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Basic Electricity Concepts
• Gain a basic understanding of electricity concepts as they relate to PJM • Gain a basic understanding of generation and transmission • Understand the differences in the bulk power and distribution systems • Understand PJM’s role in the power system
Electricity and Electric Current • Electricity The flow or movement of electrons through a material • Current (Amps/Amperes) The rate of flow of electrons through a conductor
pjm.com 5 .Direct Current • Electrons flowing in one direction are Direct Currents (DC) 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.
pjm.Alternating Current • Electrons flowing in one direction and then the other direction are Alternating Currents (AC) 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.com 6 .
000 volts – Example: 345 kV line = 345.com 7 .000 volts 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.pjm.Voltage • Voltage is the force pushing electrons through a material • The voltage of the high voltage system is defined in kilovolts (kV) or 1.
pjm.Energy • Energy is the ability. to do work • Electricity is one form of energy.com 8 . Other forms are: – light – chemical – mechanical – heat – atomic – sound 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www. or capacity.
pjm.Power Power: • refers to how rapidly energy is used or converted – is the rate of using energy – is measured in megawatts Most power suppliers use megawatts to quantify how much power a generator is producing 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.com 9 .
pjm.Conductors • Electricity is transmitted by conductors • Conductors allow electrons to flow • Conductors are the wires on the poles 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.com 10 .
com 11 .pjm.Residential service • Most power suppliers use kilowatts to quantify the demand (how much electricity we use) for billing purposes • Electrical energy over time is measured in units of kilowatthours (kWh) • Most utilities price their service to residential customers based on the number of kilowatt-hours used/measured by the electric meter 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.
Electric Power • There are 3 types of electric power: – Real power (watts. or kW) – Reactive power (kilovolt-amps reactive or kVAR) – Apparent power (kilovolt-amps or kVA) 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www. kilowatts.pjm.com 12 .
kilowatts (kW).000 watts 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.000. or megawatts (MW) – Household meters measure real power – the power we use at home – Real power does the work – it lights the lights and runs the motors – Example: A light bulb is 100 watts • Kilowatts = 1.com 13 .pjm.Real Power • Real power can be measured in watts (W).000 watts – kW is the residential billing term • Megawatts = 1.
Reactive Power • Reactive power provides the magnetic field to make motors operate • The magnetic field is needed for real power (MW) to flow through transformers • The magnetic field is the invisible force of magnetism – Example: The head on a beer 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.pjm.com 14 .
pjm.com 15 .) is the ratio of real power (kW) to apparent power (kVA) in a circuit 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.f.Apparent Power and Power Factor • Apparent power is the actual/total power the generator must supply to the system – It includes both real power (kilowatts) and reactive power (kVARS) • The bulk power system needs both real power and reactive power to be reliable • Power Factor (p.
com 16 .pjm.Power Factor MVAR Reactive Power MVA MW Total Power Active Power Power Factor = ratio of beer/capacity of mug 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.
pjm.com 17 .Basic Design 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.
pjm. 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.com 18 .PJM’s AC Grid • PJM’s AC grid is supported by AC generators • Alternating currents produced by AC generators are supplied by today’s modern power suppliers to economically transport electricity over long distances • These and other generating sources are the PJM Generation System.
Generation • Synchronous generators in North America rotate at the same speed of 60 Hz frequency – the generator is rotating at 60 cycles per second • Generators “spit out” the electrons and produce the electricity that is transmitted over electrical wires.pjm.com 19 . 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.
com 20 .pjm.Transmission • The power flowing through the wires is the PJM Transmission System • The transmission system moves electricity at high voltages from generating stations 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.
pjm.com 21 .The bulk power system This high voltage system is the bulk power system 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.
Transmission Bus Transmission busses are like “power strips”.pjm. A bus is a bar that connects transmission lines for distribution Bus 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.com 22 .
com 23 .pjm.Transformer Transformers step the flow of electricity up or down Transformer 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.
pjm.com 24 .Circuit Breaker • Circuit breakers operate to switch electric circuits and equipment in and out of the power system 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.
com 25 .pjm.One-line Diagram Transmission line Bus Transformer Circuit breaker 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.
Distribution (1) Primary distribution electricity enters the substation from a transmission line (2) The electricity is connected to large transformers that step the voltage down (3 & 4) Smaller transformers step down some electricity again (5 & 6) A network of local power lines distributes the lower-voltage electricity to the neighborhood 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.com 26 .pjm.
pjm.Distribution Follow the path of electricity from the high voltage system to the end-use customer 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.com 27 .
000 Volts 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.GENERATOR STEP UP TRANSFORMERS 25 kV/500 kV Generator Step Up 25 kV=25.pjm.com 28 .
000 Volts 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.pjm.Generator Step Up 25 kV=25.000 Volts 500 kV=500.com 29 .
pjm.500 kV Transmission Scherer 500 kV Lines 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.com 30 .
SUBSTATION 500 kV 230kV Bank 500 kV/230 kV Transformers 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.pjm.com 31 .
com 32 .230 kV Line 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM 230 kV Transmission Line www.pjm.
pjm.com 33 .SUBSTATION 230 kV/115 kV 115 kV Bank 230 kV Transformer 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.
pjm.115 kV Line 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM 115 kV Transmission Line www.com 34 .
pjm.com 35 .Substation Transformer Bank A 115 kV/12 kV Smarr Substation 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.
115 kV 12 kV Bank 115 kV/12 kV Transformer to step down voltage 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.com 36 .pjm.
com 37 .Voltage Regulator Breaker and Regulator Circuit Breaker 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.pjm.
com 38 .The distribution system This low voltage system is the distribution system 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.pjm.
12 kV Line 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM 12 kV Distribution Line www.pjm.com 39 .
pjm.com 40 .Overhead Transformer Overhead Transformer 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.
Consumer CONSUMER 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.com 41 .pjm.
Retail Choice Traditional Utility Generation Customer Traditional Utility Generation Other Suppliers Other suppliers 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.com 42 .pjm.
pjm.PJM’s Role • PJM balances available generation with demand (load) by economically dispatching generation • PJM maintains reliability by monitoring the transmission system • PJM balances and monitors the power system via communication • PJM does not own or operate any generation or transmission equipment 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.com 43 .
Summary • The generation system supplies electricity • The transmission system moves electricity • The high voltage system is the bulk power system • The electricity in your home is supplied by the distribution system • PJM’s monitors and balances the system via communication • PJM does not own or operate any generation or transmission equipment 9/14/2006 ©2006 PJM www.com 44 .pjm.