Poincaré rejected the ideas of absolute space and time. So he pointed out the group characteristics of the transformation. they indicate the true length and time. printed 14 December. he discovered some important physical interpretations of the Lorentz transformations. the Lorentz transformed quantities would only be valid for optical phenomena. Henri Poincaré submitted the summary of a work which closed the existing gaps of Lorentz's work. 1904. He also sketched a Lorentz-invariant model of gravitation (including gravitational waves) by extending the validity of Lorentz-invariance to non-electrical forces. which he elaborated in May in a letter to Lorentz). they indicate contracted and dilated values. that within Lorentz's theory the separation of "real" and "apparent" coordinates is artificial. while mechanical clocks would indicate the "real" time.
History of special relativity
Electrodynamics of moving bodies In September 26, 1905 (received 30 June), Albert Einstein published his annus mirabilis paper on what is now called Special Relativity. Einstein's paper includes a fundamental new definition of space and time (all time and space coordinates in all reference frames are equal, so there is no "true" or "apparent" time) and the abolition of the aether. He identified two fundamental principles, the Principle of Relativity and the Principle of the Constancy of Light, which served as the axiomatic basis of his theory. To better understand Einstein's step, a summary of the situation before 1905, as it was described above, shall be given (it must be remarked that Einstein was familiar with the 1895 theory of Lorentz, and "Science and Hypothesis" by Poincaré, but not their papers of 1904-1905): a) Maxwell's electrodynamics, in the way as it was presented by Lorentz in 1895, was the most successful theory at this time. Here, the Albert Einstein, 1921 speed of light is constant in all directions in the stationary aether, and completely independent of the velocity of the source; b) The inability to find an absolute state of motion, which was the consequence of the negative results of all aether drift experiments, as well as the fact that effects like the moving magnet and conductor problem only depend on relative motion; c) The Fizeau experiment; d) The aberration of light. This had the following consequences for the speed of light and the theories known at that time: 1. The speed of light is not composed by the speed of light in vacuum and the velocity of a preferred frame of reference, by b. This contradicts the theory of the (nearly) stationary aether. 2. The speed of light is not composed by the speed of light in vacuum and the velocity of the light source, by a and c. This contradicts the emission theory. 3. The speed of light is not composed by the speed of light in vacuum and the velocity of an aether that would be dragged within or in the vicinity of matter, by a, c, and d. This contradicts the hypothesis of the complete aether drag. 4. The speed of light in moving media is not composed by the speed of light when the medium is at rest, and the velocity of the medium, but is determined by Fresnel's dragging coefficient, by c. To make the preceding theories tenable, the introduction of Ad hoc hypotheses would be required. Yet in science the assumption of a conspiracy of effects which prevent the discovery of other effects is considered to be very improbable, and it would violate Occam's razor as well. So Einstein refused to invent auxiliary hypotheses, and draw the direct conclusions from the facts stated above: That the relativity principle is correct and the speed of light is constant in all inertial reference frames. Because of his axiomatic method, Einstein was able to derive all results of his predecessors – and in addition the formulas for the Relativistic Doppler effect and Relativistic aberration – on a few pages, while his predecessors needed years of long, complicated work to arrive at the same mathematical formalism. Lorentz and Poincaré had also adopted these same principles, as necessary to achieve their final results, but didn't recognize that they were also sufficient, and hence that they obviated all the other assumptions (especially the stationary aether) underlying Lorentz's initial derivations.  Another reason for Einstein's rejection of the aether was probably his work on quantum physics. Einstein found out that light can also be described as a particle, so the aether as the medium for electromagnetic "waves" (which was highly important for Lorentz and Poincaré) had no
History of special relativity place in his theoretical concepts anymore. It's notable that Einstein's paper contains no direct references to other papers. However, many historians of science like Holton, Miller, Stachel, have tried to find out possible influences on Einstein. Einstein himself stated that his thinking was influenced by the empiricist philosophers David Hume and Ernst Mach. Regarding the Relativity Principle, the moving magnet and conductor problem (possibly after reading a book of August Föppl) and the various negative aether drift experiments were important for him to accept that principle — but he denied any significant influence of the most important experiment: the Michelson-Morley experiment. Other possible sources are Poincaré's Science and Hypothesis, where he described the Principle of Relativity and which was read by Einstein in 1904, and the writings of Max Abraham, from whom he borrowed the terms "Maxwell-Hertz equations" and "longitudinal and transverse mass". Regarding his views on Electrodynamics and the Principle of the Constancy of Light, Einstein himself stated that Lorentz's theory of 1895 (or the Maxwell-Lorentz electrodynamics) and also the Fizeau experiment had considerable influence on his thinking. He said in 1909 and 1912 that he borrowed that principle from Lorentz's stationary aether (which implies validity of Maxwell's equations and the constancy of light in the aether frame), but he recognized that this principle together with the principle of relativity makes the aether useless. As he wrote in 1907 and in later papers, the apparent contradiction between those principles can be solved if it is realized that Lorentz's local time is not an auxiliary quantity, but can simply be defined as time and is connected with signal velocity. Before Einstein, also Poincaré developed a similar physical interpretation of local time and noticed the connection to signal velocity, but contrary to Einstein he continued to argue that clocks in the aether show the true time, and moving clocks show the apparent time. Eventually, in 1953 Einstein described the advances of his theory (although Poincaré already stated in 1905 that Lorentz invariance is a general condition for any physical theory):
There is no doubt, that the special theory of relativity, if we regard its development in retrospect, was ripe for discovery in 1905. Lorentz had already recognized that the transformations named after him are essential for the analysis of Maxwell's equations, and Poincaré deepened this insight still further. Concerning myself, I knew only Lorentz's important work of 1895 [...] but not Lorentz's later work, nor the consecutive investigations by Poincaré. In this sense my work of 1905 was independent. [..] The new feature of it was the realization of the fact that the bearing of the Lorentz transformation transcended its connection with Maxwell's equations and was concerned with the nature of space and time in general. A further new result was that the "Lorentz invariance" is a general condition for any physical theory. This was for me of particular importance because I had already previously found that Maxwell's theory did not account for the micro-structure of radiation and could therefore have no general validity.
Mass-energy equivalence Already in §10 of his paper on electrodynamics, Einstein used the formula
for the kinetic energy of an electron. In elaboration of this he published a paper (received 27 September, November 1905), in which Einstein showed that when a material body lost energy (either radiation or heat) of amount E, its mass decreased by the amount E/c2. This led to the famous mass–energy equivalence formula: E = mc2. Einstein considered the equivalency equation to be of paramount importance because it showed that a massive particle possesses an energy, the "rest energy", distinct from its classical kinetic and potential energies. As it was shown above, many authors before Einstein arrived at similar formulas (including a 4/3-factor) for the relation of mass to energy. However, their work was focused on electromagnetic energy which (as we know today) only represents a small part of the entire energy within matter. So it was Einstein who was the first a) to ascribe this relation to all forms of energy, and b) to understand the connection of Mass-energy equivalence with the relativity principle.
History of special relativity
First assessments Walter Kaufmann (1905, 1906) was probably the first who referred to Einstein's work. He compared the theories of Lorentz and Einstein, and, although he said Einstein's method is to be preferred, he argued that both theories are observationally equivalent. Therefore, he spoke of the relativity principle as the "Lorentz-Einsteinian" basic assumption. The name "Lorentz-Einstein-Theory" was used by others for some years as well. Shortly afterwards, Max Planck (1906a) was the first who publicly defended the theory, and who interested his students Max von Laue and Kurd von Mosengeil for this theory. He described Einstein's theory as a "generalization" of Lorentz's theory, and to this "Lorentz-Einstein-Theory" he gave the name "relative theory", while Alfred Bucherer changed Planck's notation into the now common "theory of relativity". On the other hand, Einstein himself and many others continued to simply refer to the new method as the "relativity principle". And in an important overview article on the relativity principle (1908a), Einstein described SR as a "union of Lorentz's theory and the relativity principle", including the fundamental assumption that Lorentz's local time can be described as real time. (Yet, Poincaré's contributions were rarely mentioned in the first years after 1905.) All of those expressions (Lorentz-Einstein theory, relativity principle, relativity theory) were used by different physicists alternately in the next years. Kaufmann-Bucherer experiments Kaufmann (1905, 1906) announced the results of his new experiments on the charge to mass ratio, i.e. the velocity dependence of mass. They represented, in his opinion, a clear refutation of the relativity principle and the Lorentz-Einstein-Theory, and a confirmation of Abraham's theory. For some years, Kaufmann's experiments represented a weighty objection against the relativity principle, although it was criticized by Planck and Adolf Bestelmeyer (1906). Following Kaufmann, other physicists like Alfred Bucherer (1908), and Günther Neumann (1914) also examined the velocity-dependence of mass, and this time it was thought that the "Lorentz-Einstein theory" and the relativity principle is confirmed, and Abraham's theory is disproved. However, it was later pointed out that the Kaufmann-Bucherer-Neumann experiments only showed a qualitative mass increase of moving electron, but they were not precise enough to distinguish between the models of Lorentz-Einstein and Abraham. So it lasted until 1940, when experiments of this kind were repeated with sufficient accuracy for confirming the Lorentz-Einstein formula. However, this problem occurred only for this kind of experiments. The investigations of the fine structure of the hydrogen lines already in 1917 provided a clear confirmation of the Lorentz-Einstein formula, and the refutation of Abraham's theory.
He acknowledged the priority of Einstein's 1905 work on . and mass is considered as an invariant quantity. In addition. So the older definition of longitudinal and transverse mass. On that occasion.History of special relativity Relativistic momentum and mass Planck (1906a) defined the relativistic momentum and gave the correct values for the longitudinal and transverse mass by correcting a slight mistake of the expression given by Einstein in 1905. After first attempts by Jakob Laub (1907) to create a relativistic "optics of moving bodies". Laue calculated a displacement of the interference pattern if the platform is in rotation – because the speed of light is independent of the velocity of the source. While Sagnac himself concluded that his theory confirmed the theory of an aether at rest. like all other pre-Einstein ones. Eventually Planck (1907) derived the mass-energy-equivalence in general within the framework of special relativity. Franz Harress (1912) performed an experiment which can be . in which mass was defined as the ratio of force to acceleration. for example in analogy to a Foucault pendulum [Already in 1909–11. it was Max von Laue (1907) who derived the coefficient for terms of all orders by using the colinear case of the relativistic velocity addition law. he noted that the formal mathematical content of Poincaré paper on the center of mass(1900b) and his own paper were mainly the same. many modern textbooks on relativity don't use the concept of relativistic mass anymore. In 1911 Laue also discussed a situation where on a platform a beam of light is split and the two beams are made to follow a trajectory in opposite directions. although the physical interpretation was different in light of relativity. contained incorrect numerical prefactors (see Electromagnetic mass). A experiment of this kind was performed by Georges Sagnac in 1913. who actually measured a displacement of the interference pattern (Sagnac effect). derived the same expression for the additional mass of a body due to electromagnetic radiation as Hasenöhrl. became superfluous. Laue's calculation was much simpler than the complicated methods used by Lorentz. Hasenöhrl's idea was that the mass of bodies included a contribution from the electromagnetic field. Laue's earlier calculation showed that it is compatible with special relativity as well because in both theories the speed of light is independent of the velocity of the source. Mass and energy Einstein (1906) showed that the inertia of energy (mass-energy-equivalence) is a necessary and sufficient condition for the conservation of the center of mass theorem. but Planck judged his own approach as more general than Einstein's. the concept of relativistic mass was developed by Gilbert Newton Lewis and Richard C. On return to the point of entry the light is allowed to exit the platform in such a way that an interference pattern is obtained. including the binding forces within matter. already in 1895 Lorentz succeeded in deriving Fresnel's dragging coefficient (to first order of v/c) and the Fizeau experiment by using the electromagnetic theory and the concept of local time. Experiments by Fizeau and Sagnac As it was explained above. he imagined a body as a cavity containing light. Based on the work of Planck. Tolman (1912) interpreted relativistic mass simply as the mass of the body. Tolman (1908. Finally. This effect can be understood as the electromagnetic counterpart of the mechanics of rotation. so one beam has covered less distance than the other beam. Max Planck 47 Kurd von Mosengeil (1906) by extending Hasenöhrl's calculation of black-body-radiation in a cavity. However. His relationship between mass and energy. 1909) by defining mass as the ratio of momentum to velocity. Planck's expressions were in principle equivalent to those used by Lorentz in 1899.
Also. Hence the observer will see the beam of light emitted from B earlier than he will see that emitted from A. for the case of a double-star system seen edge-on. whereby he used the Galilei-Transformation instead of the Lorentz-Transformation (i. in which A and B are at rest the signals are sent at the same time and the observer "is hastening towards the beam of light coming from B. who showed that.History of special relativity considered as a synthesis of the experiments of Fizeau and Sagnac." Emission theories of light Walter Ritz (1908) and others sketched an emission theory. in his description two signals are sent from A and B to the observer. While Harress himself misunderstood the meaning of the result. And finally the emission theory is considered to be disproved by Willem de Sitter (1913). a variation of the Sagnac experiment) indicated the angular velocity of the Earth itself in accordance with special relativity and a resting aether. they synchronously start to run. He tried to measure the dragging coefficient within glass. Observers who take the railway train as their reference-body must therefore come to the conclusion that the lightning flash B took place earlier than the lightning flash A. the Michelson–Gale–Pearson experiment (1925. then the image of the star system should appear completely scrambled. whilst he is riding on ahead of the beam of light coming from A. From this observer a signal is sent to both clocks. it was shown by Laue that the theoretical explanation of Harress' experiment is in accordance with the Sagnac effect. However. light from the approaching star might be expected to travel faster than light from its receding companion and overtake it. et al. Relativity of simultaneity The first derivations of relativity of simultaneity by synchronization with light signals were also simplified. and then comes clock A – so the clocks are not synchronized. However. the velocity of light is independent of the velocity of the stars.. but it was shown by Brecher (1977) that even at X-ray wavelengths. But from the perspective of a system in which A and B are moving. If the distance was great enough for an approaching star's "fast" signal to catch up with and overtake the "slow" light that it had emitted earlier when it was receding. 48 . in systems where the source is moving at ± v. ] Eventually. Daniel Frost Comstock (1910) placed an observer in the middle between two clocks A and B. (1964). So this theory obeys the relativity principle and although it violates the constancy of light. the light propagates with the velocity equal to c ± v). and in the frame in which A and B are at rest. However. the solution provided by special relativity is preferred over an emission theory. who measured the velocity of γ-rays after the decay of π0-mesons – the result show that the velocity of light is independent of the source. clock B is first set in motion. which is not supported by the success of Maxwell's theory.e. From the perspective of the frame. Also Einstein (1917) created a model with an observer in the middle between A and B. Einstein briefly considered such a hypothesis before 1905. according to which the speed of light in all reference frames is only constant relative to the source of emission (and not to an aether). it explains the Michelson-Morley-experiment. due to extinction that argument is invalid for optical wavelengths. Contrary to Fizeau he used a rotating device so he found the same effect as Sagnac. Other effects that rule out the theory are the Sagnac effect and the experiments by Alväger. for such a theory would require a complete reformulation of electrodynamics. So the experiment cannot be considered as a direct proof of the constancy of the speed of light in all reference frames.
That was based on the work of many mathematicians of the 19th century like Arthur Cayley. and b) served as a basis for further development of relativity.History of special relativity 49 Spacetime physics Minkowski's spacetime Poincaré's attempt of a four-dimensional reformulation of the new mechanics was not continued by himself. or William Kingdon Clifford. Today special relativity is seen as an application of linear algebra. removes much of the strangeness of that concept. Felix Klein. non-four-dimensional derivation of the basic-equations for moving bodies. Using similar methods. Minkowski succeeded in formulating a geometrical interpretation of the Lorentz transformation. He also introduced a trigonometric formulation of the relativistic velocity addition rule. he created the Minkowski diagram for the depiction of space-time. as explicitly noted by Minkowski. Laue also showed that non-electrical forces are needed for ensure the proper Lorentz transformation properties and for the stability of . He completed. Poincaré and Planck. and most notably he presented a four-dimensional formulation of electrodynamics. but he criticized his predecessors for not fully developing the relativity of space. Similar to Poincaré he tried to formulate a Lorentz-invariant law of gravity. So it was Hermann Minkowski (1907). Einstein (1912) agreed on the importance of Minkowski's spacetime formalism and used it for his work on the foundations of general relativity. However. which according to Sommerfeld. And in his famous lecture Space and Time (1908) he mentioned Voigt. There were no textbooks on linear algebra as modern vector space and transformation theory. Einstein. etc.. Minkowski himself considered Einstein's theory as a generalization of Lorentz's and credited Einstein for completely stating the relativity of time. Arnold Sommerfeld (1910) replaced Minkowski's matrix notation by an elegant vector notation and coined the terms "four vector" and "six vector". Lorentz and Einstein. Vector notation and closed systems Minkowski's space-time formalism was extended and therefore was quickly accepted. But it was Minkowski's formalism which a) showed that special relativity is a complete and consistent theory. because in his opinion that would entail too much effort. who used the spacetime formalism to create a relativistic theory of deformable bodies and elementary particle theory. but that work was superseded by Einstein's elaborations on gravitation. we can see that the Lorentz transformations are simply hyperbolic rotations. the concept of four vectors. Eventually. In retrospect. Invariant theory and Projective geometry. for example. For example. proper time. Lorentz invariance/covariance. he was the first to use expressions like world line. 1913). but at the time special relativity was being developed the field of linear algebra was still in its infancy.  In 1908. and the matrix notation of Arthur Cayley (that unifies the subject) had not yet come into widespread use.  He extended Minkowski's expressions for electromagnetic processes to all possible forces and thereby clarified the concept of mass-energy-equivalence. Hermann Minkowski In 1907 Minkowski named four predecessors who contributed to the formulation of the relativity principle: Lorentz. That is because Minkowski (like Wien or Abraham) adhered to the electromagnetic world-picture and apparently didn't fully understand the difference between Lorentz's electron theory and Einstein's kinematics. who worked out the consequences of that notion. modern historians of science argue that Minkowski's claim for priority was unjustified. Einstein and Laub rejected the four-dimensional electrodynamics of Minkowski as too complicated and published a "more elementary". who contributed to Group theory. Other important contributions were made by Laue (1911.
traveling with a certain relative velocity to each other. It merely affects (slightly) their appearance. which apparently occurs as a consequence of the reciprocity of time dilation. Lewis (1912) introduced a vector notation for spacetime. and simply written the metric in explicitly non-Euclidean form (i. angled path.as in the recent work of Hawking . Space-time is described by Minkowski space. Non-euclidean formulations without imaginary time coordinate It was noted by Minkowski (1907) that his space-time formalism represents a "four-dimensional non-euclidean manifold". Ignatowski was forced to recourse to electrodynamics to include the speed of light. So Pauli and others argued that both postulates are needed to derive the Lorentz transformation. However.. but most have adopted real-valued coordinates and a metric with negative signature. Also Lorentz (1910–1912) discussed the reciprocity of time dilation and analyzed a clock "paradox". R.are beyond the scope of this article. However. but the velocity space is described by hyperbolic geometry. only the sign of the relative speed changes. until today. Today one still finds texts on special relativity that make use of an imaginary time coordinate. but in order to emphasize the formal similarity to the more familiar Euclidean geometry. But if the observer looks at clock B. many subsequent writers have dispensed with the imaginary time coordinate. Edwin Bidwell Wilson and Gilbert N.History of special relativity matter – he could show that the "Poincaré stresses" are a natural consequence of relativity theory so that the electron be a closed system. thus clock B is slower than A. (The implications of the two different formalisms in the context of general relativity . This was just a way of representing a non-Euclidean metric while emphasizing the formal similarity to a Euclidean metric. and Vladimir Varićak (1912) emphasized the similarity of this formulation to (Bolyai-Lobachevskian) hyperbolic geometry and tried to reformulate relativity using that non-euclidean geometry. Philipp Frank and Hermann Rothe (1911) argued that this derivation is incomplete and needs additional assumptions. The clocks consist of two plane mirrors parallel to one another and to the line of motion.) Time dilation and twin paradox Einstein (1907a) proposed a method for detecting the Transverse Doppler effect as a direct consequence of time dilation. Émile Borel (1913) derived the kinematic basis of Thomas precession. b) when changing frames. Sommerfeld (1910) gave a trigonometric formulation of velocities. Different authors have used the phrase hyperbolic plane to refer both to (Bolyai-Lobachevskian) hyperbolic geometry and Minkowski geometry but these are two different geometries. while in the other system two clocks 50 . he sees that within that clock the signal traces out a longer.e. Lorentz showed that there is no paradox if one considers that in one system only one clock is used. according to Pauli and Miller such models were insufficient to identify the invariant speed in their transformation with the speed of light — for example. However. Vladimir Ignatowski (1910) for example used for this purpose a) the principle of relativity. and for the observer resting in the same reference frame as A. for the observer moving alongside with B the situation is completely in reverse: Clock B is faster and A is slower. Their own calculation was based on the assumptions that a) the Lorentz transformation forms a homogeneous linear group. And in fact. b) and homogeneity and isotropy of space c) the requirement of reciprocity. that effect was measured in 1938 by Herbert E. Minkowski noted that the time coordinate could be treated as imaginary. Stilwell (Ives–Stilwell experiment).  However. with a negative signature). the period of clock A is the distance between the mirrors divided by the speed of light. Alfred Robb (1911) introduced the concept of Rapidity as a hyperbolic angle to characterize frame velocity. Ives and G. c) length contraction solely depends on the relative speed. others continued the attempts to derive special relativity without the light postulate. Between the mirrors a light signal is bouncing. since it makes no difference to the content or results of the equations. And Lewis and Tolman (1909) described the reciprocity of time dilation by using two light clocks A and B. In particular the hyperboloid model was identified with velocities by Minkowski (1908). Lorentz transformation without second postulate There were some attempts to derive the Lorentz transformation without the postulate of the constancy of the speed of light.
 Acceleration Einstein (1908) tried . Harry Bateman and Ebenezer Cunningham (1910) showed that Maxwell's equations are invariant under a much wider group of transformation then the Lorentz-group.  51 Max von Laue . the so called "conformal transformations". In the course of this attempt he recognized that for any single moment of acceleration one can define an inertial reference frame. He recognized that the world-line of such an accelerated body corresponds to an hyperbola. This notion was further developed by Born (1909) and Sommerfeld (1910) whereby Born introduced the expression "hyperbolic motion". Laue was also the first to visualize the situation using Minkowski diagrams – he demonstrated how the world lines of inertially moving bodies maximize the proper time elapsed between two events. so Langevin could show that the symmetry is broken and the accelerated twin is younger. the equivalence principle that was used by Einstein in the course of that investigation. He noted that uniform acceleration can be used as an approximation for any form of acceleration within special relativity. Under those transformations the equations preserve their form for some types of accelerated motions. the works by Langevin and others for rotating frames (Born coordinates). also Minkowski (1908) considered the special case of uniform accelerations within the framework of his space-time formalism. Langevin himself interpreted this as a hint to the existence of an aether. the application of the constancy of the speed of light to define simultaneity is restricted to small localities. So the relativity of simultaneity has to be considered as well. where he replaced the clocks by persons (Langevin never used the word "twins" but his description contained all other features of the paradox). his deductions regarding the aether were not accepted. in which the accelerated body is temporarily at rest.. Although Langevin's explanation is used in principle until today. which expresses the equality of inertial and gravitational mass and the equivalence of accelerated frames and homogeneous gravitational fields. Concerning the further development of the description of accelerated motion in special relativity. Laue (1913) pointed out that the acceleration can be made arbitrarily small in relation to the inertial motion of the twin. while the other twin remains in one frame. A similar situation was created by Paul Langevin in 1911 with what was later called the "twin paradox". In addition. So it is much more important that one twin travels within two inertial frames during his journey.also to include accelerated motions within the relativity principle.History of special relativity are necessary. Langevin solved the paradox by alluding to the fact that one twin accelerates and changes direction. A general covariant formulation of electrodynamics in Minkowski space was eventually given by Friedrich Kottler (1912). Nearly simultaneously with Einstein. whereby his formulation is also valid for general relativity. and by Wolfgang Rindler and others for uniform accelerated frames (Rindler coordinates) must be mentioned.e. However. It follows that in accelerated frames defined in this way. transcended the limits of special relativity and resulted in the formulation of general relativity.preliminarily in the framework of special relativity . However. i.
However. This question was also considered by Gustav Herglotz. when he was able to exactly derive the Perihelion precession of Mercury. it was shown by Abraham (1912) that those models belong to the class of "vector theories" of gravitation. whereby he discussed two of them. However. in a relativistic theory of gravitation. Nordström's theory of gravitation was remarkable because it was shown by Einstein and Adriaan Fokker (1914). Although Nordström's theory is without contradiction. which would violate the energy principle. and therefore it was irreconcilable with relativity.History of special relativity Rigid bodies and Ehrenfest paradox Einstein (1907b) discussed the question of whether. tried to include the concept of rigid bodies into SR. As a consequence. In connection to the Ehrenfest paradox. As an alternative. While Mie never formulated his theory in a consistent way. who argued that the speed of gravity is many times faster then the speed of light. as in general relativity the constancy of light speed (and Lorentz covariance) is only locally valid. the kinematic length contraction is "apparent" for an co-moving observer. He added that a dynamics of the rigid body must be created in the framework of SR. He tried to modify Newton's law of gravitation so that it assumes a Lorentz-covariant form. but for an observer at rest it is "real" and the consequences are measurable. He noted that there were many possibilities for a relativistic law. The decision between those models was brought about by Einstein. Einstein's theory was the only which gave the correct value for the deflection of light near the sun. Gravitation The first attempt to formulate a relativistic theory of gravitation was undertaken by Poincaré (1905). as in this theory preferred frames of referenced can still be formulated. all of those models violated the equivalence principle. Abraham (1912) and Gustav Mie (1913) proposed different "scalar theories" of gravitation. That is. Gunnar Nordström (1912. Paul Ehrenfest (1909) showed that Born's concept lead the so called Ehrenfest paradox. is not valid within an relativistic theory. while the other theories gave erroneous results. in rigid bodies. and Einstein argued that is impossible to formulate a theory which is both Lorentz-covariant and satisfies the equivalence principle. Fritz Noether. from Einstein's point of view a fundamental problem persisted: It doesn't fulfill the important condition of general covariance. the notion of a complete "special relativistic" theory of gravitation has to be given up. 1913) was able to create a model which fulfills both conditions. superluminal velocities are thought impossible. So contrary to those "scalar theories". it was rather a dispute over words because. This was achieved by making both the gravitational and the inertial mass dependent on the gravitational potential. While Born's definition was not applicable on rigid bodies. as well as in all other cases. Max Born (1909) in the course of his above mention work concerning accelerated motion. It was recognize by Laue that the classic concept is not applicable in SR since a "rigid" body possesses infinitely many Degrees of freedom. general relativity). the velocity of information can exceed the speed of light. that in this model gravitation can be completely described in terms of space-time curvature.  52 . Similar models as that of Poincaré were discussed by Minkowski (1907b) and Sommerfeld (1910).e. planetary orbit are stable even when the speed of gravity is equal to that of light. Eventually. It was shown be Poincaré that the argument of Pierre-Simon Laplace. In addition. as Einstein and Wolfgang Pauli said. it was also discussed (by Vladimir Varićak and others) whether length contraction is "real" or "apparent". and explained that information could be transmitted under these circumstances into the past. according to which the circumference of a rotating disk is shortened because of length contraction by a constant radius. Einstein (1911-1915) developed a "tensor theory" (i. However. In addition. The fundamental defect of those theories is that they implicitly contain a negative value for the gravitational energy in the vicinity of matter. it was very useful in describing rigid motions of bodies. and whether there is a difference between the dynamic contraction of Lorentz and the kinematic contraction of Einstein. which fulfills both the equivalence principle and general covariance. Abraham completely gave up the concept of Lorentz-covariance (even locally). Since this contravenes radically against every experience. However. and then causality would be violated. and 1911 by Laue.
Although there still are critics of relativity outside the scientific mainstream. Albert Abraham Michelson. still believed in the existence of an aether in any form. Menyhért Palágyi. Hjalmar Mellin. Henri Bergson. already Planck (1909) compared the implications of the modern relativity principle — especially Einstein's relativity of time — with the revolution by the Copernican system. 53 Priority Some claim that Poincaré (and Lorentz). and. the overwhelming majority of scientists agree that Special Relativity has been verified in many different ways and there are no inconsistencies within the theory. Herbert Dingle. the speed light attains appears different for observers who move at different speeds relative to each other. not Einstein. but Einstein's and Minkowski's interpretations implied Lorentz's hypothesis as the natural consequence of some postulates. . and later also modified the speed of time. the same as with every other known phenomenon. from stellar aberration. The two results suggested contradictory conclusions: was the aether local and fluid. and the term "Lorentz-Einstein-Theory" wasn't used anymore. Criticisms Some criticized Special Relativity for various reasons. Georges Sagnac. Louis Essen. that there had to be a rigid aether which carried the light as the Earth moved through it. around 1911 most mathematicians and theoretical physicists accepted the results of special relativity. or was it universal and rigid? Lorentz's solution made the Earth shorter in the direction of travel around the Sun. As a result. internal inconsistencies. Bruno Thüring. Harald Nordenson. the fundamental difference between the dynamical approach of Lorentz and the kinematical of Einstein was pointed out. Poincaré. But other critics had already concluded. One early criticism was the assertion that light simply travels with the earth in a so-called "co-moving luminiferous aether". relating to his reception history. In the process of traveling through its "immediately surrounding physical reality". Abraham or Langevin. Einstein in 1915. used the expression "special theory of relativity" to distinguish between the theories. After formulating GR. whose Welteislehre was referred to as the "German Theory of Relativity" among German right-wing circles during the Weimar Republic. rejection of mathematical physics per se. Critics asserted the Michelson-Morley experiment null result was not the theoretical enigma some scientists believed. Only a few theoretical physicists like Lorentz. Other reasons were Antisemitism within the Deutsche Physik. are the true founders of special relativity. Walter Ritz. Examples are: Max Abraham. Hugo Dingler. Another important reason for accepting special relativity was the extension of Minkowski's space-time formalism around 1910–1913 So in 1912 Wilhelm Wien recommended both Lorentz and Einstein for the Nobel Prize in Physics – even though this prize was never awarded for special relativity. Johannes Stark. Herbert E. philosophical reasons. Ives. Philipp Lenard. For example. Hans Hörbiger. For more see the article on relativity priority dispute. for the first time. So the then-current understanding of light apparently needed to be changed according to this new belief: the medium for light was not rigid after all. Friedrich Adler. such as lack of empirical evidence. This was criticized by scientists at first. Examples are: Ernst Gehrcke.History of special relativity Acceptance of special relativity Eventually. Emanuel Lasker.
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Their strong gravity is thought to be responsible for the intense radiation emitted by certain types of astronomical objects (such as active galactic nuclei or microquasars). In that article. General relativity (GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. . careful astronomical observation revealed unexplainable variations between the theory and the observations. However. while others are the subject of ongoing research. regions of space where gravitational attraction is so strong that not even light can escape. in which additional effects such as the deflection of light by massive bodies were predicted. General relativity also predicts novel effects of gravity. and that for a freefalling observer the rules of special relativity must apply. It provides the foundation for the current understanding of black holes. Einstein published another article expanding on the 1907 article.65 Light and general relativity History of general relativity Creation of General Relativity Early investigations As Albert Einstein later said. Newton's law of universal gravitation had been accepted for more than two hundred years as a valid description of the gravitional force between masses. although there is indirect evidence for gravitational waves. Within a century of Newton's formulation. General relativity has developed into an essential tool in modern astrophysics. In 1911. such as minute anomalies in the orbits of Mercury and other planets. This argument is called the Equivalence principle. gravitational lensing and an effect of gravity on time known as gravitational time dilation. such as gravitational waves. experiments and observations show that Einstein's description accounts for several effects that are unexplained by Newton's law. the basic framework was extremely successful at describing motion. So in 1908 he published an article on acceleration under special relativity. Einstein also predicted the phenomenon of gravitational time dilation. the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the warping of space and time by those masses. gravity was the result of an attractive force between massive objects. For example. he argued that free fall is really inertial motion. Many of these predictions have been confirmed by experiment. General relativity is also part of the framework of the standard Big Bang model of cosmology. even though Newton himself did not regard the theory as the final word on the nature of gravity. while a theory which from the outset prefers no state of motion (even accelerated ones) should appear more satisfactory. Although even Newton was bothered by the unknown nature of that force. direct evidence of their existence is still being sought by several teams of scientists in experiments such as the LIGO and GEO 600 projects. In the same article. the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special relativity was unsatisfactory. According to general relativity. Under Newton's model. Before the advent of general relativity.
and the energy-momentum tensor. The field equations he published in October 1915 were . during one of Eddington's lectures he asked "Professor Eddington. However. and in November 1915 Einstein published the actual Einstein field equations: . Einstein was trying to create field equations based on another approach. As related by Ludwik Silberstein. rock and even a vacuum should all have the same density. The development of the Einstein field equations When Einstein realized that general covariance was actually tenable. where is the Ricci scalar and the metric tensor. Eddington!" Finally. Hilbert did not press his claim for priority and some have asserted that Einstein submitted the correct equations before Hilbert amended his own work to include them. Sir Arthur Eddington In the early years after Einstein's theory was published. Because the theory was so complex and abstruse (even today it is popularly considered the pinnacle of scientific thinking. Silberstein continued "Don't be modest. and so had Einstein very excited. unable to answer. In 1914 and much of 1915.History of general relativity 66 General covariance and the hole argument By 1912. he made a now-famous mistake. in 1913 Einstein abandoned that approach. However. Einstein began by exploring the use of general covariance (which is essentially the use of curvature tensors) to create a gravitational theory. Eddington replied "On the contrary. arguing that it is inconsistent based on the "hole argument". This suggests that Einstein developed the correct field equations first. it was soon realized that they were inconsistent with the local conservation of energy-momentum unless the universe had a constant density of mass-energy-momentum. However. I'm trying to think who the third person is." . the German mathematician David Hilbert published them in an article before Einstein's article. he quickly completed the development of the field equations that are named after him. At the urging of Tullio Levi-Civita. in the early years it was even more so). This inconsistency with observation sent Einstein back to the drawing board. the issue became one of solving them for various cases and interpreting the solutions. With the publication of the field equations. it was rumored that only three people in the world understood it. Sir Arthur Eddington lent his considerable prestige in the British scientific establishment in an effort to champion the work of this German scientist. though Hilbert may have reached them later independently (or even learned of them afterwards through his correspondence with Einstein). you must be one of three persons in the world who understands general relativity. However. Einstein was actively seeking a theory in which gravitation was explained as a geometric phenomenon. Einstein and Hilbert Although Einstein is credited with finding the field equations. others have criticized those assertions. This predicted the non-Newtonian perihelion precession of Mercury. When that approach was proven to be inconsistent. the solution was all but obvious. This has resulted in accusations of plagiarism against Einstein (never from Hilbert). though probably apocryphal. In other words. and assertions that the field equations should be called the "Einstein-Hilbert field equations". However. This and experimental verification have dominated general relativity research ever since. There was an illuminating. Einstein revisited the concept of general covariance and discovered that the hole argument was flawed. anecdote about this. air. However." Eddington paused. where is the Ricci tensor.
and Einstein did not believe that singularities could be real. see the Tests of general relativity article. referring to it as "the biggest blunder in my career". Additionally. Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington's 1919 expedition in which he confirmed Einstein's prediction for the deflection of light by the Sun during the total solar eclipse of May 29. Einstein assumed that they were insoluble. However. As for Brans-Dicke (which has a tunable parameter ω such that ω = ∞ is the same as general relativity). and Rosen's bimetric theory. Alexander Friedmann found a solution in which the universe may expand or contract. The Kerr-Newman solution for a rotating. This resulted in Einstein dropping the cosmological constant. 1919 helped to cement the status of general relativity as a likely true theory.History of general relativity 67 Solutions The Schwarzschild solution Since the field equations are non-linear. More exact solutions Progress in solving the field equations and understanding the solutions has been ongoing. The solution for a spherically symmetric charged object was discovered by Reissner and later rediscovered by Nordström. The black hole aspect of the Schwarzschild solution was very controversial. he added a cosmological constant Λ to the field equations. Edwin Hubble found evidence for the idea that the universe is expanding. Since then many observations have confirmed the correctness of general relativity. However. However. This permitted the creation of steady-state solutions. However. Alternative theories Finally. Martin Kruskal published a proof that black holes are called for by the Schwarzschild Solution. This is now known as the Schwarzschild solution. The most famous of these are the Brans-Dicke theory (also known as scalar-tensor theory). and both suffer from these changes permitting the presence of bipolar gravitational radiation. which became . In 1929. At the time. many other exact solutions have been found. and even the GPS system. and later Georges Lemaître derived a solution for an expanding universe. charged massive object was published a few years later. These include studies of binary pulsars. in 1916 Karl Schwarzschild discovered an exact solution for the case of a spherically symmetric spacetime surrounding a massive object in spherical coordinates. and is called the Reissner-Nordström solution. Since then. The expanding universe and the cosmological constant In 1922. there have been various attempts through the years to find modifications to general relativity. . in 1957 (two years after Einstein's death in 1955). For more information. Both of these theories proposed changes to the field equations. observations of radio signals passing the limb of the Sun. As a result. the amount by which it can differ from general relativity has been severely constrained by these observations. Testing the theory The perihelion precession of Mercury was the first evidence that general relativity is correct. the solution for a rotating massive object was obtained by Kerr in the 1960s and is called the Kerr solution. as it was only intended to justify one result (a static universe). and since a static cosmology was not supported by the general relativistic field equations. Rosen's original theory has been refuted by observations of binary pulsars. Einstein believed that the universe was apparently static. but they were unstable: the slightest perturbation of a static state would result in the universe expanding or contracting. it was an ad hoc hypothesis to add in the cosmological constant.
In the other camp. . • 1960: Thomas Matthews and Allan R. • 1956: John Lighton Synge publishes the first relativity text emphasizing spacetime diagrams and geometrical methods. Most researchers believe that both theories are in need of modification. • 1960: Joseph Weber reports observation of gravitational waves (a claim now generally discounted). Dicke introduce Brans-Dicke theory. the first viable alternative theory with a clear physical motivation. • 1959: Arthur Komar introduces the Komar mass. • Overall legitimacy of cosmology by the wider physics community. 171. p260. 68 More about GR history The study of general relativity. it usually assumes a fixed (flat) spacetime background). • 1960: Carl H. hard evidence of the Big Bang and the subsequent expansion of the universe. Timeline 1950s • 1953: P. Pirani uses Petrov classification to understand gravitational radiation. and the first "precision tests" of gravitation theories. • 1960: Ivor M. Robinson and Andrzej Trautman discover the Robinson-Trautman null dust solution  • 1961: Pascual Jordan and Jürgen Ehlers develop the kinematic decomposition of a timelike congruence. E. • Pulsars (soon interpreted as spinning neutron stars). so distant that they date from the early years of the universe). • Role of curvature in general relativity. At the same time. • 1957: Richard Feynman introduces sticky bead argument. Cygnus X-1. • The first credible candidate black hole. • 1959: Lluis Bel introduces Bel-Robinson tensor and the Bel decomposition of the Riemann tensor. including black holes and 'gravitational singularity'. • Theoretical importance of the black holes. A competitor to general relativity (the Brans-Dicke theory). • Importance of geometrical machinery and levels of mathematical structure. Sandage associate 3C 48 with a point-like optical image. • 1957: Felix A. • 1960: Shapiro effect confirmed. Vaidya Newtonian time in general relativity. entered the mainstream of theoretical physics. C. show radio source can be at most 15 light minutes in diameter. especially local versus global spacetime structure. Nature. 1960s • 1960: Martin Kruskal and George Szekeres independently introduce the Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates for the Schwarzschild vacuum. Terms were introduced. first precision test of gravitational redshift. speculation exists that QM needs to be modified (for example. Discoveries in observational astronomy are: • Quasars (objects the size of the solar system and as luminous as a hundred modern galaxies. the study of physical cosmology entered the mainstream including the Big Bang.History of general relativity general relativity and quantum mechanics (a theory that has been experimentally verified more than GR) are known to be inconsistent. • The cosmic background radiation. Much speculation exists that modifications of GR (but not QM) are needed on the smallest scales (as GR has not been tested rigorously on the smallest scales). • 1959: Pound-Rebka experiment. Brans and Robert H.
1969: William B. 1965: Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar determines a stability criterion. and Charles W. 1963: Roy Kerr discovers the Kerr vacuum solution of Einstein's field equations.History of general relativity • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1962: Roger Penrose and Ezra T. Sachs prove the Goldberg-Sachs theorem. 1965: Penrose discovers the structure of the light cones in gravitational plane wave spacetimes. 1967: Robert H. Newman introduce the Newman-Penrose formalism. 1968: F. 1962: R. J. December 16–18. 1965: Roger Penrose proves first of the singularity theorems. 1967: Bryce DeWitt publishes on canonical quantum gravity. 1969: Misner introduces the mixmaster universe. 1967: Kenneth Nordtvedt develops PPN formalism. 1964: M. Melvin discovers the Melvin electrovacuum solution (aka the Melvin magnetic universe). 1962: Hermann Bondi introduces Bondi mass. a solution-generating method. Misner introduce the ADM reformulation and global hyperbolicity. Unti and L. T. 1968: Brandon Carter solves the geodesic equations for Kerr-Newmann electrovacuum. 1965: Newman and others discover the Kerr-Newman electrovacuum solution. Kent Harrison discovers the Harrison transformation. 69 . 1962: Istvan Ozsvath and Englbert Schücking rediscover the circularly polarized monochromomatic gravitational wave. 1965: Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discover the cosmic microwave background radiation.A. 1962: Joshua Goldberg and Rainer K. Stanley Deser. Arnowitt. 1962: Cornelius Lanczos introduces the Lanczos potential for the Weyl tensor. Lindquist introduce Boyer-Lindquist coordinates for the Kerr vacuum. Boyer and R. 1962: Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat on Cauchy problem and global hyperbolicity. 1969: Penrose proposes the (weak) cosmic censorship hypothesis and the Penrose process. 1967: Hans Stephani discovers the Stephani dust solution. W. 1963: Roger Penrose introduces Penrose diagrams and Penrose limits. W. 1968: Hugo D. Hawking proves area theorem for black holes. 1965: Kerr and Alfred Schild introduce Kerr-Schild spacetimes. 1962: Hans Adolph Buchdahl discovers Buchdahl's theorem. a new solution generating method. 1963: Redshifts of 3C 273 and other quasars show they are very distant. hence very luminous. Bonnor introduces the Bonnor beam. 1966: Sachs and Ronald Kantowski discover the Kantowski-Sachs dust solution. 1968: B. 1962: Ehlers and Wolfgang Kundt classify the symmetries of Pp-wave spacetimes. Ernst discovers the Ernst equation. 1967: Mendel Sachs publishes factorization of Einstein's field equations. 1964: R. A. 1969: Stephen W. 1963: First Texas Symposium on Gravitational Astrophysics held in Dallas. 1963: Newman. Tamburino introduce the NUT vacuum solution. 1967: Werner Israel proves the no hair theorem. 1967: Jocelyn Bell and Antony Hewish discover pulsars. Sharp and Misner introduce the Misner-Sharp mass. 1962: Ehlers introduces Ehlers transformations. Wahlquist discovers the Wahlquist fluid.
1970: the Kinnersley-Walker photon rocket. Wheeler of the treatise Gravitation. Press discovers black hole ringing by numerical simulation. 1971: William H. . a simple explicit colliding plane wave spacetime. the first solid black hole candidate. York introduces conformal method generating initial data for ADM initial value formulation. 1971: Cygnus X-1. • 1972: Sachs introduces optical scalars and proves peeling theorem. 1970: Chandrasekhar pushes on to 5/2 post-Newtonian order. and Evgeny Lifshitz introduce the BKL conjecture. discovered by Uhuru satellite. • 1974: James W. • 1978: Penrose introduces the notion of a thunderbolt. the first modern textbook on general relativity. • 1976: Penrose introduces Penrose limits (every null geodesic in a Lorentzian spacetime behaves like a plane wave). O. Hansen introduces Hansen-Geroch multipole moments. Aichelburg and Roman U. • 1972: Yakov B. • 1973: Publication by Stephen W. C. the first gravitational solitons. • 1974: R. • 1972: Richard H. • 1972: Rainer Weiss proposes concept of interferometric gravitational wave detector. C. Sexl introduce the Aichelburg-Sexl ultraboost. 1971: Robert Geroch introduces Geroch group and a solution generating method. 1971: Robert H. 1971: Peter C.History of general relativity 1970s • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1970: Franco J. A. Jr. • 1972: J. Price studies gravitational collapse with numerical simulations. Vaidya and L. 1971: Harrison and Estabrook algorithm for solving systems of PDEs. • 1978: Belinskiǐ and Zakharov show how to solve Einstein's field equations using the inverse scattering transform. Zel'dovich predicts the transmutation of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation. • 1973: Publication by Charles W. Zerilli derives the Zerilli equation. E. • 1974: Hawking discovers Hawking radiation. Hawking and James M. Keating perform Hafele-Keating experiment. York and Niall Ó Murchadha present the analysis of the initial value formulation and examine the stability of its solutions. • 1974: Russell Hulse and Joseph Hooton Taylor. Hafele and R. • 1973: P. Kip S. Szafron discover the Szekeres-Szafron dust solutions. 1971: Introduction of the Khan-Penrose vacuum. • 1972: Carter. Hawking and George Ellis of the monograph The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime. • 1979: Richard Schoen and Shing-Tung Yau prove the positive mass theorem. 70 • 1972: Jacob Bekenstein proposes that black holes have a non-decreasing entropy which can be identified with the area. 1971: James W. • 1972: Saul Teukolsky derives the Teukolsky equation. • 1975: Chandrasekhar and Steven Detweiler compute quasinormal modes. Gowdy introduces the Gowdy vacuum solutions (cosmological models containing circulating gravitational waves). discover the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar. Thorne and John A. Bardeen propose the four laws of black hole mechanics. K. • 1974: Tullio Regge introduces the Regge calculus. • 1973: Geroch introduces the GHP formalism. • 1975: Szekeres and D. 1970: Hawking and Penrose prove trapped surfaces must arise in black holes. Isaak Markovich Khalatnikov. 1970: Vladimir A. Belinskiǐ. Patel introduce the Kerr-Vaidya null dust solution. 1970: Peter Szekeres introduces colliding plane waves. Misner.
Nobel lecture (http:/ / nobelprize. either wholly or in part. Henri Poincaré. or else for contributions to the development or elaboration of the theory. Riemann. based on priority considerations. asserting that they were formulated. ISBN 0-19-860719-9  http:/ / cdsads. tau. most notably to the work of Hendrik Lorentz for special relativity.kyoto-u. Subtle is the lord: the science and life of Albert Einstein. is found at History of special relativity and History of general relativity. etc. The general history of the development of these theories.bun. Ricci. although many others (such as Gauss. Subsequently claims have been put forward about both theories. pdf) as printed in "Zeitschrift für Naturforschung" 59a (http:/ / www. or referred only to a small number of his predecessors for fundamental results on which he based his theories. At issue is the extent to which Einstein and various other individuals should be credited for the formulation of these theories. il/ ~corry/ publications/ articles/ science. html) in 1921  Leo Corry. the most important names that are mentioned in discussions about the distribution of credit are Albert Einstein. znaturforsch. 14 November 1997 article text (http:/ / www.GR. com/ c59a. Einstein's Luck. unr. ac. In addition. including the contributions made by many other scientists. polemics exist about alleged contributions of others such as the Italian Olinto De Pretto and Einstein's wife Mileva Marić. and Hermann Minkowski. The candidates for credit Concerning special relativity.jp/~suchii/gen.html) Relativity priority dispute Albert Einstein presented the theories of Special Relativity and General Relativity in groundbreaking publications that either contained no formal references to previous literature. Vol. org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1921/ einstein-lecture. 4. Abraham (1982). although these are not considered to have any foundation by serious scholars. edu/ faculty/ winterberg/ Hilbert-Einstein. . These include Larmor. von Laue.History of general relativity 71 See also • • • • Contributors to general relativity History of general relativity Golden age of physics Golden age of cosmology Notes  Albert Einstein. there is a controversy about the amount of credit that should go to David Hilbert. Foppl. Hendrik Lorentz. fr/ abs/ 1960PhRvL. SCIENCE. Riemann. htm). and Levi-Cevita) contributed to the development of the mathematical tools and geometrical ideas underlying the theory. 278. and Mach for general relativity. 431R References • Pais. Jürgen Renn. html)  Friedwart Winterberg's response to the Cory-Renn-Stachel paper (http:/ / physics. Concerning general relativity. . . 715-719. ISBN 0-19-853907-X. Lewis and Tolmann. Oxford: Oxford University Press.ac. Hasenohrl. Oxford University Press. u-strasbg. Also. it is generally accepted that Einstein should be credited for it. and to the work of Gauss. Consideration is also given to numerous other scientists for either anticipations of some aspects of the theory. Planck. • Genesis of general relativity series (http://www. .  John Waller (2002). by others before Einstein. John Stachel: "Belated Decision in the Hilbert-Einstein Priority Dispute".
in which case the existence of the ether is a metaphysical question.. Poincaré argued that experiments like that of Michelson-Morley show that it seems to be impossible to detect the absolute motion of matter or the relative motion of matter in relation to the ether. • Hermann Minkowski showed in 1907 that the theory of special relativity could be elegantly described using a four-dimensional spacetime. He said: "The introduction of a luminiferous ether will prove to be superfluous inasmuch as the view here to be developed will not require an absolutely stationary space provided with special properties. It does mention. • Lorentz' paper [Lor04] containing the transformations bearing his name appeared in 1904. Poincaré is not mentioned in this paper. and the "true" time of resting clocks in the ether." * Einstein's Elektrodynamik paper [Ein05c] contains no formal references to other literature. However. according to which the laws of physical phenomena must be the same for a stationary observer as for one carried along in a uniform motion of translation. • Albert Einstein in [Ein05c] derived the Lorentz equations by using the principle of constancy of velocity of light and the relativity principle. part II. that the laws of movement should be the same in all inertial frames. Poincaré distinguished between "local" or "apparent" time of moving clocks. i. he also stated that we do not know if this principle will turn out to be true. He derived this interpretation from Lorentz's 'theory of electrons' which incorporated Maxwell's radiation pressure. However. • In 1905 Einstein was the first to suggest that when a material body lost energy (either radiation or heat) of amount . are not simultaneous in another frame. In [Poi00] he called this the Principle of Relative Motion." However. See Postulates of special relativity. • In [Poi00]. so that we have no means. of determining whether or not we are being carried along in such a motion. and he suggested that some day the ether concept would be thrown aside as useless. which combines the dimension of time with the three dimensions of space. He was the first to argue that those principles (along with certain other basic assumptions about the homogeneity and isotropy of space. which are simultaneous in one frame of reference. that the results of the paper are in agreement with Lorentz's electrodynamics. Poincaré published a paper in which he said that radiation could be considered as a fictitious fluid with an equivalent mass of . but that it is interesting to determine what the principle implies. Alternative terms used by Poincaré were "relativity of space" and "principle of relativity". Book 3) and 1912 ([Poi13]. ([Poi89]). • Poincaré had described a synchronization procedure for clocks at rest relative to each other in [Poi00] and again in [Poi04]. 10) he considered the ether a "convenient hypothesis" and continued to use the concept also in later papers in 1908 ([Poi08]. Henri Poincaré argued that the ether might be unobservable. in the same book (Ch.e. 6). its mass decreased by the amount . Ch. although he is cited formally in a paper on special relativity written by Einstein the following year. and can have none. It is very similar to the one later proposed by Einstein. • In 1895. in §9. In 1904 he expanded that principle by saying: "The principle of relativity. nor assign a velocity-vector to a point of the empty space in which electromagnetic processes take place.Relativity priority dispute 72 Undisputed and well known facts The following facts are undisputed and generally known: Special relativity • In 1889. . usually taken for granted by theorists) are sufficient to derive the theory. So two events.
). adding that "The difficulty was not to find generally covariant equations for the . Most of the galley proofs have been preserved. (Sauer 99. page 7.. • Einstein sent Hilbert proofs of his papers of Nov 4 and Nov 11. Einstein Archives Call No.. and using the contracted Bianchi identity derived in theorem III of Hilbert's paper. Hilbert. which he did in June-July 1915. He had galley proofs that were marked "December 6" by the printer in December 1915. using covariant field equations based on the assumption that the trace of the energy momentum tensor vanished as it did for electromagnetism. The proofs of his paper show that Hilbert proposed a non-covariant set of equations as the fundamental equations of physics. [are] unavoidable. Thus he wrote "in order to keep the deterministic characteristic of the fundamental equations of physics [. and that is.. quoted by Corry et al. Einstein gave four lectures on his theory on Nov 4." (proofs. Nov 11. The extant part of the proofs contains Hilbert's action from which the field equations can be obtained by taking a variational derivative. Einstein published non-covariant field equations and on November 11 returned to the field equations of the "Entwurf" papers. Talk not published. 1915d) • November 4. changing the treatment of the energy theorem. note 68). 13-093).] supplement the gravitational equations [. 66) • Nov 15 Invitation issued for Nov 20 meeting at the Academy in Göttingen. published as Einstein (1915a. and it did not mention Hilbert. quoted by Corry et al.Relativity priority dispute 73 General relativity • The proposal to describe gravity by means of a pseudo-Riemannian metric was first made by Einstein and Grossmann in the so called Entwurf theory published 1913 .). note 72). Einstein stayed at Hilbert's house during this visit.] to yield a system of 14 equations for the 14 potentials : the system of fundamental equations of physics". Nov 18 and Nov 25 in Berlin. note 73) • Nov 16 Hilbert spoke at the Göttingen Mathematical Society "Grundgleichungen der Physik" (Sauer 99. and Einstein and Hilbert exchanged correspondence until November 1915. The published paper (Einstein 1915d) appeared on December 2... In the final paper he said his differential equations seemed to agree with the "magnificent theory of general relativity established by Einstein in his later papers" . 18 Nov. (proofs..this is easy with the help of the Riemann tensor. pages 3 and 4.. 1915b. though this was not done in the extant proofs. • Hilbert rewrote his paper for publication (in Mar 1916). dropping a non-covariant gauge condition on the coordinates to produce a covariant theory. Einstein to D. • Hilbert's paper took considerably longer to appear. • In his last lecture on Nov 25 Einstein submitted the correct field equations. • Nov 16 or Nov 17 Hilbert sent Einstein some information about his talk of Nov 16 (letter lost) • Nov 18 Einstein replies to Hilbert's letter (received by Hilbert Nov 19) saying as far as he (Einstein) could tell Hilbert's system was equivalent to the one he (Einstein) had found in the preceding weeks. Einstein also told Hilbert in this letter that he (Einstein) had "considered the only possible generally covariant field equations three years earlier". which he now made covariant by the assumption that the trace of the energy-momentum tensor was zero. and adding a new credit to Einstein for introducing the gravitational potentials into the theory of gravity. but about a quarter of a page is missing. • Nov 18 Einstein presents the calculation of the perihelion advance to Prussian Academy. "Hilber legt vor in die Nachrichten: Grundgleichungen der Physik". This was followed by several attempts of Einstein to find valid field equations for this theory of gravity. Hilbert then derives these four extra equations and continues "these four differential equations [. as it was for electromagnetism..] four further non-covariant equations . • Nov 20 Hilbert lectured to the Göttingen Academy. (Sauer 99. • David Hilbert invited Einstein to Göttingen for a week to give six 2-hour lectures on general relativity. Einstein also told Hilbert in that letter that he (Einstein) had calculated the correct perihelion advance for Mercury. notes 63. 1915c. What was difficult instead was to recognize that these equations form a generalization. a simple and natural generalization of Newton's law" (A. Hilbert started working on a combined theory of gravity and electromagnetism. (Sauer 99.
Some authors claim that Einstein worked in relative isolation and with restricted access to the physics literature in 1905. • To what degree Einstein was following other physicists' work at the time. however. • Based on the above.] kehrt schließlich in seinen letzten Publikationen geradewegs zu den Gleichungen meiner Theorie zurück. (Einstein [. • Whether Einstein got the correct mathematical formulation for general relativity from Hilbert. Since the discovery of printer's proofs of Hilbert's paper of Nov 20. a personal friend of Einstein. this 'commonly accepted view' has been challenged.. bearing the date of submission 20 November 1915 but published only on 31 March 1916. presents a generally covariant theory of gravitation. unknown or disputed: Special relativity • To what degree Einstein was familiar with Poincaré's work • It is known that Einstein was familiar with [Poi02]. • The 1916 paper was rewritten and republished in 1924 [Hil24]. later acknowledged that he and Einstein both pored for weeks over Poincaré's 1902 book. • Lorentz' paper [Lor04] containing the transformations bearing his name appeared in 1904. It is however. • It is known from the proofs that Hilbert introduced four non-covariant equations in order to specify the gravitational potentials and that this approach was dropped from his revised paper.. 1997). Renn and Stachel. The missing portion is large enough to have contained the field equations in an explicit form. On Dec 4. The question is whether Einstein was familiar in 1905 with either this paper itself or a review of it (which appeared in the Annalen der Physik).. Hilbert's article. General relativity • Before 1997. returns directly to the equations of my theory. • To what degree his wife. keeping them "breathless for weeks on end" [Rot06]. where Hilbert wrote: Einstein [. Einstein accused Hilbert (without mentioning his name) of attempts to appropriate ('nostrify') his theory.Relativity priority dispute • The events of late November through December 1915 caused bad feelings from Einstein towards Hilbert.. it is not known whether Hilbert had formulated the field equations in an explicit form before December 6 (the date of the printer's proofs) or not. or formulated it independently. Points at issue: • The content of Hilbert's November 16 letter/postcard to Einstein is not known.] in his most recent publications. including field equations essentially equivalent to those in Einstein's paper" (Corry. "the commonly accepted view was that David Hilbert completed the general theory of relativity at least 5 days before Albert Einstein submitted his conclusive paper on this theory on 25 November 1915. because he quoted it in [Ein06]. clear from Einstein's response that it was an account of Hilbert's work. Maurice Solovine. dated 6 Dec 1915. In a December 20 letter to Hilbert. There are several competing speculations about the content of the missing piece. Others. . In a November 25 letter to Zangger. but it is not known to what extent he was familiar with other work of Poincaré in 1905. may have contributed to Einstein's work. • It is not known what was on the missing part of Hilbert's printer proofs.) 74 Disputed claims The following things seem to be unclear. However it is known that he knew [Poi00] in 1906. • Whether Hilbert ever tried to claim priority for the field equations .it seems clear that he regarded the theory of general relativity as Einstein's theory. Mileva Marić. disagree. which show a number of differences from the finally published paper. Hilbert nominated Einstein for election as a corresponding member of the Göttingen Mathematical Society. Einstein proposed to settle the dispute.
t and x'. and many scientists originally spoke about the „Lorentz-Einstein theory“.such was my reasoning . z. y'.] I had not thought of the straight path leading to them. [. however. Poincaré.. but in his physical papers he maintained the ether as a privileged frame of reference that is perfectly undetectable. ” However.. Larmor and Cohn alluded to the dilation of time. [. This was done by Poincaré and later by Einstein and Minkowski. z'. However. Poincaré and Alfred Bucherer had the relativity principle. on the other hand. Arthur I. None of these authors. dared to reform the concepts of space and time. Hilbert made a similar remark in a letter to Karl Schwarzschild. Lorentz stated: “ Indeed I have not given the most appropriate transformation for some physical quantities encountered in the formulae. y.Relativity priority dispute • What Hilbert thought he was referring to when he used the term "equations of my theory" about Einstein's research. Miller. Cohn and Bucherer rejected the ether. most historians of science.] Let's add that while thus correcting the imperfections of my work he never blamed me  for them. [. Abraham Pais. on the contrary. and Einstein Lorentz.these are not enumerated here. a 1916 reprint of his main work "The theory of electrons" contains notes (written in 1909 and 1915) in which Lorentz sketched the differences between his results and that of Einstein as follows: . None of them fully understood the physical implications of these transformations. T. Cohn. Lorentz and Larmor had most of the Lorentz transformations. 75 Special Relativity Historians of special relativity In his History of the theories of ether and electricity from 1953. Lorentz appreciated the Palermo paper (1906) of Poincaré on relativity. But they argue that it was Einstein who completely eliminated the classical ether and demonstrated the relativity of space and time. and continued (like Lorentz) to distinguish between "real" lengths and times measured by observers at rest within the aether. Poincaré.. Whittaker claimed that relativity is the creation of Lorentz and Poincaré and attributed to Einstein's papers only little importance. like Gerald Holton. has obtained a perfect invariance of the electro-magnetic equations. terms which he was the first to employ. t'. and Abraham had a physical interpretation of Lorentz's local time. None of them imagined a new kinematics based on two postulates. or Olivier Darrigol have other points of view. In one of them were used . None of them derived the Lorentz transformations on this basis. Comments by Lorentz. since I considered there was an essential difference between the reference systems x. Lorentz and Poincaré had the relativistic dynamics of the electron. Poincaré. It all was Einstein's unique feat. and "apparent" lengths and times measured by observers in motion within the aether. one simply dealt with auxiliary quantities introduced with the aid of a mathematical trick.coordinate axes with a definite position in ether and what could be termed true time. in the other. Poincaré In a paper that was written in 1914 and published in 1921. They admit that Lorentz and Poincaré developed the mathematics of special relativity. There are a large number of opinions related to these involving questions of "who should get the credit" . They also argue that Poincaré demonstrated the relativity of space and time only in his philosophical writings.] I have not established the principle of relativity as rigorously and universally true. E. and he has formulated 'the postulate of relativity'.    Darrigol summarizes: Most of the components of Einstein's paper appeared in others' anterior works on the electrodynamics of moving bodies. John Stachel. Poincaré had them all.
t' we must work with these variables exactly as we could do with x. t' plays the same part as t. and probably resulted from his earlier publications in the Annalen in this field. that no experiment will ever be able to determine whether a body is at rest or in absolute motion either in relation to absolute space or even in relation to the ether. if we want to describe phenomena in terms of x'.90]: My guess is that it has to do with the fact that Einstein made the physical interpretation of the Lorentz transformation the basis for a remarkably clear and simple discussion of the electrodynamics of moving bodies. that the mass of a body is not a constant. We continue to believe that no body in motion will ever be able to exceed the speed of light. z. z'. but not in connection with special relativity. 321]: The chief cause of my failure was my clinging to the idea that the variable t only can be considered as the true time and that my local time t' must be regarded as no more than an auxiliary mathematical quantity. from the fundamental equations of the electromagnetic field. 230]: the chief difference [is] that Einstein simply postulates what we have deduced. with some difficulty and not altogether satisfactorily. y'. whereas Poincaré’s remarks on the physical interpretation of Lorentz transformed quantities may have struck Lorentz as inconsequential philosophical asides in expositions that otherwise closely followed his own.mainly  on the theory of heat . Jürgen Renn. [p. So the theory of relativity is really solely Einstein's work. His work is in this respect independent of the previous theories. I also have a sense that Lorentz found Einstein’s physically very intuitive approach more appealing than Poincaré’s rather abstract but mathematically more elegant approach. ” Regarding the fact.Relativity priority dispute 76 “ [p. It is also known that he read Poincaré's 1902-book „Science and hypothesis“ before 1905. but he recognized that this principle together with the principle of relativity makes the ether useless and leads to special relativity. This activity started in 1905. y. ” And at a conference on the Michelson-Morley experiment in 1927 at which Lorentz and Michelson were present. the mechanics of Lorentz endures. ” Einstein It is now known that Einstein was well aware of the scientific research of his time. but depends on its speed and the angle formed by this speed with the force which acts upon the body. in 1912 Poincaré raises the question whether "the mechanics of Lorentz" will still exist after the development of the quantum theory. Janssen comments: “ [p.thus demonstrating an impressive mastery of the contemporary literature. time. For example." And in 1910 and 1912 Einstein explained that he borrowed the principle of the constancy of light from Lorentz's immobile ether. which included: • philosophical assessments on the relativity of space. on the contrary. He wrote: “ In all instances in which it differs from that of Newton. Director of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science wrote on Einstein's contributions to the Annalen der Physik: “ The Annalen also served as a source of modest additional income for Einstein. t. and c) the relativistic transformation law for charge density. The well known historian of science. Going by his publications between 1900 and early 1905. and simultaneity • the definition of the principle of relativity and the opinion that a violation of that principle can never be detected • the possible non-existence of the ether . who wrote more than twenty reports for its Beiblätter . In Einstein's theory. Lorentz then replied: “ I considered my time transformation only as a heuristic working hypothesis. ” Einstein wrote in 1907 that one needed only to realize that an auxiliary quantity that was introduced by Lorentz and that he called "local time" can simply be defined as "time. b) the reciprocity of the Lorentz transformation. Michelson suggested that Lorentz was the initiator of the theory of relativity. that in this book Lorentz only mentioned Einstein and not Poincaré in connection with a) the synchronisation by light signals. ” Poincaré Poincaré attributed the development of the new mechanics almost entirely to Lorentz. He only mentioned Einstein in connection with the photoelectric effect. And there can be no doubt that he would have conceived it even if the work of all his predecessors in the theory of this field had not been done at all. one would conclude that Einstein's specialty was thermodynamics.
the relativity principle or the synchronisation procedure by light signals. [. Concerning myself. maybe because his biographer Pais in 1950 sent him a copy of Poincarè's Palermo paper. but applied to matter and electromagnetism as well as gravity. since no one disputes that Hilbert had his own "theory". 1916 letter to Schwarzschild. if we regard its development in retrospect. nor the consecutive investigations by Poincaré. . However.in translation. I knew only Lorentz's important work of 1895 [.. and in accord with Hilbert's view of things. Hilbert's sentence has sometimes been mis-interpreted by replacing the word "later" with "subsequent". I think." Arguments have been made that Hilbert claimed priority for the field equations themselves.] but not Lorentz's later work. contained the text "Die so zu Stande kommenden Differentialgleichungen der Gravitation sind.. Serious scholars dismiss such misconstruals as obvious nonsense. . Hilbert's theory was based on the work of Mie combined with Einstein's principle of general covariance.. and suggesting that Hilbert was writing in a clairvoyant sense about papers of Einstein that would be written subsequent to the paper that Hilbert was presently writing. but Einstein was responsible for essentially everything that preceded those steps. obwohl wiederholt von abweichenden und unter sich verschiedenen Ansätzen ausgehend. . Hilbert had carried out the last few mathematical steps to its discovery independently and almost simultaneously with Einstein.] Recognition for the first discovery must go to Hilbert.] The new feature of it was the realization of the fact that the bearing of the Lorentz transformation transcended its connection with Maxwell's equations and was concerned with the nature of space and time in general. was ripe for discovery in 1905. wie mir scheint... Einstein was not the first to discover the correct form of the law of warpage[. These statements of course do not have any particular bearing on the matter at issue. ” General Relativity Did Hilbert claim priority for parts of General Relativity? Kip Thorne concludes. but not in connection with the Lorentz transformation.". Einstein refers to Poincaré in connection with the inertia of energy in 1906 and the non-Euclidean geometry in 1921. obviously to distinguish them from the Entwerf theory of 1913 and the preliminary papers prior to the end of November 1915 when Einstein published the equations of general relativity in their final form. "The differential equations of gravity arrived at in this way are." . mit der von Einstein in seinen späteren Abhandlungen aufgestellten großzügigen Theorie der allgemeinen Relativität in gutem Einklang. . However. the resulting law of warpage was quickly given the name the Einstein field equation rather than being named after Hilbert. the sources cited for this are: • Hilbert's article (dated 20 November 1915). . based on Hilbert's 1924 paper." .."Einstein [. in the last years before Einstein's death he acknowledged some of Poincaré's contributions (according to Darrigol. that Hilbert regarded the General Theory of relativity as Einstein's: "Quite naturally. Einstein wrote in 1953: 77 “ There is no doubt. A further new result was that the "Lorentz invariance" is a general condition for any physical theory. in good agreement with those of Einstein in his later papers in which he presented his comprehensive theory of general relativity.] in his last publications ultimately returns directly to the equations of my theory. that the special theory of relativity. is not at issue.Relativity priority dispute • many remarks on the non-Euclidean geometry. however. Lorentz had already recognized that the transformations named after him are essential for the analysis of Maxwell’s equations. • Wuensch  points out that Hilbert refers to the field equations of gravity as "meine Theorie" ("my theory") in his February 6. which he said that he had not read before). kehrt schließlich in seinen letzten Publikationen geradenwegs zu den Gleichungen meiner Theorie zurück" . which Einstein criticized as naive and overly ambitious. • Mehra  and Bjerknes point out that Hilbert's 1924 version of the article contained the sentence ". This." Hilbert refers here to the "later papers" of Einstein.und andererseits auch Einstein. No one disputes that Hilbert . In this sense my work of 1905 was independent. Kip Thorne also stated. when it appeared in 1916. and Poincaré deepened this insight still further. "Remarkably.
physical principles invariably predominated. Corry. in which Einstein thanked Hilbert for sending an explanation of Hilbert's work. thanking him for a draft of his article. Others have suggested that Hilbert might have felt that Einstein had derived some benefit or hints from his (Hilbert's) letters. "And in a draft of a letter to Weyl. when Einstein was totally absorbed in his theory of gravitation. and Einstein's achievements can. have discovered the term which was still lacking in his own equations. and then goes on to explain in detail why "[Einstein's] eventual derivation of the equations was a logical development of his earlier arguments—in which. Einstein must have received that article immediately before writing this letter. there seems to be no consensus that these statements form a clear claim by Hilbert to have published the field equations first. 1915 letter from Einstein to Hilbert resurfaced." In their 1997 Science paper [Cor97]. and that he equations for gravitation agreed with those that Einstein presented beginning in his Nov 25 paper (which Hilbert refers to as Einstein's later papers to distinguish them from previous theories of Einstein)..". Hilbert 457/17. after asking the rhetorical question. While Hilbert's paper was submitted somewhat earlier than Einstein's. who were well aware of the correspondence between Hilbert and Einstein that November. a November 18.. sending Hilbert his publications and." • Einstein wrote to Hilbert on 20 December 1915 that there was an "ill-feeling between us" and it has been suspected that this ill feeling was the result of Einstein's bitterness over Hilbert's "nostrification" of his (Einstein's) theory. which was a very ambitious attempt to combine gravity with a theory of matter and electromagnetism along the lines of Mie's theory. on November 18. Sauer also stated. it only appeared in 1916. from which all the empirical tests proposed by Einstein were derived). he essentially only corresponded with Hilbert. His approach was thus quite different from Hilbert's. SUB Cod. and so they attempted to find more definitive evidence of the relationship between the work of Hilbert . therefore.. For this reason there was no good reason to suspect plagiarism on either side. and thus 'nostrified' Hilbert?  In the very next sentence. surely be regarded as authentic. In 1978. Hilbert claimed priority for the introduction of the Riemann scalar into the action principle and the derivation of the field equations from it. Ms. Could Einstein. None of this bears on the precise origin of the trace term in the Einstein field equations (a feature of the equations that. But this is pure speculation. aside from Einstein's comment that he believed others (presumably Hilbert) had tried to "nostrify" his theory. and if so. after Einstein's field equations paper had appeared in print. and that those had helped him to arrive at the trace term of the field equations. while theoretically significant.Relativity priority dispute has "his" theory. despite all the mathematics. • Sauer says "the independence of Einstein's discovery was never a point of dispute between Einstein and Hilbert . Folsing answers it with "This is not really probable.. does not have any effect on the vacuum equations. it was believed that Einstein and Hilbert found the field equations of gravity independently. and who continued to hold the view expressed by Albrecht Fölsing in his Einstein biography: In November. This was not unexpected to most scholars. In this letter again 'in particular the use of the Riemannian curvature [scalar] in the Hamiltonian integral' ('insbesondere die Verwendung der Riemannschen Kruemmung unter dem Hamiltonschen Integral') was claimed as one of his original contributions. turning on his slowness in fully grasping Hilbert's mathematics". dated 22 April 1918. Renn and Stachel quote the above passage and comment that "the arguments by which Einstein is exculpated are rather weak. 78 Did Einstein develop the field equations independently? For a long time. that Einstein should have acknowledged this in his paper. So far. " (Sauer mentions a letter and a draft letter where Hilbert defends his priority for the action functional) "and Einstein admitted publicly that Hilbert (and Lorentz) had succeeded in giving the equations of general relativity a particularly lucid form by deriving them from a single variational principle". casting his eye over Hilbert's paper. written after he had read the proofs of the first edition of Weyl's 'Raum-Zeit-Materie' Hilbert also objected to being slighted in Weyl's exposition.
Relativity priority dispute and Einstein, basing their work largely on a recently discovered pre-print of Hilbert's paper. A discussion of the controversy around this paper is given below. Those who contend that Einstein's paper was motivated by the information obtained from Hilbert have referred to the following sources: • The correspondence between Hilbert and Einstein mentioned above. More recently, it became known that Einstein was also given notes of Hilbert's November 16 talk about his theory . • Einstein's November 18 paper on the perihelion motion of Mercury, which still refers to the incomplete field equations of November 4 and 11. (The perihelion motion depends only on the vacuum equations, which are unaffected by the trace term that was added to complete the field equations.) Reference to the final form of the equations appears only in a footnote added to the paper, indicating that Einstein had not known the final form of the equations on November 18. This is not controversial, and is consistent with the well-known fact that Einstein did not complete the field equations (with the trace term) until November 25. • Letters of Hilbert, Einstein, and other scientists may be used in attempts to make guesses about the content of Hilbert's letter to Einstein, which is not preserved, or of Hilbert's lecture in Göttingen on November 16. Those who contend that Einstein's work takes priority over Hilberts [Cor97], or that both authors did their work independently [Tod06] have used the following arguments: • Hilbert modified his paper in December 1915, and the November 18 version sent to Einstein did not contain the final form of the field equations. The extant part of the printer proofs does not have the explicit field equations. This is the point of view defended by Corry, Renn, Stachel, and Sauer. • Sauer (1999) and Todorov (2005) agree with Corry, Renn and Satchel that Hilbert's proofs show that Hilbert had originally presented a non-covariant theory, which was dropped from the revised paper. Corry et al. quote from the proofs: "Since our mathematical theorem ... can provide only ten essentially independent equations for the 14 potentials [...] and further, maintaining general covariance makes quite impossible more than ten essential independent equations [...] then, in order to keep the deterministic characteristic of the fundamental equations of physics [...] four further non-covariant equations ... [are] unavoidable." (proofs, pages 3 and 4. Corry et al.) Hilbert derives these four extra equations and continues "these four differential equations [...] supplement the gravitational equations [...] to yield a system of 14 equations for the 14 potentials , : the system of fundamental equations of physics". (proofs, page 7. Corry et al.). Hilbert's first theory (lecture Nov 16, lecture Nov 20, proofs Dec 6) was titled "The fundamental equations of Physics". In proposing non-covariant fundamental equations, based on the Ricci tensor but restricted in this way, Hilbert was following the causality requirement that Einstein and Grassman had introduced in the Entwurf papers of 1913 (Sauer, 1999). • One may attempt to reconstruct the way in which Einstein may have arrived at the field equations independently. This is, for instance, done in the paper of Logunov, Mestvirishvili and Petrov quoted below [Log04]. Renn and Sauer [Ren96] investigate the notebook used by Einstein in 1912 and claim he was close to the correct theory at that time.
Attackers and defenders
This section cites notable publications where people have expressed a view on the issues outlined above.
Sir Edmund Whittaker (1954)
In 1954 Sir Edmund Taylor Whittaker, an English mathematician and historian of science, credited Poincaré with the equation , and he included a chapter entitled The Relativity Theory of Poincaré and Lorentz in his book A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity (1954). He credited Poincaré and Lorentz, and attributed to Einstein's relativity paper only little importance. Whittaker also stated that David Hilbert had derived the theory of General Relativity from an elegant variational principle nearly simultaneously with Einstein's discovery of the
Relativity priority dispute theory.
G. H. Keswani (1965)
In a 1965 series of articles tracing the history of relativity [Kes65], Keswani claimed that Poincaré and Lorentz should have the main credit for special relativity - claiming that Poincaré pointedly credited Lorentz multiple times, while Lorentz credited Poincaré and Einstein, refusing to take credit for himself. He also downplayed the theory of general relativity, saying "Einstein's general theory of relativity is only a theory of gravitation and of modifications in the laws of physics in gravitational fields". . This would leave the special theory of relativity as the unique theory of relativity. Keswani cited also Vladimir Fock for this same opinion. This series of articles prompted responses, among others from Herbert Dingle and Karl Popper. Dingle said, among other things, ".. the 'principle of relativity' had various meanings, and the theories associated with it were quite distinct; they were not different forms of the same theory. Each of the three protagonists.... was very well aware of the others .... but each preferred his own views" Karl Popper says "Though Einstein appears to have known Poincaré's Science and Hypothesis prior to 1905, there is no theory like Einstein's in this great book." Keswani did not accept the criticism, and replied in two letters also published in the same journal ([Kes66a] and [Kes66b]) - in his reply to Dingle, he argues that the three relativity theories were at heart the same: ".. they meant much that was common. And that much mattered the most." Dingle commented the year after on the history of crediting: "Until the first World War, Lorentz's and Einstein's theories were regarded as different forms of the same idea, but Lorentz, having priority and being a more established figure speaking a more familiar language, was credited with it." (Dingle 1967, Nature 216 p. 119-122).
Albrecht Folsing on the Hilbert-Einstein interaction (1998)
From Folsing's 1998 Einstein biography (footnote references in the quote are from the original text and the actual notes are not reproduced here): During the decisive phase Einstein even had a congenial colleague, though this caused him more annoyance than joy, as it seemed to threaten his primacy. "Only one colleague truly understood it, and he now tries skillfully to appropriate it."29 he complained to Zangger about what he evidently regarded as an attempt at plagiarism. This colleague was none other than David Hilbert, with whom, as recently as the summer, Einstein had been "absolutely delighted." What must have irritated Einstein was that Hilbert had published the correct field equations first—a few days before Einstein. Einstein presented his equations in Berlin on November 25, 1915, but six days earlier, on November 20, Hilbert—had derived the identical field equations for which Einstein had been searching such a long time.31 How had this happened? David Hilbert had concerned himself intensively with physics for a number of years; had read everything about electrons, matter, and fields: and in this context had invited Einstein to Göttingen toward the end of June 1915 to lecture on relativity theory. Einstein had stayed at the Hilberts' home, and one must assume that the week he and Hilbert spent together would have consisted of dawn-to-dusk discussions of physics. They continued their debate in writing, although Felix Klein records that "they talked past one another, as happens not infrequently between simultaneously producing mathematicians."32 Hilbert was in fact aiming at greater things than Einstein: at a theory of the entire physical world, of matter and fields, of universe and electrons—and in a strictly axiomatic structure. In November, when Einstein was totally absorbed in his theory of gravitation, he essentially corresponded only with Hilbert, sending Hilbert his publications and, on November 18, thanking him for a draft of his treatise. Einstein must have received that treatise immediately before writing this letter. Could Einstein, casting his eye
Relativity priority dispute over Hilbert's paper, have discovered the term which was still lacking in his own equations, and thus "appropriated" Hilbert? This is not really probable: Hilbert's treatise was exceedingly involved, or indeed confused—according to Felix Klein, it was the kind of work "that no one understands unless he has already mastered the whole subject."33 It cannot be entirely ruled out that Hilbert's treatise made Einstein aware of some weakness in his own equations. Nevertheless, his eventual derivation of the equations was a logical development of his earlier arguments—in which, despite all the mathematics, physical principles invariably predominated. His approach was thus quite different from Hilbert's, and Einstein's achievements can, therefore, surely be regarded as authentic. For a few weeks relations between Einstein and Hilbert were clouded; at least, we know that Einstein was convinced that his Göttingen lectures and some of his other thoughts had—perhaps inadvertently—been plagiarized by Hilbert. It may well be, though, that he was somewhat mollified when he saw the printed version of Hilbert's treatise, since Hilbert, in the very first sentence, paid tribute to "the gigantic problems raised by Einstein and the brilliant methods developed by him for their solution,"34 which represented the prerequisites of a new approach to the fundamentals of physics. Thirty years later, Einstein told his assistant Ernst G. Straus, who in turn after another thirty years told Abraham Pais, that "Hilbert had sent him a written apology, informing him that he had 'quite forgotten that lecture.' "35 If that is what happened, then it must have satisfied Einstein, for just before Christmas he wrote to Hilbert: "There has been between us something like a bad feeling, the cause of which I don't wish to analyze further. I struggled against a resulting sense of bitterness, and I did so with complete success. I once more think of you in unclouded friendship, and would ask you to try to do likewise toward me. It is, objectively speaking, a pity if two fellows who have worked their way out of this shabby world cannot find pleasure in one another."36 The reconciliation worked so well that no one else seems to have noticed any friction, and a legend arose that there had never been anything but friendly feelings between Einstein and Hilbert.37 Hilbert, like all his other colleagues, acknowledged Einstein as the sole creator of relativity theory. (Source: Folsing, "Albert Einstein") From the publication date of his book, it appears that Folsing did not know of the printer proofs discussed in [Cor97].
Cory/Renn/Stachel and Friedwardt Winterberg (1997/2003)
In 1997, Cory, Renn and Stachel published a 3-page article in Science entitled "Belated Decision in the Hilbert-Einstein Priority Dispute" , concluding that Hilbert had not anticipated Einstein's equations. Friedwardt Winterberg, a professor of physics at the University of Nevada, Reno, disputed  these conclusions, observing that the galley proofs of Hilbert's articles had been tampered with - part of one page had been cut off. He goes on to argue that the removed part of the article contained the equations that Einstein later published, and he wrote that the cut off part of the proofs suggests a crude attempt by someone to falsify the historical record. "Science" declined to publish this; it was printed in revised form in "Zeitschrift für Naturforschung", with a dateline of June 5, 2003. Winterberg wrote that the correct field equations are still present on the existing pages of the proofs in various equivalent forms. In this paper Winterberg asserted that Einstein sought the help of Hilbert and Klein to help him find the correct field equation, without mentioning the research of Folsing (1997) and Sauer (1999) according to which Hilbert invited Einstein to Göttingen to give a week of lectures on general relativity in June 1915, which however does not necessarily contradict Winterberg. Hilbert at the time was looking for physics problems to solve. A short reply to Winterberg's article could be found at ; the original long reply can be accessed via the Internet Archive at . In this reply, Winterberg's hypothesis is called "paranoid" and "speculative". Cory et al. offer the following alternative speculation: "it is possible that Hilbert himself cropped off the top of p. 7 to include it with the three sheets he sent Klein, in order that they not end in mid-sentence."
but not aware of the Born letter.to avoid a lifelong priority dispute (something in which Leibniz and Newton failed). In particular. concludes Their [Hilbert's and Einstein's] pathways were different but they led exactly to the same result. Logunov (2004) commenting on the "Belated decision" paper. quoted in Wuensch  vindicates Bjerknes's view there is a real possibility that Einstein copied from Hilbert.. 1915] is now definitely precluded. Sauer's vague and arbitrary arguments regarding Einstein's plagiarism do not follow from his premises.. Todorov ends his paper by stating: Einstein and Hilbert had the moral strength and wisdom . according to which the outcome of any conceivable experiment is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which it is performed. in a final account.. Examples are "Anticipations of Einstein in the General Theory of Relativity" and "Albert Einstein: the incorrigible plagiarist".. But general relativity is Einstein’s theory. In the paper recommended by Todorov as calm and non-confrontational. They both recognized that the Maxwell-Lorentz equations of electrodynamics were left invariant by these transformations. . from which. Friedwart Winterberg" and stating that "the Max Planck Institute will not take a position in [this] scientific dispute". Bjerknes  has disputed Sauer's conclusion.]Dr. Max Born's letter to David Hilbert. 82 Christopher Jon Bjerknes (2003) This author has written several books and articles claiming that Einstein plagiarized the theories of relativity. Tilman Sauer (1999) concludes that the printer's proofs show conclusively that Einstein did not plagiarize Hilbert. On the contrary. They further argued that the space and time measured by observers belonging to different inertial systems were related to each other through the Lorentz transformations. A calm. the evidence and the circumstances surrounding Einstein’s publication of the generally covariant field equations of gravitation containing the trace term on 25 November 1915 prove beyond any reasonable doubt that Einstein plagiarized them from David Hilbert. They both required that every law of physics should be invariant under these transformations. the Max Planck Institute of Berlin has replaced the short reply with a note  saying that the society "distances itself from statements published on this website [. Darrigol wrote: • "By 1905 Poincaré's and Einstein's reflections on the electrodynamics of moving bodies led them to postulate the universal validity of the relativity principle. Ivan Todorov. .after a month of intense competition. They both gave the relativistic laws of motion.Relativity priority dispute As of September 2006. stating any possibility that Einstein took the clue for the final step toward his field equations from Hilbert's note [Nov 20. they both assumed that the velocity of light measured in different inertial frames was the same. It would be a shame to subsequent generations of scientists and historians of science to try to undo their achievement. There is no evidence or circumstance which would preclude Einstein's plagiarism. Nobody "nostrified" the other . All is absolutely clear: both authors made everything to immortalize their names in the title of the gravitational field equations. "The Mystery of the Einstein-Poincaré Connection".   Olivier Darrigol on Special Relativity (2004) In his 2004 article. They both recognized that the relativity principle . non-confrontational reaction was soon provided by a thorough study (Sau 99) of Hilbert’s route to the “Foundations of Physics” (see also the relatively even handed survey (Viz 01)).] concerning Prof. says of the debate: Their [CRS's] attempt to support on this ground Einstein’s accusation of “nostrification” goes much too far. everybody (including science itself) profited . in a paper published on ArXiv (Todorov 2005). [.
with Mestvirishvili and Petrov. Nobody "nostrified" the other." • In sum. Poincaré maintained the ether as a privileged frame of reference in which "true" space and time were defined. 113 is an English translation by V. they conclude that: Their pathways were different but they led exactly to the same result. Specifically.. the physical interpretation of the Lorentz transformations. . Lastly. In reality. Moreover.. while he regarded the space and time measured in other frames as only "apparent. Poincaré immediately proposed a relativistic modification of Newton's law of gravitation and saw the advantages of a four-vector formalism in this context. They discuss both Einstein's and Hilbert's papers. of an article rejecting the conclusions of the Corry/Renn/Stachel paper.. On several points namely. Logunov states that Poincaré's 1905 papers Sur la dynamique de l'électron (On the Dynamics of the Electron) are . Renn. whereas Poincaré obtained these transformations as those that leave the Maxwell-Lorentz equations invariant. Einstein gave the operational meaning of time dilation. Author of a book about Poincaré's relativity theory . and the radiation paradoxes . the very Einstein–Hilbert dispute never took place.. The wisest attitude might be to leave the coincidence of Poincaré’s and Einstein’s breakthroughs unexplained. A. can be taken." • "I turn now to basic conceptual differences. publication was nearly simultaneous." • "These differences between the two theories are sometimes regarded as implying different observable predictions even within the domain of electromagnetism and optics. But general relativity is Einstein’s theory.Poincaré's relevant publications antedated Einstein's relativity paper of 1905 by at least five years. and his suggestions were radically new when they first appeared. and the radiation paradoxes from Poincaré. about which [Corry.Relativity priority dispute and the energy principle led to paradoxes when conjointly applied to radiation processes. whereas Poincaré reasoned according to a specific model of the electron built up in conformity with Lorentz covariance. in Poincaré's view the constancy of the velocity of light (in the ether frame) derived from the assumption of a stationary ether. the definition of simultaneity. the relativity principle. whereas Poincaré never discussed it. Einstein completely eliminated the ether. Starting on p. Einstein saw that Poincaré's radiation paradoxes could be solved only by assuming the inertia of energy. and every deduction made in Einstein’s theory can be translated into a deduction in Poincaré’s theory . . Coauthor. for Poincaré’s ether is by assumption perfectly undetectable. whereas for Einstein it was a kinematic consequence of the difference between the space and time defined by observers in relative motion. His book about Poincaré's relativity theory  is a useful introduction to the subject. In contrast. (Source: [Dar04]) 83 Anatoly Alexeevich Logunov (2004) Logunov is a former Vice President of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and currently "Advisor" of the Institute for High Energy Physics. Petrov. On the remaining points. Whereas Einstein. So no “belated decision in the Einstein–Hilbert priority dispute”. then.. there is no such disagreement. using modern notations. required that the expression of the laws of physics should be the same in any inertial frame. whereas Poincaré never returned to this question. needed a second postulate. and introduced a "new kinematics" in which the space and time measured in different inertial systems were all on exactly the same footing. the physical interpretation of Lorentz's transformations (to first order). Einstein derived the expression of the Lorentz transformation from his two postulates (the relativity principle and the constancy of the velocity of light in a given inertial system). having eliminated the ether. Einstein obtained the dynamics of any rapidly moving particle by the direct use of Lorentz covariance. of the part of Poincaré's 1900 article containing E=mc2. and Stachel] wrote. Einstein could have borrowed the relativity principle. All is absolutely clear: both authors made everything to immortalize their names in the title of the gravitational field equations." He treated the Lorentz contraction as a hypothesis regarding the effect of the edgewise motion of a rod through the ether. claiming that Einstein and Hilbert arrived at the correct field equations independently. whereas Einstein waited a couple of years to address this problem complex..
She defends the view that knowledge of Hilbert's November 16. Logunov. Logunov points out that Poincaré's second paper was the first one to formulate a complete theory of relativistic dynamics. Wuensch concludes though that: This comprehensive study concludes with a historical interpretation. Compare also: Jules Leveugle. in the fourth (of 24) issue of 1905. van Wet. Logunov points out that Einstein wrote reviews for the Beiblätter Annalen der Physik. she presents a theory about what might have been on the missing part of the proofs. whereas Hilbert developed a unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. Planck. 142. based upon her knowledge of Hilbert's papers and lectures. a historian of science and a Hilbert and Kaluza expert. 84 Jules Leveugle and Christian Marchal (2004/2005) Similar to Anatoly A. Paris 2004. In chapter 9 of this book. It shows that while it is true that Hilbert must be seen as the one who first discovered the field equations. This contradicts the claims that Einstein worked in relative isolation and with limited access to the scientific literature. the general theory of relativity is indeed Einstein's achievement. Moreover. While he does not call Einstein a plagiarist. La Relativité et Einstein. while his June 1905 Elektrodynamik paper does not mention Lorentz in connection with this result. writing 21 reviews in 1905. The review also contained these transformations. but nevertheless calls Einstein's reaction (his negative comments on Hilbert in the November 26 letter to Zangger) "understandable" ("Einstein's Reaktion ist verständlich") because Einstein had worked on the problem for a long time. Klaus Sommer (2005) Klaus Sommer is a historian of science and Hilbert expert. claiming that a scandal caused by Hilbert could have done more damage to Einstein than any scandal before ("Ein Skandal Hilberts hätte ihm mehr geschadet als jeder andere zuvor"). containing the correct relativistic analogue of Newton's F=ma. he supports Wuensch's view that Einstein obtained not independently but from the information obtained from Hilbert's November 16 letter and from the notes of Hilbert's talk. of Lorentz' paper in the Versl. In an article in "Physik in unserer Zeit" (Sommer 05) . 986 containing the Lorentz transformation. Ak. L'Harmattan. 12(1904). responded to Bjerknes. According to her publisher.Relativity priority dispute superior to Einstein's 1905 Elektrodynamik paper. This supports the view that Einstein was familiar with the Lorentz' paper containing the correct relativistic transformation in early 1905. Poincaré was the first scientist to recognize the importance of invariance under the Poincaré group as a guideline for developing new theories in physics. wherein she defends the view that the cut to Hilbert's printer proofs was made in recent times. claims which are usually made to exculpate Einstein from plagiarism. . Christian Marchal and Jules Leveugle argue that the contribution of Albert Einstein to the special theory of relativity is minor compared to that of Henri Poincaré . On p. Among the papers reviewed in 1905 Beiblätter are a review. p. K.Histoire véridique de la Théorie de la Relativité.  In 2006. Daniela Wuensch (2005) Daniela Wuensch. Sommer speculates that Einstein's conciliatory December 20 letter was motivated by the fear that Hilbert might comment Einstein's behaviour in the final version of his paper. Winterberg and Logunov's criticisms of the Corry/Renn/Stachel paper in a book which appeared in 2005 . Hilbert . Wuensch was invited to give a talk at the annual meeting of the German Physics Society (Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft) about her views about the priority issue for the field equations. According to Logunov. 1915 letter was crucial to Einstein's development of the field equations: Einstein arrived at the correct field equations only with Hilbert's help ("nach großer Anstrengung mit Hilfe Hilberts").
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This work spurred the purely mathematical development of differential geometry. Early work The first attempts to provide a unified theory were by G. see Classical theories of gravitation. Theodor Kaluza. Hermann Weyl worked to generalize the Riemannian geometry upon which general relativity is based. there were four distinct approaches to field theory: the gauge theory of Weyl. some physicists have attempted to develop a single theoretical framework that can account for the fundamental forces of nature – a unified field theory. a large number of mathematicians and physicists. including extending the foundations of geometry and adding an extra spatial dimension. and he tried to exploit this by introducing a basic method for comparison of local . Bach also attempted to develop approaches that could unify these interactions. but was not yet fully involved in the unification effort. Lancelot Law Whyte. and attempted to incorporate electromagnetic fields into a more general geometry. His idea was to create a more general infinitesimal geometry.  These scientists pursued several avenues of generalization. For a survey of current work toward creating a quantum theory of gravitation. This article describes various attempts at a classical. these theories were unsatisfactory. as they did not incorporate general relativity – in the former case. Classical unified field theories are attempts to create a unified field theory based on classical physics. along with those of Forster. Arthur Eddington. involved making the metric tensor (which had previously been assumed to be symmetric and real-valued) into an asymmetric and/or complex-valued tensor. unification of gravitation and electromagnetism was actively pursued by several physicists and mathematicians in the years between World War I and World War II. Weyl's infinitesimal geometry In order to include electromagnetism into the geometry of general relativity.  However. Lancelot Law Whyte's theory based on the Unitary Principle and Eddington's development of affine geometry. and they also attempted to create a field theory for matter as well. In particular. and collaborated with Kaluza. Overview The early attempts at creating a unified field theory began with the Riemannian geometry of general relativity. He noted that in addition to a metric field there could be additional degrees of freedom along a path between two points in a manifold. These efforts. and R. Albert Einstein is the best known of the many physicists who attempted to develop a classical unified field theory. see quantum gravity. relativistic unified field theory. Mie in 1912 and Ernst Reichenbacher in 1916.92 Unified field theory Classical unified field theories Since the 19th century. since ordinary Riemannian geometry seemed incapable of expressing the properties of the electromagnetic field. including Hermann Weyl. Differential geometry and field theory From 1918 until 1923. Kaluza's five-dimensional theory. because general relativity had yet to be formulated. For a survey of classical relativistic field theories of gravitation that have been motivated by theoretical concerns other than unification. Einstein corresponded with these researchers. Einstein was not alone in his attempts to unify electromagnetism and gravity.
Classical unified field theories size measures along such a path. This prompted mathematicians such as Gauss and Riemann to investigate that area of mathematics. However. in collaboration with Einstein and Einstein's aide Grommer it was determined that this theory did not admit a non-singular. in addition to the metric g. Weyl's principle of gauge invariance was later applied in a modified form to quantum field theory. was merely provisional. which is more conventionally interpreted as due to expansion). Eddington considered that in the Einstein field equations for general relativity the stress-energy tensor .) Eddington emphasized what he considered to be epistemological considerations. Since the simplest cosmological model (the De Sitter universe) that solves that equation is a spherically symmetric. He was among the first to propose an extension of the gravitational theory based on the affine connection as the fundamental structure field rather than the metric tensor which was the original focus of general relativity. closed universe (exhibiting a cosmological red shift. which together gave rise to both the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. Like many other classical unified field theorists. Only Baranski's first book was published before his death. which dealt with non-Euclidean and higher-dimensional geometry. in terms of a gauge field. because it seemed plausible that the result of parallel-transporting one infinitesimal vector along another should produce the same result as transporting the second along the first. upon which this line of investigation based upon classical physics was abandoned by academia. resulting in difficult and high-order field equations. spherically symmetric solution. and the theory was ultimately found to be physically unreasonable. Affine connection is the basis for parallel transport of vectors from one space-time point to another. He also shared the hope that an improved fundamental theory would explain why the two elementary particles then known . Then Weyl carried out an extensive correspondence with Einstein and others as to its physical validity. Unlike Weyl's approach. it seemed to explain the overall form of the universe. and the extra dimension allowed for the incorporation of the electromagnetic field vector into the geometry. in what is now known as Kaluza-Klein theory. who planned a series of books based upon this theory. which represents matter/energy. but that was not as extensive a description as Boscovich's theory. 93 Kaluza's fifth dimension Kaluza's approach to unification was to embed space-time into a five-dimensional cylindrical world. This theory did have some influence on Einstein's later work and was further developed later by Klein in an attempt to incorporate relativity into quantum theory. Lancelot Law Whyte's unitary field theory This theory was based on an organizing process called by Lancelot Law Whyte the "Unitary Principle". Eddington's affine geometry Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington was a noted astronomer who became an enthusiastic and influential promoter of Einstein's general theory of relativity. (Later workers revisited this assumption. static. he thought that the cosmological constant version of the general-relativistic field equation expressed the property that the universe was "self-gauging". The critical mathematical ingredients in this theory. Eddington assumed the affine connection to be symmetric in its covariant indices. the Lagrangians and curvature tensor. for example. one of four space dimensions and one of time. Riemannian geometry was maintained. stationary. for which the mathematics had been only incompletely developed. Lancelot Law Whyte's ideas were adopted for experimental work by Leo Baranski. The history of this theoretical approach is: Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell worked from Rudjer Boscovich's theory. This theory was mathematically sound. Despite the relative mathematical elegance of this approach. and that in a truly unified theory the source term would automatically arise as some aspect of the free-space field equations. albeit complicated. This geometry generalized Riemannian geometry in that there was a vector field Q. The mathematics that Riemann developed was used by Einstein in his theory of general relativity. were worked out by Weyl and colleagues.
these fields are symmetric (in the matrix sense). and most physicists consider his attempts ultimately unsuccessful. particles appear as limited regions in space-time in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high.Classical unified field theories (proton and electron) have quite different masses. this is related to a discrete (or "internal") symmetry known to Einstein as "displacement field duality". The Dirac equation for the relativistic quantum electron caused Eddington to rethink his previous conviction that fundamental physical theory had to be based on tensors. make it hard to connect such theories with the physical phenomena that they might describe. combined with a relative lack of good mathematical tools for analyzing nonlinear equation systems. the metric-affine theory was somewhat complicated.) In general relativity. Einstein tried to form a generalized theory of gravitation that would unify the gravitational and electromagnetic forces (and perhaps others). This suggests that a purely geometric theory ought to treat these two fields as different aspects of the same basic phenomenon. Einstein and coworker Leopold Infeld managed to demonstrate that. the symmetry requirement was relaxed for one or both fields. but since antisymmetry seemed essential for electromagnetism. such as quantization or discrete symmetries. certain configurations of curved space-time incorporate effects of an electromagnetic field. Einstein's proposed unified-field equations (fundamental laws of physics) were generally derived from a variational principle expressed in terms of the Riemann curvature tensor for the presumed space-time manifold. However. In field theories of this kind. In particular. true singularities of the field did have trajectories resembling point particles. and Einstein believed that in an ultimate theory the laws should apply everywhere. Einstein became increasingly isolated in his research on a generalized theory of gravitation. 94 Einstein's geometric approaches When the equivalent of Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism is formulated within the framework of Einstein's theory of general relativity. or putting it another way. Further. in Einstein's final theory of the unified field. For example. his pursuit of a unification of the fundamental forces ignored developments in quantum physics (and vice versa). guided by a belief in a single origin for the entire set of physical laws. but eventually centered around treating both the metric tensor and the affine connection as fundamental fields. the electromagnetic field energy (being equivalent to mass as one would expect from Einstein's famous equation E=mc2) contributes to the stress tensor and thus to the curvature of space-time. . most notably the discovery of the strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force. These attempts initially concentrated on additional geometric notions such as vierbeins and "distant parallelism". which is the general-relativistic representation of the gravitational field. However. so very few physicists followed up on his work. the large-scale topology of the universe should impose restrictions on the solutions. ordinary Riemannian geometry is unable to describe the properties of the electromagnetic field as a purely geometric phenomenon. it has been suggested that the torsion (antisymmetric part of the affine connection) might be related to isospin rather than electromagnetism. The degree of abstraction. with particles being soliton-like solutions to the (highly nonlinear) field equations. singularities are places where the equations break down. (Because they are not independent. Unfortunately his descriptions of this theory were sketchy and difficult to understand. He subsequently devoted his efforts into development of a "Fundamental Theory" based largely on algebraic notions (which he called "E-frames").
. . preuss. "Grundzüge zu einer Theorie der Elektrizität und der Gravitation". 2005. Current research on unified field theories focuses on the problem of creating quantum gravity and unifying such a theory with the other fundamental theories in physics. eventually abandoned classical theories. livingreviews. E. Schrödinger. Press. 2nd ed. Kilmister. Schrödinger's most striking discovery during this work was that the metric tensor was induced upon the manifold via a simple construction from the Riemann curvature tensor. "On the History of Unified Field Theories" (http:/ / relativity. Cambridge Univ. Mie. Despite the publicity of this work due to Einstein's celebrity status. but he became increasingly isolated in this research. doi:10. 5th ed. org/ open?pubNo=lrr-2004-2). like Einstein he later considered the nonsymmetric field..19173570203. (1917). Sitz. W. Cambridge Univ. it never resulted in a resounding success. Erwin Schrödinger from 1940 to 1951 thoroughly investigated pure-affine formulations of generalized gravitational theory. Eddington. which are quantum theories. Retrieved August 10. Wiss. Princeton Univ. attempt to solve both of these problems at once. Living Reviews in Relativity. (1918). and his work in this area has been largely ignored. Press. Phys. Eddington's search for a fundamental theory. References         Weyl.: 465. Einstein. Ann. Space-Time Structure.Classical unified field theories 95 Schrödinger's pure-affine theory Inspired by Einstein's approach to a unified field theory and Eddington's idea of the affine connection as the sole basis for differential geometric structure for space-time. Later work After the 1930s. (1994). Press. Skepticism from Einstein and published criticisms from other physicists discouraged Schrödinger. doi:10..1002/andp. (Some programs. Phys. Gönner. (1924). E. The Meaning of Relativity. The Mathematical Theory of Relativity. though not Einstein. most notably string theory. . gravity remains the one force whose unification proves problematic. which was in turn formed entirely from the affine connection. "Gravitation und Elektrizität". G. C. M.) With four fundamental forces now identified. (1950). (1912). due to the continual development of quantum theory and the difficulties encountered in developing a quantum theory of gravity. Akad. Press. (1956). A. A. 52: 134–173. Einstein continued to work on unified field theories of gravity and electromagnetism. "Grundlagen einer Theorie der Materie". Reichenbächer. 37: 511–534. taking this approach with the simplest feasible basis for the variational principle resulted in a field equation having the form of Einstein's general-relativistic field equation with a cosmological term arising automatically. Further.19123420306. Cambridge Univ.1002/andp. H. Most scientists. progressively fewer scientists worked on classical unification. which he pursued until his death. Although he initially assumed a symmetric affine connection. S. Hubert F. Ann.
It was the lack of any reason for an event that Einstein rejected. in 1905 he proposed that light sometimes acts as a particle which he called a light quantum (now called the photon). was dismayed by none of the elements that . Bohr. but the reasons for the mechanics still needed to be understood. Despite their differences of opinion regarding quantum mechanics. Finally. and their post-revolutionary debates were about making sense of the change. The photon appealed to Einstein because he saw it as a physical reality (although a confusing one) behind the numbers. 1913 brought the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom which made use of the quantum to explain the atomic spectrum. The next shock came in 1926 when Max Born proposed that the mechanics was to be understood as a probability without any causal explanation. Bohr was one of the most vocal opponents of the photon idea and did not openly Niels Bohr with Albert Einstein at Paul  Ehrenfest's home in Leiden (December 1925) embrace it until 1925. meanwhile. He did not reject the statistics or probabilities on their own and Einstein himself was a great statistical thinker. but quickly changed his mind and embraced it. As though to prove his point. Einstein was at first dubious. Bohr and Einstein had a mutual admiration that was to last the rest of their lives. An account of them has been written by Bohr in an article titled "Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics". Pre-revolutionary debates Einstein was the first physicist to say that Planck's discovery of the quantum (h) would require a rewriting of physics. Their debates are remembered because of their importance to the philosophy of science. His later ability to work creatively with an idea he had so long resisted is quite unusual in the history of science. The quantum revolution The quantum revolution of the mid-1920s occurred under the direction of both Einstein and Bohr. He believed that much had been accomplished. The shocks for Einstein began in 1925 when Werner Heisenberg introduced matrix equations that removed the Newtonian elements of space and time from any underlying reality. He tolerated Bohr's model despite the fact that its underlying reality could not be pictured in detail because he considered it a work in progress. Einstein's refusal to accept the revolution as complete reflected his rejection of the idea that positions in space-time could never be completely known and by the way quantum probabilities did not reflect any underlying causes. He did not like that a scientist had to choose between equations.96 Collaboration and conflict Bohr–Einstein debates The Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr who were two of its founders. in late 1927. Heisenberg and Born declared at the Solvay Conference that the revolution was over and nothing further was needed. It was at that last stage that Einstein's skepticism turned to dismay. Bohr disliked it because it made the choice of mathematical solution arbitrary.
such as position and velocity. 97 Post-Revolution: First stage As mentioned above. implies the disappearance of the interference figure and the emergence of two concentrated spots of diffraction which confirm our knowledge of the trajectory followed by the particle. In order to follow his argumentation and to evaluate Bohr's response. In fact. it is convenient to refer to the experimental apparatus illustrated in figure A. As always. if the incident particle is deviated toward Figure A.Bohr–Einstein debates troubled Einstein. according to the principle of indeterminacy or that of complementarity. according to Einstein. He made his own peace with the contradictions by proposing a Principle of Complementarity that emphasized the role of the observer over the observed. At the passage through the two slits of the second screen S2. A beam of light perpendicular to the X axis which propagates in the direction z encounters a screen S1 which presents a narrow (with respect to the wavelength of the ray) slit. In the first stage. A monochromatic beam (one for which all the particles have the same impulse) encounters a first screen. by the law of conservation of impulse which implies that the sum of the impulses of two systems which interact is conserved. Einstein's position underwent significant modifications over the course of the years. diffracts. From the measure of the recoil of the screen S1. The successive propagation of the wave results in the formation of the interference figure on the final screen F. suggesting ingenious thought experiments which should permit the accurate determination of incompatible variables. After having passed through the slit. It is also important to note that any experiment designed to evidence the "corpuscular" aspects of the process at the passage of the screen S2 (which. The first serious attack by Einstein on the "orthodox" conception took place during the Fifth Conference of Physics at the Solvay Institute in 1927. and since it is only the interaction with this screen that can cause a deflection from the original direction of propagation. should not be accessible. the wave aspects of the process become essential. At this point Einstein brings into play the first screen as well and argues as follows: since the incident particles have velocities (practically) perpendicular to the screen S1. . in this case. one can deduce from which slit the particle has passed without destroying the wave aspects of the process. reduces to the determination of which slit the particle has passed through) inevitably destroys the wave aspects. it is precisely the interference between the two terms of the quantum superposition corresponding to states in which the particle is localized in one of the two slits which implies that the particle is "guided" preferably into the zones of constructive interference and cannot end up in a point in the zones of destructive interference (in which the wave function is nullified). and the diffracted wave encounters a second screen with two slits resulting in the formation of an interference figure on the background F. Einstein pointed out how it was possible to take advantage of the (universally accepted) laws of conservation of energy and of impulse (momentum) in order to obtain information on the state of a particle in a process of interference which. the wave function diffracts with an angular opening that causes it to encounter a second screen S2 which presents two slits. Einstein refused to accept quantum indeterminism and sought to demonstrate that the principle of indeterminacy could be violated. it is assumed that only one particle at a time is able to pass the entire mechanism. or to explicitly reveal simultaneously the wave and the particle aspects of the same process.
Bohr's response was to illustrate Einstein's idea more clearly via the diagrams in Figures B and C. Bohr observes that extremely precise knowledge of any (potential) vertical motion of the screen is an essential presupposition in Einstein's argument. which means that interference is not possible. a different type of interference. the screen would therefore occupy an indeterminate position at least to a certain extent (defined by the formalism). an extremely precise determination underscore the fact that the of the velocity of the screen. The effect of this averaging is that the pattern of interference on the screen F will be uniformly grey. and. if its velocity in the direction X before the passage of the particle is not known with a precision substantially greater than that induced by the recoil (that is. The mobile the determination of its motion after the passage of the particle would not give the window is evidenced in order to information we seek. Before the the interference pattern. if it were already moving vertically with an unknown and greater velocity Figure B. for example. If the difference between the two paths varies by half a wavelength. In fact. the point d in figure A. if every particle passes through only the slit b or the slit c. if the particle in question has been deviated toward the bottom (top) and therefore we can know from which slit in S2 the particle has passed. for a certain fixed point F. If we imagine taking the measurement of the impulse of the screen in the direction X after every single particle has passed. a-b-d and a-c-d. It's obvious that any displacement of the first screen would make the lengths of the two paths. If Einstein is correct. but. process even begins. at point d there will be constructive rather than destructive interference. from the fact that the screen will be found recoiled toward the top (bottom). from the perfectly destructive to the perfectly constructive. attempt to know which slit a particle passes through destroys implies an inevitable imprecision of its position in the direction X. our attempt to evidence the corpuscular aspects in S2 has destroyed the possibility of interference in F which depends crucially on the wave aspects. it is possible to measure even an infinitesimal recoil. Bohr's representation of Einstein's thought experiment than that which it derives as a consequence of the contact with the particle). However. in principle. Once more. The ideal experiment must average over all the possible positions of the screen S1. then there is a violation of the principle of indeterminacy. then described above. 98 . when one applies the principle of indeterminacy. Now consider. In realistic conditions the mass of the screen is so heavy that it will remain stationary. there corresponds. On the other hand. we can know.Bohr–Einstein debates the top. we will still have an interference figure on the screen F. The interference takes place precisely because the state of the system is the superposition of two states whose wave functions are non-zero only near one of the two slits. for every position. Bohr continues. where there is destructive interference. then the set of systems is the statistical mixture of the two states. But since the determination of the direction of the recoil of the screen after the particle has passed cannot influence the successive development of the process. different from those indicated in the figure. the screen will recoil toward the bottom and vice-versa.
there exists a Figure D. It then happens that at a certain instant..the unambiguous use of spatiotemporal concepts in the description of atomic phenomena must be limited to the registration of observations which refer to images on a photographic lens or to analogous practically irreversible effects of amplification such as the formation of a drop of water around an ion in a dark room. it is convenient to refer to the experiment illustrated in Figure D. In order to comprehend this relation. it must be very clear that. in the path of a particle could introduce new effects of interference which influence essentially the predictions about the results which will be registered at the end. whose fundamental characteristic is that of obeying classical laws and which can be described in classical terms. contrary to genuine instruments of measurement. In order to have a wave which is limited in spatial extension (which is technically called a wave packet). for the understanding of this phenomenon "it is decisive that. Beyond the slit. such as .Bohr–Einstein debates 99 It should be noted that. there will be a wave of limited spatial extension which continues to propagate toward the right. On the other hand. The principle of indeterminacy applied to time and energy In many textbook examples and popular discussions of quantum mechanics. these bodies along with the particles would constitute. Bohr attempts to resolve this ambiguity concerning which parts of the system should be considered macroscopic and which not: In particular." Further along. . It is important to note that the wave nature of physical processes implies that there must exist another relation of indeterminacy: that between time and energy. which results in the propagation of a wave which is limited in spatial extension. several waves of different frequencies must be superimposed and distributed continuously within a certain interval of frequencies around an average value. the system to which the quantum-mechanical formalism must apply. it is essential to include the entire experimental apparatus. it is necessary to replace the first screen in Figure A (S1) with a movable diaphragm which can move vertically such as this proposed by Bohr. This ambiguity would later come back in the form of what is still called today the measurement problem. the principle of indeterminacy is explained by reference to the pair of variables position and velocity (or momentum). With respect to the precision of the conditions under which one can correctly apply the formalism. as illustrated in the figure. in the case under examination. In fact. Bohr's argument about the impossibility of using the apparatus proposed by Einstein to violate the principle of indeterminacy depends crucially on the fact that a macroscopic system (the screen S1) obeys quantum laws. in order to illustrate the microscopic aspects of reality it is necessary to set off a process of amplification which involves macroscopic apparatuses. Figure C. as Bohr recognized. A perfectly monochromatic wave (such as a musical note which cannot be divided into harmonics) has infinite spatial extent. Beyond the slit. A wave extended longitudinally passes through a slit which remains open only for a brief interval of time. such as a mirror. In order to realize Einstein's proposal. Assume that.. Bohr consistently asserted that. a ray which is extremely extended longitudinally is propagated toward a screen with a slit furnished with a shutter which remains open only for a very brief interval of time . there is a spatially limited wave in the direction of propagation. the introduction of any new apparatus.
we are to suppose that a photon. Einstein's thought experiment of 1930 as designed by Bohr. the phases of the various fields. It is easy to demonstrate that. are distributed causally and destructive interference is produced. His idea contemplates the existence of an experimental apparatus which was subsequently designed by Bohr in such a way as to emphasize the essential elements and the key points which he would use in his response. as we move far away from this region. that the shutter has remained open for a time where v is the velocity of the wave). Nonetheless. then the wave contains (or is a superposition of) various monochromatic waves whose frequencies cover an interval which satisfies the relation: Remembering that in the universal relation of Planck. from among those inside the box. escapes through the hole. following the explanation given above. at any specified point. In order to challenge the indeterminacy relation between time and . according to a precise mathematical theorem. frequency and energy are proportional: it follows immediately from the preceding inequality that the particle associated with the wave should possess an energy which is not perfectly defined (since different frequencies are involved in the superposition) and consequently there is indeterminacy in energy: From this it follows immediately that: which is the relation of indeterminacy between time and energy. During the opening. In this way a wave of limited spatial extension has been created. The shutter uncovers the hole for a time which can be chosen arbitrarily. see figure) containing electromagnetic radiation and a clock which controls the opening of a shutter which covers a hole made in one of the walls of the box. if the wave has a spatial extension equal to (which means. Einstein's box was supposed to prove the violation of the indeterminacy relation between time and energy. in our example. Einstein considers a box (called Einstein's box.Bohr–Einstein debates 100 spatial region (which moves over time) in which the contributions of the various fields of the superposition add up constructively. The region in which the wave has non-zero amplitude is therefore spatially limited. the indeterminacy relation just discussed was Einstein's target of criticism. Einstein's second criticism At the sixth Congress of Solvay in 1930.
After the release of a photon. who walked tranquilly. It's important to consider the impact of all of these exchanges on the people involved at the time..who. impossible to simultaneously determine the values of certain incompatible quantities. The "triumph of Bohr" consisted in his demonstrating. as a practical matter. while providing an appropriate description at a certain level. He rejects the probabilistic interpretation of Born and insists that quantum probabilities are epistemic and not ontological in nature. once again. On the other hand. with a mildly ironic smile. Leon Rosenfeld. The argument is therefore very simple: if one weighs the box before and after the opening of the shutter and if a certain amount of energy has escaped from the box. a scientist who had participated in the Congress. In order to obtain a measurement of weight. but even more so in the way that he arrived at this conclusion by appealing precisely to one of the great ideas of Einstein: the principle of equivalence between gravitational mass and inertial mass. the box would have to be suspended on a spring in the middle of a gravitational field. Therefore. paradox. a pointer would have to be attached to the box which corresponded with the index on a scale. The idea is particularly acute and the argument seemed unassailable. I will never forget the image of the two antagonists as they left the club: Einstein." and. At this point. at first. that it would have been the end of physics if Einstein were right. it gives no information on the more fundamental underlying level: . the box itself would have to be measured. in principle. weights could be added to the box to restore it to its original position and this would allow us to determine the weight. The variation in mass multiplied by will provide precise knowledge of the energy emitted.. the mass of the box can be determined to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. But in order to return the box to its original position. that Einstein's subtle argument was not conclusive. according to the principle of equivalence the uncertainty in the position of the clock implies an uncertainty with respect to its measurement of time and therefore of the value of the interval . Bohr showed that. it is necessary to find a way to determine with adequate precision the energy that the photon has brought with it. the product can be rendered less than what is implied by the principle of indeterminacy. Moreover. Since.The morning after saw the triumph of Bohr. For the entire evening he was extremely agitated. and he continued passing from one scientist to another.. the clock will indicate the precise time at which the event of the particle’s emission took place. From this it follows that knowledge of the mass of an object provides a precise indication about its energy. the box will be lighter. with his tall and commanding figure. full of excitement. described the event several years later: It was a real shock for Bohr. but the rejection that this implies that these quantities do not actually have precise values. the energy emitted can be determined with a precision as accurate as one desires. and Bohr who trotted along beside him. Einstein turns to his celebrated relation between mass and energy of special relativity: 101 . As a consequence.Bohr–Einstein debates energy. George Gamow's make-believe experimental apparatus but he couldn't come up with any way to resolve the for validating the thought experiment at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen. seeking to persuade them that it could not be the case. the theory must be incomplete in some way. He recognizes the great value of the theory. in order for Einstein's experiment to function. since the system is immersed in a gravitational field which varies with the position. Post-Revolution: Second stage The second phase of Einstein's "debate" with Bohr and the orthodox interpretation is characterized by an acceptance of the fact that it is. could not think of a solution.. A precise evaluation of this effect leads to the conclusion that the relation cannot be violated. but suggests that it "does not tell the whole story. The inevitable uncertainty of the position of the box translates into an uncertainty in the position of the pointer and of the determination of weight and therefore of energy.
. 102 Post-Revolution: Third stage The argument of EPR In 1935 Einstein. the observer in A who carried out the first measurement on photon 1. The argument of EPR was in 1957 picked up by David Bohm and Yakir Aharonov in a paper published in Physical Review with the title Discussion of Experimental Proof for the Paradox of Einstein. however. just as electrostatics is deducible from Maxwell's equations of the electromagnetic field or as thermodynamics is deducible from statistical mechanics. based on an entangled state of two systems. It follows that photon 2 possesses an element of physical reality: that of having a vertical polarization. Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen developed an argument. at time t+dt. it cannot be done locally. Before coming to this argument. If quantum mechanics can be made complete in Einstein's sense. that the photon passes the test. should we live in a superdeterminist universe. In that case. can predict with certainty that photon 2 will pass a test of vertical polarization. 5) At time t. the system becomes: 3) At this point. in the spatially distant regions A and B and which are also in the entangled state of polarization described above: 2) At time t the photon in region A is tested for vertical polarization. Therefore. for example. the observer in A could have decided to carry out a test of polarization at 45°. which can be summarized as follows: 1) Consider a system of two photons which at time t are located.. he could have concluded that photon 2 turned out to be . we must conclude that the photon possessed the property of being able to pass the vertical polarization test before and independently of the measurement of photon 1. and Podolsky. as admitted by Bell himself. published in the magazine Physical Review with the title Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?. and I believe that this theory represents a profound level of truth. for the fact that it must be deducible as a limiting case from such foundations." below).. These thoughts of Einstein’s would set off a line of research into so-called hidden variable theories. The elements of physical reality which are objectively possessed cannot be influenced instantaneously at a distance. such as the Bohm interpretation. it is necessary to formulate another hypothesis that comes out of Einstein's work in relativity: the idea of locality. Title sections of historical papers on EPR. Suppose that the result of the measurement is that the photon passes through the filter. Rosen. the result is that. The authors re-formulated the argument in terms of an entangled state of two particles. but I also believe that the restriction to laws of a statistical nature will turn out to be transitory. 4) According to the assumption of locality.Without doubt quantum mechanics has grasped an important fragment of the truth and will be a paragon for all future fundamental theories. without doing anything else that could disturb the system or the other photon ("assumption (R). According to the reduction of the wave packet. obtaining a certain result.Bohr–Einstein debates I have the greatest consideration for the goals which are pursued by the physicists of the latest generation which go under the name of quantum mechanics. this fact was demonstrated by John Stewart Bell with the formulation of Bell's inequality in 1964. in an attempt to complete the edifice of quantum theory. it cannot have been the action carried out in A which created this element of reality for photon 2. that demonstration would not be valid. respectively.
. only the part of the system in A can be disturbed by the process of measurement and that. What does Bohr mean. even at the microscopic level. Bohr attacks assumption (R) of EPR by stating: the statement of the criterion in question is ambiguous with regard to the expression "without disturbing the system in any way". These properties are incompatible according to the formalism. if one accepts locality. they are nevertheless possessed objectively by the system. five months later than the original publication of EPR. there are critics who. Although the majority of experts in the field seem to accept the Copenhagen interpretation. the argument of EPR obviously collapses immediately. . Naturally. making it completely clear that what really disturbed him about the quantum theory was the problem of the total renunciation of all minimal standards of realism..Bohr–Einstein debates polarized at 45°.. 103 Bohr's response Bohr's response to this fascinating and elegant argument was published.. Einstein further refined his position. it seems that photon 2. like Einstein.their arguments do not justify their conclusion that the quantum description turns out to be essentially incomplete. scientist-philosopher in honor of the seventieth birthday of Einstein. in this case no mechanical disturbance of the system under examination can take place in the crucial stage of the process of measurement. As John Bell later pointed out. But even in this stage there arises the essential problem of an influence on the precise conditions which define the possible types of prediction which regard the subsequent behaviour of the system. this passage is almost unintelligible. by the specification "mechanical" that is used to refer to the "disturbances" that Bohr maintains should not be taken into consideration? What is meant by the expression "an influence on the precise conditions" if not that different measurements in A provide different information on the system in B? This fact is not only admitted but is an essential part of the argument of EPR. possessed both the property of being able to pass with certainty a test of vertical polarization and the property of being able to pass with certainty a test of polarization at either 45° or 135°. he could have concluded that photon 2 turned out to be polarized at 135°.This description can be characterized as a rational use of the possibilities of an unambiguous interpretation of the process of measurement compatible with the finite and uncontrollable interaction between the object and the instrument of measurement in the context of quantum theory. believe that it has failed to provide a sensible and acceptable representation of reality (see Interpretation of quantum mechanics). this process provides precise information on the part of the system in B? Is Bohr already contemplating the possibility of "spooky action at a distance?" If so. even if it is not possible to determine these properties simultaneously and with arbitrary precision. that the acceptance of the completeness of the theory implied. if the photon did not pass the test. Post-Revolution: Fourth stage In his last writing on the topic. in the same magazine Physical Review and with the exact same title as the original. what could Bohr have meant by the expression "uncontrollable interaction between the object and the measuring apparatus". notwithstanding this fact. But quantum mechanics denies this possibility and it is therefore an incomplete theory. The crucial point of Bohr's answer is distilled in a passage which he later had republished in Paul Arthur Schilpp's book Albert Einstein. Combining one of these alternatives with the conclusion reached in 4. before the measurement took place. why not declare it explicitly? If one abandons the assumption of locality. this means that. quantum non-locality. Lastly. considering that the central point of the argument of EPR is the hypothesis that. which is absolutely central to our modern understanding of the physical world. Bell asks. 6) Since natural and obvious requirements have forced the conclusion that photon 2 simultaneously possesses incompatible properties. The debates represent one of the highest points of scientific research in the first half of the twentieth century because it called attention to an element of quantum theory. Alternatively.
Milan. P.. Niels Bohr's report of conversations with Einstein. 1951. Open Court. A.. From Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist (1949). Mondadori. htm). 1971. htm). .A.  González AM. G. (1997) Un'Occhiata alle Carte di Dio. org/ reference/ subject/ philosophy/ index. (1986) Subtle is the Lord.. Washington.Bohr–Einstein debates 104 See also • • • • • • • • • Afshar's experiment Complementarity Copenhagen interpretation Double-slit experiment EPR paradox Quantum eraser Schrödinger's cat Uncertainty principle Wheeler's delayed choice experiment References • • • • Boniolo. The Value of Knowledge: A Miniature Library of Philosophy (http:/ / www. Bolles. The Science and Life of Albert Einstein. Retrieved 2010-08-30. (1958) Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. Ghirardi.. 1949. (1973) The Born Einstein Letters. ehu. publ. Retrieved 2010-08-30. marxists. D. org/ reference/ subject/ philosophy/ works/ dk/ bohr.. Donostia International Physics Center. "Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics" (http:/ / www.  Pais  Bolles . Oxford. Edmund Blair (2004) Einstein Defiant.C. es/ digitalak/ orriak/ english/ quantumdilema. Northwestern University and Southern Illinois University. marxists. Born. New York. Il Saggiatore. (1997) Filosofia della Fisica. Cambridge University Press. • Shilpp.  Bohr N. Giancarlo. "Albert Einstein" (http:/ / dipc. Marxists Internet Archive. Oxford University Press. . Milan. • Pais. 1982. Joseph Henry Press. html). Walker and Company. M.
105 Politics Manhattan Project Manhattan Engineer District (MED) The Manhattan Project created the first nuclear bombs.S. the uranium-enrichment facilities at Oak Ridge. atomic weapons production until the formation of the Atomic Energy Commission in January 1947. . The scientific research was directed by American physicist J. Active Allegiance Branch Nickname 1942–1945 United States. Robert Oppenheimer.S. The MED maintained control over U. It resulted in the creation of several research and production sites whose construction and operations were secret. including universities across the United States. The American atomic effort began as a small research program into the feasibility of using nuclear fission for wartime purposes. Army Corps of Engineers and General Leslie R. Groves. but would expand to employ more than 130.000 people and cost nearly US$2 billion ($22 billion in present day value) by August 1945. The project was led by the United States.S. Canada. The first human-engineered nuclear detonation. Army Corps of Engineers Manhattan Project Commanders Notable commanders General Leslie Groves The Manhattan Project was the codename for a project conducted during World War II to develop the first atomic bombs for wartime use. and included participation from the United Kingdom and Canada. the Trinity test. and the United Kingdom. The three primary research and production sites of the project were the plutonium-production facility at what is now the Hanford Site in eastern Washington state. Tennessee. is shown. Albert Einstein signed a letter to President Roosevelt expressing his concerns that Nazi Germany may be trying to develop nuclear weapons. at the urging of Leó Szilárd. The project's roots began in 1939 when. Canada U. United Kingdom. and the weapons research and design laboratory now known as Los Alamos National Laboratory. Project research took place at more than 30 sites. Formally designated as the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) (sometimes referred to as the Manhattan District) it refers specifically to the period of the project from 1942–1946 under the control of the U.
" Oliphant then met with the whole Uranium Committee and other physicists to galvanize the USA into action. a large available work force. Mark Oliphant. Meanwhile. The office was empowered to engage in large engineering projects in addition to research. as that was the location where many of its early operations were conducted. progress was slow and was not directed exclusively towards military applications.Manhattan Project 106 Naming the Project It is widely believed that the Manhattan Project's name was a code name. and Columbia University. "[T]his inarticulate and unimpressive man (Briggs) had put the reports in his safe and had not shown them to members of his committee. at least ten sites operated in Manhattan. In fact. flew to the United States in late August 1941 to find out why the U. The island was an ideal location because of its port facilities. Uranium Committee (1939–1941) In 1939. a population of expatriate European physicists. A British committee. As a result. Otto Frisch and Rudolf Peierls made a breakthrough by discovering the fissile properties of uranium-235. According to historian Robert S. the project was named after Manhattan island of New York City. One of the members of the MAUD Committee. but he ignored them. was ignoring the MAUD Committee's findings. a center of early nuclear research. the MAUD Committee. in the United Kingdom. in December 1941 Vannevar Bush created the larger and more powerful Office of Scientific Research and Development and became its director.S. He reported. the military presence. Even though Roosevelt had sanctioned the project. President Franklin Roosevelt called on Lyman Briggs of the National Bureau of Standards to head "The Uranium Committee" to undertake nuclear research. . as a result of the Einstein–Szilárd letter. Norris. concluded that: (i) The committee considers that the scheme for a uranium bomb is practicable and likely to lead to decisive results in the war (ii) It recommends that this work continue on the highest priority and on the increasing scale necessary to obtain the weapon in the shortest possible time (iii) That the present collaboration with America should be continued and extended especially in the region of experimental work The opening paragraph of the Frisch–Peierls memorandum in which the amount of Uranium estimated to be needed to produce a bomb was revised downwards to that where a working device became practicable Their reports were sent to Briggs at the National Bureau of Standards.
There were still many unknown factors in the development of a nuclear bomb. Robert Serber. who had quit because of concerns over lax operational security. Oppenheimer Oppenheimer convened a conference on the topic convened a summer study at the University of California. a new element which had only been discovered in February 1941 by Glenn Seaborg and his team. Berkeley physicist J. Oppenheimer and Robert Serber of the University of Illinois worked on the problems of neutron diffusion (how neutrons moved in the chain reaction) and hydrodynamics (how A few months after he was put in charge of fast the explosion produced by the chain reaction might behave). Robert Oppenheimer of the University of California. a physicist at the Metallurgical Laboratory. it was not yet to be relied upon.Manhattan Project 107 Acceleration of the Project With the bomb project under the OSRD. was assigned to help Oppenheimer find answers by coordinating and contacting several experimental physics groups scattered across the country. Theorists Hans Bethe. Frankel. Robert this work and the general theory of fission reactions. the project leaders began to accelerate the work. John Van Vleck. so while plutonium was being pursued as an additional fissile substance. June 1942. To review neutron research. however. John Manley. Felix Bloch. But at this point no reactor had yet been built. Stanley S. Nelson (the latter three all former students of Oppenheimer) quickly confirmed that a fission bomb was feasible. although it was considered theoretically possible. and was thus able to be created in a nuclear reactor. The properties of pure uranium-235 were relatively unknown. Emil Konopinski. Plutonium was the product of uranium-238 absorbing a neutron which had been emitted from a fissioning uranium-235 atom. Berkeley to take over research on fast neutron calculations—key to calculations about critical mass and weapon detonation—from Gregory Breit. During the spring of 1942. Edward Teller. Berkeley. Only microgram quantities of plutonium existed at the time (produced from neutrons derived from reaction started in a cyclotron). as were the properties of plutonium. and Eldred C. in of nuclear weapon design. Arthur Compton organized the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory in early 1942 to study plutonium and fission piles (primitive nuclear reactors). He asked theoretical physicist J. .
Oak Ridge. later reproduced as drawings in The Los Alamos Primer. At the bottom are "autocatalytic method" designs. Serber would later write). When the detonation wave from the fission bomb moved through the mixture of deuterium and tritium nuclei. Tolman). The Hanford Site near Richland. The concept was based on studies of energy production in stars made by Hans Bethe before the war. Project sites Though it involved over thirty different research and production sites.Manhattan Project 108 The scientists at the Berkeley conference determined that there were many possible ways of arranging the fissile material into a critical mass. In Serber's account. a primitive form of "implosion" (suggested by Richard C. Bethe calculated that it could not happen. a report co-authored by Teller showed that ignition of the atmosphere was not impossible. rather than having specialists spread out at different sites across the United States. Washington. The fusion idea was put aside to concentrate on producing fission bombs. would have an explosive yield of 10 megatons. which could supply sufficient water to cool the reactors which would produce the plutonium. Such a bomb. hundreds of times more powerful than the atomic bomb. The Tennessee site was chosen because of the vast quantities of cheap hydroelectric power already available (from the Tennessee Valley Authority) to power uranium enrichment processes. Teller also raised the speculative possibility that an atomic bomb might "ignite" the atmosphere because of a hypothetical fusion reaction of nitrogen nuclei. who "didn't have enough sense to shut up about it. was chosen for its location near the Columbia River. A number of the different fission bomb assembly methods explored during the June 1942 conference. Canada. Chalk River. They also explored designs involving spheroids. The conferences in June 1942 provided the detailed theoretical basis for the design of the atomic bomb. But Bethe was skeptical. Washington. Tennessee. Oppenheimer mentioned it to Arthur Compton. The Canadian site was chosen for its proximity to the industrial manufacturing of . Bethe refused each one. Richland. However. they calculated. The simplest was shooting a "cylindrical plug" into a sphere of "active material" with a "tamper"—dense material that would focus neutrons inward and keep the reacting mass together to increase its efficiency (this model "avoids fancy shapes". As Teller pushed hard for his "superbomb"—now usually referred to as a "hydrogen bomb"—proposing scheme after scheme. which would use the explosive force of a detonating fission bomb to ignite a fusion reaction in deuterium and tritium. Enrico Fermi suggested it as a possibility to Teller not long before the conference. Ontario. Oppenheimer was convinced of the benefits of having a single centralized laboratory to manage the research for the bomb project. and explored the possibility of "autocatalytic methods" which would increase the efficiency of the bomb as it exploded. New Mexico. the Manhattan Project was largely carried out at four secret laboratories which the national governments established by power of eminent domain in four cities: Los Alamos. In the end. Considering the idea of the fission bomb theoretically settled—at least until more experimental data was available—the conference then turned in a different direction. It somehow got into a document that went to Washington" which led to the question being "never laid to rest". Hungarian physicist Edward "Ede" Teller pushed for discussion on a more powerful bomb: the "Super". only the "gun" method (at top) and a more complicated variation of the "implosion" design would be used. these would fuse together to produce much more energy than fission could. just unlikely.
000. etc. more than New York City. France. In addition to being the main "think-tank". who promptly bought it for $440. explosive lenses. Richland. Camp Petawawa. The Los Alamos National Laboratory was built on a mesa that previously hosted the Los Alamos Ranch School. mainly from materials and components produced by other sites.000 square miles (2. Los Alamos was responsible for final assembly of the bombs. The Hanford Site. Oak Ridge mainly produced uranium-235. Other offices were scattered throughout the city. a railroad. and access to a rail head adjacent to a large military base.600 km²). took over irrigated farm land. although many of the other offices in Manhattan remained.Manhattan Project Ontario and Quebec. which grew to almost 1. Manufacturing at Los Alamos included casings. trades from Canada. located on the Ottawa River it had access to abundant water. engineers. Norway. and fabrication of fissile materials into bomb cores. So secret was the site during World War II that the state governor was unaware that Oak Ridge (which was to become the fifth largest city in the state) was being built. Hanford and White Bluffs. and Chalk River were held secret until after the end of WWII. and Richland. Australia. providing their contribution to the war effort. The locations of Los Alamos. including the New York Friars' Club building. Hanford built nuclear reactors cooled by the river and was the plutonium production center. This was a relatively highly populated area where three cities converge.S. a private school for teenage boys. Oak Ridge facilities covered more than 60000 acres (240 km2) of several former farm communities in the Tennessee Valley area. The Chalk River site was established to house the allied effort that was going on at McGill University in Montreal. The site was chosen primarily because it was remote and relatively unpopulated. He showed it as a possible site to the government representatives. Further. All the sites were suitably far from coastlines and therefore less vulnerable to possible enemy attack from Germany or Japan.. fruit orchards. The project originally was headquartered at 270 Broadway in Manhattan. the United Kingdom. The operations were kept secret until the announcement of the Hiroshima bombing and nuclear explosion. The Broadway headquarters lasted little more than a year before it was moved in 1943. The Tri Cities are Kennewick. 109 . with scientists. Some Tennessee families were given two weeks' notice to vacate family farms that had been their homes for generations. Ontario to provide residences and facilities for the project team members. New Zealand. Oak Ridge. adjacent to the Columbia River. Both were established in 1944. a new community was built at Deep River. Oppenheimer had known of it from his horse-riding near his ranch in New Mexico. and two farming communities. Since the site was 120 miles west of Ottawa. At one point Oak Ridge plants were consuming 1/6th of the electrical power produced in the U. Pasco.
Ohio): research and development of polonium refinement and industrial production of polonium for atomic bomb triggers Project Camel (Inyokern. Washington): a plutonium production facility (now Hanford Site) • Site X (Oak Ridge. California): electromagnetic separation enrichment research (now Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) Project '9' (Trail. NY): "to investigate heretofore unexplored fields in medical research on the effects of radiation and other problems related to the development and production of the atomic bomb. British Columbia): heavy water (deuterium) production.S. New Mexico): preparations for the testing of the first atomic bomb Radiation Laboratory (Berkeley."    . Tennessee): enriched uranium production and plutonium production research (now Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Site X also included: • X-10 Graphite Reactor: graphite reactor research pilot plant (on the site of what is now Oak Ridge National Laboratory) • Y-12: electromagnetic separation uranium enrichment plant • K-25: gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plant • S-50: thermal diffusion uranium enrichment plant Site Y (Los Alamos. Illinois): reactor development (now Argonne National Laboratory) Project Alberta (Wendover.Manhattan Project 110 A selection of U. sites important to the Manhattan Project. • • • • • • • • • • Health Project (Rochester. Utah and Tinian): preparations for the combat delivery of the bombs Project Ames (Ames. New Mexico): a bomb research laboratory (now Los Alamos National Laboratory) Metallurgical Laboratory (Chicago. Iowa): production of raw uranium metal (now Ames Laboratory) Dayton Project (Dayton. Major Manhattan Project sites and subdivisions included: • Site W (Hanford. California): high explosives research and non-nuclear engineering for the Fat Man bomb Project Trinity (Alamogordo.
A greater need was the construction of industrial plants to produce uranium-235 and plutonium—the fissionable materials to be used in the weapons. asked President Roosevelt to assign the operations connected with the growing nuclear weapons project to the military. "Development of Substitute Materials. they felt unable to distinguish between technical and personal preferences. Although they decided that a site near Knoxville. which were still relatively uncommon instruments in 1942. Fast neutrons could only be produced in particle accelerators. Estimating the explosive power required knowledge of many other nuclear properties. the difficulties in conducting studies on nuclear weapons at universities scattered throughout the country indicated the need for a laboratory dedicated solely to that purpose. The scientists needed to know the number of neutrons produced in the fission of uranium and plutonium. struggled to understand the proposed processes and the scientists with whom they had to work. With the need for secrecy in the midst of war. The title chosen by Gen. Marshall and his deputy. The Army Corps of Engineers selected Col. which were needed in other military projects. selecting a name for the project was difficult. researchers had to measure the neutron scattering properties of materials to find the best reflectors. the nuclear weapons work could not compete for priority with the Army's more urgent tasks." was objectionable because it seemed to reveal too much. By September 1942. neutrons back into the chain reaction before it was blown apart.Manhattan Project 111 Need for coordination The measurements of the interactions of fast neutrons with the materials in a bomb were essential. The need for better coordination was clear. Tennessee. The substance surrounding the nuclear material needed the ability to reflect. Vannevar Bush. James Marshall to oversee the construction of factories to separate uranium isotopes and manufacture plutonium for the bomb. Because of its experimental nature. Kenneth Nichols. in order to increase the energy produced. Col. would be suitable for the first production plant. Therefore. they did not know how large the site needed to be. Roosevelt chose the Army to work with the OSRD in building production plants. including the cross section (a measure of the probability of an encounter between particles that result in a specified effect) for nuclear processes of neutrons in uranium and other elements. Thrust into the new field of nuclear physics. Brehon B. . Somervell. The scientists' construction of the work and production plants were often delayed by Marshall's inability to obtain critical materials such as steel. and thus delayed its acquisition. the head of the civilian Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD). or scatter.
initiated the first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction in an experimental nuclear reactor named Chicago Pile-1. and he was convinced such a man was needed for a project such as the one being proposed. Groves had solved the Manhattan Project's most urgent problems. Col. though brusque officer who got things done in a hurry. In the summer of 1942. General Leslie Groves (left) was appointed the military head of the Manhattan Project. Within a week of his appointment. Groves renamed the project The Manhattan Engineer District. Groves resigned himself to leading a project he thought had little chance of success. Groves was convinced Oppenheimer was a genius who could talk about and understand nearly anything. . or whose own projects were hampered by Groves' top-priority project. which is not suitable for use in an explosive device. hard driving.Manhattan Project 112 Manhattan Engineer District Vannevar Bush became dissatisfied with Col. Most of the uranium enrichment work was performed at Oak Ridge. giving him the rank necessary to deal with senior people whose cooperation was required. while Robert Oppenheimer (right) was the scientific director. Hoping for an overseas command. where a team led by Enrico Fermi. His forceful and effective manner was soon to become all too familiar to the atomic scientists. Marshall directed General Somervell to replace Col. to the surprise of many. A gun-type nuclear bomb. It is a rare isotope of uranium that has to be physically separated from the more plentiful uranium-238 isotope. However.3% of U-238. various physical methods were considered for separation. James Marshall's failure to get the project moving forward expeditiously and told Secretary of War Stimson and Army Chief of Staff George Marshall. At that time. Marshall with a more energetic officer as director. the world's largest office building. Groves vigorously objected when Somervell appointed him to the weapons project. His objections were overruled." Uranium bomb The Hiroshima bomb was made from uranium-235. for whom Fermilab is named. The first major scientific hurdle of the project was solved on December 2. Compton reported the success to Conant in Washington.7% of raw uranium and is chemically identical to the 99. Groves appointed Oppenheimer as the project's scientific director. beneath the bleachers of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago. Since U-235 makes up only 0. He had directed the very rapid construction of the Pentagon. Groves was promoted to brigadier general. The name evolved from the Corps of Engineers practice of naming districts after its headquarters' city (Marshall's headquarters were at 270 Broadway in New York City). He was widely respected as an intelligent. Leslie Groves was deputy to the chief of construction for the Army Corps of Engineers. the natives are friendly. DC by a coded call. "The Italian navigator [referring to Fermi] has landed in the new world. (Oppenheimer's radical political views were thought to pose security problems). 1942. saying.
though extensive laboratory testing was undertaken to make sure the fundamental assumptions were correct.S. Treasury reserves was used for coils. Initially the method seemed promising for large scale production but was expensive and produced insufficient material and was later abandoned after the war. Although uranium-238 is useless as a fissile isotope for an atomic bomb. Their method using gaseous diffusion was scaled up in a large separation plant at Oak Ridge. and in the Nagasaki bomb. A total of 70. at Oxford University. Fat Man. huge plants were built to produce plutonium at the Hanford Site.35 days) then decays into plutonium-239. which are absorbed by U-238. The method was so certain to work that no test was carried out before the bomb was dropped over Hiroshima. This method was implemented in Oak Ridge at the Y-12 Plant.S. the "bullet. Treasury. the bomb that was dropped used all the existing extremely highly purified U-235 (and even most of the less highly purified material) so there was no U-235 available for such a test anyway. Tennessee. During the war this method was important primarily for producing partly enriched material to feed the electromagnetic separation process undertaken in calutrons (see below). The bomb's design was known to be inefficient and prone to accidental discharge. . The project engineers were forced to borrow silver from the U. resulting in an explosion. The production and purification of plutonium used techniques developed in part by Glenn Seaborg while working at Berkeley and Chicago. Neptunium-239 (with a half-life of 2.000 pounds of silver from the U. 1945. which creates The basic concept of an implosion-style nuclear uranium-239. The uranium bomb was a gun-type fission weapon. it is key in producing plutonium. and its product was passed as the feed into the other facilities. which were effectively mass spectrometers. Also.45 minutes).Manhattan Project 113 One method of separating uranium 235 from raw uranium ore was devised by Franz Simon and Nicholas Kurti. rapidly creating the critical mass of U-235. and was returned after the project ended. U-239 rapidly decays to neptunium-239 (U-239 has a weapon. Another method—electromagnetic isotope separation—was developed by Ernest Lawrence at the University of California Radiation Laboratory at the University of California. in New Mexico (the gadget of the Trinity test). half-life of 23. The fission of U-235 releases neutrons. a synthetic element. Actual pictures and details of the bomb's inner workings remain classified. Plutonium bomb The bombs used in the first test at Trinity Site on July 16. such as thermal diffusion and the use of high-speed centrifuges. One mass of U-235." is fired down a more or less conventional gun barrel into another mass of U-235. Berkeley. but there was an insufficient amount available due to war shortages. Operators at their calutron control panels at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge. using uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas as the process fluid. Thermal diffusion was not used to produce highly-enriched uranium. Copper was originally intended for electromagnet coils.000. but was used during the war in the S-50 facility to begin enrichment of the uranium. Other techniques were also tried. Beginning in 1943. were made primarily of plutonium-239. employing devices known as calutrons.
called "Thin Man". implosion had been entertained as a possible. A poor configuration. When the fissile atoms were packed closer together. There would be no "Thin Man. This would release enough energy to disperse the critical mass with only a minimal amount of plutonium reacted. Tuck to use explosive lenses to create spherical. the scientists thought the uranium version. Pu-240 was even harder to separate from Pu-239 than U-235 was to separate from U-238. In July 1944. The chain reaction resulting from collision of the "bullet" with the target released tremendous energy. Even a 1% fission of the material would result in a workable bomb. 1944." Ideas for alternative detonation schemes had existed for some time at Los Alamos. formed from Pu-239 by capture of an additional neutron. so the critical mass would be assembled in much less time than it would take to assemble a mass by a bullet impacting a target. "early" neutrons from spontaneously fissioning Pu-240 would start the chain reaction more quickly during detonation. "Little Boy. the decision was made to cease work on a gun-type assembly for plutonium. Oppenheimer chose to pursue a design based on the April 1944 suggestion by James L. Initially. The gun method was further developed for uranium only. Once this was achieved. ." would require a relatively simple adaptation. but could only be created in very small amounts. On April 5. This made the Hanford plutonium unsuitable for use in a gun-type weapon. and the yield would be greatly reduced. or slow assembly. which was extremely pure. One of the more innovative was the idea of "implosion". Initial research on the properties of plutonium was done using cyclotron-generated plutonium-239. while most efforts were then directed towards rapidly developing an implosion system. A higher concentration of Pu-240. equivalent to only a few tons of high explosive. converging implosion waves. Within ten days. gave it a much higher spontaneous fission rate than U-235. The metal needed to travel only very short distances. equal to thousands of tons of high explosive. based on the measurements of spontaneous fission for Hanford plutonium. Using chemical explosives. The chain reaction of U-235 was slow enough that gun-type assembly would work. though unlikely. but also blew apart the critical mass and ended the chain reaction. method. the rate of neutron capture would increase. Fat Man plutonium. Emilio Segrè at Los Alamos received the first sample of Hanford-produced A mock-up of the plutonium bomb. he discovered a problem: reactor-bred plutonium was far less isotopically pure than cyclotron-produced  plutonium. The configuration of the critical mass determined how much of the fissile material reacted in the interval between assembly and dispersal. producing an explosion. but in a gun-type bomb made with the Hanford plutonium. The gun-type bomb worked by mechanically assembling the critical mass from two subcritical masses: a "bullet" and a target. development efforts were directed to a gun-type fission weapon with plutonium. reducing the resulting yield of the weapon. a sub-critical sphere of fissile material could be squeezed into a smaller and denser form. and therefore the explosive yield of the bomb. so no purification was attempted.Manhattan Project 114 In 1943–1944. would release enough energy to disperse the critical mass quickly. and the mass would become a critical mass.
New Mexico. code-named Tube Alloys . Canadian and Australian scientists joined the Manhattan Project at McGill University in Montreal and at a new project site located at Chalk River.845 billion. 1945. After the MAUD Committee's report. The required implosion was achieved by using shaped charges with many explosive lenses to produce the perfectly spherical explosive wave which compressed the plutonium sphere. under the supervision of Groves's deputy Brig. Gen. with living facilities for those working in the newly created community of Deep River. unknown to each other). It established civilian control over atomic development. The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was set up by the Atomic Energy Act in 1946 to take over the functions and assets of the Manhattan Project. This was a small start compared to the scale of a single TNT plant built in Pennsylvania which cost $128 million. shown above) and focused almost entirely on the problem of implosion. despite the waste of fissile material.4 billion in current value. and their motives were mistrusted by the Americans. Ontario. the entire Manhattan Project had been reorganized around building the implosion-type bomb. was started but did not have United States resources. (The Fat Man casing is also visible in the photo background. Because of the complexity of an implosion-style weapon. including at least two on the scientific team at Los Alamos. Similar efforts A similar effort was undertaken in the USSR in September 1941 headed by Igor Kurchatov (with some of Kurchatov's World War II knowledge coming secondhand from Manhattan Project countries. The first nuclear test took place on July 16. A British project. Consequently the British bargaining position worsened. Over 90% of the cost was for building plants and producing the fissionable materials. Thomas Farrell.) Cost of Manhattan Project The project expenditure to 1 October 1945 was $1. the British and Americans exchanged nuclear information but initially did not pool their efforts. was for only $90 million. an initial test would be required. The first allocation in June 1942 for fiscal 1943. near Alamogordo. . Total allocation was $2.191 billion when the AEC assumed control on 1 January 1947. Klaus Fuchs and Theodore Hall. production and control of atomic weapons from the military. In July 1944 the Los Alamos laboratory abandoned the plutonium gun-type bomb ("Thin Man". and less than 10% for development and production of the weapons.4 billion.Manhattan Project 115 By the end of July 1944. and separated the development. and was $2. when a large team of British. as recommended in a 13 June report by Bush and Conant and approved by FDR on 17 June. an amount equal to $23. Ontario. it was decided that. thanks to spies. Oppenheimer gave the test the code name "Trinity". Collaboration therefore lessened markedly until the Quebec Agreement of August 1943.
seems to have thought he was proposing to Bohr a mutual agreement between the two sides not to pursue nuclear technology for destructive purposes. Sweet to inject 11 terminally-ill patients with uranium for their brain tumors. They had known each other well in Europe and were friends. The US government settled with the victims' families. prior to the war. before the United States became involved. another 61-year old man was injected with 71 micrograms of uranium per kilogram body mass. where he studied on the effects of the inhalation of uranium and beryllium through the "Rochester Chamber". Many German scientists in fact expressed surprise to their Allied captors when the bombs were detonated in Japan. Haigerloch explaining it to his fellow scientists (and hidden microphones) within days. Germany was far from having the resources for a Hanford-style plutonium bomb. Werner Heisenberg (by then imprisoned in Britain at Farm Hall with several other nuclear project The German experimental nuclear pile at physicists) almost immediately figured out what the Allies had done. The Nazi reactor effort had been severely handicapped by Heisenberg's belief that heavy water was necessary as a neutron moderator (slowing preparation material) for such a device. headed by Werner Heisenberg. and in Japan. even if its scientists had decided to pursue one and had known how to do it). It is believed that efforts undertaken in Germany. The Germans were short of heavy water throughout the war because of Allied efforts such as Operation Gunnerside to prevent Germany from obtaining it. . Details of this Division came out in Eileen Welsome's book The Plutonium Files. It was initially feared that Hitler was very close to developing his own bomb. Hodge attended a meeting where the experiments were planned in 1945. were also undertaken during the war with little progress. maintained that the partly-built German heavy-water nuclear reactor found after the war's end in his lab was for research purposes only. :93 Hodge also arranged for Dr. and never quite forgave him for his decision not to flee Germany before the war when given the chance. paying $400. Niels Bohr and Heisenberg even discussed the possibility of the atomic bomb prior to and during the war. Werner Heisenberg and Enrico Fermi were all colleagues who were key figures in developing the quantum theory together with Wolfgang Pauli. This project and others similar led to civilian oversight after World War II. Heisenberg's message did not get through. and an AEC memo thanks Hodge for his planning and suggestions in the experiment. and both men gave differing accounts of their conversations at this sensitive time. If so. They were convinced that talk of atomic weapons was merely propaganda. Bohr recalled that Heisenberg was unaware that the supercritical mass could be achieved with U-235. Niels Bohr. However. It documented human experiments in which the subjects did not know they were being tested to find the safety limits of uranium and plutonium. and the Germans never did stumble on the secret of purified graphite for making nuclear reactors from natural uranium. and a full bomb project had not been contemplated (there is no evidence to contradict this. however. these subjects may have known they were being tested.000 per family. white 24-year old woman was injected with 584 micrograms of uranium. One unmarried. Bohr at the time did not trust Heisenberg. for his part. Heisenberg. Controversy Harold Hodge was chosen to head the United States Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC) Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology for the Manhattan Project. Heisenberg. Seven victims were injected with material smuggled into a hospital secretly through a tunnel.Manhattan Project 116 The question of Axis efforts on the bomb has been a contentious issue for historians. to the end of his life. but by this time late in the war. for which she won a Pulitzer Prize.
post-war assessment of the German nuclear project • Soviet atomic bomb project • The Plutonium Files • Tube Alloys (British WWII atomic program) • Project-706 . Tennessee • Oak Ridge National Laboratory (site of graphite reactor and pilot facilities for plutonium production) • Y-12 National Security Complex (uranium enrichment) • K-25 (uranium enrichment) • Trinity site (first nuclear test) • Trail. British Columbia (Project 9. discoverers of fission • David Bohm. cancelled due to the success of the Manhattan Project. that he then wasn't allowed to read • Other projects • Operation Downfall. the planned Allied invasion of the Japanese homeland. • German nuclear energy project • Japanese atomic program • Operation Alsos. created in 1950s) Metallurgical Laboratory (first controlled nuclear chain reaction) Oak Ridge.Manhattan Project 117 See also • • • • • Timeline of the Manhattan Project Human experimentation in the United States Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues Quebec Agreement August 1945 • Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki • Smyth Report • Related locations • Hanford Site (plutonium production) • • • • • • B Reactor Ames Laboratory (uranium production from ores) Los Alamos National Laboratory (secret weapons lab) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (second weapons lab. did work that was immediately classified. heavy water plant) • Nuclear weapons • History of nuclear weapons • Nuclear arms race • Nuclear weapon • Nuclear weapon design • Isotope separation (necessary for uranium enrichment) • List of countries with nuclear weapons • The United States and nuclear weapons • People • Category:Manhattan Project people (lists articles about people involved in the project) • List of Cornell Manhattan Project people. a large number of Cornell University physicists were associated with the project • Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn.
Nos. gwu. edu/ ~nsarchiv/ radiation/ dir/ mstreet/ commeet/ pm04/ pl4brf/ pl4bre. An Early History of Heavy Water (http:/ / arxiv. . 2002) (PDF). E. 2007. google. rochester. 1998. a-bomb as a science fair project • Day One (1989). compiled April 1943. Seven Stories Press. 21. Rochester NY. The Fluoride Deception (http:/ / books. friarsclub. htm  Dowdy. 2002" (http:/ / www. edu/ urhist/ kurt. html). Manhattan Project expenditures (http:/ / www. Ignition of the Atmosphere with Nuclear Bombs (http:/ / www. 419  Konopinski.  RE: Boston Project Uranium Injection Experiments (http:/ / www. nytimes. October 30. see Natural nuclear fission reactor  http:/ / www. pdf). Morrow. 369  Rhodes. D. com/ 2007/ 10/ 30/ science/ 30manh. October 5. The Second World War: Closing the Ring. "Why They Called It the Manhattan Project" (http:/ / www. Andrew H. 415  Rhodes. shtml). org/ index. 322–325  Rhodes. 372  Rhodes. 421  The reaction Teller was most concerned with was N714 + N714 = Mg1224 + He24 (alpha particle) + 17. C. ISBN 1583225269. University of British Columbia.  Rhodes.: Brookings Institution Press. nytimes. energy. William J.  http:/ / www. Schwartz Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U. Harold Carpenter Hodge (1904–1990) (http:/ / toxsci. declassified February 1973). October 30. New York Times. org/ sgp/ othergov/ doe/ lanl/ docs1/ 00329010. Boston. 25. Dudley. Washington. Edward Teller (1946. Vol. Retrieved 2010-03-09. Nuclear Weapons.  "(comedian interview)" (http:/ / www. Hollywood drama based on the project starring Paul Newman • White Light/Black Rain: The Destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (2007) 118 Notes  A comprehensive history of the Manhattan Project is Richard Rhodes. Robert.  Chris Waltham (June 20. a documentary about the project • The Manhattan Project (film) (1986). the possibility of this ultimate catastrophe came up again in 1975 when it appeared in a magazine article by H.  "Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review. . 643. . Nichols. The Making of the Atomic Bomb (Simon & Schuster. com/ books?id=q3v_JgjZ6fsC& pg=PP1& ots=N33qiJvkHS& sig=SGTf9EUQV84S8SisMQXmaqlkb8M). Winston Spencer (1951). "The Rochester Story of the Manhattan Project".  Stephen I.. history. 3 and 4. htm  The Atomic Heritage Foundation—Atomic History Timeline 1942–1944 (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-10-06  Why They Called It the Manhattan Project (http:/ / www. com/ interactive/ 2007/ 10/ 30/ science/ 20071030_MANHATTAN_GRAPHIC. HTM)  Broad.  Morrow PE et al. fas. J..  Rhodes. .  In Bethe's account. nytimes. centered on Col Paul Tibbets. gov/ healthsafety/ ohre/ roadmap/ achre/ intro_3. com/ 2007/ 10/ 30/ science/ 30manh.Manhattan Project • Movies (in chronological order) • Above and Beyond (1952). org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 53/ 2/ 157). New York) ISBN 068806910X  Churchill. org/ nuke/ intro/ nuke/ plutonium. (tv show) (CBS). brookings. 9781583225264. pp. a film about the project in a political perspective • Fat Man and Little Boy (1989). com/ Facilities/ clubhouse_history. Houghton Mifflin Company. 1945  http:/ / www. fas. Technical Report Los Alamos National Laboratory LA-602.7 MeV  Rhodes. 2007. html). pdf). 174 (1987. Retrieved 2007-11-02. ornl. Department of Physics and Astronomy. 1986).  "The Manhattan Project" (http:/ / www. pilot of the plane which dropped the Hiroshima bomb • The Day After Trinity (1981). nytimes.  [Christopher Bryson. Toxicological Sciences. The worry was not entirely extinguished in some people's minds until the Trinity test. 2008 (7:47pm MDT). 417  Rhodes. who got the idea from a report by Pearl Buck of an interview she had with Arthur Compton in 1959. html?_r=2& ref=science& oref=slogin& oref=slogin). 416  Rhodes. accessed November 2. a film related to the project.com.C. nytimes. txt). htm). edu/ FP/ PROJECTS/ NUCWCOST/ MANHATTN. php?id=288& option=com_content& task=view)  Nichols. oxfordjournals. declassified 1965): p. html  Natural self-sustaining nuclear reactions have occurred in the distant past (circa two billion years ago). org/ pdf/ physics/ 0206076.C. ornl.gov.com. 388–389  Serber. . (2000). 2007. The Los Alamos Primer (Los Alamos Report LA-1. gov/ info/ ornlreview/ rev25-34/ chapter1. Kenneth (1987) The Road to Trinity by Kenneth D. Marvin. pages 34-35. 381.S. atomicheritage. hss.
University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. • Groves. Richard G. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Los Alamos Report "LA-1"." American Inst. Caroline L. The New World. 2005. Edith C. 1958. Brace. ISBN 0-671-44133-7. • Hoddeson. p. ISBN 1-56639-719-7. 2005. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes. V. Kenneth The Road to Trinity. William. 1st edition (September 1. 1992. New York: Morrow. The Bomb: A History of Hell on Earth. 1962. Brighter Than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists. 2–7. declassified in 1965. (History of Modern Physics.. 2002. 1975. New York: Henry Holt and Co. Brotherhood of the Bomb : The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer. 1940–1945. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. The Los Alamos Primer: The First Lectures on How to Build an Atomic Bomb. Cynthia. • David Hawkins. 1800-1950. • Jungk. • Rhodes. Berkeley: University of California Press. Richard. Robert.Manhattan Project 119 References Overall. Norton & Company. New York: Cambridge University Press. Vermont: Steerforth Press. Technical histories • Groueff. 1995. the Official Report on the Development of the Atomic Bomb under the Auspices of the United States Government. • Rhodes. 1987 ISBN 068806910X • Norris. Boston: Little. and Oscar E. New York: Simon & Schuster. 2003. Martin J. Critical Assembly: A Technical History of Los Alamos During the Oppenheimer Years. Lillian. 1939–1946. • Kelly. Now it Can be Told: The Story of the Manhattan Project. Meade. "Project Y: The Los Alamos Story. Cynthia. W. Ernest Lawrence. Secret Weapons of World War II: The Techno-Military Breakthroughs That Changed History. (Available on Wikimedia Commons). 1956. and Herzenberg. New York: Berkley Books. Gerard. Robert S. Ruth H. ISBN 1-58642-067-4. and Ralph C. ISBN 978-981-256-418-4. Racing for the Bomb: General Leslie R. Robert. New York: Simon & Schuster. Stephane. Paul W. Richard P. “Father of the Atomic Bomb” New Jersey: World Scientific. London: Pimlico. 1999. Feynman!". ISBN 0-306-70738-1. 1943–1945. Truslow. New York: Harcourt. 2005. 1997. ISBN 0-684-80400-X. Henry DeWolf. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Roger A. First Paperback edition. 1993. and Edward Teller. ISBN 0-7126-7748-8 • Feynman. of Physics. • Smyth. Brown & Co. Mr. and diplomatic histories of the Manhattan Project • DeGroot. and Catherine L. Remembering the Manhattan Project: Perspectives on the Making of the Atomic Bomb and Its Legacy New Jersey: World Scientific. • Serber. 2). 1986. • Nichols. Richard. Groves. administrative.. The Manhattan Project's Indispensable Man. 1945. New York: Harper. • Yenne. • Howes. Smith. "Surely You're Joking. ISBN 0-394-49794-5. • Hewlett. ISBN 0-8050-6588-1.. • Sherwin. 2000). ISBN 0-520-07576-5—Original 1943. Manhattan Project: The Untold Story of the Making of the Atomic Bomb. 2002. "The Manhattan Project". Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb. Part II: Beyond Trinity. Leslie. Their Day in the Sun: Women of the Manhattan Project. ISBN 978-981-256-040-7. • Herken. ISBN 978-0393316049. ISBN 0-521-44132-3. Anderson. A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance. Henriksen. Gregg. 1967. Participant accounts . See Smyth Report. Oppenheimer and the Manhattan Project: Insights into J Robert Oppenheimer. Westfall. 1962. • Kelly. W. Part I: Toward Trinity.
org/Society/History/By_Time_Period/Twentieth_Century/ Wars_and_Conflicts/World_War_II/Atomic/Manhattan_Project//) at the Open Directory Project • Why They Called It the Manhattan Project (http://www.nytimes.dmoz. • Ulam. • Works by United States Army—Corps of Engineers (Manhattan District) (http://www._Army. ISBN 90-277-1097-X. (http://www. Broida.3rd1000. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. eds. 1991. Reminiscences of Los Alamos.gutenberg.htm) • Annotated bibliography for the Manhattan Project from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues. ISBN 0-520-07154-9.com/photos/amse/sets/ 72157608279431255/) .com/nuclear/cruc18. ISBN 0-671-74012-1._Manhattan_District) at Project Gutenberg • The Cold War International History Project (CWIHP) (http://www. 1987. 120 External links • Manhattan Project (http://www. New York: Simon and Schuster. vega. (http:// alsos.org (http://www.org.flickr. 1998. New York: Columbia University Press. • Nichols. Adventures of a Mathematician._Corps_of_Engineers. Freeview video provided by the Vega Science Trust.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/history/pre-cold-war/ manhattan-project/) Information on the history of the Manhattan Project • Interview with Joseph Rotblat who worked on the Manhattan Project and left to work for Pugwash. Peace and War: Reminiscences of a Life on the Frontiers of Science. Lawrence. • Serber.org/index.html/) • Development of the Atomic Bomb (http://www. TN during the Manhattan Project (http://www.wlu. Stanisław. ISBN 0-231-10546-0. Boston: D. Robert. Kenneth David. Hirschfelder. 1983. 1980. New York: William Morrow and Company Inc.aspx?browse=warfare/Manhattan+Project) • Nuclear Files.edu/qsearch. cfm?topic_id=1409&fuseaction=topics. Hans A.documents&group_id=511603) for Alexander Vassiliev's Notebooks containing evidence on Soviet atomic espionage • Historic photos of Oak Ridge.com/2007/10/30/science/30manh. Joseph O. Herbert P. The Road to Trinity: A Personal Account of How America's Nuclear Policies Were Made. 1943–1945.uk/video/programme/22) The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to both Rotblat and Pugwash. Reidel. • Bethe.org/author/ United_States.wilsoncenter. Dordrecht.Manhattan Project • Badash.nuclearfiles. The Road from Los Alamos. ISBN 0-688-06910-X.
Scientific and mathematical concepts • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Higher-dimensional Einstein gravity Einstein solid Einstein force Einstein's constant Einstein–de Haas effect Einstein relation (kinetic theory) Stark–Einstein law Einstein–Hilbert action Einstein–Cartan theory Bose–Einstein condensate Bose–Einstein statistics Einstein field equations Einstein's radius of the universe Einstein coefficients Einstein synchronisation Einstein notation Einstein tensor Einstein manifold Einstein ring Einstein Cross Einstein radius Einstein (unit) Einstein refrigerator Zebra Puzzle. also known as Einstein's Puzzle or Riddle Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox Einstein syndrome .121 Honors List of things named after Albert Einstein This is a list of things named after Albert Einstein.
New Jersey Arts and entertainment • • • • • Einstein's Dreams. Germany  • Albert Einstein Street in Coimbra. San Diego. Israel Streets • Einsteinova ulica. an eight-bit home/personal computer Rebutia einsteinii. Munich. Israel Buildings • • • • Albert Einstein Hospital in São Paulo. New York Albert Einstein School. Hebrew University. a National Historic Landmark in Princeton. a 1992 novel by Alan Lightman Einstein's Monsters. Pennsylvania Einstein Tower. a character in the video game Command & Conquer Other • • • • • • • • • Bohr–Einstein debates.S. a brand of South Korean milk • Albert Einstein Institution. a non-profit organization studying methods of non-violent resistance • Albert Einstein German Academic Refugee Initiative Fund. a major road in Bratislava. an element Tatung Einstein. New York The Albert Einstein Mathematics Institute. Netherlands Einstein Primary School. presented by the Albert Einstein Society in Bern. since 1979 Einstein Symposium. a cactus named after Einstein by its finder. to people who have "rendered outstanding services" in connection with Albert Einstein. Brazil Albert Einstein Medical Center. Haifa. an animated television series The Einstein Factor. a scholarship fund for refugees . Portugal • Einstein Street. a letter sent to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in August 1939 Albert Einstein Medal. a series of epistemological challenges and responses by Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr Russell–Einstein Manifesto. Switzerland. Germany Albert Einstein House. Alberto Vojtěch Frič Einstein. Honduras A high school named after Albert Einstein in Ben Shemen Youth Village. Germany Albert Einstein International School of San Pedro Sula. 131. The Bronx. Jerusalem Albert Einstein Academy Charter School. astrophysical observatory in the Albert Einstein Science Park in Potsdam. aka I. Philadelphia. an Australian TV game show hosted by Peter Berner Professor Albert Einstein. on the centennial of the "Annus Mirabilis" Einsteinium. Haifa. Maryland Albert Einstein Intermediate (later Junior High) School. Kensington. a German gymnasium in Bochum. a collection of short stories by Martin Amis Little Einsteins. Israel Einstein School in Amsterdam.List of things named after Albert Einstein 122 Schools • • • • • • • • • • Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Yeshiva University. California Albert Einstein High School. Slovakia • Einsteinstraße. a college preparatory school in San Pedro Sula. issued in 1955 by Bertrand Russell in the midst of the Cold War Einstein–Szilárd letter.
List of things named after Albert Einstein 123 See also • Albert Einstein in popular culture References  http:/ / www. com/ maps?source=uds& q=einsteinstra%C3%9Fe+ m%C3%BCnchen . google.
An 'Einstein character' also appears in a major role in Nicolas Roeg's 1985 film: Insignificance. based on Terry Johnson's London stage play. On June 19. In the film A.  often used in merchandise depicting him in a lighthearted sense. such as Yahoo Serious's intentionally inaccurate biography of Einstein as a Tasmanian in the film Young Einstein. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. films and plays. Einstein was portrayed by Walter Matthau in the 1994 romantic comedy I. played by Jim Norton appeared in two episodes of Star Trek: The Next Generation. A verse of James Taylor's song Secret O' Life mentions Einstein and his special theory of relativity. A holographic representation of Einstein. but having smiled for photographers many times that day.: Artificial Intelligence. Mariah Carey's eleventh studio album is entitled E=MC² after Einstein's celebrated equation. featuring David Tennant as Eddington and Andy Serkis as Einstein." Albert Einstein is one of the celebrities immortalized on the cover of the Beatles' Sgt. the name is also applied ironically to someone who states the obvious or displays a lack of intelligence or insight ("Way to go. discusses Relativity with 'The Actress'-a ‘Marilyn Monroe character’ (Theresa Russell). 1951. "Einstein" has become a word used to describe someone extremely intelligent. Kerry Livgren of the progressive rock band Kansas stated that he wrote the song “Portrait (He Knew)” about Einstein.. leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever". he was the subject (along with Arthur Eddington) of the BBC Two film Einstein and Eddington. he was portrayed as a holographic personality called Dr.I. Einstein is a favorite model for depictions of mad scientists and absent-minded professors. On Einstein's 72nd birthday on March 14. Set in New York in 1953. Greek singer Giorgos Lembesis has released a song titled "Einstein" in which he states that he always admired Albert Einstein. He was also portrayed in the real-time strategy game Command & Conquer: Red Alert. UPI photographer Arthur Sasse was trying to persuade him to smile for the camera. Einstein S'il Vous Plaît (Einstein If You Please). a record for an Einstein picture.Q. but now he . Know (voiced by Robin Williams). Alan Lightman's collection of short stories Einstein's Dreams. his expressive face and distinctive hairstyle have been widely copied and exaggerated. the original photograph was sold at auction for $74. Einstein stuck out his tongue instead. the film includes a scene in which 'The Professor' (played by Michael Emil) the character evidently representing Albert Einstein. Most recently.324.124 Effect on popular culture Albert Einstein in popular culture Albert Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many works of popular culture. and detailing Einstein's development of his theories and Eddington's attempts to prove them. Jean-Claude Carrier's 2005 French novel. and Steve Martin's comedic play Picasso at the Lapin Agile. This photograph became one of the most popular ever taken of Einstein. The Star Wars character Yoda's eyes were modeled after Einstein's. Einstein!"). He was the subject of Philip Glass's groundbreaking 1976 opera Einstein on the Beach and his humorous side is the subject of Ed Metzger's one-man play Albert Einstein: The Practical Bohemian. The famous tongue image Albert Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels. Time magazine's Frederic Golden wrote that Einstein was "a cartoonist's dream come true. In 1999. 2009.
html).. org. "Various things about Albert Einstein" (http:/ / www. com/ srpsko_dnf/ slike_za_korisnike_i_sve_ostal/ Einstein-at-blackboard-chalk-in-hand. Archived from the original (http:/ / aip. as agent for the Hebrew University of Jerusalem." (http:/ / 1001resources. GreenLight licences the commercial use of the name "Albert Einstein" and associated imagery and likenesses of Einstein.  Faber. 2005. html). http:/ / news. archive. einstein-website. 2009.. References  Kupper. html). has a dog called "Einstein".  "Photo Of Einstein Nets $74K At Auction" (http:/ / www. net/ styleguide-readonly/ brand. Retrieved November 21. . org. Monday. Another Issue for '88: Left-Winged Politics". ISBN 1856694321. (http:/ / www. (http:/ / www. John (1978). ISBN 0486236676. 125 Licensing Einstein bequeathed his estate. Photography. "Einstein's Birthday Joke". pp. . chicagotribune. musiccorner. Retrieved 2007-10-03. jpg). . com/ photos/ uncategorized/ einstein. Courier Dover Publications. June 20." BBC news. Retrieved November 21. jpg). jpg) (satirical image based on a photograph). Hans-Josef (2000). . html#scientists)"Famous Left-handers — Professions" Web page at "Anything Left handed" Web site. named after Doc Brown's favorite scientist. 133. when Einstein's name is used as a trademark. com/ hosting/ users/ cinesecrets/ pmMakingYoda1. 2005. November 27.Albert Einstein in popular culture needs his help in his relationship problems. astrosurf. 2005. jpg). Retrieved 2006-02-25  http:/ / www. stm  "The Making of Yoda (part one). 108. .g. Time. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. . albert-einstein. br/ n15/ mente/ Einstein. 2000). The scientist was left-handed  but several photographs show him using his right hand to hold pens or chalk. soperfi. html  Some of the many World Wide Web lists of left-handers that include Einstein: (http:/ / www. . jpg). which from the mid-1980s has sponsored the Einstein Papers Project with the Princeton University Press (see the Einstein Page  from PUP). WCVB-TV. bbc. (http:/ / www.  "ALBRT EINSTEIN BRAND LOGO" (http:/ / www. John (2005). Archived (http:/ / www. html). anythingleft-handed. "Washington Talk: The Presidential Campaign. gr/ nees_kyklof/ 04/ lembesis. to the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved 2006-10-04  Ingledew. Laurence King Publishing. . news feature article. Warren. 29 November 1999. as well as the use of his image (see personality rights). cerebromente. time traveler and inventor. pp. portrayed as a brilliant scientist. com/ time/ time100/ poc/ magazine/ albert_einstein5a. As head licensee the corporation can control commercial usage of Einstein's name and theoretically ensure compliance with certain standards (e. the ™ symbol must be used). Weaver. org/ 5kmVlva5w) 2009-10-25. the character of Dr. org/ history/ esva/ einuse. Frederic (January 3. time. In the movie Back to the Future. Emmett Brown. co. "The world's best known pictures". geocities. thebostonchannel. pe/ galerias/ albums/ userpics/ 10001/ einstein violin. htm). webcitation. Retrieved June 20.  "" (http:/ / web. uk/ fam_proff. com/ news/ 19810075/ detail. com/ luxorion/ Images/ einstein-late. 1987  These photographs show Einstein using his right hand: (http:/ / blogs. Great News Photos and the Stories Behind Them. co. de/ z_information/ variousthings. Einstein actively supported the university during his life and this support continues with the royalties received from licensing activities. "Person of the Century: Albert Einstein" (http:/ / www. (http:/ / www. htm) on August 30. Jr. html). 2009.  Golden. org/ web/ 20050830225523/ http:/ / aip. org/ history/ esva/ einuse.  Einstein "greatest physicist ever.
his resolution of the paradox of specific heats. The division of scientific and non-scientific works follows the Schilpp bibliography. Einstein's scientific publications are listed below in four tables: journal articles. each table can be re-arranged in alphabetical order for any column by clicking on the arrows at the top of that column. The general relativity. and his connection of fluctuations and dissipation. To print out the re-sorted table. Einstein's many non-scientific works are not included here. He also made important contributions to statistical mechanics. with the co-author(s) provided in the final column of the table. to limit both the article's focus and size.g. unofficial translations are indicated with a § superscript. Despite his reservations about its interpretation.. For illustration. Five volumes of Einstein's Collected Papers (volumes 1. to re-order a table by subject—e. often on humanitarian or political topics (pp. since they were not prepared for publication. pp. . quantum field theory. especially his treatment of Brownian motion. books and authorized translations.126 Scientific publications List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein Albert Einstein (1879–1955) was a renowned theoretical physicist of the 20th century who is best known for his theories of special relativity and general relativity. 730–746). Complete references for these two bibliographies may be found below in the Bibliography section. Although the tables are presented in chronological order by default. English translations of titles are generally taken from the published volumes of the Collected Papers. The Schilpp numbers are used for cross-referencing in the Notes (the final column of each table). 694–730) and by its article number in Einstein's Collected Papers. Each publication is indexed in the first column by its number in the Schilpp bibliography (Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. 8–10) are devoted to his correspondence. Einstein also made seminal contributions to quantum mechanics and. These letters are likewise not listed here. book chapters. however. the "Printable version" link at the left gives only the default sorting. such official translations are not available. since First page from Einstein's manuscript explaining they cover a greater time period of Einstein's life at present. to group together articles that pertain "General relativity" or "Specific heats"—one need only click on the arrows in the "Classification and Notes" columns. indirectly. 5. primarily through his theoretical studies of the photon. much of which is concerned with scientific questions. Collaborative works by Einstein are highlighted in lavender. For some publications. which cites over 130 non-scientific works. the page may be printed directly using the web-browser Print option.
Einstein showed that the photon carries momentum as well as energy and that electromagnetic radiation must have both particle-like and wave-like properties if Planck's law holds. His work was also the first to show that Planck's quantum mechanical law E=hν was a fundamental law of physics. • In 1918. providing further evidence that matter was composed of atoms. Einstein in 1921. Its counterintuitive predictions that moving clocks run more slowly. a classical field theory of gravitation that provides the cornerstone for modern astrophysics and cosmology. Einstein developed the theory of general relativity. which was the first example of the general fluctuation-dissipation theorem and allowed a good estimate of the Avogadro constant. • In 1905.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein 127 Chronology and major themes The following chronology of Einstein's scientific discoveries provides a context for the publications listed below. In 1909. Special relativity is now a core principle of physics. His theory resolved a paradox of 19th-century physics that specific heats were often smaller than could be explained by any classical theory. and that the order of events is not absolute have been confirmed experimentally. black holes. The energy released in nuclear reactions—which is essential for nuclear power and nuclear weapons—can be estimated from such mass defects. Einstein developed the first quantum theory of specific heats by generalizing Planck's law. Einstein developed the theory of special relativity. such as the dinuclear cations H2+ and HeH2+. and not merely special to blackbody radiation. and has been checked experimentally in many ways. Einstein proposed the existence of the photon. he had derived the Einstein relation for diffusion. Einstein developed a general theory of the process by which atoms emit and absorb electromagnetic radiation (his A and B coefficients). but the EBK method also gives accurate predictions for more complicated systems. The famous Bohr model of the hydrogen atom is a simple example. which is the basis of lasers (stimulated emission) and shaped the development . • In 1907 and again in 1911. this was a forerunner of the principle of wave-particle duality. frame dragging. Its relation E=mc2 suggested that matter was a form of energy. and clarifies the major themes running through his work. confirming its predictions of matter affecting the flow of time. which was the foundation of quantum theory. which was later verified by the mass defect in atomic nuclei. that moving objects are shortened in their direction of motion. • Likewise in 1905. an elementary particle associated with electromagnetic radiation (light). General relativity is based on the surprising idea that time and space dynamically interact with matter and energy. • Also in 1905. Einstein published the idea for the Einstein-Brillouin-Keller method for finding the quantum mechanical version of a classical system. which reconciled the relativity of motion with the observed constancy of the speed of light (a paradox of 19th-century physics). A few weeks earlier. Einstein developed a theory of Brownian motion in terms of fluctuations in the number of molecular collisions with an object. • Between 1907 and 1915. • In 1917. and gravitational waves.
8.  link  Intermolecular forces. 1 1901 Annalen der Physik (ser.  der Potentialdifferenz link zwischen Metallen und vollständig dissoziierten Lösungen ihrer Salze. but fails for lighter molecules. Articles on which Einstein collaborated with other scientists are highlighted in lavender. possibly. Schilpp 2. • In 1935. volume. Einstein developed the theory of Bose-Einstein statistics and Bose-Einstein condensates. Once parameterized. this time applied to electrolytic solutions. 4. with the co-author(s) listed in the "Classification and notes" column. which form the basis for superfluidity. 2 1902 Thermodynamische Theorie Annalen der Physik (ser. since those theories did not match experimental observations. superconductivity. • In 1924. CP 2. No data are available for comparison. Index  Year Title and English  translation Folgerungen aus den Kapillaritätserscheinungen Conclusions Drawn from the Phenomena of Capillarity Journal. und eine elektrische Methode zur Erforschung der Molekularkräfte On the Thermodynamic Theory of the Difference in Potentials between Metals and Fully Dissociated Solutions of Their Salts and on an Electrical Method for Investigating Molecular Forces . 4). However. 513–523. 4). pages   Classification and notes Schilpp 1. • In the final thirty years of his life. Einstein characterizes these two papers as "worthless" in  1907. quantum mechanics. together with Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen. and argued that the quantum-mechanical wave function must be an incomplete description of the physical world. his efforts were unsuccessful. Einstein explored whether various classical unified field theories could account for both electromagnetism and gravitation and.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein of modern quantum electrodynamics. Einstein's second paper on a universal molecular energy function. the best-validated physical theory at present. in analogy with the inverse-square force of gravity. 128 Journal articles Most of Einstein's original scientific work appeared as journal articles. 798–814. CP 2.  Intermolecular forces. Einstein put forward what is now known as the EPR paradox. together with Satyendra Nath Bose. his theory makes reasonably accurate predictions for heavier hydrophobic molecules. and other phenomena. The first of two papers in which Einstein proposed the (incorrect) theory that the interactions between all molecules are a universal function of distance.
9. 29. Fluctuations and new methods for determining Boltzmann's constant. 5 1904 Allgemeine molekulare Theorie der Wärme On the General Molecular Theory of Heat Annalen der Physik (ser. 6 1905 Review of Giuseppe Belluzzo: "Principi di termodinamica grafica" Review of Giuseppe Belluzzo: "Principles of Graphic Thermodynamics" Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. The problem of irreversibility in thermodynamics. 8 1905 Review of William McFadden Orr: "On Clausius' Theorem for Irreversible Cycles. Bryan: "The Law of 29. 11. 4). CP 2. 4). . 7 1905 Review of Albert Fliegner: "Über den Clausius'schen Entropiesatz" Review of Albert Fliegner: "On Clausius's Law of Entropy" Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. link  Statistical mechanics. CP 2. CP 2.  354–362. Schilpp 5. 79 Thermodynamics. CP 2. CP 2.  der Thermodynamik 170–187. 29. Study of the equipartition theorem and the definitions of temperature and entropy. link A Theory of the Foundations of Thermodynamics  Statistical mechanics. 29.  link Schilpp 4. 129 Schilpp 3. 79 Thermodynamics.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  Statistical mechanics. CP 2. 9 1905 Review of George Hartley Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. 80 Degradation of Energy as the Fundamental Principle of Thermodynamics" Thermodynamics. 417–433. 4). 3 1902 Kinetische Theorie des Wärmegleichgewichtes und des zweiten Hauptsatzes der Thermodynamik Kinetic Theory of Thermal Equilibrium and of the Second Law of Thermodynamics Annalen der Physik (ser. 14. and on the Increase of Entropy" Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. CP 2. 4 1903 Eine Theorie der Grundlagen Annalen der Physik (ser. 78 Thermodynamics.
. 29. 82 spezifischen Wärmen des überhitzten Wasserdampfes" Review of Jakob Johann Weyrauch: "On the specific Heats of Superheated Water Vapor" Thermodynamics. Weyrauch: "Über die 29. 13 1905 Review of Arturo Giammarco: "Un caso di corrispondenza in termodinamica" Review of Arturo Giammarco: "A Case of Corresponding States in Thermodynamics" Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. 82 Thermodynamics. 81 "Einige Bedenken betreffend die Theorie der Entropievermehrung durch Diffusion der Gase bei einander gleichen Anfangsspannungen der letzteren" Review of Nikolay Nikolayevich Schiller: "Some Concerns Regarding the Theory of Entropy Increase Due to the Diffusion of Gases Where the Initial Pressures of the Latter Are Equal" CP 2. 12 1905 Review of Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff: "Einfluss der Änderung der spezifischen Wärme auf die Umwandlungsarbeit" Review of Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff: "The Influence of the Change in Specific Heat on the Work of Conversion" Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. CP 2. CP 2. 10 1905 Review of Nikolay Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. 29. Nikolayevich Schiller: 29. CP 2. 84 Thermodynamics. 11 1905 Review of Jakob Johann Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein 130 Thermodynamics.
29.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  Photons. 29 (1905) 137 Thermodynamics. CP 2. Seminal treatment of Brownian motion. 29. and on the Increase of Entropy" Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. 135 Thermodynamics. 19 1905 Review of Emile Mathias: "La constante a des diamètres rectilignes et les lois des états correspondents" Review of Emile Mathias: "The Constant a of Rectilinear Diameters and the Laws of Corresponding States" Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. 17 1905 Review of Karl Fredrik Slotte: "Über die Schmelzwärme" Review of Karl Fredrik Slotte: "On the Heat of Fusion" Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. 29. CP 2. 4). a type of translational diffusion. Proposal of the photon as a quantum of energy. 4).  132–148. 18 1905 Review of Karl Fredrik Slotte: "Folgerungen aus einer thermodynamischen Gleichung" Review of Karl Fredrik Slotte: "Conclusions Drawn from a Thermodynamic Equation" Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. supported by many independent arguments. 14 1905 Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt On a Heuristic Point of View Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light Annalen der Physik (ser. . CP 2. 136 Thermodynamics. 135 Thermodynamics. CP 2. 131 Schilpp 7. 16 1905 Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen On the Movement of Small Particles Suspended in Stationary Liquids Required by the Molecular-Kinetic Theory of Heat Annalen der Physik (ser. 17. link  Statistical mechanics. 17.  549–560. 20 1905 Review of Max Planck: "On Clausius' Theorem for Irreversible Cycles. CP 2. link Schilpp 8. CP 2. 29.
18. and the speed of light is always constant) and its kinematics. In particular. Schilpp 10.  891–921. 175 mechanischen Wärmetheorie Review of Heinrich Birven: Fundamentals of the Mechanical Theory of Heat Thermodynamics. 21 1905 Review of Edgar Buckingham: "On Certain Difficulties Which Are Encountered in the Study of Thermodynamics" Review of Paul Langevin: "Sur une formule fondamentale de la théorie cinétique" Review of Paul Langevin: "On a Fundamental Formula of the Kinetic Theory" CP 2. 26 1905 Review of Auguste Ponsot: "Chaleur dans le déplacement de 1'équilibre d'un système capillaire" Review of Auguste Ponsot: "Heat in the Displacement of the Equilibrium of a Capillary System" Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein 132 Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. Schilpp 9. 4). Grundzüge der 29. 4). 138 Thermodynamics. 29. it stated the two postulates of SR (uniform motion is undetectable. 137 Thermodynamics. 29. This seminal paper gave birth to special relativity (SR).  Special relativity. Wikilivres  Special relativity.  639–641. 22 1905 Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. link . . 17. 29. 175 Thermodynamics. CP 2. leading to the famous equation E=mc2. 24 1905 Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig? Does the Inertia of a Body Depend upon its Energy Content? Annalen der Physik (ser. This paper derived the conclusion that mass was equivalent to an energy and vice versa. CP 2. 23 1905 Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies Annalen der Physik (ser. CP 2. CP 2. link CP 2. 25 1905 Review of Heinrich Birven: Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik.
4). Mit zahlreichen Beispielen und Anwendungen Review of Jakob Johann Weyrauch: "An Outline of the Theory of Heat. 30 1905 Review of Jakob Johann Weyrauch: Grundriss der Wärmetheorie. 33 1906 Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions Annalen der Physik (ser. 31 1905 Review of Albert Fliegner: "Über den Wärmewert chemischer Vorgänge" Review of Albert Fliegner: "On the Thermal Value of Chemical Processes" Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. CP 2. 177 Mariotte et GayLussac" Review of Georges Meslin: "On the Constant in Mariotte and GayLussac's Law" Thermodynamics. 28 1905 Review of Georges Meslin: Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein 133 Thermodynamics. 178 Thermodynamics. Part 1 Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. CP 2. 176 fondement des théories cinétiques de la pression des gaz et de la gravitation universelle" Review of Karl Bohlin: "On Impact Considered as the Basis of Kinetic Theories of Gas Pressure and of Universal Gravitation" CP 2. 29 1905 Review of Albert Fliegner: "Das Ausströmen heissen Wassers aus Gefässmündungen" Review of Albert Fliegner: "The Efflux of Hot Water from Container Orifices Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. Hydrodynamic determination of molecular volumes. Schilpp 11. 29. "Sur la constante de la loi de 29. link  Statistical mechanics. 27 1905 Review of Karl Bohlin: "Sur Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. 177 Thermodynamics. CP 2. considéré comme 29. le choc. 29. 29. CP 2. 19. With Numerous Examples and Applications. 179 Thermodynamics. CP 2. .  289–306.
36 1906 Eine Methode zur Bestimmung des Verhältnisses der transversalen und longitudinalen Masse des Elektrons On a Method for the Determination of the Ratio of the Transverse and the Longitudinal Mass of the Electron Annalen der Physik (ser. CP 2.  Special relativity. Planck's derivation of this formula ascribed it to a restriction on the energy changes possible when radiation is produced or absorbed by matter. 21. pages 493–494. an example of rotational diffusion. CP 2. 4). 4). Einstein reconciles his and Planck's independent derivations of the blackbody formula E=hν. CP 2. A French translation appeared in the journal L'Éclairage électrique. 34 1906 Theorie der Lichterzeugung und Lichtabsorption On the Theory of Light Production and Light Absorption Annalen der Physik (ser.  583–586. Einstein's 1905 derivation ascribed it to a restriction on the energy of radiation alone. link  Photons. link  und die Trägheit der Energie The Principle of Conservation of Motion of the Center of Gravity and the Inertia of Energy Schilpp 15. volume 49. CP 2. link  Special relativity. 19. . which implied no restriction on the energies of either matter or radiation. 211 Theorie der Wärmestrahlung Review of Max Planck: Lectures on the Theory of Thermal Radiation Statistical mechanics. link On the Theory of Brownian Motion Schilpp 13. Rotational Brownian motion. 20.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  Statistical mechanics. such as reference #16. 20. First statement that the conservation of mass is a special case of the conservation of energy. which led to his work on quantum specific heats. Schilpp 14.  199–206. but in this paper. 4). der Schwerpunktsbewegung 627–633. 37 1906 Review of Max Planck: Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. 32 1906 Zur Theorie der Brownschen Annalen der Physik (ser. CP 2.  Bewegung 371–381. he proposes the modern idea that the energies of both matter and radiation are quantized. 134 Schilpp 12. Vorlesungen über die 30. 35 1906 Prinzip von der Erhaltung Annalen der Physik (ser. 4).
Seminal work applying Planck's law to the oscillations of atoms and molecules in solids. Notes again the difficulty of applying Lorentz transformations to rigid bodies (see reference #19). Einstein's discovery of the transverse Doppler effect. Showed that the quantum mechanical law E=hν was a general law of physics. 4).  Statistical mechanics. 22. 38 1907 Planckshe Theorie der Strahlung und die Theorie der Spezifischen Wärme Planck's Theory of Radiation and the Theory of Specific Heat Annalen der Physik (ser. First statement that the total energy of a moving particle equals E=mc2.  371–384. Discusses the difficulty of applying Lorentz transformations to rigid bodies. Resolved the 19th century paradox of the equipartition theorem in classical physics. 45 1907 Die vom Relitivätsprinzip geforderte Trägheit der Energie On the Inertia of Energy Required by the Relativity Principle Annalen der Physik (ser.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  Specific heats.  180–190. link  Special relativity. and not merely special to blackbody radiation.  197–198. 4). 4). Ehrenfest: Translation deformierbarer Elektronen und der Flächensatz Comments on the Note of Mr. link  Special relativity. . speculates that Maxwell's equations will prove to be the limiting case for large numbers of light-quanta. 4). CP 2. Schilpp 19 1907 Bemerkung zur Notiz des Herrn P. 4). Schilpp 20. 135 Schilpp 16. Applies his theory of fluctuations to determine Boltzmann's constant from the voltage fluctuations in a capacitor.  569–572. just as thermodynamics is a limiting case of statistical mechanics. 23. 800 link and correction  Schilpp 17.  206–208. link Schilpp 18. 22. as described in reference #25. Derives the transformation of energy and momentum under the influence of external forces (relativistic dynamics). CP 2. and introduced the Einstein model of solids. in which the perceived frequency is shifted even when the line between the wave source and receiver and the source's velocity are perpendicular. link  Special relativity. which led to the current Debye model. 39 1907 Gültigkeit des Satzes vom thermodynamischen Gleichgewicht und die Möglichkeit einer neuen Bestimmung der Elementarquanta On the Limit of Validity of the Law of Thermodynamic Equilibrium and on the Possibility of a New Determination of the Elementary Quanta Annalen der Physik (ser. 23. CP 2. Paul Ehrenfest: The Translatory Motion of Deformable Electrons and the Area Law Annalen der Physik (ser. 23. Finally. CP 2. 41 1907 Möglichkeit einer neuen Prüfung des Relativitätsprinzips On the Possibility of a New Test of the Relativity Principle Annalen der Physik (ser. Resulted in a novel low-noise technique for amplifying voltages.
Einstein returns to these topics in 1911. 9. 532 (1910). CP 2. link  Special relativity. Schilpp 24. CP 2. This paper also marks the beginning of Einstein's long development of general relativity. 13. A correction appeared in volume 5. CP 2.  411–462.  541–550. Berichtigungen. 4). See also publication #27. First appearance (page 443) of 2 the equation E=mc . CP 2. . CP 2.232. Part 2. 40 1907 Theoretische Bemerkungen über die Brownsche Bewegung Theoretical Remarks on Brownian Motion Zeitschrift für Elektrochemie und angewandte physikalische Chemie.  Statistical mechanics.  p. An apparatus for this amplification was constructed by two brothers. 98–99. 41–42 Schilpp 23. gravitational redshift. Co-authored with J. 11. Mit zahlreichen Beispielen und Anwendungen Review of Jakob Johann Weyrauch: An Outline of the Theory of Heat. 4). 26. link  Special and general relativity. Schilpp 22. A correction appeared in volume 27. Schilpp 21. Brief note on the technical meaning of "average velocity". 26. With Numerous Examples and Applications. by first charging a variable capacitor at low capacitance. 52 1908 Die im elektromagnetischen Felde auf ruhende Körper ausgeübten ponderomotorischen Kräfte On the Ponderomotive Forces Exerted on Bodies at Rest in the Electromagnetic Field Annalen der Physik (ser. 4. and the gravitational bending of light. 51 1908 Elektromagnetische Grundgleichungen für bewegte Körper On the Fundamental Electromagnetic Equations for Moving Bodies Annalen der Physik (ser.  Co-authored with J.  532–540. Laub. Laub. Schilpp 25. then changing it to high capacitance and discharging it to another capacitor. 46 1907 Review of Jakob Johann Weyrauch: Grundriss der Wärmetheorie. Novel experimental method for measuring tiny amounts of charge. pp. Berichtigungen . 216–217  Electromagnetism. here he derives the equivalence principle. in collaboration with Einstein and published in Physikalische Zeitschrift. 47 1907 Relativitätsprinzip und die aus demselben gezogenen Folgerungen On the Relativity Principle and the Conclusions Drawn from It Jahrbuch der Radioaktivität. Johann Conrad Habicht and Franz Paul Habicht. 48 1908 Neue elektrostatische Methode zur Messung kleiner Elektrizitätsmengen A New Electrostatic Method for the Measurement of Small Quantities of Electricity Physikalische Zeitschrift. CP 2. 251 Thermodynamics.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein 136 Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik. link Special relativity. 31.
 Photons.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  137 Zeitschrift für Elektrochemie. and an important forerunner of publication #30. CP 2. 10.. 56 1909 Zum gegenwärtigen Stande des Strahlungsproblems On the Present Status of the Radiation Problem Physikalische Zeitschrift. but probabilistic.. 235–239 Schilpp 26. Schilpp 30. 323–324  Photons. Notes similarity to Hermann Minkowski's work..  885–888. Comment on the Paper of D. Semi-popular Schilpp 27. 817–825 . CP 2. Review article on electromagnetic radiation. 11. link Special relativity. review. 10. where Einstein showed that photons must carry momentum and should be treated as particles. 28. Ritz states that the same restriction is the basis of the 2nd law of thermodynamics. Pivotal address before the 81st assembly of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher. Also published in the journal Deutsche physikalische Gesellschaft. Einstein's joint communique with Walther Ritz (first author) on their differing viewpoints of the advanced and retarded solutions of Maxwell's equations. link  Special relativity. CP 2. Schilpp 28.. at once both wave-like and particulate. 28. Schilpp 29. 14. 185–193  Photons. Annalen der Physik (ser. CP 2. 10. 50 1908 Elementare Theorie der Brownschen Bewegung Elementary Theory of Brownian Motion Statistical mechanics. 4). 55 1909 Bemerkung zur Arbeit von Mirimanoff: Die Grundgleichungen. held in Salzburg. 4).  445–447. 60 1909 Entwicklung unserer Anschauungen über das Wesen und die Konstitution der Strahlung On the Development of Our Views Concerning the Nature and Constitution of Radiation Physikalische Zeitschrift. 482–500. CP 2. Mirimanoff: On the Fundamental Equations. CP 2. An English translation is available at the English Wikisource.  Co-authored with J. 57 No title Physikalische Zeitschrift. Einstein argues that the physical restriction to retarded solutions is not a law. pp. Notes that electromagnetic radiation must have a dual nature. Laub. Verhandlungen. Schilpp 1909 29b. 54 1909 Bemerkungen zu unserer Arbeit: Elektromagnetische Grundgleichungen für bewegte Körper Remarks on Our Paper: On the Fundamental Electromagnetic Equations for Moving Bodies Annalen der Physik (ser.
138 Schilpp 31.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  Photons. 4). 4).  1275–1298. Guillaume. 33. link  und seine Anwendung in der Strahlungstheorie On a Theorem of the Probability Calculus and Its Application in the Theory of Radiation Schilpp 32. 5 1910 Théorie des quantités lumineuses et la question de la localisation de l'énergie électromagnetique On the Theory of Light Quanta and the Question of the Localization of Electromagnetic Energy Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles (ser. 8 1910 Statistische Untersuchung der Bewegung eines Resonators in einem Strahlungsfeld Statistical Investigation of a Resonator's Motion in a Radiation Field Annalen der Physik (ser. link Photons. Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung 1096–1104.  Seminal paper on Schilpp 34. Hopf. 4). Schilpp 33. CP 3. 9 1910 Theorie der Opaleszenz von homogenen Flüssigkeiten und Flüssigkeitsgemischen in der Nähe des kritischen Zustandes The Theory of the Opalescence of Homogeneous Fluids and Liquid Mixtures near the Critical State Annalen der Physik (ser. 125-244  Special relativity. 4). CP 3. 4). Hopf. 29. 2 1910 Principe de relativité et ses conséquences dans la physique moderne The Principle of Relativity and Its Consequences in Modern Physics Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles (ser. See also publication #79. 29. CP 3. . 5–28. critical opalescence. CP 3. 7 1910 Über einen Satz der Annalen der Physik (ser. 525–528 Photons. 33. CP 3. Co-authored with L. but does not correspond to reference #21. link Statistical mechanics. Schilpp 35.  1105–1115.  Co-authored with L. 33. Translation by E.
CP 3. See also Bemerkung zu meiner Arbeit: 'Eine Beziehung zwischen dem elastischen  Verhalten . 35. link  Specific heats. 10 1911 Bemerkungen zu den P. 4). 4). link Statistical mechanics. CP 3. 34.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  Electromagnetism. 12 1911 Bemerkung zu dem Gesetz von Eötvös Comment on Eötvös's Law Annalen der Physik (ser.  Schilpp 40.. CP 3. 590. CP 3. 6 1910 Forces pondéromotrices qui agissent sur les conducteurs ferromagnétique disposés dans un champs magnétique et parcourus par un courant On the Ponderomotive Forces Acting on Ferromagnetic Conductors Carrying a Current in a Magnetic Field Schilpp 37. 21 1911 Elementare Betrachtungen über die thermische Molekularbewegung in festen Körpern Elementary Observations on Thermal Molecular Motion in Solids Annalen der Physik (ser. 14 1911 Berichtigung zu meiner Arbeit: Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen Correction to My Paper: A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions Annalen der Physik (ser.  170–174. 139 Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles (ser. 4).. . Hertz's Papers: On the Mechanical Foundations of Thermodynamics Annalen der Physik (ser. 323–324 Schilpp 36. 34. link Intermolecular forces and fluid  mechanics. 30.' ". CP 3. Schilpp 39. 4).  591–592. p.  679–694. Schilpp 38. Hertzschen Arbeiten: Mechanische Grundlagen der Thermodynamik Comments on P. CP 3.  165–169. Schilpp 41. Correction to publication #11 that produces an excellent  estimate of the Avogadro constant. Einstein tries to connect a characteristic frequency in his 1907 theory of specific heats to the elastic properties of the solid. 13 1911 Beziehung zwischen dem elastischen Verhalten und der Spezifischen Wärme mit einatomigem Molekül A Relationship between Elastic Behavior and Specific Heat in Solids with a Monatomic Molecule Annalen der Physik (ser. Recognizing that his 1907 model of specific heats is incorrect at very low temperatures. link  Statistical mechanics. 4). 34. Einstein tries to improve it. The correct answer came a year later with the Debye model. 34. 4). link  Specific heats.  175–176.
3 1912 Lichtgeschwindigkeit und Annalen der Physik (ser. CP 4. 38. CP 3. 4). 35.. Vierteljahresschrift. 6 1912  Antwort auf eine Bemerkung Annalen der Physik (ser. link  Statistical mechanics. Zürich. In these papers. 38. See also volume 38.  443–458. 23 1911 Einfluss der Schwerkraft auf Annalen der Physik (ser.  von J.  832–838. 888. CP 3. CP 4.  Special and (possibly) general relativity. Stark: 'On an Application of Planck's Fundamental Law.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  General relativity.. 509–510 Schilpp 45. CP 3. 4 1912 Theorie des statischen Gravitationsfeldes On the Theory of the Static Gravitational Field Annalen der Physik (ser. 4).  General relativity. In this paper. Stark: Anwendung des Planckschen Elementargesetzes Response to a Comment by J. . Statik des Gravitationsfeldes 355–369. not globally. 4). 140 Schilpp 42. CP 4. Second of two papers (see previous entry for first) in the continuing development of general relativity. link Schilpp 48. 56. last discussed in 1907. link Photons. First of two papers (see next entry for second) in the continuing development of general relativity (see reference #42). die Ausbreitung des Lichtes 898–908. 4). An address given at the conference of the Zurich Society of Scientists. he realizes that the Lorentz transformations of special relativity must be generalized and that the new theory of gravitation must be non-linear. pp. 4). since gravitational energy can itself  gravitate. Clears up confusion about the Lorentz contraction. 1–14 1911 Zum Ehrenfestschen Paradoxon On the Ehrenfest Paradox Physikalische Zeitschrift. 37. These two papers are the last in which Einstein allows time to be warped while keeping space flat (uncurved). 22 1911 Relativitätstheorie The Theory of Relativity Naturforschende Gesellschaft. Schilpp 47. 38. Einstein resumes his development of general relativity. link  On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light Schilpp 43. 881–884. Einstein realizes that a new theory is needed to replace both special relativity and Newton's theory of gravitation. CP 4. 2 and 5 1912 Thermodynamische Begründung des photochemischen Äquivalentgesetzes Thermodynamic Proof of the Law of Photochemical Equivalence Annalen der Physik (ser. Here. 12. He also realizes that special relativity and the equivalence principle hold locally.  Special relativity. Nachtrag zu meiner Arbeit: 'Thermodynamische Begründung des  photochemischen Äquivalentgesetzes' Schilpp 46. 17 Schilpp 44. link  The Speed of Light and the Statics of the Gravitational Field  General relativity.
List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein
Schilpp 49; CP 4, 8
Relativität und Gravitation: Erwiderung auf eine Bemerkung von M. Abraham Relativity and Gravitation. Reply to a Comment by M. Abraham
Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 38,  1059–1064, link
Schilpp 50; CP 4, 9
Bemerkung zu Abraham's vorangehender Auseinandersetzung: Nochmals Relativität und Gravitation Comment on Abraham's Preceding Discussion 'Once Again, Relativity and Gravitation
Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 39, 704, link General relativity. 
Schilpp 52; CP 4, 7
Gibt es eine Gravitationswirkung die der elektromagnetischen Induktionswirkung analog ist? Is There a Gravitational Effect Which Is Analogous to Electrodynamic Induction?
Vierteljahrschrift für gerichtliche Medizin (ser. 3), 44, 37–40
Schilpp 53; CP 4, 13
Entwurf einer verallgemeinerten Relativitätstheorie und eine Theorie der Gravitation. I. Physikalischer Teil von A. Einstein II. Mathematischer Teil von M. Grossmann Outline of a Generalized Theory of Relativity and of a Theory of Gravitation. I. Physical Part by A. Einstein II. Mathematical Part by M. Grossmann
Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik, 62, 225–244, 245–261
 General relativity. A breakthrough paper, written in collaboration with Marcel Grossmann, in which the single Newtonian scalar gravitational field is replaced by ten fields, which are the components of a symmetric, four-dimensional metric tensor. However, the correct equations describing these fields are not identified. Reviewed critically in reference #68. See also references #21, 42, 46 and 47.
Schilpp 54; CP 4, 11
Einige Argumente für die Annahme einer molekular Agitation beim absoluten Nullpunkt Some Arguments for the Assumption of Molecular Agitation at Absolute Zero
Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 40,  551–560, link
 Specific heats. Co-authored with O. Stern. Einstein and Stern attempt to explain the specific heats of diatomic gases, such as molecular hydrogen, H2. Although qualitatively  correct, they are quantitatively inaccurate.
List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein
Déduction thermodynamique Journal de physique (ser. 5), 3, 277–282 Statistical mechanics. Not a translation of de la loi de l'équivalence reference #45, but rather an address before the photochimique Société Française de Physique, held on 27 March 1913. Thermodynamic Deduction of the Law of Photochemical Equivalence  General relativity. Address before the Swiss Society of Scientists on 9 September 1913. A résumé is printed in the Schweizerische naturforschende Gesellschaft, Verhandlungen, 1913 (part 2), pp. 137–138. History of physics. 
Schilpp 55; CP 4, 12
Schilpp 56; CP 4, 16
Physikalische Grundlagen einer Gravitationstheorie Physical Foundations of a Theory of Gravitation
Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Zürich, Vierteljahrsschrift, 58, 284–290
Schilpp 57; CP 4, 23 Schilpp 58; CP 4, 17
Max Planck als Forscher Max Planck as Scientist
Naturwissenschaften, 1, 1077–1079
Zum gegenwärtigen Stande des Gravitationsproblems On the Present State of the Problem of Gravitation
Physikalische Zeitschrift, 14, 1249–1266
 General relativity. Address on 21 September 1913 to the 85th Versammlung Deutscher Naturforscher in Vienna. The discussion following Einstein's address is included in this citation. This review was also published in the Gesellschaft deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte, Verhandlungen, 1914, pp. 3–24. A referat was also published in the journal Himmel und Erde, 26, pp. 90–93.  General relativity. Co-authored with A. D. Fokker. Shows that the competing field theory of Gunnar Nordström could be recast as a special case of the Einstein-Grossmann equations (see reference #53).
Schilpp 59; CP 4, 28
Nordströmsche Gravitationstheorie vom Standpunkt des absoluten Differentialkalküls Nordstöm's Theory of Gravitation from the Point of View of the Absolute Differential Calculus
Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 44,  321–328, link
Schilpp 60 1914
Bases physiques d'une théorie de la gravitation Physical Foundations of a Theory of Gravitation§
Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles (ser. 4), 37, 5–12
General relativity. Guillaume.
Translated by E.
Schilpp 61 1914
Bemerkung zu P. Harzers Abhandlung: Die Mitführung des Lichtes in Glas und die Aberration Observation on P. Harzer's Article: Dragging of Light in Glass and Aberration§
Astronomische Nachrichten, 199, 8–10,  link
Electromagnetism and special relativity.
List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein
Schilpp 62 1914
Antwort auf eine Replik P. Harzers Answer to P. Harzer's Reply§
Astronomische Nachrichten, 199, 47–48, Electromagnetism and special relativity.  link
Schilpp 63 1914
Zum gegenwärtigen Stande des Problems der spezifischen Wärme On the Present Status of the Problem of Specific Heats§
Deutsche Bunsengesellschaft, Abhandlungen, 7, 330–364
Specific heats. German edition of reference #51; pages 353–364 include the discussion following Einstein's address.
Schilpp 64; CP 6, 5
Beiträge zur Quantentheorie Contributions to Quantum Theory§
Deutsche physikalische Gesellschaft, Berichte, 1914, 820–828
 Quantum mechanics. Reprinted in volume 16 of the Verhandlungen of the same society.
Schilpp 65; CP 4, 27
Zur Theorie der Gravitation On the Theory of Gravitation
Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Zürich, Vierteljahrsschrift, 59, 4–6
Schilpp 66 1914
Review of H. A. Lorentz: Das Relativitätsprinzip Review of H. A. Lorentz: The Principle of Relativity§
Naturwissenschaften, 2, 1018
Special and (possibly) general relativity.
Schilpp 67; CP 4, 24
Nachträgliche Antwort auf eine Frage von Reissner Supplementary Response to a Question by Mr. Reißner
Physikalische Zeitschrift, 15, 108–110
 General relativity. Concerns the mass of a gravitational field itself.
Schilpp 68; CP 4, 25
Principielles zur verallgemeinerten Relativitätstheorie und Gravitationstheorie On the Foundations of the Generalized Theory of Relativity and the Theory of Gravitation
Physikalische Zeitschrift, 15, 176–180
 General relativity. Reply to Gustav Mie on the relationship between reference #53 and Hermann Minkowski's work.
Schilpp 69; CP 6, 3
Antrittsrede Inaugural Address§
Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1914 (pt. 2), 739–742
 For full text. CP 6. and re-derives his 1907 results about the bending of light and gravitational redshift using the new metric tensor theory. 33–34 Special and (possibly) general relativity. Schilpp 78 1915 Proefondervindelijk bewijs voor het bestan der moleculaire stroomen von Ampère Experimental Proof of the Existence of Ampère's Molecular Currents Akademie van Wetenschappen.  Co-authored with M. 15. An important paper in the development of general relativity. with WJ de Haas. 4). Einstein still has not derived correct field equations. relates gravitational fields to rotation. Verslag. Amsterdam. 1914 (part 2). Sitzungsberichte. Special and (possibly) general relativity. 2). 23. 2 1914 Kovarianzeigenschaften der Feldgleichungen der auf die verallgemeinerte Relativitätstheorie gegründeten Gravitationstheorie Covariance Properties of the Field Equations of the Theory of Gravitation Based on the Generalized Theory of Relativity Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik. but he derives the geodesic motion of point particles. same lecture as publication #56. Listed only by title. 136–137 General relativity. 1030–1085 Schilpp 70. 96 (pt.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  General relativity. 9 1914 Formale Grundlage de allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie Formal Foundations of the General Theory of Relativity§ Schilpp 71. 215–225 General relativity. 337–348 Schilpp 72 1914 Physikalische Grundlagen und leitende Gedanken für eine Gravitationstheorie Physical Foundations and Suggestive Thoughts for a Gravitational Theory§ Verhandlungen der Schweizerischen naturforschenden Gesellschaft. 96 (pt. CP 6. Schilpp 73 1914 Gravitationstheorie Gravitational Theory§ Verhandlungen der Schweizerischen naturforschenden Gesellschaft. see Schilpp 74.  Co-authored . 1 1914 April 26 Relativitätsprinzip On the Principle of Relativity Vossische Zeitung.  144 Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Grossmann. 1449–1464 Einstein-de Haas effect. CP 6. 146 General relativity.  Schilpp 75. 2). 63. CP 4. 31 1914 Zum Relativitätsproblem On the Relativity Problem Scientia (Bologna). (ser. reference #56.
203 (Berichtigung). CP 6. 1915 (part 2). The first paper corrected a fundamental misconception and allowed Einstein to finish. 24 1915 Erklärung der Perihelbewegung des Merkur aus der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie Explanation of the Perihelion Motion of Mercury from the General Theory of Relativity Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. 21 and 22 1915 Zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie On the General Theory of Relativity Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Two of Einstein's four papers in November 1915 that led to the final field equations for general relativity. 3. Abhandlung M. CP 6. 17. 47. Sitzungsberichte. 23 1915 Experimenteller Nachweis des Ampèreschen Molekularströme Experimental Proof of Ampère's Molecular Currents Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft. 831–839 . CP 6. 1915 (part 2). with WJ de Haas. von Laue: A Theorem in Probability Calculus and Its Application to Radiation Theory Photons. This paper also introduced the important calculational method. the  second introduced a serious mistake. Schilpp 84. A pivotal paper in which Einstein shows that general relativity explains the anomalous precession of the planet Mercury. 799–801  General relativity. with WJ de Haas. which had vexed astronomers since 1859. 237–238 Einstein-de Haas effect. 152–170. 420 Einstein-de Haas effect. Sitzungsberichte. von Laues: 879–885. CP 6. Schilpp 80.  General relativity. link  Ein Satz der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung und seine Anwendung auf die Strahlungstheorie Response to a Paper by M. however. 4). the post-Newtonian expansion. 778–786.  Co-authored Schilpp 81 1915 Experimenteller Nachweis des Ampèreschen Molekularströme Experimental Proof of Ampère's Molecular Currents Naturwissenschaften.  Schilpp 83. Sitzungsberichte. Einstein also calculated correctly (for the first time) the bending of light by gravity.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  145 Schilpp 79. 315 General relativity.  Co-authored Schilpp 82 1915 Grundgedanken der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie und Anwendung dieser Theorie in der Astronomie Fundamental Ideas of the General Theory of Relativity and the Application of this Theory in Astronomy§ Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. 18 1915 Antwort auf eine Annalen der Physik (ser. 1915 (part 1).
and Einstein's A and B coefficients provided a guide for the development of quantum electrodynamics. link General relativity. In this work. CP 6. 51. Co-authored with WJ de Haas. CP 6. Sitzungsberichte. which served as the basis for subsequent derivations. Kottlers Abhandlung: Einsteins Äquivalenzhypothese und die Gravitation On Friedrich Kottler's Paper: On Einstein's Equivalence Hypothesis and Gravitation Annalen der Physik (ser. 173–177 Einstein-de Haas effect. Schilpp 93. This is the defining paper of general relativity. At long last. 18. 18. 40 1916 Über Fr.  769–822.  Schilpp 91. English translation of reference #80. 38 1916 Quantentheorie der Strahlung On the Quantum Theory of Radiation Mitteilungen der Physikalischen Gesellschaft. CP 6. Following his 1909 address (reference #30). Einstein shows that photons must carry momentum if Planck's law is to hold. Einstein had found workable field equations. for which the 1927 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded and which led to the general acceptance to the photon concept.  1916 Schilpp 90. 34 1916 Strahlungs-emission und -absorption nach der Quantentheorie Emission and Absorption of Radiation in Quantum Theory Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft.link Annalen der Physik (ser. 844–847 Schilpp 85. link  Einstein-de Haas effect. CP 6. Zürich. 25 1915 Feldgleichungen der Gravitation The Field Equations of Gravitation Schilpp 88. CP 6.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  General relativity. 1915 (part 2). 318–323  Photons. 146 Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. CP 6. 47–62 . 4). the most accurately tested theory of physics at present.  Schilpp 92.  Photons. 16. 28 1916 Einfaches Experiment zum Nachweis der Ampèreschen Molekularströme A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate Ampère's Molecular Currents Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft. 49.  639–642. Seminal paper in which Einstein showed that Planck's quantum hypothesis E = hÉÀ could be derived from a kinetic rate equation. CP 6. 14 Schilpp 89. General relativity. Amsterdam. This was confirmed in 1923 by Compton scattering. 30 1916 Experimental proof of the existence of Ampère's molecular currents Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity Proceedings of the Akademie van Wetenschappen. This paper introduced the idea of stimulated emission (which led to the laser and maser). 4). Einstein begins to realize that quantum mechanics seems to involve probabilities and a  breakdown of causality.  696–711. 18.
Schilpp 95. 1916 (part 1). Sitzungsberichte. Sitzungsberichte.. Schilpp 98 1916 Einige anschauliche Überlegungen aus dem Gebiete der Relativitätstheorie Some Intuitive Considerations from the Field of Relativity Theory§ Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften.. Schilpp 96. Sitzungsberichte. Statistical mechanics. CP 6.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  147 Naturwissenschaften.  . 17. 4. 688–696 General relativity. 184–187 Electromagnetism. 101–104 History of physics. 29 Schilpp 97. 36 1916 Review of H. 1916 (part 1). Lorentz: Théories statistiques en thermodynamique Review of H. Sitzungsberichte. Schilpp 99. CP 6. 27 1916 Ernst Mach Physikalische Zeitschrift. 32 1916 Näherungsweise Integration der Feldgleichungen der Gravitation Approximative Integration of the Field Equations of Gravitation Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1916 (part 1).  1916 Neue formale Deutung der Maxwellschen Feldgleichungen der Elektrodynamik A New Formal Interpretation of Maxwell's Field Equations of Electrodynamics Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. A. CP 6. 480–481 Schilpp 94. 768–770 History of physics. A.  Schilpp 100 1916 Gedächtnisrede auf Karl Schwarzschild Memorial Lecture on Karl Schwarzschild Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. 423  General relativity. CP 6. 1916 (part 1). Abstract of a paper (never published) dealing with the behavior of clocks and Foucault pendulums. CP 6. Lorentz: Statistical Theories in Thermodynamics: Five Lectures. 509–510 Fluid mechanics. 39 1916 Elementare Theorie der Wasserwellen und des Fluges Elementary Theory of Water Waves and of Flight Naturwissenschaften. 4.
19. Sitzungsberichte. 43 Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. 737–738 History of physics. the expansion and the ultimate fate of the Universe. Morgen Ausgabe. 606–608 Mathematical physics. CP 6. CP 6. which describes how to convert a classical system into its quantum mechanical analogue.   1917 Quantentheorie der Strahlung On the Quantum Theory of Radiation Physikalische Zeitschrift. Under certain simplifying assumptions. 82–92  Quantum mechanics.  .List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  148 Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Helmholtz: Zwei Vorträge über Goethe Review of Hermann von Helmholtz: Two Lectures on Goethe Naturwissenschaften. 675 History of physics. 41 Hamiltonsches Prinzip und allgemeine Relativitätstheorie Hamilton's Principle and the General Theory of Relativity General relativity. 259. CP 6. Schilpp 1917 107. 1917 (part 2). Schilpp 1917 103. Schilpp 104 1917 Review of H. 18. 5. 5. Sitzungsberichte. no. Sitzungsberichte. Schilpp 1917 108. 121–128 Photons. 1111–1116 Schilpp 1916 101. Verhandlungen.  Schilpp 109 1917 May 23 Friedrich Adler als Physiker Friedrich Adler as a Physicist§ Die Vossische Zeitung. 142–152  General relativity.  Schilpp 105 Schilpp 106 1917 Marian von Smoluchowski Naturwissenschaften. 1916 (part 2). Seminal paper for the Einstein-Brillouin-Keller method. This seminal paper marks the beginning of physical cosmology. 1917 (part 1). 47 Eine Ableitung des Theorems von Jacobi A Derivation of Jacobi's Theorem Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. general relativity describes the birth. 2 History of physics. 45 Zum Quantensatz von Sommerfeld und Epstein On the Quantum Theorem of Sommerfeld and Epstein Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. v. CP 6.
373 Special and general relativity. Schilpp 1918 113. 115–116 Arbeit: Energiekomponenten des Gravitationsfeldes Note on E. CP 7. Materie Review of Hermann Weyl. Zeit. Weyl: Raum. CP 7. CP 7. Schrödinger's Paper: The Energy Components of the Gravitational Field General relativity. 6 Lassen sich Brechungsexponenten der Körper für Röntgenstrahlen experimentell ermitteln? Is It Possible to Determine Experimentally the X-Ray Refractive Indices of Solids? Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft. CP 7. 3 Bemerkung zu Schrödingers Notiz: Lösungssystem der allgemein kovarianten Gravitationsgleichungen Comment on Schrödinger's Note: On a System of Solutions for the Generally Covariant Gravitational Field Equations Physikalische Zeitschrift. 261 Special and general relativity. 697–702 die Relativitätstheorie Dialogue about Objections to the Theory of Relativity Special and general relativity.  . 55. 15 Bemerkung zu Gehrckes Notiz: Über den Äther Comment on E. Schilpp 1918 114. 20.  Schilpp 1918 116. CP 7. 4 Prinzipielles zur allgemeinen Annalen der Physik (ser. CP 7. 4). 86–87 Electromagnetism. 10 Review of H. link On the Foundations of the General Theory of Relativity General relativity.  Schilpp 1918 118. Space-Time-Matter: Lectures on General Relativity Naturwissenschaften. 165–166 General relativity. 20. 13 Dialog über Einwände gegen Naturwissenschaften.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  149 Schilpp 1918 112.  Schilpp 1918 117. Schilpp 1918 115.  Relativitätstheorie 241–244. 19. 6. 6. CP 7. 19. 2 Notiz zu Schrödingers Physikalische Zeitschrift. Gehrcke's Note: On the Aether Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft.
Sitzungsberichte. de Sitter gegebenen Lösung der Gravitationsgleichungen Critical Comment on a Solution of the Gravitational Field Equations Given by Mr. General relativity. CP 7. 17 Spielen Gravitationsfelder im Aufbau der materiellen Elementarteilchen eine wesentliche Rolle? Do Gravitational Fields Play an Essential Role in the Structure of the Elementary Particles of Matter? Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1918 (part 1). Which So Far Appeared to Be Inexplicable in Newtonian Mechanics Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 154–167 Schilpp 1918 119.  Schilpp 1919 123. 9 Der Energiesatz in der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie The Law of Energy Conservation in the General Theory of Relativity Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1). 776 General relativity.  150 Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. CP 7. 270–272 Schilpp 1918 121.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  General relativity. 1918 (part 1). . 5 Kritisches zu einer von Hrn. Such gravitational radiation has been observed indirectly. CP 7. 18 Bemerkungen über periodische Schwankungen der Mondlänge. Sitzungsberichte. 1919 (pt. 448–459 General relativity. for which the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded. 1919 (pt. The first prediction of gravitational waves. CP 7. welche bisher nach der Newtonschen Mechanik nicht erklärbar schienen Comment about Periodical Fluctuations of Lunar Longitude. Schilpp 1919 124.  Schilpp 122 1919 Prüfung der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie A Test of the General Theory of Relativity Naturwissenschaften. Sitzungsberichte. De Sitter Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1). Suggests a modification of his field equations to allow for stable elementary particles. 1 Gravitationswellen On Gravitational Waves Schilpp 1918 120. 7. 1918 (part 1). 433–436 General relativity. CP 7. 349–356  General relativity.
History of physics. Hess: Theorie der Viscosität heterogener Systeme Comment on the Paper by W. Schilpp 1919 My theory 126. 1919 (pt.  Abstract of Schilpp 1920 135. CP 7. 13  General relativity. 8. R. 2). 27. Re-published in 1919 as "Time. CP 7. November 26 28 Times. 380–385 Propagation of Sound in Partly Dissociated Gases Intermolecular forces. London.  Schilpp 1919 127. the British optical journal. CP 7. 65 Intermolecular forces. pt. 137 von W. 24 Schilpp 132 1920 Leo Arons als Physiker Leo Arons as Physicist Sozialistische Monatshefte. volume 58. 52 (Jahrgang 25. 39 Schallausbreitung in Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen teilweise dissoziierten Gasen Akademie der Wissenschaften.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  151 Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1055–1056 Bemerkung zur Abhandlung Kolloidzeitschrift. space and gravitation" in Optician. . 1920. 1). R. never-published paper.  Schilpp 133 1920 Naturwissenschaften. 463 (Title only) Schilpp 125 1919 Feldgleichungen der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie vom Standpunkte des kosmologischen Problems und des Problems der Konstitution der Materie Field Equations of the General Theory of Relativity in Respect to the Cosmological Problem and the Problem of the Constitution of Matter§ General relativity.  Schilpp 134 1920 Trägheitsmoment des Wasserstoffmoleküls Moment of Inertia of the Hydrogen Molecule§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. pages 187–188. 1010–1011 Inwiefern lässt sich die moderne Gravitationstheorie ohne die Relativität begründen? To What Extent Can Modern Gravitational Theory Be Established without Relativity? General relativity. 1920. Hess: Contribution to the Theory of the Viscosity of Heterogeneous Systems Intermolecular forces.
CP 7. It was also reported in Nature (107. 1921 (pt. 261–264 History of physics. CP 7. 53 Schilpp 148 1921 A brief outline of the Nature. 402. 504) and also in the Times (London) on 14 June. 1). Lawson. 882–883 Photons. 1921 (pt.  Schilpp 159 1922 Bemerkung zur Seletyschen Arbeit: Beiträge zum kosmologischen Problem Observation of the Paper of Selety: Contributions to the Cosmological Problem§ Annalen der Physik (ser. p.  436–438. 1921 (pt. 68 Ein den Elementarprozess der Lichtemission betreffendes Experiment On an Experiment Concerning the Elementary Process of Light Emission Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Pauli: Relativity Theory§ Naturwissenschaften. CP 7. 106. link Schilpp 160 1922 Review of W. General relativity. Pauli: Relativitätstheorie Review of W. no.b. My Response on the Anti-Relativity Company Special and general relativity.  Schilpp 1921 150. 10. 184–185 Special and general relativity. with quotations Nation and Athenaeum. CP 7. 1–2 Schilpp 1920 Meine Antwort über die 136.  Schilpp 1921 149. 123–130 Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.m. The German text is reproduced in Mein Weltbild (pp. 2). a full translation is found in The world as I see it.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  152 Berliner Tageblatt und Handelszeitung.H. Schilpp 1921 147.  Translated by R. 29. 215–220). W. 431–432 Special and general relativity. p. 69. 8. General relativity.  . 54 Eine naheliegende Ergänzung des Fundaments der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie On a Natural Addition to the Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity General relativity. August 27 antirelativitätstheoretische 45 G.  Schilpp 151 1921 Report of a lecture at King's College on the development and present position of relativity. 4). 782–784 development of the theory of relativity Geometrie und Erfahrung Geometry and Experience Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1).
1922. 31–34 Quantum mechanics. Schilpp 162 1922 Theorie der Lichtfortpflanzung in dispergierenden Medien Theory of the Propagation of Light in Dispersive Media§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 823–828 Schilpp 161 1922 Emil Warburg als Forscher Emil Warburg as Researcher§ History of physics. Anderson: New Explanation of the Continuous Spectrum of the Corona§ Solar physics. volume 16. 11. Friedmann: On the Curvature of Space§ Zeitschrift für Physik. Klasse. Phys. 19 W. 1922. 326  General relativity.-math. 219. Anderson: Neue Erklärung des kontinuierlichen Koronaspektrums Observation on the Note of W. Trefftz: Statische Gravitationsfeld zweier Massenpunkte Observation on the Work of E. 18–22  Electromagnetism. . 448–449 General relativity. Schilpp 164 1922 Quantentheoretische Bemerkungen zum Experiment von Stern und Gerlach Quantum Mechanical Observations on the Experiment of Stern and Gerlach§ Zeitschrift für Physik. Einstein withdrew this self-criticism in 1922 in the same journal Zeitschrift für Physik. p. Schilpp 170 1923 Bemerkung zu der Notiz von Astronomische Nachrichten.-math. Trefftz: Static Gravitational Field of Two Point Masses§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Schilpp 163 1922 Bemerkung zu der Abhandlung von E. Friedmann: Über die Krümmung des Raumes Observation on the Paper of A. Phys.  Co-authored with Schilpp 165 1922 Bemerkung zu der Arbeit von A. 228. Paul Ehrenfest.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  153 Naturwissenschaften. 11. 10. Klasse.
7).  Schilpp 176 1923 Bietet die Feldtheorie Möglichkeiten für die Lösung des Quantenproblems? Does Field Theory Offer Possibilities for Solving the Quantum Problem?§ Classical unified field theories. also given in Hebrew. 253. Relatively non-mathematical. Schilpp 172 1923 Beweis der Nichtexistenz eines überall regulären zentrisch symmetrischen Feldes nach der Feldtheorie von Kaluza Proof of the Non-Existence of an Everywhere-Regular Centrally Symmetric Field According to the Field Theory of Kaluza§ Jerusalem University.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  154 Schilpp 171 1923 Experimentelle Bestimmung Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift. 112. 1012–1013 der Kanalweite von Filtern Experimental Determination of the Pore Diameter in Filters§ Fluid mechanics. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. Bulletin. 76–77 Schilpp 175 1923 Zur affinen Feldtheorie On Affine Field Theory§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.  Schilpp 174 1923 Zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie On the General Theory of Relativity§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Translated by RW Lawson. Scripta. 1–5  Classical unified field theories. but does not correspond to publication #175. Co-authored with J. 1923. Grommer. 1 (no. 22.  Quoted in . 448–449  Classical unified field theories. 112. 1923. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. 1923. 137–140 Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 97–98.  Schilpp 177 1923 Théorie de relativité Theory of Relativity§ Société française de philosophie. 107. Mühsam. 49. General relativity. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. 111–112 Special and general relativity. full in Nature. 359–364 Classical unified field theories. 101. Co-authored with H. p. 32–38. Schilpp 173 1923 Theory of the affine field Nature.
in which Einstein creates the theory of identical particles in quantum mechanics. 2). History of physics. Einstein shows that this modification is equivalent to assuming that photons are rigorously identical. Einstein also extends Bose's formalism to material particles (bosons). Schilpp 181 1924 Antwort auf eine Bemerkung Astronomische Nachrichten. 1–6 Statistical mechanics. Schilpp 186 1924 Über den Äther On the Aether§ Verhandlungen der Schweizerischen naturforschenden Gesellschaft. 221. History of physics.  Schilpp 182 1924 April 20 Komptonsche Experiment The Compton Experiment§ Berliner Tageblatt. Anderson§  Photons. 1. for many physicists. as verified experimentally. Anderson Response to an Observation of W. 105 (pt. 601–602 Schilpp 185 1924 Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases Quantum Theory of the Monatomic Ideal Gas§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Experiment showing that photons could carry momentum. 27. 301–306 Schilpp 178 1923 Quantentheorie des Strahlungsgleichgewichts Quantum Theory of the Equilibrium of Radiation§ Photons. 261–267  Photons and statistical mechanics. First of two seminal papers (see reference #194). Co-authored with Paul Ehrenfest. Beiblatt Schilpp 184 1924 Zum hundertjährigen Gedenkag von Lord Kelvins Geburt On the 100th Anniversary of Lord Kelvin's Birth§ Naturwissenschaften. a science toy. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. In 1924.  Historical overview. 329–330 von W.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  155 Zeitschrift für Physik. 85–93 Schilpp 187 1924 Theorie der Radiometerkräfte Theory of Radiometer Forces§ Zeitschrift für Physik. Satyendra Nath Bose derived Planck's law of black-body radiation from a modification of  coarse-grained counting of phase space. leading to the concept of coherent states. 19. 12. 1924. Treatment of the physics of radiometers. this experiment was conclusive proof that photons were particles. . predicting that they condense at sufficiently low  temperatures.
392–392 Schilpp 188 1924 [Note appended to a paper by Bose entitled "Wärmegleichgewicht im Strahlungsfeld bei Anwesenheit von Materie"] Thermal Equilibrium in the Radiation Field in the Presence of Matter Photons. Second of two seminal articles on identical particles.  Schilpp 199 1926 W. H.  Schilpp 194 1925 Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases. 5. bosons and Bose-Einstein condensation.  . 1925. 31. Jordans Abhandlung: Theorie der Quantenstrahlung Observation on P. Julius. 27.  Schilpp 197 1925 Bemerkung zu P. Abhandlung Quantum Theory of the Monatomic Ideal Gas. 330–334 General relativity. 784–785 Photons. 1925. 414–419 Classical unified field theories. Part II§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin). 3–14  Photons and statistical mechanics. Jordan's Work: Theory of Quantum Radiation§ Zeitschrift für Physik. Schilpp 193 1925 Elektron und allgemeine Reltivitätstheorie The Electron and The General Theory of Relativity§ Physica.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  156 Zeitschrift für Physik. 2. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. 1860–1925 Astrophysical Journal. 18–25 Photons and statistical mechanics. 63. 1925. 196–198 History of physics.  Schilpp 196 1925 Einheitliche Feldtheorie von Gravitation und Elektrizität Unified Field Theory of Gravity and Electricity§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin). see reference #185 for the first. Schilpp 195 1925 Quantentheorie des idealen Gases Quantum theory of Ideal Gases§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin).
List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  157 Schilpp 200 1926 Ursache der Mäanderbildung Naturwissenschaften. rivers. emittierten Lichtes 1926. 223–224 der Flussläufe und des sogenannten Baerschen Gesetzes Origin of River-Meanders and the So-Called Law of Baer§ Earth science. Supposedly verified experimentally by Rupp in the paper following it in the journal (pp. durch Kanalstrahlen Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. 341–351).  . Schilpp 205 1927 Forschungen und Fortschritte. 97. 14. 99–103 General relativity. 1. later. Schilpp 203 1926 Geometría no euclídea y fisica Non-Euclidean Geometry and Physics§ Revista matemática Hispano-americana (ser. 14. 300–301 Vorschlag zu einem die Natur des elementaren Strahlungs-emissions-prozesses betreffenden Experiment Suggestion for an Experiment Concerning the Nature of the Elementary Process of Emitting Light§ Photons. 72–76 General relativity. it came out that Rupp was a fraud. The physics of meandering Schilpp 201 1926 Naturwissenschaften. 3. 334–340 Interference Properties of Light Emitted by Canal Rays§  Photons. 36–37 Einfluss der Erdbewegung auf die Lichtgeschwindigkeit relativ zur Erde Influence of the Earth's Motion on the Speed of Light Relative to Earth§ Special relativity.  Schilpp 206 1927 Formale Beziehung des Riemannschen Krümmungstensors zu den Feldgleichungen der Gravitation Formal Relationship of the Riemannian Curvature Tensor to the Field Equations of Gravity§ Mathematische Annalen.  Schilpp 202 1926 Interferenzeigenschaften des Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 2).
40.  Schilpp 213 1927 Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie und Bewegungsgesetz General Theory of Relativity and the Law of Motion§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 50. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. 36–40 History of physics. Also published in Science. 119. Reprinted in the Manchester Guardian (19 March 1927). 546 Photons. 415–417 Meteorology. 234–235 History of physics. Schilpp 214 1927 Theoretisches und Experimentelles zur Frage der Lichtentstehung Theoretical and Experimental [Aspects] to the Question of the Generation of Light§ Zeitschrift für angewandte Chemie. . 50. 25. Lorentz Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Blätter. Schilpp 210 1927 [Letter to the Royal Society on the occasion of the Newton bicentennary] Establishment of an international bureau of meteorology Kaluzas Theorie des Zusammenhanges von Gravitation und Elektrizität Kaluza's Theory of the Connection between Gravity and Electricity§ Nature. The first part (pp.  Schilpp 207 1927 Isaac Newton Schilpp 208 1927 Newtons Mechanik und ihr Einfluss auf die Gestaltung der theoretischen Physik Newton's Mechanics and its Influence on the Formation of Theoretical Physics§ Naturwissenschaften. Observatory. Abstract of an address given at a memorial service at Leiden University. History of physics. Smithsonian Institution. 467  History of physics. Report for 1927. 1927. 16. 2–13. 146–153. A. 22. 24–25  History of physics. 347–348. 1927. Grommer. 2–13) was co-authored with J. 201–207. Schilpp 212 1927 Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. 273–276 Schilpp 209 1927 Zu Newtons 200. 65.  Schilpp 216 1928 H. Todestage On the 200th Anniversary of Newton's Death§ Nord und Süd. p. Jahrg. 65. Reprinted in Mein Weltbild (The world as I see it).  Schilpp 211 1927 Science. 15.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein 158 Manchester Guardian Weekly. 23–30 Classical unified field theories. 235–245  General relativity.
 Schilpp 223 1929 [Quotation from an interview with (London) Daily Chronicle (26 January 1929) on the unitary field theory. 175 Classical unified field theories. E. 123. 17. 248–249 History of physics. Planck [upon receiving the Planck medal]§ Forschungen und Fortschritte. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. 363 History of physics. Meyerson Concerning "The Relativistic Deeduction" by M. 1928. in advance of publication #226] [Note appended to a reprinting of Arago's Memorial address on Thomas Young before the French Academy] The new field theory Nature. 5. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse.  Schilpp 222 1929 Ansprache an Prof. 224–227 Classical unified field theories. Classical unified field theories.  Schilpp 226 Einheitliche Feldtheorie Unified Field Theory§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 161–166 Special and general relativity. 217–221 Schilpp 217 1928 Riemanngeometrie mit Aufrechterhaltung des Begriffes des Fern-Parallelismus Riemannian Geometry with Preservation of the Concept of Distant Parallelism§ Classical unified field theories. 114–118 (1930). Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. 82–87. 105.  Schilpp 225 1929 February 4 1929 Times (London) Classical unified field theories. Schilpp 224 1929 Naturwissenschaften. Reprinted in the Observatory.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  159 Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. E. 1928. 1929. Meyerson§ Revue philosophique de la France. L. 52. 2–7 .  Schilpp 219 1928 À propos de "La déduction relativiste" de M. Whyte. Schilpp 218 1928 Neue Möglichkeit für eine einheitliche Feldtheorie von Gravitation und Elektrizität New Possibility for a Unified Field Theory of Gravity and Electricity§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Planck [bei Entgegennahme der Planckmedaille] Address to Prof. Translated by L.
1. 25. 2nd. Translation of a letter to Newcomb's daughter dated 15 July 1926. col. e. Einstein's discussions with RG Loyarte on mass-energy equivalence and with H Damianovich on the relevance of relativity for a proposed "chemical field". Schilpp 233 1930 World power conference. 156–159 Schilpp 227 1929 Einheitliche Feldtheorie und Hamiltonsches Prinzip Unified Field Theory and Hamilton's Principle§ Classical unified field theories. 1–5 The Problems of Space. Similar to #233. 16. 107. The text is reprinted in Mein Weltbild and its English translation The world as I see it (in German and English.. Transactions. Berlin. 249  History of physics. und Feld-problem der Physik" reprinted in Mein Weltbild (The world as I see it). An English translation by ES Brightman was provided in the same volume. but different from the article "Das Raum-. Special and general relativity. Fields and Aether in Physics§ Schilpp 234 1930 Raum. 1929.g.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  160 Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1–24 . 35–39 Classical unified field theories. 229–248. pp.  Schilpp 235 1930 Théorie unitaire du champ physique Unified theory of the physical field§ Annales de l'Institut H. Anales. Schilpp 229 Schilpp 230 1929 Appreciation of Simon Newcomb Sesión especial de la Academia (16 abril 1925) Special Session of the Scientific Society of Argentina§ Science.und Äther-problem in der Physik 1930. Raum-. 122. Classical unified field theories. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. Aether and Field in Physics§  Special and general relativity. A widely reported address. Äther und Feld in der Forum Philosophicum. Poincaré. 345. Äther-. Feld. 19. 69. Co-authored with Théophile de Donder. p. 180–184. 3–4  History of physics. Special and general relativity. 1. 173–180 Physik Space. 337–347 Schilpp 232 1930 Über Kepler November 9 On Kepler§ Frankfurter Zeitung. p. in Dinglers polytechnisches journal. pp. Schilpp 228 1929 Sur la théorie synthéthique des champs On the Unified Theory of Fields§ Revue générale de l'électricité. 1929 Sociedad cientifica Argentina. respectively).
897–898. 1930. 685–697 den Fern-Parallelismus gegründete einheitliche Feldtheorie A Unified Field Theory Based on the Riemannian Metric and Distant Parallelism§ Classical unified field theories.  Schilpp 238 1930 Review of S.  Schilpp 241 1930 Theorie der Räume mit Riemannmetrik und Fernparallelismus Theory of Spaces with a Riemannian Metric and Distant Parallelism§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. 486–488 Special and general relativity. 71.  Schilpp 239 1930 Kompatibilität der Feldgleichungen in der einheitlichen Feldtheorie Consistency of the Field Equations in the Unified Field Theory§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. under the title "Concept of space". 125. 1930.  Schilpp 242 1930 Address at University of Nottingham Science.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  161 Schilpp 236 1930 Auf die Riemann-Metrik und Mathematische Annalen. Schilpp 237 1930 Das Raum-Zeit Problem The Space-Time Problem§ Die Koralle. Weinberg: Theory of Knowledge§ Naturwissenschaften. 536 History of physics. 18. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. Weinberg: Erkenntnistheorie Review of S. 401–402 Classical unified field theories.  Schilpp 240 1930 Zwei strenge statische Lösungen der Feldgleichungen der einheitlichen Feldtheorie Two Strictly Static Solutions of the Field Equations of the Unified Field Theory§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mayer. 110–120 Classical unified field theories. 1930. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. A survey of relativity theory (special and general) and of field theory in general. A precis of the talk was published in Nature. 102. Co-authored with W. 18–23 Classical unified field theories. pp. 5. . 608–610  Special and general relativity.
379 History of physics. 257–265 Classical unified field theories. Co-authored with W. 1931. a Yale graduate convinced Einstein to write the summary by longhand. Mayer. C. this was neither a scientific talk nor a typical scientific paper.  Schilpp 254 1931 Science. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse.link  Zum kosmologischen Problem der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie On the Cosmological Problem of the General Theory of Relativity§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften." 1931 Schilpp 250 1931 Systematische Untersuchung über kompatible Feldgleichungen welche in einem Riemannschen Raume mit Fern-Parallelismus gesetzt werden können Systematic Investigation of Consistent Field Equations That Can Be Posited in a Riemannian Space with Distant Parallelism§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 37. 1931. Leigh Page of Yale University was provided on pages 7–10. the manuscript is still housed at Yale. 162 Yale University Library. future in quantum mechanics 780–781. 404–405 History of physics. 1847–1931 Gravitational and electrical fields [Translation of a preliminary report for the Josiah Macy. Gazette. 2). 765. 790.  1931 Science. Podolosky. 74. rather.  . 127. Proposed a "cosmological constant. Interestingly. 3–6 Schilpp 243 1930 Über den gegenwärtigen Stand der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie On the Present Status of the General Theory of Relativity§ Schilpp 247 1931 Theory of Relativity: Its Formal Content and Its Present Problems Nature. Tolman and B. Co-authored with W. 541–557 Classical unified field theories. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  General relativity. An English translation by Prof.  General relativity. 826–827 Special and general relativity.  Schilpp 251 1931 Einheitliche Feldtheorie von Gravitation und Elektrizität Unified Field Theory of Gravity and Electricity§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Co-authored with R. 438–439 Classical unified field theories. Schilpp 248 Schilpp 249 1931 Knowledge of past and Physical Review (ser. 74. 235–237  Quantum mechanics. Jr.  Schilpp 252 Schilpp 253 1931 Thomas Alva Edison. foundation] [Reply to congratulatory addresses at a dinner given by the California Institute of Technology on 15 January 1931] Science. 73. Rhodes lectures delivered at Oxford University in May 1931. 1931. Mayer. 6.
Mayer. Michelson In Remembrance of Albert A. Schilpp 260 1932 Gegenwärtiger Stand der Relativitätstheorie Present Status of Relativity Theory§ Die Quelle (now called Paedogogischer Führer). 36 (pt. Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. Reprinted in Mein Weltbild (The world as I see it). Schilpp 263 1932 Unbestimmtheitsrelation Uncertainty Relations§ Zeitschrift für angewandte Chemie. Part II§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1932. 2. Berliners siebzigstem Naturwissenschaften.  Schilpp 261 1932 Einheitliche Feldtheorie von Gravitation und Elektrizität.  Co-authored with W. 29–32. 44. 20. 23 Quantum mechanics. W. 130–137 Classical unified field theories. 440–442 General relativity. 913 Geburtstag On Dr. Schilpp 258 1932 On the relation between the expansion and the mean density of the universe Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 45. Proceedings. pp. Co-authored with W. 658 Schilpp 255 1931 Gedenkworte auf Albert A. 522–550 Mathematics. 18. 497–? Quantum mechanics.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  163 Zeitschrift für angewandte Chemie. 213–214 General relativity. Mayer.  Schilpp 262 1932 Semi-Vektoren und Spinoren Semi-Vectors and Spinors§ Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.  Schilpp 267 1933 Dirac Gleichungen für Semi-Vektoren Dirac Equations for Semi-Vectors§ Akademie van wetenschappen (Amsterdam). Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse. Mayer. Willem de Sitter. 2).  Co-authored with .  Co-authored with Schilpp 259 1932 Zu Dr. 1932. Michelson§ History of physics. Berliner's 70th Birthday§  History of physics. 82. Abhandlung Unified Field Theory of Gravity and Electricity.
 Co-authored with W.link energy Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete? The particle problem in the general theory of relativity Physik und Realität Physics and Reality§ Physical Review (ser. 80. 221. 49. Proceedings. An English translation (by J Picard) is provided on pages 349–382. 404–405 1936 Science. Rosen. pp. 35. Schilpp 274 Schilpp 275 1935 Physical Review (ser. 358 Special and general relativity. no. W. 1–14 (1938). pp. Also reprinted in Zeitschrift für freie deutsche Forschung. Podolsky and N.  Co-authored with N. 2). General relativity. 2. 43–54  General relativity. 2). Einstein and Rosen originally  reached the opposite conclusion ! . Co-authored with N. thermodynamics and cosmology Science. 1. 615–619 Schilpp 268 1933 Spaltung der natürlichsten Feldgleichungen für Semi-Vektoren in Spinor-Gleichungen vom Diracschen Typus Division of the Most Natural Field-Equations for Semi-Vectors in Spinor Equations of the Dirac Type§ Quantum mechanics.  Schilpp 272 1935 Elementary derivation of the Bulletin of the American Mathematical  equivalence of mass and Society. 104–110 Mathematics. Co-authored with B. 223.  Co-authored with N.  Schilpp 273 1935  Quantum mechanics. 73–77 General relativity.link Special relativity. 223–230. 47. 313–347  Quantum mechanics. 1.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  164 Akademie van wetenschappen (Amsterdam). Mayer. Tolman: Relativity. Co-authored with Schilpp 270 1934 Darstellung der Semi-Vektoren als gewöhnliche Vektoren von besonderem Differentiations Charakter Representation of Semi-Vectors as Ordinary Vectors with Unusual Differentiation Properties§ Annals of mathematics (ser. 36 (pt. Rosen. 2). This important paper established that gravitational waves are possible despite the nonlinear nature of the Einstein field equations. Schilpp 271 1934 Review of R. 48. 2).  777–780. Rosen. 1936 Franklin Institute. 2). Journal. Interestingly. Schilpp 276 Schilpp 277 1936 Two-body problem in general relativity theory Lens-like action of a star by deviation of light in the gravitational field On gravitational waves Physical Review (ser. Rosen. Mayer. 41. 84. 506–507  Schilpp 278 1937 Journal of the Franklin Institute. General relativity. 5–19 and no.
G. 11–16 General relativity. 137–156. II Considerations concerning the fundamentals of theoretical physics Demonstration of the non-existence of gravitational fields with a non-vanishing total mass free of singularities The work and personality of Walter Nernst Non-existence of regular stationary solutions of relativistic field equations Bivector fields.  1943 Annals of Mathematics (ser. 2). Novel. Revista (ser. 2). 922–936 Schilpp 283 Schilpp 284 Schilpp 285 1938 Gravitational equations and the problems of motion Generalization of Kaluza's theory of electricity Stationary system with spherical symmetry consisting of many gravitating masses Gravitational equations and the problems of motion. II 1945 On the cosmological problem Generalization of the relativistic theory of gravitation Influence of the expansion of space on the gravitation fields surrounding the individual stars Generalization of the relativistic theory of gravitation. 487–492 General relativity. 40. 5. 683–701 Annals of Mathematics (ser. 47. Also published in Hebrew in 1947. 578–584 Mathematics. 14. Schilpp 292 Schilpp 293 1942 Scientific Monthly. 131–137 General relativity.   165 Annals of Mathematics (ser. 15–23 American Scholar. 2). Schilpp 302 1946 Elementary derivation of the Technion Journal.. A pre-printing of the appendix to publication #297. 65–100 Annals of mathematics (ser.  1945 Schilpp 300 1945 Reviews of modern physics. II General relativity. 2). 91. 39. 145. Co-authored with V. 2). Partly reprinted in Nature. Co-authored with E. Straus. 17. 44. Annals of mathematics (ser. 45. Classical unified field theories. Co-authored with P.link  equivalence of mass and energy  Special relativity. Corrections and additions. 2).  Co-authored with Schilpp 295 Schilpp 296 Schilpp 298 Schilpp 299 1944 Annals of mathematics (ser. 148–149 (1946). in the Scientific Publications of Hebrew Technical College (Institute of Technology) in Haifa. Bergmann. 269 (correction) Annals of mathematics (ser. Wolfgang Pauli. 46. Infeld and B. 731–741  Schilpp 301 1946 Classical unified field theories. 18. Hoffmann. 1–14 Mathematics.  Co-authored with L. 2)296. 16–17. 2. G. 455–464 Science. 39.  1944 Bivector fields. ibid. General relativity. Annals of mathematics (ser.  Schilpp 290 1941 Tucumán universidad nac. Classical unified field theories. 195–196 History of physics. 920–924. 120–124 General relativity.. 54. Co-authored with E. A). Co-authored with L. 1940  History of physics. 2). 2). 45. Bargmann.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  General relativity. . Straus. simplified derivation in the Yearbook of American Society for Advancement of the Hebrew Institute of Technology in Haifa. I 1938 1939 Schilpp 286 Schilpp 287 1940 Annals of Mathematics (ser. 41. Infeld.
120–128 Classical unified field theories. 82–84 1953 Physical Review. 230–244 Classical unified field theories. 193. 320–324 Schilpp 307 1948 Quantenmechanik und Wirklichkeit Quantum mechanics and reality§ Quantum mechanics. 1949 History of physics. 2. 209–241 Angewandte Chimie. Schilpp 308 Schilpp 309 Schilpp 310 1948 Generalized theory of gravitation Motion of particles in general relativity theory Dem Gedächtnis Max Plancks In memory of Max Planck§ Reviews of modern physics.  Schilpp 318 Schilpp 319 1955 Scientific American.  1954 Annals of Mathematics. Co-authored with L. 113.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  166 Dialectica. 182. 128–138 Book chapters With the exception of publication #288. 89.  Classical unified field theories. Schilpp 311 1950 The Bianchi Identities in the Generalized Theory of Gravitation On the General Theory of Gravitation The Advent of the Quantum Theory A Comment on a Criticism of Unified Field Theory Algebraic Properties of the Field in the Relativistic Theory of the Asymmetric Field An Interview with Einstein Canadian Journal of Mathematics.  1951 Science. 69–73 History of physics. . 13–17 Classical unified field theories. Given that most of the chapters are already in English. Kaufman. the following book chapters were written by Einstein. 2. 59. Co-authored with I.  Schilpp 313 Schilpp 314 Schilpp 316 Schilpp 317 1950 Scientific American. 1. but are provided in parentheses after the original title. this helps the table to fit within the margins of the page. 1955 A New Form of the General Relativistic Field Equations Annals of Mathematics.   1949 Canadian Journal of Mathematics. the English translations are not given their own columns. Infeld. B. he had no co-authors. 20. Quantum mechanics. 62. 321 Classical unified field theories. 35–39 Classical unified field theories. Co-authored with B. Simplified derivation using an ancillary field instead of the usual affine connection. 61. Kaufman. Cohen. Co-authored with B. U114 General relativity.
Lecher Teubner (Leipzig)  Atomic physics. Freundlich Springer (Berlin) Schilpp 111 1918 Motiv des Forschens Motives for Research Zu Max Plancks 60. Schilpp 87 1916 Vorwort Foreword Grundlagen der Einsteinschen Gravitationstheorie Foundations of Einstein's Gravitational Theory§ Erwin F. . Schilpp 76 1915 Theoretische Atomistik Theoretical Atomic Science§) Die Physik. Lecher Teubner (Leipzig) Special and general  relativity. The German text is publication #63. Band 1). 251–263 Physics§ E. 3. 50–52 Celebratory Work for the 10th Anniversary of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society§ Unknown Springer Verlag (Berlin) Gravitation. pp. 29–32 Talks in Honor of Max Planck's 60th Birthday§ Unknown Müller (Karlsruhe) Philosophy of physics. 3. Abt. Geburtstag: Ansprachen in der deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft. Part of the series Kultur der Gegenwart (3. Abt. Schilpp 77 1915 Relativitätstheorie Relativity Theory§ Die Physik Physics§ E. Schilpp 146 1921 Einfache Anwendung des Newtonschen Gravitationsgesetzes auf die Kugelförmigen Sternhaufen Simple Application of Newton's Law of Gravitation to Spherical Collections of Stars§ Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaft. Teil. Part of the series Kultur der Gegenwart (3. Instituts Solvay Reports of the 1st Solvay Conference of Physics§ Book author/editor Publisher (Location) Classification and notes  Schilpp 51 1912 État actuel du problème des chaleurs spécifiques Present State of the Problem of Specific Heats§) Unknown Gauthier (Paris)  Specific heats. Teil. pp. Band 1) General relativity. pp. page numbers Rapports du premier Conseil de Physique (1911).List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein 167 Index  Year Chapter title (English  translation ) Book title (English  translation ). Festschrift zu ihrem zehnjährigen Jubiläum.
Kamerlingh Onnes. 281–294 Physics.. 105–108 Festschrift Prof. Studola Überreicht. 2. Studola§ Franklin Henry Hooper Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.  Schilpp 190 1925 Anhang: Eddingtons Theorie und Hamiltonsches Prinzip Appendix: Eddington's Theory and Hamilton's Principle§ Relativitätstheorie in mathematischer Behandlung Relativity Theory. Schilpp 220 1929 Space-time Encyclopædia Britannica. A.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein 168 Unknown Ijdo (Leiden) Superconductivity. pp. vol. pp. Kamerlingh Onnes§ Schilpp 180 1924 Geleitwort Preface§ Lucretius. 21. 783–797 Physics. Auflage. 2. pp. Schilpp 204 1927 Introduction Di spetsyele relativitets-teorye The Special Theory of Relativity§ T. Auflage. Less technical and more historical than (journal) publication #235. Schilpp 221 1929 Über den gegenwärtigen Stand der Feldtheorie On the Present Status of Field Theory§ Unknown  General relativity. De rerum natura H. Diels Weidmann (Berlin) History of physics. Rijksuniversiteit Naturkundig Laboratorium. pp. Gedenkboek aangeboden aan H. (Chicago) Füssli (Zürich) Special and general relativity. Schilpp 191 1925 Theoretische Atomistik Theoretical Atomic Science§ Die Physik. 2nd edition§ Unknown Teubner (Leipzig) Special and general relativity. 429–435 A Book Honoring H. . pp. Shalit privately printed (Berlin) Special relativity. 126ff. Both Yiddish and German versions are provided. Written exclusively for this German translation of Eddington. Treated Mathematically§ AS Eddington Springer Verlag (Berlin) Classical unified field  theories. 14th ed. Dr. Schilpp 158 1922 Theoretische Bemerkungen zur Supraleitung der Metalle Theoretical Observations on the Superconductivity of Metals§ Leyden. A. 2nd edition§ Unknown Teubner (Leipzig) Atomic physics. Celebratory Work for Dr. Schilpp 192 1925 Relativitätstheorie Relativity theory§ Die Physik.
 1932 Epilogue: a socratic dialogue. 2) and also in Nature. Special and general relativity. The German text is found in Mein Weltbild (The world as I see it). The German original is on p. de Villamil Knox (London) History of physics. Special and general  relativity. Schilpp 231 1929 Begleitwort Foreword§ Grenzflächenvorgänge in der unbelebten und belebten Natur Boundary Surface Processes in Biological and Inorganic Nature§ Schilpp 244 Schilpp 245 1931 Foreword Newton. Bergmann Prentice-Hall (New York) 1944 Remarks on Bertrand Russell's theory of knowledge 1947 The problem of space. Schilpp 288 1941 Five-dimensional representation of gravitation and electricity Theodore von Karman Anniversary Volume. 277–291 Man and the universe. 146. Special and general relativity. Reprinted from The world as I see it. Gollancz (London)  Philosophy of physics. 5–6 Leopold Infeld V. 275. p. 19 Grolier Society (New York) Schilpp 306 1948 Relativity: essence of the theory of relativity American Peoples Unknown Encyclopedia. vol. 4th edition (London 1730). vol.  Philosophy. 16. col. pp. conception of physical pp. 201–213 Unknown Cambridge University Press (Cambridge)  History of physics. v R.  Schilpp 269 The World in Modern Science. Unknown Unknown Philosophy. Reichinstein Barth (Leipzig) History of physics. Reported in the New York Times (11 September 1940. the actual issue occurred in 1948. vii–viii Where is science going?. pp. 605–607. v The philosophy of Bertrand Russell.  Schilpp 246 Isaac Newton McGraw (New York) History of physics. interlocutors. 66–73 reality 1931 Foreword Opticks.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein 169 D. 30. the man. ether and the field in physics 1948 Einstein's theory of relativity Paul A. pp. Philosophy and Religion Schilpp 291 Schilpp 294 1942 Foreword Introduction to the theory of relativity. pp. Einstein and Murphy 1934 Introduction Max Planck Philosophy of physics. Commins. col. pp. Schilpp 256 Schilpp 257 1932 Prologue Max Planck Norton (New York) Norton (New York) Philosophy of physics. and RN Linscott Random House (New York) Schilpp 303 Schilpp 305 Grolier Encyclopedia. Unknown 9. pp. 7–12 Where is science going?. pp. Special and general relativity. 82–100 Peter G. Co-authored (Pasadena) with Bargmann V and Bergmann PG. p. 1931 Maxwell's influence on the James Clerk Maxwell: A development of the Commemoration Volume. 212–225 California Institute Classical unified field  of Technology theories. p. p. Schilpp 289 1941 Science and religion 1st Conference on Science. Although dated as 1947. Volume 5 of the Library of Living Philosophers. Schilpp Northwestern University Evanston) Saxe. 604–608 Spencer Press (Chicago) .
editor Harper and Brothers Publishers. he had no co-authors. 137–141. 154. Biographical notes and a summary of Einstein's scientific thinking in his later years. Volume II. Classical unified field  theories. Schilpp 312 1950 Appendix II: Generalized theory of gravitation The Meaning of Relativity. Same as (journal) publication #11. Schilpp 86 1916 Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie Foundations of the General Theory of Relativity§ Barth (Leipzig) General relativity. 130. the following books were written by Einstein. Harper Torchbook edition (New York) Princeton University (Princeton) Schilpp 320 The Meaning of Relativity.  Schilpp 102 1917 Über die spezielle und die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie. This is volume 38 (Heft 38) in the series Sammlung Vieweg. Albert Einstein 3rd edition Schilpp 315 1951 Reply to Criticisms: Remarks Concerning the Essays Brought Together in this Co-operative Volume 1955 Appendix II: Generalized theory of gravitation Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. Inaugural-dissertation from Zürich Universität. Other editions and translations are found in publications #110. 169 and 215. gemeinverständlich On the Special and General Theory of Relativity (A Popular Account) Vieweg (Braunschweig)  Special and general relativity. . Index  Year Book title and English  translation Publisher (Location)  Classification and notes Schilpp 6 1906 Eine neue Bestimmung Buchdruckerei K. Appendix II added to the third edition of the Meaning of Relativity (publication #297). 129. J. 665–688 Paul Arthur Schilpp. pp.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein 170 Princeton University (Princeton) Classical unified field theories. Completely revised Appendix II for the fifth and final edition of the Meaning of Relativity (publications #297 and #312). der Moleküldimensionen Wyss (Bern) A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions  Statistical mechanics. History of science and  philosophy of physics. Albert Einstein 5th edition Books With the exception of publication #278.
The French. Geometrja a doswiadczenie. Erweiterte Fassung des Festvortrages gehalten an der Preussischen Akademie Geometry and Experience: Expanded Edition of the Celebratory Lecture Given at the Prussian Academy§ Springer Verlag (Berlin)  General relativity. The first edition of this book is listed as publication #102. Freundenheim. gemeinverständlich. English and Italian translations are listed as publications #144.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein 171 Special and general relativity. Eter a teorja wzglednosci. Schilpp 131 1920 Äther und Relativitätstheorie: Rede gehalten am 5. French. . and 153. The original paper is found as (journal) publication #148. An undated Polish translation. Schilpp 110 1918 Über die spezielle und die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie. 10th edition On the Special and General Theory of Relativity (A Popular Account) Vieweg (Braunschweig) Special and general relativity. gemeinverständlich. was published in Lviv. 3rd edition On the Special and General Theory of Relativity (A Popular Account) Vieweg (Braunschweig) Schilpp 129 1920 Über die spezielle und die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie. 137–141. An undated Polish translation by L. was published in Lviv. Editions of this work were published until 1922 (the 14th edition). respectively. Schilpp 143 1921 Geometrie und Erfahrung. and 153. and Italian translations are listed as publications #145. 169 and 215. Editions 10-14 contained an additional section ("Rotverschiebung der Spectrallinien" (Redshift of spectral lines) in the appendix. 152. 130. 152. 154. English. Other editions and translations are found in publication #102 and 129. Mai 1920 an der Reichs-Universität zu Leiden Aether and Relativity Theory: A Talk Given on 5 May 1920 at the University of Leiden§ Springer Verlag (Berlin)  Special and general relativity.
Schilpp 168 1923 Grundgedanken und Probleme der Relativitätstheorie Fundamental Ideas and Problems of Relativity Theory§ Imprimerie royale (Stockholm)  Special and general relativity. Schilpp 156 1922 Vier Vorlesungen über Relativitätstheorie.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein 172 Special and general relativity. A second printing by Vieweg is dated 1923. R. gehalten im Mai 1921. an der Universität Princeton Four Lectures on Relativity Theory. and 26 with notes and derivations from the editor. delivered 20 Hermann (Paris) General relativity. Co-authored with Infeld L. An English translation appeared as publication #198. General relativity. June 1933. Les prix Nobel en 1921-22. delivered on 10 June 1933.  Lecture at the University of Glasgow. Nobel prize lecture. A re-issue of publications #8. together with its historical antecedents. German text of publication #143. Schilpp 279 Sijthoff (Leiden) Philosophy of physics. The Herbert Spenser lecture at Oxford University. Schilpp 278 1938 The Evolution of Physics: The Growth of Ideas from Early Concepts to Relativity and Quanta 1938 Die Physik als Abenteuer der Erkenntnis Physics as an Adventure of the Mind§ Simon and Schuster (New York) History of physics. . 11. Released as Nr. 199 of Oswalds Klassiker der exacten Wissenschaften. Schilpp 264 Schilpp 265 Schilpp 266 1933 On the Method of Theoretical Physics 1933 Origins of the General Theory of Relativity 1933 Les fondements de la théorie de la relativité générale Foundations of the General Theory of Relativity§ Clarendon Press (Oxford) Jackson (Glasgow)  Philosophy of physics. 12. French translations of publications #89 and 251 by Maurice Solovine. Given in May 1921 at Princeton University§ Vieweg (Braunschweig) Schilpp 157 1922 Untersuchungen über die Theorie der Brownschen Bewegungen Investigations of Brownian Motion§ Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft (Leipzig) Statistical mechanics. 22. delivered before the Nordische Naturforscherversammlung in Göteborg. "Sur la structure cosmologique de l'espace". Reprinted in Nobelstiftelsen. Fürth. together with a new essay by Einstein. which discusses the cosmological implications of general relativity.
Princeton University Press (Princeton) Schilpp 144 1921 La géometrie et l'expérience Maurice Solovine Gauthier (Paris) . French translation of publication #143. Italian translation of publication #129. French translation of publication #129. a short bibliography on relativity theory and an appendix written for this edition entitled "Experimental confirmation of the general theory of relativity".  Special and general relativity. Rouviere Edwin P.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein  Special and general relativity. with a historical introduction by PC Mahalanobis. Special and general relativity. Straus. Einstein added Appendix II on a generalized theory of gravitation. 1947). Inc. Two later editions were Ruiz de Lara (Cuenca. see publication #297. Russian translation of publication #129. Up to 10 editions were published by Methuen. L. Translations are found in publications #166. Special and general relativity. which was substantially revised for the fifth and final edition. 1925). Schilpp 130 1920 Relativity. 167. Lawson's biographical sketch of Albert Einstein. The appendix was translated by Ernst G. Itel'son Slowo (Berlin) Special and general relativity. Re-published in 1922 with the same imprint. The work of Hermann Minkowski is also included. Authorized translation of the 5th German edition of Ueber die spezielle und die allgemeine Relativitaetstheorie. 1931) and Hartsdale House. 110. General relativity. 1923) and Medina (Toledo. Schilpp 141 Schilpp 142 Mlle. Later imprints were Smith (New York. Special and general relativity. Calisse Zanichelli (Bologna) Schilpp 140 G. and 179. whereas the German text is listed as publication #156. Effectively the same as publication #130. Special and general relativity. respectively. but it is identical except for a change in pagination. The true third. A "third edition" was published in 1946 by Methuen (London). A second edition was also published by Gauthier in 1934. the Special and the General Theory: A Popular Exposition Robert W Lawson Methuen (London) Schilpp 137 1921 Relativity. A second edition was also released. (New York. B. with a long appendix covering various topics such as the cosmological implications of general relativity. Second edition of publication #142. Index  Year Book title Translator Publisher (Location) Classification and notes  Schilpp 128 1920 The Principle of Relativity: Original Papers MN Saha and SN Bose University of Calcutta (Kolkata)  Special and general relativity. Adams Gauthier (Paris) Special and general relativity. J. In the 3rd. fourth and fifth editions appeared in 1950. Lorente de Nó Peláez (Toledo) Schilpp 139 1921 Sulla teoria speciale e generale della relatività: Volgarizzione 1921 Teoriia Otnositel'nosti: Obshchedostypnoe Izlozhenie 1921 La théorie de la relativité restreinte et géneralisée 1921 The Meaning of Relativity: Four Lectures Delivered at Princeton University G. the last in 1931. 173 Schilpp 297 1945 The Meaning of Relativity Princeton University (Princeton) Authorized translations The following translations of his work were authorized by Einstein. Spanish translation of publication #129. publications #102. 129). Includes English translations of (journal) publications #9 and 89. Reprinted in 1922 and 1923. 1953 and 1956. the Special and the General Theory: A Popular Exposition 1921 Teoria de la relatividad especial y general RW Lawson Holt (New York) Schilpp 138 F. The text also includes Dr. Also released in 1922 and 1924 under the imprint Methuen (London). gemeinverstaendlich (cf.
II. Translation of publications #131 and 143.) 1928 Al Torath Ha-Yahasiuth Ha-Peratith Weha-Kelalith (Harzaah Popularith) Maurice Solovine AD Cowper Gauthier (Paris) Special and general relativity. Schilpp 155 GB Itel'son Slowo (Berlin) Special and general relativity. GB Jeffrey Ether and Relativity. ed. Schilpp 166 1923 Cztery odczyty o teorji Wzglednosci wygloszone w 1921 na Uniwersytecie w Princeton A Gottfryda Renaissance-Verlag (Vienna) Schilpp 167 Schilpp 169 1923 Matematicheskija Osnovy GB Itel'son Teorii Otnositel'nosti 1923 [A Popular Exposition of the Special and General Theories of Relativity] Unknown Slowo (Berlin) Special and general relativity. Special and general relativity. Special and general relativity. French translation of publications #9 and 10. Cantù and T. Hebrew translation of publication #129. Bembo Unknown Andare (Milano) Schilpp 154 Patheon irodalmi (Budapest) Special and general relativity. part of the series Maîtres de la pensée scientifique. Methuen (London) Schilpp 215 Jacob Greenberg Dvir (Tel Aviv) Special and general relativity. Schilpp 281 Flammarion (Paris) History of physics. Yiddish translation (in Hebrew characters) of publication #129. Republished in 1923 by Dutton (New York) imprint. Polish translation of publication #142. A second printing was dated 1925. and W Geometry and Experience Perrett Methuen (London) Schilpp 153 1922 Prospettive Relativistiche dell'Etere e della Geometria 1922 A Különleges és az Általános Relativitás. English translation of publication #157. French translation of publication #142. Italian translation of publications #131 and 143. Solovine faîtes à l'université de Princeton 1925 Sur l'électrodynamique des corps en mouvement 1926 Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian Movement (R. Russian translation of publications #131 and #143 under the title "Physical nature of space". The second part. . Statistical mechanics. Prelat Espasa-Calpe (Buenos Aires) Special and general relativity. Schilpp 189 Schilpp 198 Gauthier (Paris) Special relativity. Special and general relativity. Geometry and Experience. Schilpp 304 Dr. French translation of publication #279. Also published under the Dutton imprint in New York. Fürth. Schilpp 280 1938 Drie Eeuwen Physica van MC Galilei tot Geerling Relativiteitstheorie en Quantumtheorie 1938 L'évolution des idées en physique des premiers concepts aux théories de la relativité et des quanta 1948 El Significado de la Relatividad Maurice Solovine Centen (Amsterdam) History of physics. Spanish translation of publication #297. Schilpp 145 Schilpp 152 1921 L'éther et la théorie de la relativité Maurice Solovine 1922 Sidelights on Relativity: I. Dutch translation of publication #279. Hungarian translation of publication #129. was published separately in 1947 as chapter 8 of Methods of the sciences from the Chicago University. Carlos E. Elmélete 1922 O Fizicheskoi Prirodie Prostranstva R. Gitlina (Warsaw) Schilpp 179 1924 Quatre conférences sur la Maurice théorie de la relativité. Russian translation of publication #142. Special and general relativity. French translation of publication #131.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein 174 Gauthier (Paris) Special and general relativity. Reprinted in 1925.
E6. Terms such as "ser. For some articles.  The volume number is given in boldface type. however. 232–234. 57. Gravitation and Cosmology. and are indicated in boldface type. Lett. S (1972). ISBN 978-0198519973.  Pais. ref. 3. van der Marel. "Hubble Space Telescope Evidence for an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Globular Cluster M15. and Turneaure.  These Index numbers are taken from the Schilpp reference cited in the Bibliography. For example. E21. 440–459.  Knudson SK (2006). pp. pp.  J. doi:10. ref. The latter are indicated by a CP in italic type. Chap. "Gravitational Red-Shift in Nuclear Resonance" Phys. Florida. unofficial translations are indicated with a § superscript.. "Semiclassical quantization of the low lying electronic states of H2+". The Astronomical Journal 124 (6): 3270–3288. Inward Bound: Of Matter and Forces in the Physical World. G.  http:/ / www. Reinhardt WP (1979). physik..1063/1. Journal of Chemical Physics 70: 3812–3827. Weisberg and J. pp. pp. org/ abs/ astro-ph/ 0407149). E5.V. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1902_9_417-433. Any co-authors are always indicated by the second item. E13. Mac Keiser.00027 presented at the American Physical Society (APS) meeting in Jacksonville. 111–174. Pryor. physik.  http:/ / www. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Pais. pdf  Pais. pdf  Pais. 177–324. then start its volume numbering anew in a second series. .  Gerssen. Taylor. July 2004. 394. 325–354.  Pais. H.A. pp. II. 93–100. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1901_4_513-523. Roeland P. 389–401. poster L1. 2007. Puragra. 2002. 4. physik. 4. Ruth C. J.. pp.  http:/ / www. doi:10. 423–439. Rev.  Pais. 4.1021/ed083p464.  Weinberg. Rebka.. B.  Pais. a journal may appear in yearly volumes for 60 years (volumes 1–60). pp. ISBN 978-0-471-92567-5.. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1902_8_798-814. Gravity Probe B Experiment Error.  Pais. Chap. New York: John Wiley and Sons. pp. the volume number in boldface type. such official translations are not available.. M. doi:10. "The Old Quantum Theory for H2+: Some Chemical Implications". 364–388. Pound and G. org/ newscenter/ archive/ releases/ cosmology/ 2002/ 18/ text/ ). org/ abs/ astro-ph/ 0209315). 90–92. p. "Hubble Discovers Black Holes in Unexpected Places" (http:/ / hubblesite.437932. 3. Retrieved 2007-10-31. Chap. ref. . 402–415. p. pp. HubbelSite. Gebhardt. Strand MP. 694–730. on 14–17 April 2007. pp. 4. 412.  Pais. pp. uni-augsburg. Peterson.  R. Kinematic Analysis and Dynamical Modeling" (http:/ / arxiv.  Pais. 402–422. uni-augsburg. 3 439-441 (1959)  Muhlfelder. and by the article number within that volume. ref. pp. pp. 175–210. pdf  Pais.  Pais A (1988). Journal of Chemical Education 83: 464–472. 405–407. ref. Chap. Carlton (December 2002). Joris.  Pais. September 17. E10.  The subject classification of Einstein's articles are the first item.  Pais.  The translations of article titles are generally taken from the published volumes of Einstein's collected papers. 4" in the journal name refer to the series of the journal. .1086/344584. et al. which is a grouping of volumes. Guhathakurta. and from the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein published by Princeton University Press.  Pais.  Pais. Relativistic Binary Pulsar B1913+16: Thirty Years of Observations and Analysis (http:/ / arxiv.  Pais. Chap. Jr.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein 175 See also • • • • • • Einstein Papers Project History of special relativity History of general relativity History of the Big Bang theory History of quantum mechanics History of thermodynamics Footnotes  Pais. Chap. uni-augsburg. p. pp. Karl.
E8. pdf http:/ / www. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1905_18_639-641. 29. physik. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1909_28_885-888. physik. 26. http:/ / www. E19. 5. pdf Pais. Chap. Chap. Chap. pdf Pais. 29. Chap. ref. physik. 21. E5. Chap. E20. E5. 20. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1908_26_541-550. Chap. physik. E2. Chap. ref. http:/ / www. soso. uni-augsburg. pdf Pais. E21. E26. E17. uni-augsburg. Chap. pdf Pais. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1905_17_549-560. uni-augsburg. physik. 5. Chap. E9. pdf Pais. E11 and E49. ref. Chap. 10. E9. 7. 7. 4. Pais. ref. refs. pdf Pais. uni-augsburg. ref. physik. uni-augsburg. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1905_17_891-921. ref. Chap. E18. 4. E8. Chap. ref. E23. ref. ref. 7. 10. http:/ / www. physik. 4. E7. Chap. E9. 29. E12. 7. Chap. ref. ref. Chap. Chap. physik. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1907_23_371-384. Chap. uni-augsburg. Pais. 5. Chap. uni-augsburg. ref. Pais. http:/ / www. E19. uni-augsburg. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1907_22_800. 7. http:/ / www. ref. E2. ref. Chap. E22. E11. ref. 6. physik. pdf Pais. pdf Pais. refs. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1907_23_197-198. ref. uni-augsburg. E18. E11. E3. 4. http:/ / www. pdf Pais. Chap. 21. Chap. 7. 5. ref. pdf http:/ / www. Chap. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1909_28_445-447. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1908_27_232. E27. Chap. ref. pdf Pais. Chap. ref. 7. 10. 4. ref. uni-augsburg. ref. ref. Pais. ref. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1910_33_1096-1104. ref. pdf Pais. ref. E24 and E47. Chap. E1 and E2. 26. 5. pdf Pais. 4. Chap. 5. Chap. uni-augsburg. physik. ref. ref. E26. Pais. E13. Chap. E22. 4. E3. Chap. Chap. E1 and E4. Chap. 7. ref. http:/ / www. uni-augsburg. Chap. 7. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1906_20_627-633. ref. Pais. 19. E5. http:/ / www. Chap. 11. ref. Chap.  http:/ / www. Chap. Chap. uni-augsburg. 9. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1911_34_170-174. Chap. ref. ref. 8. E6. ref. http:/ / www. Chap. ref. E8. pdf Pais. E5. ref. Chap. ref. 6. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1906_19_289-306. ref. E1. http:/ / www. pdf Pais. pdf . Chap. pdf http:/ / www. 21. E12. ref. 4. ref. Chap. http:/ / www. Chap. physik. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1906_21_583-586. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1910_33_1275-1298. pdf Pais. 4. 7. Chap. http:/ / www. 26. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1906_19_371-381. 4. 7. uni-augsburg. physik. Chap. ref. 19. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1907_22_569-572. and E15. 4. ch/ wissen/ hist/ SRT/ E-1907. E3. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1907_22_180-190. 4. http:/ / www. uni-augsburg. E5. E29. Chap. E2. ref. 7. ref. http:/ / www. 7. E3. ref. 4. E2. Chap. physik. E21. ref. uni-augsburg. Chap. E1. physik. 5. uni-augsburg. ref. E4. Chap. Pais. Chap. pdf Pais. 19. 8. uni-augsburg. 11. uni-augsburg. 4. 19. E2. 12. E10. uni-augsburg. ref. 10. physik. refs. uni-augsburg. Chap. 23. 29. E10. ref. physik. Chap. physik. refs. Chap. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1907_23_206-208. ref. E3. Chap. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1906_20_199-206. E7. pdf Pais. Chap. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1911_34_165-169. Pais. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1910_33_1105-1115. pdf Pais. 176  http:/ / www. uni-augsburg. ref. pdf Pais. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1904_14_354-362. uni-augsburg. Chap. E14. ref. ref. Chap. Chap. refs. E25. E13. R1. pdf  Pais.List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein                                                         http:/ / www. E25. E11. Chap. physik. ref. Pais. E10. physik. 29. physik. http:/ / www. refs. Chap. 4. http:/ / www. E9. E4 and E17. Chap. Chap. pdf Pais. ref. uni-augsburg. ref. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1903_11_170-187. ref. 7. physik. 4. physik. pdf Pais. 29. 8. ref. E27. ref. ref. uni-augsburg. Chap. http:/ / www. physik. Chap. physik. Chap. physik. ref. Chap. Chap. E16 and E28. pdf Pais. Chap. http:/ / www. E10. ref. 29. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1905_17_132-148. uni-augsburg. ref. E23. E5. E25. refs. http:/ / www. Chap. ref. Chap. E15. 5. ref. http:/ / www. Chap. Chap. http:/ / www. E12. 7. physik. E11. E7.
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