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An extraordinary new kind of world marketplace of volume, of variation, and of quality is growing. It is the market place in which the rising expectations of buyers ± whatever the consumers or industrial corporations ± have greatly intensified the demands upon business management. To cope with this ever changing market of buyers demanding quality products, organization use Total Quality Management ± TQM ± approach. TQM means continuous improvement in production, operation and supply chain. But to improve these areas, the organizations have to ingrain the total quality concept in the minds of their employees. Thus, continuous improvement through human capital is utmost necessary. Here comes the concept of leadership, TQM is a very people oriented and has many implications for the study and application of organizational behavior. Some principles and practices of TQM may differ among firms and industries, but there is unanimous agreement as to the importance of leadership by management in implementing TQM. Such leadership is a pre- requisite to all strategy and action plans. The growing literature on total quality management stresses the importance of TQM to organizational performance and has repeatedly stressed the lack of leadership support for the failure of many TQM initiatives. Some investigators have examined the implementation of total quality management and its impact on organizational performance, with both sets of researchers identifying strong positive relationships between the implementation of total quality management and performance. Several researchers in the total quality and management literatures have pointed to the importance of the role of leadership in managing quality. Hackman & Wageman¶s (1995) analysis concluded that the founders of the movement view quality as the ultimate and inescapable responsibility of top management. There seems to be a strong consensus among the founders of the quality movement as far as the importance of leadership to managing quality is concerned, as evidenced by their writings, with all of these founders viewing quality as a leadership responsibility and viewing TQM principles as being principles of leadership.
1 Leadership By Example ± Leadership for Quality
Whenever that happens. They build trust and strengthen relationships. The leader who led by example (transformational leaders) encourages followers by acting as a role model." but then buys herself brand-new luxury office furniture. They 2 Leadership By Example ± Leadership for Quality . motivating through inspiration. Do you know any of these people? There's hardly anything worse for company morale than leaders who practice the "Do as I say. They can be very destructive. stimulating intellectually. It's like watching the air go out of a balloon ± and cynicism and disappointment usually take its place. People are much more likely to follow a leader when they believe in that leader. not as I do" philosophy. They are always visible and will stand up to be counted rather than hide behind their troops.There are a number of different approaches. and then leaves promptly at 5:00pm to go golfing. The style that individuals use will be based on a combination of their beliefs. arguing. If this ever happened to you. you can almost see the loss of enthusiasm and goodwill among the staff. what leaders often have to say to their followers can directly conflict with their followers' beliefs and long standing habits? The results are chaos. values and preferences. and poor performance. but is discovered buying groceries online in the middle of the afternoon. There can be the boss who tells everyone to stay late. and giving individualized consideration for needs and goals. No matter what the situation is. double standards ± witnessing people say one thing and then doing another ± always feel like betrayals. Unfortunately. There's the supervisor who criticizes everyone for spending time on the Internet. To build a concept that leading by example is the most demanding and most needed trait of the total quality leaders is the purpose of this position paper. as well as the organizational culture and norms which will encourage some styles and discourage others. or 'styles' to leadership and management that are based on different assumptions and theories. They stand firm against the winds of resistance and give their followers the courage to continue the quest. you can probably remember that sense of disappointment and letdown. your best bet is to step back and lead through example. And the CFO who recommends layoffs to stop "unnecessary spending. When this happens.
their exemplary impact is great" and unavoidable. As Subordinates are constantly interpreting everything a Leader does in any manner. Subordinates will also naturally seek to emulate the behaviors of a successful Leader.´ 3 Leadership By Example ± Leadership for Quality . So. ³Example is leadership´ (Albert Schweitzer) ³This typical old bromide of leadership wisdom should be amended to read: "lead by good example. soothing and enthusing (Kotelnikov. 2001). listening. way. the possibility of leading effectively or being taken seriously with a "do as I say. Thus most importantly. as a result. ideas and symbols. or form. not as I do" leadership attitude is highly remote. For "effective leaders deal not only with the explicit decisions of the day«but also with that partly conscious." for it is absolutely impossible for a Leader not to set either a positive or negative example by his or her decisions and general deportment. or greatly risk reducing their motivational impact. Consequently. They serve as models. they symbolize the group's unity and identity. and based upon their individual motivations and assessments will modify their own behavior accordingly. Leaders must project an unshakable belief that the objective can and will be accomplished. partly buried world of needs and hopes. They also make continued efforts to motivate and rally their followers. and try to equal or surpass his or her accomplishments or skills at their respective level.show by their attitudes and actions how everyone else should behave. constantly doing the rounds.
TQM and Leadership in Literature Whenever we talk about leadership in total quality management. timely responses to customer concerns by having all employees take a leadership role as well as share information and expertise. the primary of both is to increase performance and job satisfaction of the employees. But the key differences in leadership between TQM and traditional organizations are as follows: y Strategic leadership is more important in TQM organizations because TQM is more likely to emphasize that internal systems be aligned with external environments y Visionary leadership because the success of TQM depends on employees sharing a common vision or goal y y Designing reward systems for all stakeholders to foster creativity and innovation Empowerment and teamwork. Processes include: o Processes of production o Processes of sales and distribution o Processes to find out customers needs and problems o Processes to find out information about new markets technologies for new products and services o Process to create and test new products o Thousands and thousands of processes y Leadership in total quality management emphasis on studying these processes using scientific approach y The main focus of leadership in total quality is on quality ± quality of every product. p125) 4 Leadership By Example ± Leadership for Quality . Leadership is typically defined by the traits.´ (Puffer and McCarthy. qualities and behavior of the leader. we define it as: y y A management approach that focuses on giving top priority and value to the customer Improving every process by which work is accomplished. services and process y Leadership focuses on continuous improvement by creating environment which gives confidence to everyone in the organization to contribute positively to the organization. 1996. Leadership theories and TQM have only one thing same for leadership.
because this team always includes everyone in the organization who work positively for the continuous improvement of all the processes. In other words. 5 Leadership By Example ± Leadership for Quality .It has been said that. Use the scientific approach to study and improve all the processes of the organization. Joseph Juran has argued since the early 1950¶s ± that at least 85% of the failure ion any organizations are the fault of the system controlled by the management. creating an environment of ALL ONE TEAM is very difficult. the most difficult thing in leadership in total quality is to create an environment where everyone is contributing positively for the continuous improvement in all the processes of the organization. Quality Scientific Approach ALL ONE TEAM ³The three fundamental elements of total quality leadership begin with a focus on quality ± focus on customers. sometimes. but to add an extra perception in their concepts. This is one aspect of JOINER TRIANGLE. Fewer than 15% of the problems are actually worker related«´ Why? Assuming that the first 2 elements were perfectly done and just focusing the 3rd element ± All One Team ± was the failure because of wrongly created team? Impossible.´ The objective of this position paper is not to deny concepts of TQM guru¶s. ³Dr. And treated everyone as ³All One Team:´ break down barriers and drive out fear so that everyone can work for the company.
they can solve it easily. there is a situation in which leader tell the employees to stay late and he 6 Leadership By Example ± Leadership for Quality . But what they have to do for problem 7 and 8 that are uncontrollable? They leaders have to go for Leading by Example. the situation is in the hand of leaders. it's important for a leader to understand the value of diversity so that he can lead by example and avoid behaviors that could be interpreted as discriminatory. From problem 1 to problem 6. For problem 7. As in introduction.Let¶s examine the points of the third element ± the All One Team that can cause problems : All One Team Element 1: Lack of Management Support = Leadership Problem Element 2: Conflict among employees = Leadership Problem Element 3: No Proper Direction/Guidance = Leadership Problem Element 4: No job Satisfaction = Leadership Problem Element 5: No Motivation = Leadership Problem Element 6: No Proper Communication = Leadership Problem Element 7: Diversified Team = Leadership Problem Element 8: No Trust on Leader = Leadership Problem There can be more problems and as shown above almost all of the problems are due to leadership problem. mistrust build up because of gap between what leaders say and what they do. Regarding problem 8.
sharp. We can consider the transformation leadership the leadership by example. Continuously doing this creates mistrust which becomes the reason of the failure. In search of a leadership style that is highly congruent with Deming¶s 14 points. Leading by example create trust among the leaders and followers because the leader don¶t the ³Do as I say. As transformational leaders not only becomes the part of the process but they also focus on helping every member of the group. not as I do´ approach. Deming TQM Leadership Style The leading by example is not a leadership style. Bass conducted a research and examine the relationship between five TQM behavior factors and different leadership styles.= negative relation ? = Depends on leader + ? + ? ? + ? + + + - 7 Leadership By Example ± Leadership for Quality .m. The following table shows the relations: TQM behavior Factor Full Range Leadership Styles Change Agency Continuous Improvement Teamwork Trust building Short term goals eradication Transformational Transactional MBE Laissez Faire + = positive relation . but it¶s a part of transformational leadership style. The proverb ³actions speak louder than words´ becomes true in leadership by example.leaves at 5 p.
Welch stayed true to his passions and what he knew was right. In case of Transactional leadership. leader have to show the way to the followers by doing it. it is negatively related to short term goals and positively related to trust building. it is positively related to change agency. the leader responsibilities are to make employees flexible ± comfortable with the change and to make them able to participate positively in the continuous process of the processes. To do this. he had to turn everything upside down. It wasn't just "talk. GE became an incredibly successful company under his management. Take the example of legendary businessman. continuous improvement and teamwork only if the leader considers change agency.According to the above table. all the TQM behavioral factors are positively to transformational leadership making it highly congruent with Deming 14 points. So it proves that the Deming 14 points support leadership by example. because the people within it knew that he always kept his word. continuous improvement and teamwork to be appropriate paths for the followers to achieve their goals." and it didn't take his team long to figure that out. In case of transformational leadership. Why Leadership by Example In a TQM oriented organization. Everyone from the lowest line workers to senior managers got his attention ± if they had something to say or a new idea that might make the company better. leader must be an example. He wanted his team ³turned loose´ and he promised to listen to ideas from anyone in the company. Same is the case with Management by Exception.´ 8 Leadership By Example ± Leadership for Quality ." This means that everyone is free to brainstorm and think of ideas ± instead of waiting for someone "higher up" in the bureaucracy to think of them first. laissez faire have zero relation with TQM as there is no positive relation between any TQM behavior factor and leadership style. So that's just what he did. Jack Welch of General Electric: ³Welch knew that to push GE to new heights. As a result. And he did. He developed the whole idea of a "boundary less organization. His team was always willing to follow his lead.
calls on the concept of the involvement.I met the brand manager of an organization here in Pakistan and got his comments on leadership by example. but I might need these one day when you get old. 9 Leadership By Example ± Leadership for Quality . the grandmother crashed a fine china cup and that made her daughter very upset. The grandmother was seriously ill and she died several months later and her daughter threw away the plastic cups and plates. The family was consisted of a child. So if leaders expect performance from the employees. This is a maxim like story and i. Pushing a team from the back is not the leadership. The grandmother fells seriously ill and her daughter bring her home. the leader must have to give the performance." Same is the case with the employees. ³Rather than thinking that leading from the front means "do as I do". Someone says. leadership is to lead from the front.´ (Cory Thompson). not only the employee involvement but also the leader involvement in decision making and in all the processes of an organization. Leadership by example supports employee involvement and employees who are encouraged to offer their ideas and whose contributions are taken seriously are more satisfied and productive on the job. He explained the theory behind leadership by example with the following story or example which he read on a website. for both themselves and their fellow workers Leading by front and leading by example provide those means as the leader motivates them to build a sense of continuous improvement and it needs the management or leader involvement. ³"I did not know that you missed your grandmother so much. ³Employee involvement provides the means through which workers develop and express their own commitment to continuous improvement. Due to illness. I don't. his mother and his grandmother who used to live alone. So she bought a plastic cups and plates for her mother. Leading from the front. The child retrieves the plastic cups and plates from the trash and his mother. That was much enough to embarrass her mother. ³When I was a kid. says. "Oh. let's alter the meaning to "I am willing to do whatever I have asked you to do.e." The little child replied. Employee involvement is nothing without leader involvement. my mother used to tell me a story about a family. standing there. a leader will gain the same what he gave to his employees.
lean means creating more value for customers with fewer resources. Simply. In lean management. ³Respect for people´ is not only the principle that enables continuous improvement but it is the main focus of leadership by example. The idea of lean management is to maximize customer value while minimizing waste. wrote in his article that the best lean leader identify and apply both Lean Principles and these are: y y Continuous improvement Respect for people But the respect for people has long been ignored. and is also knowledgeable in leadership principles.). 2 or 3 in importance (where 1 is most important) 10 Leadership By Example ± Leadership for Quality . The findings of the research are: y 90% of the respondents rated Leadership as a factor enabling successful change as 1. etc. there is a concept of lean leadership. unnoticed and misunderstood by most of the leaders. they used lean management approach and they were successful. A "Lean Leader" is someone who has a demonstrated knowledge of continuous process improvement tools (LEAN. Lean leadership also support leading by example as Bob Emiliani wrote in the same article the features of lean leaders and humbleness and participative is one of them. Theory of Constraints. According to Bob Emiliani from The Center for Lean Business Management (LLC). Process Reengineering. But when their competitors used the same approach they were half successful. 2 or 3 in importance (where 1 is most important) y 70% of the respondents rated Leader who ³walk the talk´ as a factor enabling sustainable change as 1. A research was conducted in University of Cardiff (UK) and University of Twente (The Netherlands) for multi-level management and leadership skills for lean organization. Benchmarking.In TQM there is a concept of lean management. Six Sigma. Take the Toyota¶s example. overlooked.
The behavior and functions of a leader can¶t be classified as transactional or transformational. the skills of leader who lead by example are more characteristics of transformational leadership. set them aside in order to achieve an overall objective y He has to show that he is in command. for total quality organization.´ The reason why in order to lead one must demonstrate that he is able to follow or to lead by example is that your follower not only look upon you as a guide. no one can say transactional leadership or transformational leadership is the best. and respect for people and it also cover all the traditional functions of a leader. should personally participate in the continuous improvement activities to learn new skills to lead better to remove waste and improving all the processes of the organization and hence improving the competitiveness. which combines both transactional and transformational. Today. including the CEO. but a leader learn these skills through kaizen. employee involvement.Conclusion Leadership is broad term and has no pet definition. but as a role model. The style of the leadership is mostly based on the environment of the organization. Three simple ways to lead by example ± giving you loads of benefits are (by Roy Sencio): y A leader must show a group that he is willing and able to take part in decision making or policy making activities set by the group. employee empowerment. The best leader is the one who use every style needed. and submit and abide by them just like everybody else y Leaders have to sacrifice personal convictions. ³A good Leader is also a good Follower. But the leadership in traditional organizations is totally different from the leadership in the organizations using Total Quality Approach or Lean Management approach as proved above for change leadership is required but for the continuous change leading by example is necessary. Leading by example supports all the TQM concepts including continuous improvement. The lean leadership or leadership by example skills are built through direct observation and participating in continuous improvement of the processes of the organization to remove waste and creating more value for the end customers. but also portray the image of a good follower 11 Leadership By Example ± Leadership for Quality . We have heard it often. leaders.
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