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GUIDED BY PROF. A.I.THAKKAR
PREPARED BY VINU NAKUM (11607) VAIBHAV CHAUDHARY (11603)
PANKAJ SOLANKI (11613)
HISTORY OF SEWING NEEDLE
A sewing needle is a long slender object with a pointed tip. The first sewing needles were made of bone or wood; modern ones are manufactured from high carbon steel wire, nickel- or gold plated for corrosion resistance. The highest quality embroidery needles are made of platinum. Traditionally, needles have been kept in needle books or needle cases which have become an object of adornment. A needle for hand sewing has a hole, called the eye, at the nonpointed end to carry thread or cord through the fabric after the pointed end pierces it. Hand sewing needles have different names depending on their purpose.
Needle size is denoted by a number on the packet. The convention for sizing is that the length and thickness of a needle increases as the size number decreases. For example, a size 1 needle will be thicker and longer, while a size 10 will be shorter and finer.
“the agava plant” it provides both the needles & thread. Native of American was also known to use sewing needles from natural sources. Sweden revel object such bone needle case. Even earlier stone edge find such as the excavation on the island of eland at Ably.000 yeas at the Kostenki side in Russia needle was found.History of sewing needles A variety of archeological finds illustrate sewing has been present for thousand of year. nickel or gold plated. despite the fact that chromium plated needles actually develop higher temperature during sewing than do non plated or nickel plated needles. especially in the area of the eye. Needles made from steel and in the final stages of manufacturing they are polished. . resistance to mechanical wear. One requirement of surface finish of needles is that they should not easily pick up any particles of synthetic fabric or synthetic sewing threads which are may have caused to melt as a result of excessive friction generated heat. reduction of friction during sewing and a good overall performance. the material used for plating are chromium or nickel. One such sources. Ago 40. Modern one is manufactured from high carbon steel wire. It has been found that chromium plated needle resist the adherence of synthetic residue rather better than nickel plated needles do. The first sewing needle was made of bone or wood. In many cases they are then electroplated to give corrosion resistance .
DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE NEEDLES 1) Shank 2) Shaft 3) Groove 4) Scarf 5) Eye 6) Point SHANK: .
The groove is a place for the thread to lay into the needle. to assist in always having the needle in the correct position. This part of the needle is inserted in the machine. SHAFT: The shaft of a sewing machine needle is the area from the bottom of the shank to the point. eye and point of the needle. Home sewing machine needles are composed of a flat and a round side. scarf. . Industrial machine needles have a completely round shaft and the groove is used to know which direction to put a new needle in the machine. Always refer to your sewing machine manual for the correct way to insert the needle in your machine. GROOVE: A groove is in the side of the needle leading to the eye.The upper thick part of a sewing machine needle is called the shank. The shaft contains the groove.
. The scarf allows the bobbin case hook to intersect with the upper thread and form stitches. EYE: The eye of the needle carries the thread so the machine can keep forming stitches. SCARF: The scarf is a groove out of one side of the needle. The size of the eye can vary and works in conjunction with the groove of the needle. POINT: The point of the needle is the first contact with the fabric and responsible for how the needle pierces the fabric. Using a needle with an eye that is too small or too large can cause your thread to shred and break.Use your fingernail and feel the groove of the needle on various sizes to understand why a different size thread would be needed for heavier thread.
1. 2. Special purpose needles. ballpoint and universal. HAND SEWING NEEDLES : .The most common types of point are sharps. Hand sewing needles. Machine sewing needles. 3. TYPES OF SEWING NEEDLES 1.
have a slot. a round eye and are of medium length. Embroidery needles. Milliners' needles are longer than sharps. Betweens or Quilting needles are shorter. also called Calyxeyed Sharps. with a small rounded eye and are usually used for making fine stitches on heavy fabrics such as in tailoring.• Sharps are needles used for general sewing. Easy. are identical to sharps but have a longer eye to enable easier threading of multiple embroidery threads and thicker yarns. They have a sharp point. letter it is used for knits & woven material. also known as Crewel needles. The difference between sharps and other sewing needles can mainly be seen in their length. . quilt making and other detailed handwork. MACHINE NEEDLES The most common machine needles for standard running stitch are universal &ball point needles.or Self-threading needles. rather than an eye for the thread. are useful for basting and pleating and are used in millinery work. • • • • 2.
Many people will not attempt Sewing lyecra & swimwear without a stretch needle. JEANS & DENIM NEEDLES . stretch needles Jeans needles denim needles leather needles Are all fashioned to work well with material. Stretch needles The stretch needle is the Last resort needle when Ballpoint still leave skipped.
Wing needle . Leather needles The point of the leather Needle is well shaped so that it penetrates leather & other heavy nonwovens.These needles have an extra sharp point and stiff shank. making it a strong needle for sewing tough fabrics and many layers of fabric.
Twin & triple needles are both used for decorative stitching. The sides of the wing needle shank are flared and create openwork stitching on woven fabrics. .A wing needle is used for heirloom sewing. TWIN & TRIPAL NEEDLES There are several specially machine sewing needle which mentioned.
This is a long. Sizes 5-10. elongated eye. but with large. particularly facial details. Bodkin. • • • • • .5"-7" long. ribbon or tape through casings and lace openings. Darning needles have a blunt tip and large eye. Sizes 13-26. Doll needles are long and thin and are used for soft sculpturing on dolls. with sizes ranging from 118. Chenille needles are similar to tapestry needles. thick needle with a ballpoint end and a large. with a yarn darners being the heaviest with very large eyes to thread yarn. long eyes and a very sharp point to penetrate close weave fabrics. Useful for ribbon embroidery. They can be flat or round and are generally used for threading elastic. Various types. Sizes 10-15. They are usually long so that a number of beads can be threaded at a time. Beading needles are very fine. similar to tapestry needles. Size 2. but are longer.SPECIAL PURPOSE NEEDLES: • Ballpoints have a rounded point and are used for knitted fabrics. with a narrow eye to enable it to fit through the centre of beads and sequins.
are also available for the convenience of embroiderers who work with fabric mounted in a frame. Used for sewing heavy fabrics. Used on leather. Used for sewing thick canvas or heavy leather. upholstery work. Double ended tapestry needles. even-weave material and other loosely woven fabrics. Upholstery needles are heavy. suede. with the hole in the middle.• Leather needles. long needles that can be straight or curved.5"-6" long. Straight sizes: 3"-12" long. Heavy duty 12" needles are used for repairing mattresses. Sail maker needles are similar to Leather needles but the triangular point extends further up the shaft of the needle. also known as Glovers needles have a triangular shaped point for piercing the leather without tearing it. vinyl and plastic. Sizes 3/0-10. The blunt tip allow the needle to pass through the fabric without damaging it. Curved needles are used for difficult situations where a straight needle is not practical and are also used in fabric box-making. Sizes from 13 (heaviest) to 28 (finest). Tatting needles are long and are the same thickness for their entire length. curved: 1. They are used for working on embroidery canvas. including at the eye. to enable thread to be pulled through the double stitches used in tatting. Tapestry needles have a large eye and a blunt tip. • • • • . tufting and for tying quilts.
DETERMINATION OF NEEDLE SIZE Understanding the numbers associated with sewing machine Needles will help you make the correct choice and possibly solve machine problems. .
but that would leave holes in your fabric. European sizes range from 60 to 120. Normally the heavy thread would call for you to use a heavy needle such as a 120/19. The American system uses 8 to 19. The order of the numbers does not effect the size. Now you would experiment with a needle that falls somewhere in the middle such as an 80/12. Now let's look at heavy upholstery fabric. If you were to try and sew through upholstery fabric with a 8/60 needle. You may find a needle size listed as 90/14 or 14/90. Think of a fine sheer window curtain. You will need a fine needle such as a 8/60 needle. Using a 19/120 would leave holes in the fabric. 60 being a fine needle and 120 being a thick heavy needle. 8 being a fine needle and 19 being a thick heavy needle. . it would bend or break. Using a 19/120 provides a needle strong enough to penetrate the fabric and carry a thread strong enough for this type of fabric Now let's look at a combination … You have a lightweight fabric but you want to do a heavy topstitching detail with heavy thread.
1. Stitch skipping . It resulting in the high quality requirements of such needles.DEFECTS OF SEWING NEEDLES Sewing m/c needles are pushed to their capability limits in the demanding high speed production of beautiful flat seam.
Damage to throat plate . Poor needle alignment and needle with an insufficient straightness are often the cause of stitch skipping. 2. They aggravate needle deflection and cause an irregular operational distance between needles and lopper.
This damage basically has the same cause as skipping. 3. Needle breakage . insufficient straight or deflected needles strike upon the finger of the throat plate.
4. Lake in method of heat treatment as well as a careful adoption of the needle design to the specific m/c function causes needle breakage. . Fabric damage High penetration resistance also reflects the outstanding functional quality of needle & it damages the fabric.
6. Needle point damage A sharp needle point will be damaged rather quickly through the unavoidable dynamic impact with the looper back.5. These in turn reduce the life of needle. Thread breakage .
After short period of sewing thread breakage will be occur. NEEDLE POINT: . The fiber of the sewing thread will be damaged if the surface of needle eye is not perfectly smooth.
Cloth point needles. the needle point must cut a sufficient hole that the needle blade and thread can pass through it without excessive friction. knitted or made from bonded textile fibers in a non-woven form. In a sheet material. as their name suggest.The basic division of needle point is into cutting point & cloth point. but there must be sufficient strength of material left between the holes that do not run together. especially under stress. namely leather and plastic which are essential sheet material with no gaps within the structure and textile fabric which. It has a round cross section as opposed to the various cutting shapes of the leather needles and the tip at the end of the point can vary in shape to suit the particular material being sewn. and cause the garment to split. .By the needle directly striking the yarn & damaging it. are used for sewing textile material rather than the sheet material. woven. have spaces within the structure through which a needle can penetrate. This division is necessary because of the fundamentally different construction of the two types of material which must be sewn. This yarn breakage can happen in two way. Knitted fabric consist of yarns with spaces them and if a yarn in a knitted fabric is broken the knitted structure may begin to unravel. .
Due to this the needle does not go between the fibers and does not strike and break them. This construction strengthens the point and reduces the possibility of damage at the tip..By the needle entering a knitted loop which is not large enough to accommodate it. one which is not itself so deflected that it fails to form the stitch properly. The shape of the tip of the needle point which is best achieves this penetration between the fibers has the appearance of being slightly cone shaped which s referred as set point needle. This situation is generally referred as needle damage but it is not the result of the needle of the needle itself damaged but of the point type and fabric combination being unsuitable. a needle of small a size as possible consistent with needle strength and sewing thread size and finally a fabric which is sufficient lubricated that is flexibility of in relation to the movement of the needle. Thus the requirement in sewing knitted fabric is for a needle which will slightly deflect the yarn and enter the spaces. Woven fabric consists of yarn which can have greater or lesser amounts o twist interlaced with each other at various degrees of density. . Thus woven fabric may have quite sizable spaces within the structure if loosely woven from low twist yarns or they may be extremely dance if high twist yarns have been packed closely together. The shape of the tip of the needle is referred to as a Boll point needle.
Medium ball point 5. As the needle size decrease the radius of each ball point decrease. Heavy set point 1. A heavy set point or stub point can be used for button sewing. Slim set point 3. . Light ball point 2. Heavy ball point 6.Both ball and set point needle are available in a no. of types shown in the fig. Set point 4.
the smaller the needle. Sizes 16 to 18 are used for heavyweight fabrics like denim. This remains true. Their blunt edges allow the thread to pass between the fabric's fibers rather than through them. A worn or damaged needle will cause skipped or uneven stitches and may damage your fabric Purchase a package of assorted needle sizes if you are unsure which is appropriate for your fabric. Change your needle at the start of each project. Test the . This is crucial for maintaining the fabric's elasticity. Use wedge-point machine needles to sew leathers. A smaller-sized needle is best for sheer or lightweight fabrics. Use ball-point machine needles to sew knits or other stretchy fabrics. even if the needles you purchase use a different numbering system.the smaller the number.SELECTION OF THE NEEDLE We know that most readily available machine needles are sized from 9 to 18 . Use standard sharp sewing machine needles in sizes 11 to 14 for most sewing projects. The shape of this needle will create a slit (rather than a large hole) through which the thread will pass. suede and vinyls.
For most brands.various sizes on some scrap fabric until you determine the correct size to use. . Check the label on the needle package before you make a purchase. there will be a sizing guide that will tell you which fabrics can be sewn with the enclosed needles.
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