NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING.

AN INTRODUCTION.

D.S.KUSHWAH,NDT SERVICES

WHAT IS NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING?

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING IS THE NAME GIVEN TO SEVERAL TESTING METHODS COLLECTIVELY.THESE TESTING METHODS HELP US IN DETECTING DEFECTS IN MATERIALS WITHOUT CAUSING ANY CHANGE IN OR DAMAGE TO THE TESTED MATERIALS.

D.S.KUSHWAH,NDT SERVICES

WHICH ARE THE COMMON NDT METHODS?
THE MOST COMMONLY USED NDT METHODS ARE:
RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION. ULTRASONIC FLAW DETECTION. MAGNETIC PARTICLE EXAMINATION. LIQUID PENETRANT EXAMINATION. EDDY CURRENT EXAMINATION. MAGNETIC FLUX LEAKAGE METHODS. VISUAL EXAMINATION. ACCOUSTIC EMMISSION. THERMOGRAPHY
D.S.KUSHWAH,NDT SERVICES

WHAT ARE THE MATERIAL DEFECTS?[1]
ENGINEERING INDUSTRY MAKES USE OF A GREAT VARIETY OF MATERIALS IN MANUFACTURING USEFUL PRODUCTS NEEDED BY THE SOCIETY.SOME OF THESE PRODUTS, FOR EXAMPLE,ARE: MACHINE TOOLS. A RANGE OF MACHINERY FOR MANUFACTURING CONSUMER GOODS. HEAVY MACHINERY FOR CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY.
D.S.KUSHWAH,NDT SERVICES

WHAT ARE THE MATERIAL DEFECTS?[2]
MACHINERY FOR MINING INDUSTRY. PLANT EQUIPMENTS FOR FERTILIZER,PETROCHEMICALS,OIL REFINING AND CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. EQUIPMENTS FOR POWER GENERATION. TRANSPORTAION INDUSTRY : SHIPBUILDING,RAILWAYS, AUTOMOBILES, AVIATION.

D.S.KUSHWAH,NDT SERVICES

NICKEL AND CHROMIUM ALLOYS.NDT SERVICES . METALS: IRON AND ITS ALLOYS: SUCH AS CARBON STEEL. D.HIGH ALLOY STEELS ETC. ALUMUNUM AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS CONTAINING MAINLY MAGNESIUM. THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES MAKE USE OF MANY DIFFERENT MATERIALS.S.WHAT ARE THE MATERIAL DEFECTS?[3] IN MAUFACTURING ALL THESE GOODS.KUSHWAH.AND OR TITANIUM.LOW ALLOY STEELS. SOME OF THE MOST COMMONLY USED MATERIALS ARE: WOOD.

KUSHWAH.THESE ALLOYS ARE KNOWN AS BRASS.S. PLASTICS.NDT SERVICES . COMPOSITES.WHAT ARE THE MATERIAL DEFECTS?[4] COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS CONTAINING OTHER METALS LIKE ZINK. BRONZE ETC. LEAD AND TIN ALLOYS FOR BEARING SURFACES. TIN ETC. D. CERAMICS AND GLASSES.

KUSHWAH.WHAT ARE THE MATERIAL DEFECTS?[5] THE INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS LISTED ABOVE HAVE TO PASS THROUGH A SERIES OF POCESSES BEFORE THEY TAKE THEIR FINAL FORM IN WHICH THEY ARE USABLE . OR FOR A RANGE OF APPLICATIONS. ALL THESE PROCESSES ARE INTENDED TO GIVE THE MATERIALS THE PROPERTIES WHICH WILL MAKE THEM USABLE EITHER FOR A PARTICULAR APPLICATION . D. ANY MANUFACTURING PROCESS HAS POSSIBILITY OF FAILURES WHICH INTRODUCE UNINTENDED AND UNDESIRABLE CHANGES IN THE INTENDED PROPERTIES.S. HOWEVER. SUCH DEVIATIONS IN THE MATERIAL PROPERTIES ARE KNOWN AS FLAWS.NDT SERVICES .

D.NDT SERVICES . IN THE NEXT SLIDE WE WILL DISCUSS THE TYPES OF DISCONTINUITIES ASSOCIATED WITH DIFFERENT MANUFACTURING PROCESSES.KUSHWAH. A DISCONTINUITY IS AN ABRUPT CHANGE IN THE CONTINUITY OF A MATERIAL.WHAT ARE THE MATERIAL DEFECTS?[6] A CATEGORY OF SUCH UNINTENDED AND UNDESRIRABLE PROPERTIES RESULTING FROM PROCESS FAILURES IS KNOWN AS “DISCONTINUITY”.S.

POROSITY AND INCOMPLETE PENETRATION OR FUSION.COMMONLY KNOWN AS BLOWHOLES OR POROSITY. WELDED JOINDS HAVE INCLUSIONS . ROLLED METAL SECTIONS HAVE SEAMS. FORGINGS HAVE CRACKS AND LAPS. D.NDT SERVICES . CERAMICS HAVE CRACKS. PLATES HAVE LAMINATIONS AND SLIVERS.STRINGERS. CASTINGS ALSO HAVE CAVITIES AND SPONGINESS RESULTING FROM SHRINKAGE.INCLUSIONS AND CRACKS.WHAT ARE THE MATERIAL DEFECTS?[7] CASTINGS MAY HAVE ENTRAPPED GAS.KUSHWAH. COMPOSITES HAVE DEBONDS.S.

D.NDT SERVICES .WHAT ARE THE MATERIAL DEFECTS?[8] EVERY COMPONENT OF A MACHINE OR AN EQUIPMENT OR A MEMBER OF A STRUCTURE IS LOADED AND IS EXPECTED TO WITHSTAND SERVICE STRESSES DURING THE DESIGN LIFETIME OF THE COMPONENT..KUSHWAH.EQUIPMENT OR STRUCTURE.S. THE ABILITY OF SUCH MATERIAL TO WITHSTAND THE SERVICE STRESSES IS ADVERSELY AFFECTED IN THE PRESENCE OF ONE OR MORE DISCONTINUITIES.

S. IT BECOMES NECESSARY TO DETECT THE DEFECTS WITHOUT AFFECTING THE MATERIAL IN ANY MANNER. THE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES ARE REFINED TO GIVE AS DEFECT FREE A PRODUCT AS POSSIBLE.KUSHWAH. D. BECAUSE THE DEFECTS CAN CAUSE PREMATURE AND SUDDEN FAILLURE OF A STRESSED COMPONENT. SINCE DEFECTS CAN OCCUR EVEN IN A WELL DEVELOPED AND WELL MONITORED MAUFACTURING PROCESS. THIS TASK IS ACCOMPLISHED USING ONE OF THE SEVERAL NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS.NDT SERVICES .WHAT ARE THE MATERIAL DEFECTS?[9] THOSE DISCONTINUITIES WHICH RENDER A MATERIAL UNFIT FOR THE INTENDED SERVICE ARE CALLED ‘’ DEFECTS’’.

[1] RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION ENABLES US TO SEE THE DISCONTINUITIES WHICH ARE TOTALLY WITHIN THE EXAMINED ARTICLE.S. DENSITY AND ATOMIC NUMBER OF THE MATERIAL. AND THE THICKNESS OF THE MATERIAL IN THEIR PATH.WHEN THESE RADIATIONS PASS THROUGH ANY MATERIAL. NOR HAS THE SIMPLICITY OF THE RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING PROCEDURES.THEIR INTENSITY CHANGES [REDUCES] DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF RADIATION. D.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS RADIOGRAPHY.NDT SERVICES .KUSHWAH. RADIOGRAHIC EXAMINATION IS BASED ON THE PROPERTIES OF IONIZING RADIATIONS LIKE X RAYS AND GAMMA RAYS . THIS IS THE PHENOMENA OF “ATTENUATION ”. NO OTHER NDT METHOD CAN PRODUCE IMAGES AS EASY TO UNDERSTAND. THESE TWO FEATURES HAVE MADE THE RADIORAPHIC INSPECTION MOST WIDELY USED NDT METHOD IN INDUSTRY.[1] RADIORAPHIC PROCESS.

KUSHWAH. RADIORAPHIC PROCESS.IF THE DISCONTINUITY HAS HIGHER DENSIY. D. THE RADIATION PASSING THROUGH SUCH A DISONTINUITY HAS LOWER INTENSITY.[2] THE RADIATIONS.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS RADIOGRAPHY. CARRY THE INFORMATION REGARDING THE PRESENCE OF DISCONTINUITIES IN THE FORM OF CHANGES IN THE INTENSITIES OF THE RADIANT ENERGY. SOME DISCONTINUITIES ARE EITHER VOIDS OR MATTER HAVING LESSER DENSITY COMPARED TO THE MATERIAL PATH IN THE DISCONTINUITY FREE AREA. SO THE RADIATION INTENSITIES ARE HIGHER FOR RADIATION WHICH HAS PASSED THROUGH SUCH DISCONTINUITIES . AFTER PASSING THROUGH THE MATERIAL.ON THE OTHER HAND .S.NDT SERVICES .

S. RADIORAPHIC PROCESS. HOW THE INTENSITY OF THE XRAY BEAM CHANGES DEPENDING UPON THE MATERIAL PRESENT IN ITS PATH AND HOW THESE CHANGED INTENSITIES ARE RECORDED BY THE XRAY FILM AS AREAS HAVING DIFFERENT DEGREE OF DARKENING OF THE PROCESSED XRAY FILM.[3] THIS FIGURE SHOWS HOW THE BEAM OF XRAYS ORIGINATING FROM THE FOCAL SPOT OF THE X RAY TUBE HAS UNIFORM INTENSITY BEFORE PASSING THROUGH THE TEST OBJECT. D.NDT SERVICES .KUSHWAH.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS RADIOGRAPHY. THE DEGREE OF DARKNESS OF PROCESSED XRAY FILM IS MEASURED IN TERMS OF THE DEGREE OF OPACITY OF THE FILM AND IS CALLED DENSITY.

D.NDT SERVICES . SOME OTHER IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF THESE RADIATIONS ARE: [1] THEY ARE INVISBLE.KUSHWAH.S. RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS[4] RADIATION SOURCES. [3] THE INTERACTIONS OF RADIATIONS WITH MATTER CHANGE BOTH THE INTENSITY AND ENERGY OF THE ORIGINAL RADIATION.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS RADIOGRAPHY. ALL THE SOURCES USED IN RADIOGRAPHY EMIT ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATIONS IN THE RANGE OF WAVELENGTHS WHICH HAVE THE ABILITY TO PENETRATE AND PASS THROUGH MATTER.HENCE THESE RADIATIONS ARE ALSO KNOWN AS IONIZING RADIATIONS.[1] RADIATIONS FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING IS OBTAINED FROM A VAREITY OF SOURCES. [2] THEY INTERACT WITH THE MATTER IN SEVERAL DIFFERENT WAYS. ONE OF THESE INTERACTIONS IONIZES THE MATTER .

[7 ] NONE OF THE SENSORY ORGANS CAN DETECT THE PRESENCE OF THESE RADIATIONS. PLATES AND PAPER TO BE AFFECTED AS IF THE SAME WERE EXPOSED TO VISIBLE LIGHT. RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS RADIATION SOURCES. CAUSING THE COATINGS TO BLACKEN AFTER IT IS SUBJECTED TO FILM DEVELOPING PROCESS.KUSHWAH. [5] EXPOSURE TO THESE RADIATIONS IS INJURIOUS TO LIVING CELLS .[2] [4] THESE RADIATIONS TRAVEL IN A STRAIGHT LINE.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS-RADIOGRAPHY. [6] THESE RADIATIONS CAUSE THE PHOTOSENSITIVE COATING OF PHOTOGRAHIC FILMS . D.NDT SERVICES .S.

DEFLECTION TOWARDS AND COLLISON WITH TARGET PRODUCES HIGH ENERGY X-RAYS.[4] PENETRATING RADIATIONS FOR RADIOGRAPHY ARE GIVEN OFF BY THE FOLLWING RADIATION SOURCES. X-RAY MACHINES. RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS RADIATION SOURCES.EVACUATED CIRCULAR PATHS ALONG WHICH ELECTRONS ARE ACCELERATED AND GAIN ENERGY WITH EACH SUCCESSIVE ORBIT. HIGH ENERGY X-RAY SOURCES: BETATRONS. HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES ESTABLSH INTERCONNECTION OF ALL THESE COMPONENTS.CONTROL ELECTRONICS. BETATRONS HAVE DOUGHNUT SHAPED .NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS-RADIOGRAPHY.NDT SERVICES .KUSHWAH. X-RAY MACHINES-LOW ENERGY-60 KV TO 140 KV.S. HIGH VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS. D. TUBE HOUSING WITH PROTECTIVE SHIELDING AND PORT FOR DIRECTING AND LIMITING X-RAYS IN THE DESIRED DIRECTION.MEDIUM ENERGY 140 KV TO 350 KV X-RAY MACHINES MAKE USE OF ULTRA HIGH VACUUM X-RAY TUBE.

D.KUSHWAH.S. RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS RADIATION SOURCES.DEFLECTION TOWARDS AND COLLISON WITH TARGET PRODUCES HIGH ENERGY X-RAYS.[5] HIGH ENERGY X-RAY SOURCES: BETATRONS. LINEAR ACCELERATORSMAKE USE OF MICROWAVE GUIDES TO ACCELERATE ELECRONS ALONG A LINEAR PATH TO COLLIDE WITH A TRANSMISSION TYPE TARGET AND PRODUCE HIGH ENERGY X-RAYS. BETATRONS HAVE DOUGHNUT SHAPED .EVACUATED CIRCULAR PATHS ALONG WHICH ELECTRONS ARE ACCELERATED AND GAIN ENERGY WITH EACH SUCCESSIVE ORBIT.NDT SERVICES .NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS-RADIOGRAPHY. HIGH ENERGY X-RAY SOURCES: LINEAR ACCELERATORS.

THE PERIOD DURING WHICH THEIR ACTIVITY BECOMES HALF OF INITIAL ACTIVITY.THESE SOURCES UNDERGO A DECAY PROCESS WHICH CAUSES GRADUAL REDUCTION IN THEIR ACTIVITY.S.COBALT 60. THESE MATERIALS ARE PRODUCED IN ATOMIC REACTORS.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS-RADIOGRAPHY.SELENIUM 75 .EACH OF THEM PRODUCES ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATIONS CALLED GAMMA RAYS.CESIUM137.EACH SOURCE ALSO HAS ITS CHARACTERESTIC RADIATION ENERGY OUTPUT PER UNIT OF RADIOVCTIVITY.[6] RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS[ISOTOPES]:IRIDIUM 192. RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS RADIATION SOURCES.IS KNOWN AS HALF LIFE OF THAT RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCE. EACH SOURCE PRODUCES GAMMA RAYS HAVING CHARACTERESTIC ENERGY OR SEVERAL DISCREET ENERGIES.NDT SERVICES . THE RADIATIONS FROM THESE SOURCES CANNOT BE EITHER SWITCHED ON OR OFF D.KUSHWAH.

Massive size and heavy weight notwithstanding.S.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS-RADIOGRAPHY. RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS RADIATION SOURCES.[7] BETATRON Betatron is an equipment for generating high energy xrays[1 MeV to 30 MeV]. D.KUSHWAH. many were built and are still in use throughout the world.NDT SERVICES .

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS-RADIOGRAPHY.These machines work to produce x-rays at upto 50MeV. Linacs use microwves and waveguides to accelerate the electrons to impart them high energy.KUSHWAH.[8] LINEAR ACCELERATOR. RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS RADIATION SOURCES.and they are lighter than the betatrons. Linear accelerator is another type of high energy x-ray generator.This is the latest development and currently most high energy machines are of this type.NDT SERVICES .S. D.

BACQUEREL: CORRESPONDS TO ONE DISINTEGRATION PER SECOND.7*1010 DISINTEGRATIONS PER SECOND. SIEVERT: SIEVERT IS THE NEW INTERNATIONAL UNIT. CURIE: ONE CURIE CORRESPONDS TO 3. UNITS OF RADIOACTIVITY: THE ENRGY RADIATED BY THE RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCE IS THE RESULT OF UNSTABLE STATE OF SOME OF THE ATOMS WHICH HAVE A NUCLEUS IN EXCITED STATE DUE TO ITS EXCESS ENERGY AND EXTRA NEUTRON. RADIOGRAPHY.7*1010 BACQERELS =37 G Bq. THE QUANTITY OF RADIANT ENERGY IS MEASURED IN TERMS OF THE DEGREE OF IONIZATION PRODUCED IN THE 1 CC VOLUME OF DRY AIR AT STANDARD TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE.KUSHWAH.S. SUCH ATOMS DISINTEGRATE GIVING OFF EXCESS ENERGY AS GAMMA RAYS.THE UNITS OF RADIOACTIVITY ARE CURIE AND BACQUEREL.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTINGMETHODS.1 SIEVERT IS EQUAL TO ROENTGENS. 100 D.BETA RAYS OR ALPHA PARTICLES.S. OF CHARGE OF EITHER SIGN IN DRY AIR AT STANDARD TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE . RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS[4] RADIATION UNITS. Therefore: ONE CURIE = 3.NDT SERVICES . UNITS OF IONOZING RADIATIONS ARE: ROENTGEN: 1 ROENTGEN OF RADIANT ENERGY PRODUCES 1 E.U. THE DEGREE OF RADIOACTIVITY PRESENT IN A SUBSTANCE IS MEASURED IN TERMS OF THE NUMBER OF RADIOACTIVE ATOMS DISINTEGRATING EVERY SECOND.

D.NDT SERVICES .[1] THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THE RADIATION BEAM IN THE FORM OF CHANGED INTENSITIES. [FLUOROSCOPY] FLUORESCENT SCREENS CONVERT RADIATION INTENSITIES TO VISIBLE LIGHT.CAN BE READ BY USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF DETECTION AND RECORDING DEVICES. RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS . PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER BOTH X-RAY FILMS AND PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER CONVERT DIFFERENCES IN RADIATION INTENSITIES INTO PERMANENT IMAGES HAVING DEGREES OF BLACKNING OF PHOTOSENSITIVE COATING IN PROPORTION TO THE RADIATION INTENSITIES TO WHICH THEY ARE EXPOSED. FLUORESCENT SCREENS. [X-RAY FILM].S. DETECTION AND RECORDING OF RADIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION.KUSHWAH.NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS RADIOGRAPHY.THESE DEVICES ARE: RADIOGRAPHIC FILM.FLUOROSCOPIC IMAGES HAVE LOW LIGHT INTENSITIES AND NEED ADDITIONAL PROCESSING FOR BETTER READABILITY AND RECORDING OF IMAGES.

NDT SERVICES .THEY CONVERT X-RAY INTENSITIES DIRECTY INTO VISIBLE IMAGE FOR VIEWING ON A VIDEO MONITOR.NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS RADIOGRAPHY. AMORPHOUS SILICON FLAT PANELS. DETECTION AND RECORDING OF RADIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION[2] IMAGE INTENSIFIERS.COMPACT AND MORE EFFICIENT AS COMPARED TO IMAGE INTENSIFIERS. D. CCD CAMERAS WORK LIKE IMAGE INTENSIFIERS BUT THEY ARE SOLID STATE DEVICES WHICH ARE LIGHT. RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS .INTENSIFY IT.KUSHWAH. AND THEN CONVERT THIS ELECTRONIC IMAGE INTO VISIBLE IMAGE FOR VIEWING ON VIDEO MONITOR. IMAGE INTENSIFIERS ARE ELECROTRONIC DEVICES WHICH CONVERT LOW INTENSITY FLUOROSCOPIC IMAGE INTO ELCTRONIC IMAGE. CCD CAMERAS. FLAT PANELS ARE THE LATEST DEVELOPMENT.S.

NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS RADIOGRAPHY. [2] DISTORTION OR BOTH. DETECTION AND RECORDING OF RADIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION[2] THE RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS CONSISTS OF PRODUCING SHADOWS OF DETECTABLE FEATURES IN A TEST OBJECT IN THE PLANE OF THE DETECTOR.THE DEPTH INFORMATION IS SUPERIMPOSED TO FORM IMAGES IN THE DETECTOR PLANE.NDT SERVICES . IS THE XRAY FILM. THE PLANE OF THE DETECTOR. THE RADIOGRAPH IS THE IMAGE OF THE TEST OBJECT PRODUCED BY RADIATION BEAM WHICH HAS PASSED THROUGH IT AND HAS EXOPSED THE X RAY FILM IN PROPORTION TO THE INTENSITIES IN THE TRANSMITTED BEAM.WHICH IN THE CASE OF FILM RADIOGRAPHY.S. D. THUS. RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS .KUSHWAH.THAT IS. THE IMAGE OF A DISCONTINUITY IS FORMED IN A MANNER SIMILAR TO THE FORMATION OF A SHADOW OF AN OPAQUE OBJECT FORMED BY VISIBLE LIGHT. ALL OF THEM IN ONE PLANE. DEPENDING ON THE RELATIVE POSITIONS OF THE SOURCE OF RADIATION.THE IMAGE MAY HAVE [1]ENLARGEMENT. THIS PROCESS PRODUCES THE IMAGES OF DISCONTINUITIES IN THE TEST OBJECT.THE TEST OBJECT AND THE XRAY FILM PLANE.

FROM THE FIGURE WE CAN CONCLUDE THAT: UNSHARPNESS CAN BE REDUCED BY [a] REDUCING THE SOURCE SIZE. [b] REDUCING THE OBJECT TO IMAGING PLANE DISTANCE [c] INCREASING THE SOURCE TO FILM DISTANCE. THESE FIGURES ILLUSTRATE HOW THE RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGES FAIL TO DEPICT THE OBJECT FAITHFULLY: [A] THE SHAPE OF THE OBJECT IN FIG. THIS IS KNOWN AS UNSHARPNESS.THIS IS KNOWN AS DISTORTION. BUT THE UNSHARPNESS IS REDUCED DUE TO INCREASED SOURCE TO FILM DISTANCE. C IS CORRECTLY IMAGED.KUSHWAH. [C]THE EDGES ARE STILL SOMEWHAT BLIRRED. WHICH IS THE TRUE SHAPE OF THE OBJECT. D.NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS RADIOGRAPHY. [E] AND[F] THE IMAGE IS DISTORTED AND THE SHAPE OF THE IMAGE IS ELLIPTICAL.BUT WITH MAGNIFICATION. NOT CIRCULAR.S. [B]THE EDGES OF THE IMAGE ARE BLURRED. IMAGE FORMATION.NDT SERVICES . RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS .GEOMETRIC FACTORS.

KUSHWAH.S.ADHERENCE OF EMULSION TO THE BASE WHEN BEING PROCESSED IN FILM DEVELOPING CHEMICALS AND PRODUCE IMAGES OF DESIRED QUALITY. RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS .NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS RADIOGRAPHY. D.THE PROCESS OF COATING CONSISTS OF MANY TREATMENTS TO GIVE THE FINISHED PRODUCT PROPERTIES LIKE RESISTENCE TO DAMAGE THROUGH NORMAL HANDLING .NDT SERVICES . X RAY FILMS HAVE POLYSTER BASE WITH BLUISH TINT. THIS BASE IS COATED WITH PHOTOSENSITIVE EMULSION. X-RAY FILMS.

FROM WHICH UNAFFECTED SILVER HALIDE IS REMOVED.NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS RADIOGRAPHY. FORMS LATENT IMAGE.S.SINCE THESE SPECKS OF SILVER HAVE DISCREET SIZE. THE SILVER HALIDE GRAINS FORMING THIS LATENT IMAGE ARE REDUCED TO METALLIC SILVER BY THE CHEMICAL PROCESS OF DEVELOPING AND FIXING. RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS .WHEN EXPOSED TO RADIATIONS.UNDER MAGNIFICATION YOU CAN SEE THAT THE APPARENTLY DARK AREA OF EXPOSED EMULSION IS ACTUALLY SEVERAL ISLANDS OF SILVER IN TRANSPRENT AREAS OF THE FILM BASE.THIS IS THE CHARACTERISTIC OF X-RAY FILMS AND IS CALLED “INHERENT UNSHARPNESS. INHERENT UNSHARPNESS : THE FILM EMULSION CONSISTS OF GRAINS OF SILVER HALIDE WHICH .KUSHWAH.NDT SERVICES .” D. THUS THE IMAGE HAS GRAININESS GIVING RISE TO UNSHARPNESS. X-RAY FILMS.

SOURCE TO FILM DISTANCE AND THE OBJECT TO FILM DISTANCE ON THE DEFINITION OF THE EDGES OF THE IMAGE OF AN OBJECT. AND PLACING IT AS FAR AWAY FROM THE OBJECT AS PRACICAL. IT IS CALLED ‘INHERENT UNSHARPNESS AND DENOTED AS “ Ui ” . IT CAN BE SEEN THAT BY CHOOSING A VERY SMALL RADIATION SOURCE.” THIS IS DENOTED AS “Ug”. GEOMETRICAL UNSHARPNESS: WE HAVE SEEN THE FIGURES WHICH ILLUSTRATED THE EFFECT OF THE SIZE OF RADIATION SOURCE. IN PRACTICE .NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS RADIOGRAPHY. X-RAY FILMS. A COMBINATION OF THESE THREE VARIABLES PRODUCES A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF FUZZINES IN THE EDGES OF THE IMAGE.S.KUSHWAH. RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS .THE UNSHARPNESS CANNOT BE REDUCED BELOW A CERTAIN MINIMUM VALUE. WE CAN REDUCE THE GEOMETRICAL UNSHARPNESS VALUE TO THE EXTENT THAT NO IMAGE UNSHARPNESS IS DETECTED BY THE EYES OF THE OBSERVER. AND THE UNSHARPNESS RESULTING FROM A COMBINATION OF THESE PARAMETERS IS CALLED “GEOMETRICAL UNSHARPNESS. HOWEVER.NDT SERVICES .THAT A CERTAINAMOUNT OF IMAGE UNSHARPNESS IS INHERENT PROPERTY OF THE XRAY FILM .THIS IS DUE TO THE FACT.THIS IS KNOWN AS UNSHARPNESS. D.

NDT SERVICES . XRAY FILMS ARE AVAILABLE IN A RANGE OF FILM SPEEDS WITH CORRESPONDING IMAGE SHARPNESS .S.THAT IS. D. INHERENT UNSHARPNESS IS ALSO QUALITATIVELY EXPRESSED AS FILM GRAININESS.WITH DECREASING INHERENT UNSHARPNESS THE FILM SPEED DECREASES.KUSHWAH.THE IMAGE IN A PROCESSED X RAY FILM CONSISTS OF DISTINCT ISLANDS OF OPAQUE METALLIC SILVER AGAINST THE TRANSPARENT BACKGROUND PROVIDE BY THE POLYSTER BASE. A FILM COOSEN FOR A PARTICULAR INSPECTION TASK IS USUALLY A COMPROMISE BETWEEN THE SPEED OF THE FILM [WHICH IS IMPORTANT FOR THE ECONOMY OF INSPECTION ] AND THE SHARPNESS OF THE IMAGE WHICH CAN BE PRODUCED. FROM THE NATURE OF IMAGE UNSHARPNESS .THESE DISCONTINUOUS ELEMENTS FORMING THE IMAGE GIVE RISE TO GRAININESS. . [DEFINITION OF THIN FLAWS]. CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS:[2] CHARACTERESTICS OF XRAY FILM.THE FILMS NEED HIGHER RADIATION DOSE TO PRODUCE OPTIMUM IMAGE QUALITY. AND CONSEQUENT UNSHARPNESS.DUE TO THE INHERENT UNSHARPNESS.WE CAN SEE THAT THE DETECTION OF THIN DISCONTINUITIES IS LIMITED BY THE INHERENT UNSHARPNESS OF THE XRAY FILM.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS:RADIOGRAPHY.

THAT IS . CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS:[3] CHARACTERESTICS OF XRAY FILM. TO UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF FILM CONTRAST ONE MUST BE FAMILIAR WITH THE TERM FILM DENSITY.NDT SERVICES .NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS:RADIOGRAPHY. AN XRAY FILM AFTER BEING EXPOSED TO RADIATIONS. FILM DENSITY IS THE MEASURE OF THE OPACITY OF THE PROCESSED XRAY FILMS. LESS AND LESS LIGHT IS TRANSMITTED. GREATER THE AMOUNT OF METALLIC SILVER ON THE RADIOGRAPH. ONLY A PART OF THE INCIDENT LIGHT PASSES THROUGH THE FILM.THE RADIOGRAPH IS MORE AND MORE OPAQUE.S. A RADIOGRAPH HAS OPAQUE ISLANDS OF METALLIC SILVER ON A TRANSPARENT BACKGROUND OF POLYESTER BASE. THIS DEGREE OF OPACITY IS EXPRESSED AS DENSITY OF A RADIOGRAPH. SO THE FIRST ELEMENT IN CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGE IS THE : INHERENT UNSHARPNESS OF THE XRAY FILMS THE NEXT IMPORTANT CHARACTERESTIC WHICH INFLUENCES THE RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY IS: FILM CONTRAST. AND AFTER BEING PROCESSED IN FILM PROCESSING CHEMICALS. D. WHEN WE VIEW THIS RADIOGRAPH BY HOLDING IT AGAINST A SOURCE OF LIGHT.IS KNOWN AS A RADIOGRAPH.KUSHWAH.

NDT SERVICES .S. 10.1% light is transmitted. 1000. INTENSITY OF LIGHT TRANSMITTED THROUGH THE RADIOGRAPH Density is 0. FOR I0 / It RATIOS OF DIFFERENT VALUES: RATIO 1. Density is 2. Density is 1. 4.01% light is transmitted. 0. RADIOGRAPHIC DENSITY IS DEFINED AS: DENSITY= log10 INTENSITY OF LIGHT INCIDENT ON THE RADIOGRAPH THUS. 2. 0. 0. 100% light is transmitted. Density is 3. 1% light is transmitted. D. Density is 4.KUSHWAH. CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS:[4] CHARACTERESTICS OF XRAY FILM. 100. 10000.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS:RADIOGRAPHY. LOG RATIO[DENSITY] REMARK. 10% light is transmitted. 1. 3.

DENSITY IS PLOTTED ON Y –AXIS . THE VALUES ARE LINEAR . BOTH REPRESENTED ON THIS AXIS COULD BE AS LARGE AS 1:100000 . THIS RELATIONSHIP IS GRAPHICALLY REPRESENTED BY PLOTTING THE EXPOSURE VERSUS DENSITY RELATION ON SEMILOG GRAPH PAPER.THIS WOULD NOT BE POSSIBLE ON A LINEAR SCALE.THE NEXT STEP IS TO UNDERSTAND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE RADIATION EXPOSURE RECEIVED BY THE FILM AND THE CORRESPONDING DENSITY IN A RADIOGRAPH. THE VALUES OF EXPOSURE ARE PLOTTED ON THE X-AXIS . D. LOG SCALE OFFERS THE ADVANTAGE OF BEING ABLE TO ACCOMMODATE A VERY LARGE RANGE OF EXPOSURE VALUES ON THIS AXIS.THE RADIATION SOURCE OR THE RADIATION ENERGY DO NOT INFLUENCE THE SHAPE OF THE CHARACTERESTIC CURVE.DENSITY RELATION IS CALLED THE CHARACTERESTIC CURVE OF THE X-RAY FILM.NDT SERVICES . THE CHARACTERESTIC CURVE PROVIDES US WITH QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF SOME IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF X-RAY FILM. USUALLY UPTO 4. THIS CURVE IS DRAWN FOR EACH TYPE OF FILM WITH SPECIFIED PROCESSING CONDITIONS AS ESSENTIAL PART OF THE PARAMETERS OF CHARACTERESTIC CURVE .AS LOGRITHM OF RELATIVE EXPOSURES. CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS:[5] CHARACTERESTICS OF XRAY FILM HAVING FAMILIARIZED OURSELVES WITH THE CONCEPT OF DENSITY . THIS GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIO OF EXPOSURE VS. THE RATIO BETWEEN THE VALUES OF SMALLEST EXPOSURE AND THE LARGEST EXPOSURE.S.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS:RADIOGRAPHY.KUSHWAH.

S. THE ANGLE IT FORMS WITH THE XAXIS DETERMINES HOW MUCH THE DENSITY WILL CAHNGE FOR A GIVEN EXPOSURE INTERVAL.5..KUSHWAH.NDT SERVICES .0-1.THE CURVE FROM THIS POINT ONWARDS REPRESENTS NEARLY LINEAR CHANGE IN DENSITY WITH INCREASING EXPOSURE. D.NEAR PROPORTIONAL INCREASE IN DENSITY OCCURS BEYOND DENSITY 1.IT IS ALSO KNOWN AS SENSITOMETRIC CURVE.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS.IF WE EXTEND THE STRAIGHT LINE PORTION OF THIS CURVE TO INTERCEPT X-AXIS.ON X AXIS WE HAVE LOG EXPOSURE. CONTOLLING QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS [6] CHARACTERESTICS OF XRAY FILM THE FIGURE SHOWS A TYPICAL CHACTERESTIC CURVE OF AN XRAY FILM.THE VALUES CORRESPONDING TO ARBITRARILY CHOSEN UNIT EXPOSURE[ 0 ON THE X-AXIS] AND THE MULTIPLES OF THIS UNIT EXPOSURE UPTO 1000 TIMES OF THE UNIT EXPOSURE{ 3 ON THE X-AXIS] ARE PLOTTED ON THIS AXIS WE SEE THAT UPTO A DENSITY OF 1.5 THE CHNGE IN DENSITY IS NOT PROPORTIONAL TO THE EXPOSURE.

GREATER THE ABILITY OF THE RADIOGRAPH TO MAKE SMALL CHANGE IN THICKNESS VISIBLE. D. THIS PROPERTY OF XRAY FILM IS CALLED FILM COTRAST AND IS EXPRESSED AS GRADIENT OF THE CURVE AT A PARTICULAR DENSITY.S.THIS DIFFERENCE IN EXPOSURE IS CALLED THE EXPOSURE INTERVAL.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS:RADIOGRAPHY.AND X-AXIS.KUSHWAH. AS CAN BE SEEN FROM THE FIGURE WILL BE EQUAL TO TRGNIOETRIC RATIO TAN FOR THE ANGLE FORMED BY THE TANGENT AT ANY POINT OF THE CURVE. CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS:[7] CHARACTERESTICS OF XRAY FILM IT CAN BE VISUALIZED THAT FOR A GIVEN CHANGE IN THE THICNESS OF THE SPECIMEN.THE NUMERICAL VALUE OF THE GRADIENT. .NDT SERVICES .THERE WILL BE A CERTAIN CHANGE IN THE EXPOSURE RECEIVED BY THE FILM.HIGHER THE DENSITY DIFFERENCE CORRESPONDING TO A PARTICULAR VALUE OF THE EXPOSURE INTERVAL.THIS MEANS A GREATER SESITIVITY OF INSPECTION.

S. CONTROLLING QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS. WE NOW KNOW THAT THE RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGE OF A DISCONTINUITY WILL BE PROJECTED ON THE FILM WITH THE GREATEST FIDELITY IF: MAGNIFICATION AND DISTORTION ARE CONTROLLED THROUGH CONTROLLING THE GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF HE EXPOSURE AS UNDER: [a] THE SOURCE POSITIONED ON THE LINE PERPENDICULAR TO THE FILM PLANE.AND HENCE GREATEST CONTRAST D.[7] REVIEW OF PREVIOUS THREE SLIDES. [C] CHOOSING THE SOURCE TO FILM DISTANCE SO THAT THE GEOMETRICAL UNSHARPNESS IS LESS THAN THE INHERENT UNSHARPNESS OF THE FILM.NDT SERVICES .KUSHWAH.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS. [b] KEEPING THE FILM IN AS CLOSE CONTACT WITH THE OBJECT AS POSSIBLE. [D] EXPOSING THE FILM TO A DEGREE THAT WILL GIVE RADIOGRAPHIC DENSITY IN THE REGION OF SENSITOMETRIC CURVE WHICH HAS HIGH GRADIENT.

AN INSPECTOR EVALUATING THE RADIOGRAPH HAS TO KNOW WHETHER THE RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE HAS BEEN CORRECTLY APPLIED TO PRODUCE THE RADIOGRAPHS CAPABLE OF SHOWING THE FLAWS OF INTEREST FOR THAT PARTICULAR APPLICATION.WHEN THE EXPOSURE IS MADE. [1] PLAQUE TYPE. ASTM AND ASME HAVE TWO TYPES OF IMAGE QUALITY INDICATORS.EACH HAVING DIAMETRE EQUAL TO 1.HAVING THREE DRILLED HOLES. THIS IQI IS PLACED ON THE ONJECT ON THE SOURCE SIDE.S. [ AN IQI HAVING THICNESS EQUAL TO 2% OF THE OBJECT THICKNESS AND THE HOLE HAVING DIAMETER EQUAL TO 2 TIMES THE IQI THICNESS ARE VISIBLE . THE VISIBILITY OF THIS SHIM AND THAT OF THE HOLES IN THE SHIM IN THE RADIOGRAPH PROVDES THE MEASURE OF THE SUCCESS OF RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE.2 AND FOUR TIMES THE THICKNESS OF THE SHIM.] D.ITS BODY AND 4T AND 2T HOLES ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE. [2] WIRE TYPE. THEN THE RADIOGRAPH IS SAID TO HAVE ATTAINED THE QUALITY LEVEL 2-2T.THE IMAGE QUALITY INDICATORS ARE USED.KUSHWAH.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF RADIORAPHIC ROCESS.FOR EXAMPLE.NDT SERVICES .IF THE IQI OUTLINE. PLAQUE TYPE IMAGE QUALITY INDICATORS [IQI IN SHORT] ARE RECTANGULAR SHIMS OF METAL PRODUCED IN A RANGE OF THICKNESSES .[8] IMAGE QUALITY INDICATORS.THE THICNESS OF A SHIM IS CHOOSE TO BE 2% OF THE OBJECT THICKNESS UNDER EXAMINATION OR AS CLOSE TO 2% AS AVILABLE IN THE STANDARD THICNESSES PROVIDED IN THE IQI SPEC. TO PROVIDE AN OBJECTIVE ASSESMENT OF THE CORRECTNESS OF THE TECHNIQUE.

NDT SERVICES .160”.0”SIZE.0005” AND INCREASES IN STEPS OF ).0.FROM ).BUT THE THICKNESS CAN BE FOUND FROM THE DIMENSIONS OF THE DIAMETER WHICH IS 4 TIMES THE THICKNESS.S.KUSHWAH.. THE FIGURE SHOWS THE DESIGN OF IMAGE QUALITY INDICATOR CONFORMING TO ASTM.THE IQI’S ÁRE MADE AS SHOWN IN LOWERMOST FIGURE.25” TO 8 ‘’.25”X1.IQI’S HAVE 2.005 “.CODE.100”.060’TO 0.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS[9] IMAGE QUALITY INDICATORS.THIS RANGE OF IQI’S POROVIDE 2% THICKNESS FOR MATERIAL THICNESS FROM )0.THE THICKNESS STARTS AT . WHICH IS ADOPTED BY ty ASME B. D.060” TO 0.V.IQI ACCORDING TO FIG1 &2 CARRY IDENTIFICATION IN LEAD FIGURES SHOWINGTHE THICKNESS IN NEAREST THOUSANDTH OF AN INCH.&P.FOR HIGHER THICKESSES. IQI THICNESSFROM 0. THE CICULAR IQI DOES NOT HAVE IDENTIFICATION .

CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS[10] WIRE TYPE IQI.NDT SERVICES .KUSHWAH.-1 D.S.

NDT SERVICES .S.-2 D.KUSHWAH.CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS[11] WIRE TYPE IQI.

-3 D.NDT SERVICES .S.CONTROLLING THE RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS WIRE TYPE IQI.KUSHWAH.

CONTROLLING RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS:[12] Wire type IQI-4 D.S.KUSHWAH.NDT SERVICES .

NDT SERVICES .WITH THE THICKEST WIRE TO THE LEFT.THIS VALUE ACCOUNTS BOTH FOR RADIOGRAPHIC CONTRAST AND DEFINITION OR RESOLUTION.ASTM HAS 6 WIRE.S.AND DIN IQI SHOWS THE NUMBERS ALLOTED TO THES WIRES AS PER ISO SYSTEM. WIRE TYPE IQI-5 WIRE TYE IMAGE QUALITY INDICATORS HAVE PARALLEL WIRES ENCAPSULED IN CLEAR VINYL PLASTIC.KUSHWAH.WIRE TYPE IQI’S CAN BE PLACED ACROSS THE WELDS AND HENCE THEY MONITOR SENSITIVITY ON THE WELDING ITSELF. THE WIRE IQI’S OFFER THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES OVER THE PLAQUE TYPE IQI’S: THE DIAMETER OF THE THINNEST WIRE VISBLE ENABLES US TO COMPUTE THE NUMERICAL VALUE OF THE RADIOGRAPHIC SENSITIVITY.AND WIRE DIAMETER DECREASING TOWARDS RIGHT.BOTH TYPES HAVE THE INFORMATION ABOUT WIRE MATERIAL. PLAQUE TYPE IQI’S ARE GENERALLY PLACED ON THE PARENT PLATE WHEN INSPECTING WELDS. D.ASTM IQI SHOWS THE DIAMETER OF THE THICKEST WIRE.CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS[13].IQI ACCORDING TO DIN STANDARD HAVE SEVEN WIRES WUTH THINNEST WIRE AT RIGHT AND DIAMETER DECREASING TOWARDS LEFT.

THE DEVELOPING TIME IS ADJUSTED FOR THE DEVELOPING TEMPERATURE AS RECOMMENDED BY THE FILM MANUFACTURER.THE EXPECTED RESULTS OF RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY WILL NOT BE ATTAINED IF THE PROCESSING OF EXPOSED FILMS IS NON STANDARD. WEAK DEVELOPING SOLUTION AND/OR INSUFFICIENT DEVELOPING TIME AND /OR TOO LOW A DEVELOPING TEMPERATURE RESULTS INTO RADIOGRAPHS HAVING LESS THAN REQUIRED DENSITY AND LOW CONTRAST. D. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING IS CARRIED OUT AT THE SOLUTION TEMPERATURE WITHIN A RECOMMENDED RANGE OF TEMPERATURE. DEPARTURE FROM STANDARDIZED DEVELOPING PROCESS RESULTS INTO POOR QUALITY RADIOGRAPHS. INHERENT UNSHARPNESS OF THE FILM AND FILM CONTRAST ARE THE VALUES DEPENDENT UPON THE FILM PROCESSING TECHNIQUE ALSO.S.KUSHWAH.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS [14] [14]FILM PROCESSING. SUCH RADIOGRAPHS LACK THE REQUIRED PENETRAMETER VISIBILITY.A STANDARDIZED DEVELOPING PROCESS REQUIRES THAT: THE STRENGTH [CONCENTRATION] OF CHEMICALS WHICH CONVERT EXPOSED GRAINS TO METALLIC SILVER IS WITHIN A NARROW RANGE. .NDT SERVICES .

AN UNDEREXPOSED FILM WILL FAIL TO ATTAIN THE DENSITY AT WHICH THE RADIOGRAPH WILL HAVE THE BEST SENSITIVITY.SUCH RADIOGRAPH WILL HAVE POOR VISIBILITY OF DETAIL DUE TO LOW CONTRAST. THE CAUSES FOR POOR RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY. AN OVEREXPOSED FILM MAY HAVE SO HIGH THE DENSITY.[1] THE EFFECTS OF VARIATIONS IN RADIATION EXPOSURE: AN INCORRECTLY EXPOSED X-RAY FILM WILL BE EITHER OVEREXPOSED OR UNDEREXPOSED.OR BY COOLING THE DEVELOPING SOLUTION OR BY REDUCING THE DEVELOPMENT TIME.S. IF AN ATTEMPT IS MADE TO INCREASE THE DENSITY BY IBCREASING THE DEVELOPMENT TIME.THERE WILL BE SOME INCREASE IN DENSITY.IT MAY BE POSSIBLE TO RECORD CORRECT DENSITY BUT THE CONTRAST IN EVERY CASE WILL BE TOO POOR TO SHOW ANY WORTHWHILE DETAIL. D.CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS.BOTH CAUSE POOR RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY.NDT SERVICES . IF AN ATTEMPT IS MADE TO CONTROL DENSITY EITHER BY DILUTING THE DEVELOPER. THAT EVEN A VERY POWERFUL SOURCE OF LIGHT MAY FAILTO MAKE ANY DETAIL VISIBLE. BUT THE CONTRAST WILL CONTINUE TO BE POOR AND THE RADIOGRAPH WILL FAIL TO MEET THE REQUIRED STANDARDS.KUSHWAH.

NDT SERVICES .IF THE HANGERS ARE HELD IN AIR TO ALLOW COMPLETE DRAINING OF DEVELOPER.CONTROLLINGTHE QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC PROCESS.AVOIDING EXCESS PRESSURE. FILMS MUST BE HANDLED GENTLY. WHEN THE FILM HANGERS ARE REMOVED FROM THE DEVELOPER AFTER DEVELOPING THEY SHOULD NEVER BE EXAMINED IN AIR FOR ANY REASON AND SHOULD BE IMMERSED IN THE STOP BATH AFTER A VERY BRIEF DRAINING. D.RUBBING AGAINST ANY SURFACE AND PERMITTING MINIMUM CONTACT BETWEEN THE FINGERS AND THE FILM. CAUSE FOR POOR RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY. ALL DARKROOM SURFACES MUST BE CLEAN AND DRY.THE PATH OF THE DEVELOPER FLOW ON THE FILM WILL DEVELOP DIFFERENT DENSITY .THE HANGERS USED FOR MOUNTING THE FILMS FOR DEVELOPING SHOULD HAVE ABSOLUTELY NO TRACE OF CHEMICALS OR WATER FROM THE PREVIOUS USE.[4] INCCORRECT DARK ROOM PACTICES CAUSING POOR RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY. BENDING.FAILURES TO TAKE THESE PRECAUTIONS CAN COMPLETELY RUIN THE RESULTS AND WASTE THE EFFORTS PUT IN EXPOSING THE RADIOGRAPH ON THE JOB.KUSHWAH.S.GIVING RISE TO STREAKS.

[1] THE RDIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION IS EFFECTIVE WHEN: [a] THE RADIOGRAPHS ARE PRODUCED BY APPLYING THE TECHNIQUE CORRECTLY . [IMAGES FROM FAULTY RADIOGRPHIC PROCESSING OF FILMS] [b] WHEN THE RADIOGRAPHS ARE EVALUATED BY A PERSON TRAINED.THERE SHOULD NOT BE ANY SHADOWS FALLING ON THIS SURFACE.SO THAT THE RADIOGRAPHS HAVE THE REQUIRED DENSITY.RADIOGRAPHIC CONTRAST AND FREEDOM FROM ARTIFACTS. INTERPRETATION OF RADIOGRAPHS. D.S.RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION.QUALIFIED AND CERTIFIED TO CARRY OUT SUCH EVALUATION.NDT SERVICES . BASICS OF FILM INTERPRETATION THE RADIOGRAPH SHOULD BE EXAMINED IN A ROOM HAVING SUBDUED LIGHTING WHICH DOES NOT DIRECTLY FALL ON THE FILM VIEWER SURFACE.IMAGE SHARPNESS.KUSHWAH.

RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION.THE VIEWER SHALL HAVE EFFECTIVE ARRANGEMENT TO REMOVE HEAT AND KEEP THE VIEWNG SURFACE REASONABLY COOL.KUSHWAH. DENSITIES RECORDED. INTERPRETATION OF RADIOGRAPHS.AND THE WORKMANSHIP IS GOOD.TO SEE IF THE SURFACE IS CLEAN. AND MIN. D.[2] THE FILM VIEWER MUST HAVE A SOURCE OF LIGHT STRONG ENOUGH TO PERMIT COMFORTABLE VIEWING OF RADIOGRPHS HAVING DENSITY UPTO 3.HAS NO SCRATCHES. THE RADIOGRAPH SHALL FIRST BE EXAMINED IN THE LIGHT REFLECTED FROM THR SURFACE OF THE FILM.NDT SERVICES .THE VARIATION OF DENSITY WITHIN THE AREA OF INTEREST SHALL BE NOTED AND MAX. THE RADIOGRAPHIC DENSITY IN THE AREA OF INTEREST SHALL BE ASSESED USING EITHER DENSITY COMPARISON STRIP OR DENSITOMETER.S.5.THE LIGHT INTENSITY OF THE ILLUMINATOR SHOULD ABE ADJUSTED SO THAT THE IQI IMAGE HAS THE BEST VISIBILITY. THE LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE SURFACE OF THE VIEWER MUST BE REASONABLY UNIFORM. THEN THE RADIOGRAPH SHOULD BE EXAMINED IN THE TRANSMITTED LIGHT.

Must have understanding of the manufacturing process.RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION.KUSHWAH. the types and probable locations of flaws.NDT SERVICES . A clear understanding of the applicable specification or standard to be followed in accepting or rejecting the flaws. nature of flaws and their radiographic appearance. In such cases it is prudent for the interpreter to follow the standard stipulations diligently and not allow his judgment to be influenced by extraneous factors. D. INTERPRETATION OF RADIOGRAPHS. Must have familiarity with the properties of common engineering materials and the changes brought about by the nature of processing to which they are subjected.S.[2] A person entrusted with the evaluation of radiographs: Must have understanding of radiographic technique. types of artifacts likely to exist as confusing images or masking true indications. In most cases the acceptance standard is an important part of the contract between the buyer and the suppliers.

D.NDT SERVICES .KUSHWAH.S.

THANK YOU D. D. NDT SERVICES.KUSHWAH.NDT SERVICES .NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING.S.S. .KUSHWAH.

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