Introduction

Hear that? The water’s calling you!
No matter where you are in California, a water adventure awaits you— each one as big and unique as the state itself. It can be as majestic as paddling a kayak around San Francisco Bay within view of the Golden Gate Bridge. Or as heart–thumping as riding the raging flows of the Lower Kern. You can canoe the quiet might of the lower American River in fall, or fish the mountain splendor of Lake Almanor. Something wilder? Make waves on a personal watercraft at Lake Perris. Getting away? Set sail with friends on the crystal Pacific out of Mission Bay. So many adventures—all a lot more fun for you and everyone else when you learn how to boat safely and confidently, and prevent accidents. This course will cover the basics to show you how.

PLAY IT SAFE

Almost one million pleasure craft are registered in California and the number grows every year. That’s a lot of Californians having a lot of adventures. Unfortunately, many boaters will get hurt. The Coast Guard reports about 6,500 boating accidents each year in the United States—causing nearly 700 deaths, over 4,000 injuries and over $31 million in damage. About 80% of all boating deaths occur on boats where the operator has not completed a boating safety education course. The good news—boaters can prevent many of these accidents by learning safety and use common sense.

WHAT YOU’LL LEARN

This course will teach you:
  

Personal safety Basic boating guidelines Boating law and rules of the road

Basic operation of a variety of vessels

Accident prevention and rescue

You’ll also develop the skills and knowledge to make the most of your adventure on California’s waterways. Who knows? You may even make boating your career. Playing it safe doesn’t make you a wimp. Your boating adventures will be thrilling enough without the fear of not knowing how to prevent accidents.

1

Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Personal Safety Personal Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 Safety Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13 Homeland Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16 Chapter 2: Boating Law, Navigational Rules and Navigational Aids Boating Law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Officer Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Age of Operator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Required Safety Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20–25 Alcohol and Operating a Boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Boat Ownership and Registration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26–27 Environmental Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28–31 Navigational Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31–34 Navigational Aids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–40 Chapter 3: Vessel Operation The Anatomy of a Boat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Trailering and Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42–47 General Rules: Operating a Boat, Docking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48–52 Fueling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52–53 Anchoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54–55 Know Your Knots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Maintaining Your Boat and Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Powerboating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57–61 Water Skiing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62–63 Sailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64–65 Paddling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66–70 Chapter 4: Personal Watercraft (PWC) Anatomy of a Personal Watercraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71–72 Safety Equipment & Personal Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Legal Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Operating a Personal Watercraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75–78 Navigational Rules and Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79–80 Accident Prevention and Rescue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81–83 Answers to Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Chapter 5: Accident Prevention and Rescue Accident Prevention and Rescue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85–86 Environmental Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87–88 Basic Rescue Tips for Aquatic Activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88–89 Capsizing or Sinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90–94 Passenger Overboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95–96 Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96–97 Grounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Rescuing Water Skiers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99–100 Appendices Appendix A (Float Plan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Appendix B (CA Boating Accident Report) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102–103 Appendix C (Whitewater Class System). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105–109 Final Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110–113

2

Chapter 1
PERSONAL SAFETY
Introduction
You’re the most important part of safe boating. To be safe—and to make sure the people who boat with you are safe—you must think clearly, be polite to other boaters, and be ready for any dangers so you can prevent accidents. You need to know the information in this chapter whenever you play, live or work near the water.

OBJECTIVES

You will learn:
 How to keep from

getting hurt by harsh weather, such as hot sun, heavy storms and freezing water
 How alcohol and

drugs can make it dangerous to operate a boat
 How to use different

PERSONAL SAFETY
Learn to Swim and Float
You should learn how to swim and handle a boat so you can be safe in the water. These skills will help save yourself and others from danger. You should be able to swim at least 100 yards. And you should be able to tread water for five minutes. If you don’t know how, or want to be a better swimmer, call your local recreation center or YMCA for swimming lessons.

types of Personal Flotation Devices (PFDs), such as life jackets

Things that Can Affect Your Judgment, Health, and Safety
There are many natural stressors that make boating unsafe. They include strong wind, high waves, boat motion, loud noises, and the heat and glare of the sun. Drugs and alcohol also affect your judgment, health, and safety. All of these stressors can:  Make you tired  Make you slow to act in case of danger  Put you in danger from many things, including bad sunburn and boat crashes. Here’s how you can limit the effects of stressors:  Avoid boating during a storm.  Drink water.  Eat energy foods, such as fruit or energy bars.  Get a lot of rest and take many breaks.  Wear sunglasses, sunscreen, a hat and proper clothing.

3

drinking a lot of water. headache. which can make you sweat. which is when your body loses more heat than it can produce. have a high heart rate. In very low temperatures. The best way to do this is to be properly equipped and clothed.  Avoid hypothermia by preventing heat loss. get dizzy. tea or alcohol—these drinks will lower your fluid levels.  You can reverse hyperthermia several ways… by getting the victim out of the sun into a cool place… providing fluids (but not alcohol or caffeine)… having the victim shower.) TEMPERATURE Very high and low temperatures can affect your judgment and may cause serious injury or illness. he or she will shiver violently. Avoid liquids that make you urinate frequently. which happens when your body can no longer cool itself. such as the boat’s hull. If the victim is not treated. Heat stroke victims will often talk nonsense or see imaginary things. victims will stop shivering.dbw. lose consciousness. These will all affect your judgment and ability to act in any situation. such as when you accidentally fall into cold water. Get as far out of the water as possible by climbing onto any floating object. and will stop thinking clearly. pale skin. or appear to be drunk. his or her skin will become hot and bright red. get sick to your stomach—and even make you throw up. OR SEE WEBSITE: www.  Avoid hyperthermia by avoiding long. wetsuits.gov/ resourc. This will help prevent heat loss from your body. or waterproof clothing. The victim stops sweating and then loses consciousness or suffers from heat stroke. a victim’s breathing and heart can stop. You must read the label directions carefully. coffee. have blue skin.  Your body temperature can drop quickly if you are in the water. and heavy sweating. When temperatures are high. HELP Positions  Early symptoms of hyperthermia (heat exhaustion) include weakness.htm and click on Safe Survival 4 . You can treat hyperthermia and hypothermia more easily if you know how to spot the early symptoms. and the victim may die. losing your sense of balance. quarrel. You can reduce your chances of getting motion sickness by getting a good night’s sleep. In severe cases the victim may fight.WIND AND WAVES Wind and waves can cause motion sickness.ca. bathe or sponge off with cool water… and urging the victim to lie down and rest in a cool place. If the victim is not treated. and be unable to walk or speak. direct exposure to heat and sun.  Early symptoms of hypothermia include feeling cold. and taking motion sickness medicine. spend time in a cooler location and be sure to drink a lot of water to keep your fluid levels up. When possible. you can get hyperthermia (also called heat exhaustion). warm synthetic clothing (not cotton). This may include wearing immersion suits. (You can find these medicines on the shelves at drug and grocery stores. Get first aid help as soon as you can. and feeling tired or ill. you can get hypothermia. shivering. As this condition gets worse. In advanced stages of hypothermia. such as caffeinated sodas.

or where would you like to go? Check out the water temperatures listed below and then refer to the hypothermia chart. how long could you expect to survive? REMEMBER Life jackets can keep you warm and help save your energy. If you can’t get out of the water. If you are not wearing your life jacket. because you can end up with other problems if you don’t warm up properly. and by limiting your exposure to cold.. Otherwise...htm and click on Hypothermia.. Curl into a ball or huddle with other people and limit movement of your arms and legs to further prevent heat loss. QUESTION Where do you usually go boating. keep your head out of the water.  If left untreated.  You can easily reverse hypothermia in the early stages by exercising vigorously to generate body heat. 5 . or Heat Escape Lessening Positions.dbw. These are known as HELP. 32. your survival time is. hypothermia and hyperthermia can result in death. your expected survival time is..5 to 40 degrees 40 to 50 degrees 50 to 60 degrees 60 to 70 degrees 70 to 80 degrees over 80 degrees Under 15 minutes 15 to 30 minutes 30 to 60 minutes 1 to 2 hours 2 to 7 hours 3 to 12 hours indefinitely Under 15 to 45 minutes 30 to 90 minutes 1 to 3 hours 1 to 6 hours 2 to 40 hours 3 hours to indefinitely indefinitely FOR MORE INFORMATION ON HYPOTHERMIA. Hypothermia Chart If the water temperature is..ca.gov/resourc.5 degrees 32. If you fell overboard and lost your boat.  Get medical help except in mild cases. degrees (F) Exhausted or unconscious. your expected survival time is a lot less. CONSULT WEBSITE: www.  This hypothermia chart shows how long someone can survive at various water temperatures.

The Ocean: Year-round temperatures from approximately Santa Barbara northward range from the high 40s to mid 50s. The best place to look for a class near you is your local Red Cross office. you need to know a lot more about first aid. NOISE LEVELS What is too much noise? Noise from poorly muffled or unmuffled motors is not only annoying—it keeps boat operators from hearing voices. especially when you’re in crowded waterways.redcross. You should receive training in basic first aid and CPR. or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. be polite to others. Courtesy counts.org/where/where. The next time you go boating. your actions reflect on all boaters. signals. 6 .html for a local chapter near you. or near residential areas. 67 degrees F 70 degrees F 47 degrees F 40 degrees F 57 degrees F Summer Summer Summer Summer Summer 79 degrees F 85 degrees F 73 degrees F 65 degrees F 70 degrees F Spring Spring Spring FIRST AID TRAINING Besides learning about hypothermia and hyperthermia.WATER TEMPERATURE Here are the estimated daytime water temperatures for several California locations. South of Santa Barbara. Reduce the noise level. the noise can make you tired and lower your reaction time. summer temperatures can reach mid 70s and winter temperatures will range in the high 50s to low 60s. If you’re around a loud noise for a long time. which is helping an unconscious victim to breathe and maintain a heartbeat. Time of Location Year Approximate Temperature Time of Year Approximate Temperature Valley Rivers Northern California Spring Southern California Spring Mountain Rivers Mountain Lakes Valley Lakes These are approximate temperatures. Look in your local phone book or check the Internet at http:// www. and danger warnings. Remember.

... The ability to swim and float is basic to personal safety on the water......... is the best way to prevent hyperthermia ....................... because it is cooler on the water than on the land ............... T F F F F F F Turn to page 84 for correct answers................... T 5................... T 6.................... such as caffeinated sodas and tea....T 4................. T 3... Dizziness and excessive sweating are early symptoms of hyperthermia......................... and losing consciousness ..... Symptoms of the early stages of hypothermia include being unable to speak or walk................REVIEW QUESTIONS: Personal Safety Answer these questions by circling T for true or F for false....... T 2........................................ You don’t need sunscreen and sunglasses when you’re boating.... Drinking fluids...................... Long exposure to loud noise from your boat’s engine can be a stress factor.... 7 ........ 1..

Answer these questions by circling T for true or F for false..htm and click on Operational Law This chart will help you understand how drinking alcohol can affect you.dbw. and noise on you..01% – . REVIEW QUESTIONS: Alcohol and Drugs Turn to page 84 for correct answers. depending on how much you weigh..07%) Likely DUI – Definitely DUI if under 21 yrs.. it is against the law for anyone to operate a boat or motor vehicle with a blood alcohol concentration of 0. (.. Alcohol opens tiny blood vessels in your body and brings more blood to the surface of the skin....... 210 lbs.... A person 32 years old and weighing 140 pounds would be able to have three drinks over a two-hour period and not be legally drunk . TIME TIME TIME TIME FROM TOTAL DRINKS FROM TOTAL DRINKS FROM TOTAL DRINKS FROM TOTAL DRINKS FIRST FIRST FIRST FIRST DRINK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DRINK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DRINK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DRINK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 hr 1 hr 2 hrs 3 hrs 4 hrs 1 hr 2 hrs 3 hrs 4 hrs 1 hr 2 hrs 3 hrs 4 hrs 2 hrs 3 hrs 4 hrs REMEMBER Drinking alcoholic beverages will not prevent hypothermia.Don’t drink and drive! REMEMBER In California... the increased blood flow near the skin’s surface increases the loss of body heat. (. 1...08 percent or more.. 130 to 149 lbs. T 2... 190 to 209 lbs..01 percent or higher can lose their privilege of getting or keeping a driver’s license..... giving you a false sense of warmth.. It’s important to note that any level of alcohol in people under the age of 21 is against the law.04 percent . old..... wind. T F F F 8 . 150 to 169 lbs.. T 3. ALCOHOL AND DRUGS Drinking alcohol and using other drugs while boating causes many boating accidents. vibration. Alcohol makes the effects of motion and temperature worse . People under the age of 21 who are convicted of operating a boat or motor vehicle with a blood alcohol concentration of 0..... & Up TIME TIME TIME FROM TOTAL DRINKS FROM TOTAL DRINKS FROM TOTAL DRINKS FIRST FIRST FIRST DRINK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DRINK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DRINK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 hr 2 hrs 3 hrs 4 hrs 1 hr 2 hrs 3 hrs 4 hrs 1 hr 2 hrs 3 hrs 4 hrs Shadings in the charts above mean: (.. Alcohol and drugs also raise your chances of getting into an accident... Alcohol Consumption Chart BAC Zones: 90 to 109 lbs.08% and Up) Definitely DUI..gov/ABCindex.. BAC Zones: 170 to 189 lbs. Using alcohol or drugs increases the effects of sun. TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THIS SUBJECT. 110 to 129 lbs. old. It is against the law for an 18-year-old person to operate a vessel or vehicle with a blood alcohol level of 0..ca. CONSULT WEBSITE: www...04%) May be DUI – Definitely DUI if under 21 yrs..... Using alcohol or drugs by themselves can make your judgment poor and slow your response time—and reduce your ability to respond to dangerous incidents. waves... Actually..05% – ...

When using a life jacket. Boat operators must be alert to changing boating conditions and should tell all passengers to wear their life jackets in dangerous conditions—such as heavy boat traffic. and 4. or V life jacket.) To make sure that you have chosen the right life jacket for yourself:  Check for a snug fit. Most boating deaths happen when people don’t wear life jackets and drown. To stay safe. Wearables are better known as life jackets. Adjust straps and buckles to ensure a proper fit that does not restrict your breathing. In Chapters 2. we will cover equipment for general boating safety and for specific vessels. and allow you to breathe easily. make sure it fits well and is well maintained so it works properly. it is very difficult for even the most athletic and coordinated individuals to put on a life jacket while trying to stay afloat.S.  Check the clothing you will most likely wear. TAKE NOTE Every person on board a personal watercraft (PWC) and any person being towed behind a vessel must wear a Coast Guardapproved Type I. Life Jackets The most important piece of equipment for safe boating and general water safety is the personal flotation device (PFD) which can be a throwable or wearable device. comfortable and easy to wear. REMEMBER The clothing you are wearing and the items you may be carrying will affect how well your life jacket keeps you afloat. you may want to replace it with one that does. while other equipment is strongly recommended. severe weather or dangerous water conditions.  Check the type of activities you will do. your life jacket should keep your chin and mouth out of the water. we will cover the most important piece of equipment for personal safety—the personal flotation device (PFD). the jacket should not cover your ears. If your life jacket doesn’t turn you face up in the water. II. Coast Guard approval number on the label. III. You never know when your boat may overturn or when you may fall overboard. no matter how well you swim or operate a boat.  Check how well your life jacket keeps you afloat by relaxing on your back in safe water and tilting your head back. which most often means a life jacket. and if it still doesn’t pass the lift test. Wearing a life jacket is important. In this chapter. Readjust the straps and buckles. Today’s life jackets are colorful. Once you are in the water. If someone lifts your life jacket by the shoulder straps. 3. (For exceptions. 9 .SAFETY EQUIPMENT You must have safety equipment to operate any boat or vessel safely.  Check for a U. A personal flotation device should keep you afloat until help comes—so make sure it’s the right life jacket for your weight and chest size. Some safety equipment is required by law. try a different size. see Water Skiing. To choose the correct PFD:  Check the type of boating you will do.

FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT PERSONAL FLOTATION DEVICES. (For exceptions. II. you must carry for each passenger:  The same requirements as above and one easy-to-reach Type IV device designed for throwing—such as a ring. Coast Guard-approved Type I. life jacket when on a moving boat. cushion.RECOMMENDATION All passengers should wear a U.)  Anyone using an underwater maneuvering device is exempt from wearing a life jacket. Although it’s permitted. A Type V PFD. Only two sizes to fit most children and adults. Type IV For a boat 16 feet or longer. off-shore life jacket. Advantages: Disadvantages: Sizes: Type I 10 . see Water Skiing. Bulky. and you must show passengers the location of PFDs and other safety equipment. CONSULT WEBSITE: www. III. Highly visible color. III. or V life jacket.S. a Type I life jacket may be too bulky to allow you to paddle. turning and surfacing moves. An underwater maneuvering device is any towed or self-powered device designed for underwater use that a person can pilot through diving. Are you operating a boat less than 16 feet long. or a canoe or a kayak of any length? Then you must follow these rules:  A U. attach a whistle to each life jacket. Floats best.S. and must be worn at all times. or remote water. or horseshoe buoy for each boat.S.dbw. Turns most unconscious wearers face-up in the water.  Children under 12 years old must wear a U.htm and click on Personal Flotation Devices WHAT KIND OF LIFE JACKET SHOULD YOU WEAR?  Type I. (22 pounds of buoyancy) Inflatable and Inherently Buoyant Types Where to use: Open. which is a special-use flotation device. For added safety. properly fitted. must be approved for the activity it’s being used for. Coast Guard-approved. where rescue may be slow in coming. Coast Guard-approved Type I.gov/PubsAndReports.S. II. Coast Guard-approved life jacket when on a moving boat that’s 26 feet long or less. or V life jacket must be carried for each person on board. If stored.ca. these PFDs must be easy to get to. rough.  Everyone on a personal watercraft and anyone being towed behind a vessel must wear a U.

work vests. child-small. special-use device. Many individual sizes from child-small to adult. child-medium. Generally the most comfortable for continuous wear because of the freedom of movement for activities such as personal watercraft. Type II. inland water. or where you have a good chance of a fast rescue. rings. more comfortable than Type I. Not good for many hours in rough water. Not for extended use in rough water. Turns many. Wearer may have to tilt head back to avoid face-down position in the water. water skiing. Type IV  Type V. Type V 11 . near-shore buoyant vest. Not for non-swimmers or children. (15. Not designed for long hours in rough water. unconscious wearers face-up in water. but not all.5 pounds of buoyancy) Inflatable and Inherently Buoyant Types Where: Advantages: Good for calm. Will not turn some unconscious wearers face-up in the water. Good back-up to wearable PFD. adult. hybrid PFDs. flotation aid. Infant. Less bulky. small boat sailing. paddling. inland water with heavy boat traffic. See label for limited use. Varieties include sailboarding and rafting vests. Type III Disadvantages: Sizes:  Type IV. throwable device. Cushions. Made for specific activities. Not for unconscious persons.5 pounds of buoyancy) Inflatable and Inherently Buoyant Types Where to use: Advantages: Disadvantages: Sizes: Good for calm. Type II  Type III. Can be thrown to someone. Where: Advantages: Disadvantages: Kinds: Good for calm. and others. and fishing. deck suits. and horseshoe buoys. where help is always nearby. (15. Where: Advantages: Disadvantages: Required to be worn for special uses or conditions. inland water or where you have a good chance of fast rescue.

Disadvantages: Type V. CONSULT WEBSITE: www. Inflatable and Hybrid Devices (combine inherently buoyant material with an inflatable bladder) Where: Advantages: Required to be worn to meet legal requirements and must be used only for approved activities. Do not place heavy objects on PFDs during storage. May not adequately float some wearers unless partially inflated. such as a dryer. Inflatable life jackets may only be used by persons 16 and older. mildew. Good for continuous wear. Only some brands are U. Requires correct use and regular checks and maintenance of the inflation system. A PFD with any of these problems must be replaced. Look for rips or tears. as noted on the label. Hybrid Some things to remember: To make sure that your PFDs remain in good condition.ca. or seat cushions because they lose buoyancy when they’re crushed. Before wearing. An altered PFD no longer meets legal requirements and may not save your life. Choice between manual (pull) and oral inflation systems. High flotation when inflated. Always store your PFDs in a well-ventilated place.htm and click on Life Jackets Type V. Hybrid life jackets are available in adult and child sizes. broken zippers or buckles. Type V. frayed webbing. Turns most unconscious wearers face-up in the water after inflation. Coast Guardapproved.gov/PubsAndReports. Do not use PFDs as kneeling pads. Least bulky of all types. Let PFDs air-dry thoroughly before putting them away. and hardened stuffing.dbw. II. or radiator. Never dry your PFDs by a direct heat source. Equal to either Type I. heater.S. boat fenders. Comfortable.  Do not alter the PFDs. check PFDs for signs of wear and age. Not recommended for non-swimmers and not intended for use while water skiing or on personal watercraft. Inflatables Kinds: TO LEARN MORE ABOUT LIFE JACKETS. out of direct sunlight. loose or missing straps. or III performance.       12 .

.. you have an important role to play in helping to keep our waterways safe and secure.. naval vessel..... T 3. fish or paddle so you can quickly alert local authorities in time to prevent a dangerous situation from occurring. call 1-800... For information in port areas.S........682-1796 or go to www.... or petroleum facilities.... etc....000 fine..... Observe and avoid other restricted areas near dams.REVIEW QUESTIONS: Life Jackets Answer these questions by circling T for true or F for false... Coast Guard-approved. Take note of activities going on around you as you boat...... Slow to minimum speed within 500 yards of any large U..... properly fitted life jackets under the following conditions: in rough seas. The U. when the wearer is not a good swimmer ....... Do not stop or anchor beneath bridges or in the channel. Although life jackets come in different styles.......S...uscg..... Specific Ways You Can Help:  Keep your distance from all military. more than 3 miles off shore. riding on any boat underway.. Violators of the Naval Vessel Protection Zone face up to six years in prison and a $250...... so keep well away of shipping or cruise-line traffic... cruise-line............ If you do... power plants..... then expect to be boarded by law enforcement officials..S. including any U.. cruise-line....... especially those that involve military... T 5... You should always check your life jacket for signs of wear or age before using it. there is no difference in their capacity to save a person.. it’s a good idea to attach a whistle to your life jacket.... . Coast Guard and other emergency responders ask you to increase your level of awareness of your surroundings anytime you are on or near the water.... not to mention a quick and severe response....... and will face a quick and severe response.............. T 4... All passengers should wear U......... Our waterways can present opportunities for unlawful or dangerous activities.. . Violators will be seen as a threat.....   13 ....... Avoid port operation areas. Approaching certain other commercial vessels may result in an immediate boarding. . T F F F F F Turn to page 84 for correct answers..... T 2............... or check with local authorities... HOMELAND SECURITY As a recreational boater..mil/safeports/.. For added safety..... Observe and avoid all security zones.... The nice thing about life jackets is that one size fits all. 1... or commercial shipping vessels! Do not approach within 100 yards....S..... military or military supply vessel over 100 feet..............................

.. Unknown persons photographing or creating diagrams of such things as the underside of bridges........ . When storing your boat...... make sure it is secure and its engine is disabled....... or port or marina security officials..... Immediately report all activities that seem suspicious to local authorities............... Or call the National Response Center’s Terrorist Hotline at 1-800-424-8802.. the area around nuclear power plans... the Coast Guard..... Recreational boaters have no part in keeping our waterways safe and secure.. Unknown or suspicious persons loitering for extended periods of time in waterfront areas. 1.. cruise-line.....................      Be alert and boat safely! REVIEW QUESTIONS: Homeland Security Answer the following questions by circling T for true or F for false.T 4... Always take the boat keys with you... If it is on a trailer................... Never leave your boat accessible to others......... Suspicious persons renting or attempting to procure or “borrow” watercraft...... and waterfront facilities near military..... Keep a sharp eye out for anything that looks peculiar or out of the ordinary.. .................... Suspicious activities should be reported to local authorities. Suspicious vendors attempting to sell/deliver merchandise or drop off packages in waterfront areas........ or commercial vessels... or port or marina security officials............ Always secure and lock your boat when not on board..................... Do not approach or challenge those acting in a suspicious manner..... T F F F F Turn to page 84 for correct answers... Recreational vessels are not restricted from approaching military vessels........... Individuals establishing roadside stands near marinas or other waterfront facilities............. such as near bridges or high security areas on or near the water....... make the trailer as immovable as possible.000 fine...T 3...........T 2. This includes while visiting marina restaurants or a friend’s dock or other piers.......   Immediately report the following:  Suspicious persons conducting unusual activities... 14 . ...................... the Coast Guard... Violators of the Naval Vessel Protection Zone can face up to six years in prison and a $250...

charcoal or oil. On calm days. and space and water heaters. It only takes one or two breaths of the air in this “death chamber” for it to be fatal. REMEMBER All carbon monoxide poisonings are preventable! Teak surfing.  STAY AWAY from these exhaust vent areas and DO NOT swim in these areas when the motor or generator is operating. Activities such as teak surfing or dragging behind a moving boat can be deadly. burns. such as gasoline. not even for a second. Sources on your boat include gasoline engines. wait at least 15 minutes after the motor or generator has been shut off before entering these areas. properly tuned engines.irritated eyes.  NEVER enter an enclosed area under a swim platform where exhaust is vented. 15 . Prolonged exposure to low concentrations or very short exposure to high concentrations can lead to death. outboard engines and generators build up inside and outside the boat in areas near exhaust vents. and dizziness . Each year.are often confused with seasickness or intoxication. generators. boaters are injured or killed by carbon monoxide. Exhaust leaks. odorless and tasteless and mixes evenly with the air. Cold or poorly tuned engines produce more carbon monoxide than warm. It enters your bloodstream through the lungs and displaces the oxygen your body needs. Early symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning . dragging and water skiing within 20 feet of a moving watercraft can be fatal. headache. weakness. the leading cause of death by carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide from exhaust pipes of inboard engines. Most incidents occur on older boats and within the cabin or other enclosed areas. cooking ranges. A specific area of concern is the rear deck near the swim platform when the generator or engine is running. can allow carbon monoxide to migrate throughout the boat and into enclosed areas. AVOID THESE DEATH ZONES!  Swimming near or under the back deck or swim platform. nausea.CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) POISONING Facts Carbon monoxide is a potentially deadly gas produced any time a carbon-based fuel. Carbon monoxide is colorless. propane. Regular maintenance and proper boat operation can reduce the risk of injury from carbon monoxide.

2. Choose the true statement: a.ca. Fever. b. Never remove the battery unless replacing it with a new battery TO LEARN MORE ABOUT CARBON MONOXIDE. stomachache and gasping for breath 16 . Educate all passengers about carbon monoxide poisoning. Carbon Monoxide c. Listen for any change in exhaust sound that could indicate an exhaust component failure.dbw. Inspect rubber exhaust hoses for burned or cracked sections. c. Confirm that water flows from the exhaust outlet when the engines and generator are started. Propane 3. CONSULT WEBSITE: www. Oxygen d. Regularly tuned engines c. The leading cause of death by carbon monoxide is: a. 6. All carbon monoxide poisonings are preventable. or corroded or cracked fittings. nausea and dizziness c. Teak surfing is not a dangerous activity. Which of the following is a poison danger to boaters? a. Passengers need not worry about carbon monoxide. 2. All rubber hoses should be pliable and free of kinks. vomiting and ringing ears b.gov/PubsAndReports. Look for exhaust leaking from exhaust system components. Exhaust leaks d. 4. d. fever and chills d. Water skiing too close to the boat b. 3. Seasickness and intoxication are caused by carbon monoxide. Early symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are: a. Carbon Dioxide b. 7. water leaks.CO CHECKLIST (EVERY TRIP) 1. Make sure the battery is installed properly and is in good condition. Make sure all exhaust clamps are in place and secure. Diarrhea. 5. 4. Test the operation of each carbon monoxide detector by pressing the test button. Exhaust from another vessel Turn to page 84 for correct answers. indicated by rust and/or black streaking.htm and click on Carbon Monoxide REVIEW QUESTIONS: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning 1. Red eyes. Headache.

That means that if you learn the State boating laws provided here and any local rules where you go boating. Remember. special-use areas. waters subject to tidal influence. In California. The only other boating laws that apply are any rules specific to local waterways (which are limited to time-of-day restrictions. police officers. rivers and lakes that extend to more than one state).  navigational rules and aids  boat ownership and registration State boating law incorporates Federal navigational laws.S. you have no excuse for not knowing the law. and other land use agencies. Coast Guard enforces federal law on federal waters (which are coastal waters. you should understand Boating Law and the Rules of Navigation. 17 . park rangers. The Rules of Navigation enable you to handle your vessel when other boats are around. if a law enforcement officer stops you. and knowing and using the right safety equipment. But before you operate any boat. and safely launch in harbors and other busy waterways that use aids to navigation (called ATONs). now you know about personal safety. Boating Law includes registering your vessel properly.Chapter 2 BOATING LAW. including the international and inland rules of navigation. or pollution and sanitation control). navigational regulations. you will know everything you need to know to boat anywhere in California. OBJECTIVES You will learn:  General laws about operating a boat within the State of California  Safety equipment required by law  Navigational rules and navigational aids BOATING LAW California Law Governs  the age of boat operators  environmental protection  required safety equipment KNOW THE LAW Every boat owner and operator must know the law. most recreational boating law enforcement is done by county sheriff’s officers. speed zones. and local restrictions. NAVIGATIONAL RULES AND NAVIGATIONAL AIDS Introduction OK. These officers enforce state boating law. The U. Know the rules…and help prevent accidents.

or by both imprisonment and fine. the Federal Rules of the Road and regulations adopted by the Department of Boating and Waterways while operating a vessel. endangering life. and proceed at a reduced speed until beyond the area of operation of the law enforcement vessel. False Search and Rescue Calls Anyone who reports to a state or local agency that an emergency exists knowing that the report is false is guilty of a misdemeanor and may be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for up to one year. vessel or aircraft. It is a felony for anyone to falsely report to any state or government agency that an emergency exists when the reporter knows. navigation regulations. overtaking. that the response to the report is likely to cause death or great bodily injury to someone as a result of the false report. Any vessel approaching. Peace officers can order the operator of an unsafe vessel to shore. Court-Ordered Boating Education  Any person convicted of any moving violation in the Harbors and Navigation Code. alter its course. TAKE NOTE Making a false emergency report is not funny and it can keep law enforcement officers from responding to real emergencies.000. or being overtaken by a moving law enforcement vessel operating with a siren or an illuminated blue light. or should know. Every peace officer of the state. Peace officers have the authority to stop and board any vessel where the peace officer has probable cause to believe that a violation of state law or regulations or local ordinance exists. Every vessel underway and lawfully ordered to stop by a peace officer or harbor policeman shall stop immediately and permit the peace officer or harbor police vessel to come alongside. and local restrictions. city. a fine up to $1. shall immediately slow. limb or property. A vessel can be ordered to the nearest safe moorage if an unsafe condition is found that cannot be corrected on the spot and the officer believes continued operation of the vessel could be hazardous. An emergency includes any condition that results in. or could result in. no person shall operate a vessel in a reckless or negligent manner.  Proof of completion and passage of the course must be submitted to the court within seven months of the time of the conviction. being approached.OFFICER AUTHORITY REMEMBER Under the law. county or harbor district is empowered to enforce general boating laws. must be ordered by the court to complete and pass a boating safety course approved by the Department of Boating and Waterways. 18 . the response of a public official in an authorized emergency vehicle. The use of a distinctive blue light is reserved for law enforcement vessels.

...... T F F F F F F F Turn to page 84 for correct answers. Coast Guard enforces the law on state and federal waters..... T 7.. You are responsible for obeying boating laws you don’t know.. T 5.. A person must be at least 12 to operate a powerboat unsupervised. 1. T 4......... The U......  People 12 to 15 years of age may operate any vessel powered by a motor of more than 15-horsepower....... T 2....... T 6............. T 3. The use of a blue light is reserved for law enforcement vessels... Exceptions: There is no age limit to operate a sailboat under 30 feet long (if using wind as the main source of propulsion).. .AGE OF OPERATOR In California  A person must be 16 years of age or older to operate a vessel powered by a motor of more than 15 horsepower.. There are no penalties for making a false emergency report...... .. Peace officers can order the operator of an unsafe vessel to shore.. 19 .......... A person convicted of any moving violation while operating a vessel must complete and pass a boating safety course... or a dinghy used directly between a moored vessel and the shoreline or between two moored vessels....... if they’re supervised on board by someone at least 18 years of age... REVIEW QUESTIONS: Boating Law Answer these questions by circling T for true or F for false..... .... ......S...

the boat’s length. oil and grease fires. such as wood and paper Type B for flammable liquids such as gasoline and oil Type C for electrical fires Type D for combustible metals. the boat’s power source. 20 . Type C contains dry chemicals that are made for electrical fires. If you answered “yes” to any of the fire extinguisher questions Your boat must carry a U. rowboats. A Class B-II extinguisher has four to five times more extinguishing material than a Class B-I extinguisher. Fire Extinguishers Does your boat have any one or more of the following? See left column text. Make sure your passengers know what to do in case of an emergency. I and II.S. Show them if they don’t know. because they reduce the chance that you will be shocked while putting out a fire. canoes. Sailboats. Coast Guardapproved fire extinguisher in an easy-to-reach location. The Roman numerals after the letters. which may vary according to the type of boat.  Inboard or stern-drive engine  Closed compartments where portable fuel tanks may be stored  Double-walled hulls that are not sealed or not completely filled with flotation material  Enclosed living spaces  Closed stowage compartments in which combustible or flammable materials may be stored  Permanently installed fuel tanks Things you should know: Fire extinguishers are classified by letters and Roman numeral symbols. The letter indicates the type of fire the device is made to extinguish and the Roman numeral indicates the size of the extinguisher: TAKE NOTE Boat operators should show all passengers where safety equipment is stored. such as magnesium (Generally not for use on boats. indicate the size of the extinguisher.) Type B is commonly used on boats and can extinguish gasoline. the place and time you’re using it. and the number of people aboard.     Type A for combustible solids.REQUIRED SAFETY EQUIPMENT Recreational vessels must carry specified safety equipment. and inflatable rafts equipped with motors are considered motorboats and must be equipped as motorboats.

Never try an extinguisher to see if it works properly .Pull pin I N STRUCTIONS   Less than 26 feet 26 feet to less than 40 feet 40 feet through 65 feet 1 2 1 3 1 1 B-I B-I or B-II B-I or B-II and B-I A .Sweep side to side using short bursts.gov/PubsAndReports. If the extinguisher contains a dry chemical extinguishing material.ca. shake it or hit the bottom with your hand to loosen it. a half-second to 1 second each  Things you should know:   Before using portable extinguishers. CONSULT WEBSITE: www. Check your fire extinguisher at least once every six months for the pressure level and signs of powder on the nozzle.Aim at base of fire S .dbw. because these extinguishers contain water and you might be electrocuted. turn the extinguisher end-to-end.htm and click on Fire Extinguishers 21 . recharge it before using it again. Minimum Number of Portable Fire Extinguishers Required (with no permanent fire extinguishing system in the engine or machinery compartments) Boat Length Quantity of Fire Extinguishers Type of Fire Extinguisher Using a fire extinguisher P . read the instructions.Squeeze handle S .The following chart describes the required fire extinguisher type by boat size.the valves may not reseal and the extinguishing material may gradually leak. Never use a foam extinguisher on electrical fires. After using an extinguisher. If the chemical is packed.   FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT FIRE EXTINGUISHERS.

such as fog or a blind bend in the river or narrow channel during an emergency. you may not be able to signal your intention with horn signals.gov/ABCindex.Sound Signals air horn All boats must carry some means of producing a sound signal. They can be valuable tools for signaling other boats when you cross or overtake them. to attract attention an air horn (hand held or mounted) an electric horn a whistle  megaphone  In an emergency you can even use:  a megaphone made from a rolled up chart a metal pot to bang on metal pot  More things you should know: Vessels 40 feet or longer are required to carry a whistle and a bell to meet the sound signaling device requirements. You can use:    when meeting. FOR MORE INFORMATION ON REGULATIONS FOR SOUND SIGNALS.ca. crossing or overtaking another boat during periods of reduced visibility.htm and click on Inland Rules of the Road 22 .dbw. loud enough to be heard for at least half a mile. Radios such as VHF are commonly used to communicate between boats. Things you should know: You must use your sound signaling device:  whistle Sound signaling devices come in many shapes and sizes. Something to think about When you come upon more than one vessel. CONSULT WEBSITE: www. You must take any action necessary to avoid a collision.

But the arrangement in figure 3 is not acceptable on a boat 40 feet or longer on international waters. built before Dec. Coast Guard Navigation Rules More things you should know: At night. which signals that the boat is at anchor. motorboats less than 40 feet long may combine the masthead light and stern light into one all-round white light. 2 or 3 may be used. Boats between 12 and 20 meters (39 feet. During the day. and direction of the lights for recreational boats (or pleasure craft). 23 . location. Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Row boats. 5. Location of lights Things you should know: Navigation light requirements vary by vessel length and power source. 4 inches) • Motorboats or sailboats using power: The lights shown in figure 1. these boats must show day shapes. paddle boats. and sailboats less than 7 meters in length. The masthead light (forward white light in figure 1) must be at least one meter— 39 inches—higher than the colored lights on a boat less than 40 feet long. When at anchor.Lighting All moving boats must show navigation lights between sunset and sunrise. boats must show one allround white light at night. 2 or 3 may be used. 5 or 6 may be used. 4 inches to 65 feet. • Sailboat using sails alone: The lights shown in figure 4. The chart shows the color. and at times when it’s hard to see very far. • Sailboats using sails alone: The lights shown in figure 4.S. as in Figure 7. and at least 8 feet above the gunwale on a boat between 40 and 65 feet long. 1980: The lights shown in figure 1. A day shape might be one black ball that is visible from the highest point of the vessel. 24. 7 inches) • Motorboats or sailboats using power: The lights shown in figure 1. Personal watercraft are prohibited from operating between sunset and sunrise. Exceptions Motorboats or sailboats using power. Boats less than 12 meters (39 feet. In general. Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 6 Lights should be located as shown in the drawings. must have one all-round light ready to display in time to prevent a collision. requirements are the same for inland and international rules. * Taken from U. 2 or 3 may be used. or 6 may be used.

To avoid breaking state and local noise laws and as a courtesy to those around you. canoes. must have a backfire flame arrestor on each carburetor. The flame arrestor screen on each carburetor should be kept clean to prevent ignition of a fire If your gasoline engine does not have a carburetor.dbw. except those with outboard engines. for night use only  An orange smoke signal. hand-held flare. for day and night use flashlight  A red. you should be courteous to those around you. because it may increase the noise level or create a dangerous exhaust leak.ca. They include:  An orange flag printed with a black square and ball.S. Coast Guard-approved visual distress signals.gov/ABCindex. One orange flag may be substituted for three daytime signals. and must meet U. Coast Guard standards. The backfire flame arrestor is designed to safeguard against fire and explosion in the engine compartment. This is especially true where people are enjoying the shoreline.Visual Distress Signals (On Coastal Waters Only) orange flag Be prepared to use U. boats 16 feet or longer must carry three daytime signals and three nighttime signals. CONSULT WEBSITE: red flare www. In addition. in congested areas. for day use only  Red meteor flares. and one SOS distress light may be substituted for three nighttime signals. or near residential or camping areas. it must have a reed valve assembly or an air and fuel induction system installed. such as rowboats. for day use only  A flashlight. Does your boat need a backfire flame arrestor? All motorboats with enclosed gasoline engines. Noise Levels You should never change your muffler or exhaust system.htm and click on Required Equipment orange smoke signal Things you should know: The following boats do not have to carry night signal devices unless they are operating at night:  Recreational boats less than 16 feet long red meteor  Boats propelled by hand.S. for day or night use FOR INFORMATION ABOUT VISUAL DISTRESS SIGNALS. 24 . and kayaks  Open sailboats less than 26 feet long with no motors attached  Boats taking part in organized marine events Backfire Flame Arrestors REMEMBER On coastal waters. make sure your boat is not too loud.

1. Flammable liquid d. A boat is too small to be seen by larger boats c. All boats must have lighting: a. Sounding a signal is required when: a. Wood 2. A boat does not have a hailer or megaphone aboard 3.ca. 1978  82 dbA for engines manufactured on or after January 1. When operating at night or in foggy weather c. and before January 1. These blowers should be turned on at least four minutes before the engine is started to make sure that any explosive fumes have been removed. Type C fire extinguishers are recommended for: a. CONSULT WEBSITE: www.gov/ABCindex. or at least below the carburetor air intake level. 1978 REMEMBER A spark from the electrical or ignition systems can cause an explosion if gasoline fumes are present. 1976. 25 . Boats built after July 31.California Boating Law prohibits operation of any motorboat in or upon the inland waters of the state with excessive noise levels. Manufacturers must install exhaust blowers in engine compartments so gasoline fumes can escape before the engines start. Ventilation Are all boats required to have a ventilation system? Regulations require that all enclosed engine and fuel tank compartments on gasoline-powered boats be ventilated. Excessive noise levels measured at a distance of 50 feet from the motorboat are described as:  86 dbA for engines manufactured before January 1. 1976  84 dbA for engines manufactured on or after January 1. Before being launched d. Gasoline c. must have power-operated ventilation systems. Things you should know: You must have at least two ventilator ducts—one exhaust duct and one intake duct. and meeting another boat b. When they are too small to be seen by larger boats Turn to page 84 for correct answers. Exhaust ducting must extend from the lower bilge to cowls in the open air. Electrical Fires b. because gasoline fumes can gather in the bilge —the lower inside areas of a boat’s hull—and create a dangerous explosion and fire hazard. If the boat has a generator on board b. 1980. TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THE NEED FOR VENTILATION.htm and click on Required Equipment REVIEW QUESTIONS: Safety Equipment Answer these questions by circling the letter next to the correct answer. Docking at night d.dbw. Intake ducting must extend midway to the bilge. Overtaking. having enclosed gasoline engines and fuel tank compartments. crossing.

above the waterline. Boats built since 1984 must also have the HIN permanently attached in a second. you must possess and show a HIN. 26 . all undocumented motorboats. If you own a boat that’s registered in another state and it is used mainly in California. if used mostly on California waters must be registered and properly display the state-issued number. the boat owner will be issued a Certificate of Number. BOAT OWNERSHIP AND REGISTRATION Hull Identification Number The Hull Identification Number (HIN) identifies a vessel and protects the owner against theft. To register a boat with the State. you may keep it in California for 90 days without having to register it at a California DMV office. and a pair of registration stickers. you should record the HIN and keep it in a safe place away from the boat. After 90 days. remove the old ones and apply new decals as directed. You will receive a citation if you are stopped by a law enforcement officer and do not have the current certificate of number with you. Boat registration must be renewed every two years. See Chapter 1 for more detailed information on boating and alcohol use. though. In California. YOU MUST HAVE Your registration certificate is required to be aboard your boat when it is under way. all undocumented motorboats must receive a registration number. Your certificate of number is required to be aboard your boat when it is under way. Boats must have a HIN permanently attached to the transom on the starboard (right) side. as well as all sailboats more than eight feet in length.08 percent or more. a Certificate of Ownership. unexposed location. The HIN is similar to a vehicle identification number (VIN) on a car. Registering a Boat In California. Alcohol affects reaction time and impairs judgment. your boat must be registered with the state. After giving the information and paying the required fees. Registration can be obtained at any Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) office. You then have 30 days to get it done. You will receive a citation if you are stopped by a law enforcement officer and do not have the current registration certificate with you.ALCOHOL AND OPERATING A BOAT It is against the law to operate a boat or water ski with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0. In addition. When you receive the new decals.

Coast Guard. and are subject to the same registration and equipment laws as similar-sized traditional boats.  They must be displayed on the forward half of the starboard (right) and port (left) sides of the boat.S.S. Documented vessels must have their name and hailing port printed on the stern.  No number other than the number assigned can be displayed on the forward half of the vessel.  Numbers must be in plain. Documenting a Boat Californians can document their boats with the U. Coast Guard.  Numbers must be at least three inches high. In California. contact the U. not toys. If in doubt.  Registration stickers must be displayed three inches away from the number and toward the rear of the boat. REMEMBER Personal watercraft are boats. Larger boats meeting Coast Guard guidelines can be given a documentation number by the U. Correct Display of Boat Numbers Port Side CF-1234-JS CF-1234-JS or CF 1234 JS CF 1234 JS Starboard Side Because of the size and shape of some models of personal watercraft or other boats. block letters. Documentation is a form of national registration and is useful for boats taken into international waters or other countries. Coast Guard.Once registered. 27 . For more information about this process. check with local authorities.  The figures must read left to right.  Numbers must be light-colored on dark backgrounds—or darkcolored on light backgrounds—and must be easy to see. a documented vessel need not be registered by the state.S. it may be difficult to apply registration numbers so that they’re easy to see.  Letters must be separated from the numbers by spaces or hyphens. above the waterline. the boat registration numbers must be purchased and displayed properly. and as high above the waterline as possible.

for the purpose of inspecting the marine sanitation device for proper operation and placing a dye tablet in the holding tank. and/or 5 years imprisonment. It can also be a hazard to boats if caught in a propeller or water intake. waters. Thousands of animals die each year after becoming entangled in or eating plastic trash. territorial limit.000 and/or criminal penalty up to $50. A state or local peace officer who reasonably suspects that a vessel is discharging sewage in an area where the discharge is prohibited may board that vessel. pollution from vessel sewage can be a huge problem. Any violation may result in a civil penalty up to $25. Check with your local marina and look for the national symbol to find the closest pumpout station. and it’s dangerous to animal life. Coast Guard can issue a citation up to $2. The pollution laws apply to all boats regardless of size.S.S. To avoid fines. The California Department of Boating and Waterways is using Clean Vessel Act funds to build additional vessel sewage pumpout stations throughout the state.000.S.000 for the illegal discharge of waste. it is against the law to discharge untreated waste anywhere within the three-mile U. The Federal Clean Vessel Act of 1992 helps reduce pollution from sewage discharges from vessels. You might think that one person discharging human waste doesn’t cause a problem. Regional. Coast Guard-approved Marine Sanitation Device (MSD) or a holding tank while out on the boat. It is against the law to dump plastic trash into the ocean or into navigable waters of the United States. 28 . responsible boaters will not dump any garbage or waste into the water. if the owner or operator is aboard. The international treaty to prevent pollution from ships (MARPOL) attacks the plastic pollution problem. some recreational boaters still discharge raw waste into coastal and inland waters. Clean Vessel Act PUMPOUT LOGO Plastic Pollution of the seas from garbage dumping is a global problem. Under this Act. Plastic does not easily decay. But with almost one million boats registered in California. use a U. The U. or local regulations may further restrict dumping garbage.S.ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS State and federal laws are designed to keep waterways cleaner and pollution free. state. Vessel Sewage (Human Waste) Though it’s against the law to dump untreated sewage into any navigable U. These laws apply to all boats. Although you’ll find legal zones for discharging garbage. no matter what size. and pump the contents out at a shoreside station.

it must display a 9-inch by 4-inch placard telling the crew and passengers what is against the law to throw overboard. and click Harbors and Navigation Code 29 . Packaging Material It is illegal to discharge packaging material (called dunnage) in inland waters and waters within 25 miles of shore.dbw. REMEMBER Federal law makes it illegal to discharge oil or oily waste into or upon navigable waters. if the discharge causes a film or sheen upon. Even a small amount of oil accidentally spilled can quickly spread over a large area. CONSULT WEBSITE: www. Styrofoam. You are responsible for cleanup costs and for correcting any environmental damage caused by your fuel spill. or discolors.MARPOL Placard CAUTION If your boat is 26 feet or longer. tides. Violators are subject to a penalty of $5. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO KNOW MORE ABOUT BOATING LAW. and into zones next to the navigable waters of the United States. temperature and the type of oil all affect how wide the slick spreads. under the California Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act of 1990. If your boat is 26 feet or longer. plastic or any similar material. it must display a 5-inch by 8-inch oily waste placard near the bilge pump control station.ca. The placard must list the federal requirements.gov/Pressroom. or causes a sludge or emulsion beneath the surface of the water. the surface of the water.000.htm TAKE NOTE Recreational boaters should call 1-800-OILSPILL if they witness or encounter an oil spill. paper. Packaging material includes cardboard. Wind. Display the placard where everyone can read it. Oil and Oily Waste It is against the Federal Pollution Control Act to pump or discharge any kind of oil into navigable waters. Oily Waste Placard One pint of oil can create a slick covering about one acre.

clogging waterways. registration numbers must be displayed by: a. 1. and impacting navigation and recreation.S. Describes the size of the boat b. These pests can increase dramatically under the right conditions.  Drain water from your motor. Is the same as the owner’s car license number 2. You can help prevent the introduction and spread of non-native species from one body of water to another.  Flush raw-water cooling systems and clean sea strainers before moving your boat from one body of water to another. REVIEW QUESTIONS: Alcohol. trailers. Hydrilla. dive gear or props. In California. Fish and Wildlife Service. Dispose on land into a garbage receptacle. Once introduced. live wells and bilge. Paddle craft b. they are nearly impossible to eliminate. fishing gear. Indicates that the boat has safety equipment aboard d. All boats. The Hull Identification Number: a. Is similar to a VIN on an automobile c. even if they do not have a motor c.  Wash your boat before putting it into a new body of water. Boat Registraion and Environmental Laws Answer these questions by circling the letter representing the correct answer.Aquatic Nuisance Species Non-native aquatic species—plants.  Inspect your boat and remove aquatic plants or animals before you leave any body of water. water hyacinth and zebra mussels are nuisance species that can be accidentally transported by recreational boaters when caught in propellers. Controlling water hyacinth and Egeria densa is a multi-million dollar problem in California. fish and animals—are invading California’s coastal and inland waters. Boats visiting California 30 . All undocumented motorboats and sailboats more than 8 feet long d. Egeria densa.  Report new infestations of non-native aquatic species to the U.  Empty bait buckets and remove any plant fragments from bait wells. displacing native species. intakes or attached to hulls.

boat operators are required to keep a proper lookout for other vessels. a lifeline. Are similar to those governing the operation of a vehicle on the road while under the influence of alcohol 4. and swimmers.000 d. injuring people in the water. While under way.S. a diving platform. obstructions. California laws governing the consequences for drinking alcohol and operating a boat: a. $10. The most common method is radio. And always look out for hazards so you can avoid getting into an accident. but you also need to know how to communicate using light and sound. operate your boat with caution. Boat-to-Boat Communication  You have three ways to communicate between vessels: Light signals. or a dock with boats tied to it. $2. So. Coast Guard can issue a fine for dumping human waste up to: a. that’s no guarantee that other boaters do. or route.000 Turn to page 84 for correct answers. or 200 feet of a swimming beach. The U.  Do not enter restricted areas and do not moor to buoys other than a specially marked mooring buoy.3.  Do not exceed 5 miles per hour within 100 feet of a swimmer.  Whenever you are traveling through a narrow channel or coming around a bend where it’s hard to see oncoming traffic. Are less strict for persons under 21 years of age d. REMEMBER Even if you know the law. and damaging property. NAVIGATIONAL RULES The main purpose of navigational rules is to prevent collisions and other avoidable accidents.000 b. and radio. sound signals. and keep a safe distance from other boats and obstacles. such as grounding in poor visibility.  Never obstruct or anchor in a channel. $5. Do not apply to minors c. a swimming float. 31 . always keep to the right side. Boat at a safe speed. or interfere with the travel of other boats. launching area.000 c. $1. Are the same for adults and minors b. light and sound signals.

 The give-way vessel must direct its course to starboard and pass the stand-on vessel astern. If necessary. stop.  When using a light signal at night.  You should never turn your vessel to port during a crossing situation.  Signal your intention to pass starboard to starboard by sounding two short (1-second) blasts. the give-way vessel should slow. Meeting at Right Angles Stand-On TAKE NOTE Five short whistle blasts alert other boaters to a dangerous situation. Meeting Head-to-Head When Approaching at Right Angles and at Risk of Collision  The boat on the right is the stand-on vessel—the other boat is the give-way vessel. or reverse. a 1-second light flash equals a 1-second sound blast.Meeting a Boat Head-to-Head  Signal your intention to pass port to port by sounding one short (1-second) blast of the horn.  The stand-on is the privileged vessel and must hold its course and speed. Doing so may result in a serious collision. Give-Way po sta r bo rt ard 32 .

 Sailboats and paddle craft should not interfere with large vessels. deep-draft vessels in narrow channels have the right-ofway because they cannot maneuver easily and may have limited visibility. give five or more short and rapid blasts to signal danger. because they are harder to maneuver.When Two Boats are Running in the Same Direction and the Vessel Astern Wants to Overtake and Pass a Boat  The stand-on boat (the boat being overtaken) must maintain its course and speed.  If the give-way boat wishes to pass on the port side. and using the radio. maintaining a lookout. • Operating your vessel in heavy-traffic areas. other power boats or “working” boats such as fishing vessels and dredges.  Be especially alert if you are sailing in a deep-water channel or port. motorboats should keep clear of sailboats.”  Pulling a water skier in a heavyuse area means you need to be extra cautious. rapid blasts. because a large ship can “steal your wind. it must signal with one short (1 second) blast. the stand-on vessel must signal for danger by sounding five or more short. rain.  Sailboats and boats propelled by oars and paddles usually have the right-of-way over motorboats. remaining visible.  If the give-way boat wishes to pass on the starboard side.  Large. Avoid large ships by staying out of the way.  To signal that the course ahead is not safe for passing. bright sun or other reasons. Overtaking Give-Way Stand-On Use common sense. 33 . it must signal with two short (1 second) blasts.  If you have doubts or there is danger of collision. knowing the signals.  Sailboats using auxiliary (backup) engines operate under the same rules as motorboats. extra caution and boating skill when • Visibility is poor because of fog. • The operator of the When Approaching Other Boats  Normally. oncoming boat is not following the standard rules of navigation or is operating the vessel recklessly. anchoring in safe places.

... Danger signal _______________________________________________________.... no special precautions need to be taken...... If your visibility is reduced..Know and remember the “rules of the road” On the road..... 2... the Inland and International Navigation Rules require any vessel underway to sound a warning signal at least every two minutes.......... Stand-on vessel _____________________________________________________. so they must be extra cautious....  A motorboat should sound one prolonged blast every two minutes. one short blast indicates your intention to pass port to port.... you should signal with one prolonged (4 to 6 seconds) blast.....  Motorboats shall keep to the starboard (right) side of the bend or channel whenever it’s safe or practical........ Answer the following questions by circling T for true or F for false...... or even blowing sand or smoke..T F 5..... mist.. 34 ........... 3...... heavy rainstorms.” Approaching a Blind Bend  When your boat is approaching a blind bend. it’s very important to follow the “rules of the road...... unlike motor vehicles on the road... On the waterways. And.T F Turn to page 84 for correct answers... When approaching a blind bend or when operating under poor visibility........ drivers use lane lines and stoplights to stay safe...  A sailboat under sail should sound one prolonged blast...........  An oncoming boat should return the signal.. plus two short blasts.......... Poor and Reduced Visibility Poor visibility may be caused by fog. REVIEW QUESTIONS: Navigational Rules Define the following terms: 1... every two minutes. falling snow.. boats don’t have brakes..... In a head-to-head meeting situation.... Give-way vessel _____________________________________________________... 4.......... But boaters don’t have lines or stop lights on the water..

These navigation signs are called the U. The regulatory markers designate:  Boat exclusion areas: A diamond shape with a centered cross designates areas that boats must stay away from. They may show a white light and may be lettered. California waterways have navigation signs that direct traffic. Non-Lateral Markers Boats Keep Out! Danger! Controlled Area Information Mooring Buoy Inland Waters Obstruction Mark ROCK NO Wake First Aid Station 35 . such as directions and locations. wreck. Wording may be posted inside the diamond shape. such as “5 mph. and is for mooring only.  Buoys can be used to display regulatory markers. dams. The U. To avoid the obstruction.” The warning may be placed inside the circle. non-lateral markers and safe water aids. Aids to Navigation System include lateral navigation markers. but may also be used on federal waters.” or “anchoring. or ATONs. do not pass between the buoy and the shore.  A white mooring buoy with a blue band. ATONs Help Boaters  Avoid problems  Navigate from one place to another  Travel safely  Locate their positions REMEMBER Navigational aids contain information and are regulatory markers used to alert the boater.  Inland waters obstruction mark: A white buoy with black vertical stripes indicates an obstruction to navigation.S. such as rock. Aids to Navigation System.” “no wake. or rapids. Non-Lateral Markers The Uniform State Waterways Marking System (USWMS) uses regulatory markers and aids to navigation mostly on lakes and other inland waterways. Wording may be placed outside the crossed diamond shape. such as swim areas. and wording may identify the type of control.  Information: A square or a rectangle displays official information. The buoy may show a white reflector or light.  Danger: An open-faced diamond identifies the nature of the danger. S.  Controlled area: A circular shape designates a controlled area. or shoal (shallow area).NAVIGATIONAL AIDS Like streets and highways.

When you are returning from seaward to a port or harbor. but may be lettered.TAKE NOTE A red flag with a white diagonal stripe is generally flown on a small float or vessel when divers are in the water. 36 . Ships line up these markers to stay on course in mid-channel. and daymarks. the red buoys should be on your right side. “Red. Returning” is a saying to help you remember which side of a channel the red and green buoys are found. spherical-unlighted buoys. The marking system includes:  Lateral aids marking the sides of channels that boaters can see when entering from seaward. red nun and green can buoys. In recent years.” Lateral Markers and Safe Water Aids The lateral markers guide navigation on coastal waterways spanning more than one state. and starboardside markers are red with even numbers. Right.  Safe-water aids mark mid-channels and fairways. They include red and green lighted buoys.  A red nun buoy marks the right side of the channel when you’re returning to port. exhibit no numbers. It warns other boats to “stay clear. these markers have been equipped with radar reflectors so that large ships can navigate at night  A red-striped spherical buoy marks the center of the channel. They include white-lighted buoys. and red and green daymarks. These range markers are red and white.  A green can buoy marks the left side of the channel when you’re returning to port. This will ensure that you’re in the middle of a designated shipping lane or channel. Port-side markers are green with odd numbers.

Lateral Markers and Safe Water Aids LATERAL AIDS SAFE WATER AIDS Port Side Odd Numbers Starboard Side Even Numbers (No Numbers. May be Lettered) 9 G "9" FI G 4sec R "8" FI R 4sec 8 G RW "E" Mo(A) Lighted Buoy (green light only) Lighted Buoy (red light only) Lighted (white light) or or or 7 C "7" N "6" 6 RW SP "G" CF A G Spherical Buoy (unlighted) Can Buoy (unlighted) Nun Buoy (unlighted) Marks the Center of the Channel 1 Daymark SG TR MR G "1" R "2" 2 Daymark A Daymark RW "A" 37 .

Navigational charts are not available for many lakes and rivers because they are not useful in waterways with extreme changes in water elevation.You cannot use longitude as an accurate measure of distance. Navigational charts are available for the California coast. because navigable waters are affected by high volumes of rain.org FOR INFORMATION ON THE U. FOR ELECTRONIC NAVIGATIONAL CHARTS. and when under way.S. In these areas. and tides.usps.noaa.S. floating debris and underwater obstacles can create extreme hazards. In some charted waters. Charts show shallow reefs. CONSULT WEBSITE: www. COAST GUARD AUXILIARY AND THEIR COURSES CONSULT WEBSITE: www. TAKE NOTE The local knowledge you get at a marina or bait shop can make your boating trip safer. no matter where you are on the earth.org TO FIND OUT ABOUT TIDES AND CURRENTS. Boaters can also measure distances they wish to travel by using the distance scale on the chart. snow melt. and should never be used for anchoring or recreation.The rule is one minute of latitude equals one nautical mile.cgaux. or the degrees of latitude on either side of the chart.gov/links.S. and areas that may have a lot of floating debris. In these areas. and the SacramentoSan Joaquin Delta (which includes the navigable portions of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers). THE COURSE ON AIDS TO NAVIGATION OR OTHER COURSES. COAST GUARD AUXILIARY OFFER COURSES ON AIDS TO NAVIGATION. POWER SQUADRONS AND THE U. POWER SQUADRONS.dbw. and many other underwater hazards. boaters traveling in unknown waters should be extremely cautious and try to learn about any hazards before boating. bays. sandbars. because the scale changes with different locations around the world.Navigational Charts REMEMBER Consider tides and tidal currents when docking or mooring your boat. recreational boaters must be aware of changing waterways.htm and click WWW Tide and Current Predictor under the Weather Links category 38 .gov and select Charting and Navigation U. such as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. CONSULT THE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION (NOAA) WEBSITE: www.The main purpose of these charts is to mark waterways for deep-draft vessels. FOR INFORMATION ABOUT THE U. when traveling through inlets or narrow channels.These deep-water channels are usually heavy boat traffic areas. CONSULT WEBSITE: www.S. changes in the shoreline.ca.

Solid green or red buoys 3. A red nun buoy marks: a. ATONs are: a. White buoy with a blue band d. Games played by sailors out to sea b. The right (starboard) side of the channel b. Danger sign c. The safe entrance and exit to a channel c. Red-striped buoy b. 1. Navigational markers 2. The location of submerged debris d. One-way traffic Turn to page 84 for correct answers. 39 .REVIEW QUESTIONS: Navigational Aids Answer these questions by circling the letter representing the correct answer. You can moor your boat to a: a. Federal rules to guide the operation of a boat on the open ocean d. Knots commonly tied by sailors c.

MR MR AA Daymark Daymark RW RW "A" "A" Daymark Daymark Daymark CF A Lighted Buoy (green light only) Marker on Piling or MPH Lighted Buoy (red light only) Marker on Special Mooring Buoy Purpose Buoy or DAM Lighted (white light) Dual Purpose Marker on Land Controlled Speed Zone Green-Topped Buoy Red-Topped Buoy or 5 ut! Danger! Controlled Area C "7" N "6" Information MPH 5 7 RW Pass Between SPThese "G" 6 7. Next 2 Miles NO Wake 6 First Aid Station CF A G Spherical Buoy (unlighted) er ing Can Buoy (unlighted) Marker on Special Purpose Buoy Nun Buoy Marks the Center (unlighted) Dual Purpose of the Channel Mooring Buoy Marker on Land Controlled Speed Zone H DAM MPH 5 Controlled Area Information 4. 6 . First Aid Station SG TR Next 2 Miles Mooring Buoy Marks the Center of the Channel RW "A" 8. you must be able to read the “roadLighted Buoy For each of theLighted (white light) signs.Port Side Odd Numbers Starboard Side Even Numbers (No Numbers. 1 First Aid Station Daymark Next G 2 Miles G "1" RW SG Mooring Buoy SG 1 TR TR G "9" R "8" FI G 4sec ROCK FI R 4sec NO Wake R "1" "E" G"2" Mo(A) R "2" 2 Marks the Center of the Channel 2 6. May be Lettered) 9 8 G G "9" FI G 4sec R "8" FI R 4sec RW "E" Mo(A) REVIEW QUESTIONS: Know Your Road Signs 9 G "9" FI G 4sec R "8" FI R 4sec 8 G RW "E" Mo(A) When navigating on the water.” waterway Lighted Buoy (red light only) (green light only) markers below. NO Wake 1 MR G "1" R "2" 2 Daymark Green-Topped Buoy A Daymark CF A pecial uoy Daymark Mooring Buoy Dual Purpose Marker on Land Controlled Speed Zone Red-Topped Buoy MPH 5 40 Next 2 Miles 7 Turn to page 84 for correct answers. 7 ROCK 3. May be Lettered) Buoy (unlighted) (unlighted) Mooring Buoy Dual Purpose Marker on Land Controlled Speed Zone Can Buoy (unlighted) Nun Buoy (unlighted) Marks the Center of the Channel Marks the Center of the Channel Spherical Buoy (unlighted) Spherical Buoy (unlighted) MPH 5 DAM Boats Keep Out! 9 Danger! Controlled Area 8 Information MPH 5 2. C "7" N "6" 7 C "7" N "6" 6 RW SP "G" 6 CF A CF A G G RW SP "G" Port Side Odd Numbers Marker on Piling Starboard Side Even Numbers Marker on Special Purpose Buoy Nun Can Buoy (No Numbers. ROCK Controlled Area Information or or or NO Wake First Aid Station 7 5. write what it means: or Lighted Buoy (green light only) or (red light only) Lighted Buoy Lighted (white light) or Boats Keep Out! Danger! 1.

Chapter 3 VESSEL OPERATION Introduction Boating can be unpredictable. If you do not know the definition of any part. including: ✔ Powerboats ✔ Sailboats ✔ Paddlecraft OBJECTIVES You will learn: ◆ Basic boat anatomy ◆ Trailering ◆ Storage of your boat General operating guidelines and techniques: ◆ Fueling ◆ Docking ◆ Anchoring ◆ Maintaining your boat and engine Specific information on: ◆ Powerboats ◆ Water Skiing The better you become at handling your boat. new adventures—and new hazards. it’s necessary to learn the names and locations of the parts of a boat. currents. you’ll face different weather. It includes specific guidelines for different types of boats. and on navigation signs and charts. Be prepared and know your boat. and the way you and other boaters act. such as “windshield. This chapter will help you operate your boat safely.” while other parts have names unique to boating. ◆ Sailboats ◆ Paddlecraft Outboard Motor PORT Windshield Gunwale Combination Light (red/green) BOW Beam Cleat Steering Wheel Stern Light (white) Transom STERN STARBOARD Freeboard Draft Propeller Rail Waterline Chines 41 . To operate a boat safely. how your boat performs. because you will come across them in manuals. winds. in discussions with other boaters. THE ANATOMY OF A BOAT Some boat parts have familiar names. look it up in the glossary at the end of the workbook. Every time you get in a boat. Many things can make or break your day on the water—tides. the better you can handle the unpredictable.

But larger trailers need special brakes. Lights for Your Trailer In California. mainly for heavier trailers)  lights  trailer hitch Brakes for Your Trailer Usually.  The beam of the boat determines the width of the trailer. Trailers equipped with surge brakes also have an emergency release cable that must be attached to the towing vehicle.You have two main choices in braking systems: surge and electric. turn signals.TRAILERING All trailers owned and operated in the State of California. If for some reason the trailer breaks free of the towing vehicle. and clearance lights. Trailer equipment Your trailer should be equipped with the following:  brakes (these are optional. And be sure to secure the boat to the trailer. and used to transport boats of any size. your trailer must be equipped with taillights. especially salt water. This system works well on the road.  When the boat is placed on the trailer. 42 .  Electric brakes go on when you apply the car’s brakes. but not as well when backing up. the trailer surges ahead slightly and the trailer’s hydraulically operated brakes take hold. the brakes on the trailer will engage. The Boat Must Fit the Trailer  The length of the boat determines the length of the trailer.  Surge brakes work from the trailer’s momentum. because water. must be licensed by the California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV).  Your boat and its contents should not weigh more than 80 percent of the trailer’s weight capacity. and some light fixtures are not waterproof. mount your trailer’s lights on a removable board. is hard on trailer lights. small trailers do not have brakes of their own. If possible. When you apply the brakes on your vehicle. make sure that the rollers and supports are adjusted to fit the shape of the boat’s bottom. brake lights.

Never use a ball that is too small. rust-free.  Use sealed waterproof electrical connections on the trailer. Trailer Ball Tow Car Shackle Crossed Chains Things you should know: You must disconnect taillights from the tow vehicle while getting ready to launch. Instead. use four-pole electrical connectors. The weight rating and size in inches should be stamped on the ball. Never use the trailer hitch for the ground connection. The chains should be crossed under the hitch to form an “X” when you connect them to the frame of the towing vehicle.  The size of the coupler on the hitch should match the size of the ball exactly.or off-loading the boat. possibly blinding drivers of on-coming vehicles Reduces the driver’s field of vision  Not enough weight on the rear of the vehicle:   Will cause the trailer to sway or fishtail Increases the chances that the trailer hitch will separate from the ball 43 .  The trailer should be equipped with two strong. If the carriage cannot be adjusted. because your trailer could separate from the towing vehicle.   No more than 5 to 7 percent of the total tow weight should be on the hitch. Wire couplings should be high enough to remain dry when on. This allows the bulbs to cool down before they are dipped in the water and prevents a short circuit in the vehicle’s electrical system.  The ball should be bolted or welded to the towing vehicle.The Trailer Hitch A hitch is used to attach the trailer tongue to the ball on the towing vehicle. safety chains. The tongue weight on the ball affects the towing vehicle and the trailer. You can distribute weight properly by adjusting the trailer’s wheel carriage either forward or backward.  Too much weight on the rear of the vehicle:    Raises the front end and makes it difficult to control Affects the steering and traction on front-wheel drive vehicles Raises the focus of the head lights. relocate movable gear in the boat until the trailer is more balanced.  Special heavy-duty equalizing hitches are necessary for trailer tongue or hitch weights of 350 pounds or more.

(California law requires drivers to pull over at the first possible safe location when they are holding up FIVE or more vehicles. The trailer will tend to correct itself without braking. grease.Tips for Safe Trailering Before towing a boat on a trailer. CHECK TO SEE IF • The locking mecha-  Driving with a trailer takes special care and requires practice. Be sure that the lug wrench and jack matches your trailer. mounted spare tire and wheel.dbw. causing these parts to get stuck and/or wear away. CONSULT WEBSITE: www. you should pull over at the first safe opportunity to permit cars to pass.  Carry a properly inflated.  When traveling below average traffic speed.)  You need more time and distance than usual to overtake and pass another vehicle because the trailer adds weight and reduces acceleration.  Don’t brake when the rush of air from a large vehicle pushes the trailer to the side.ca.  It is illegal and dangerous to carry passengers on the trailer or boat while towing.  Stay in the middle of your lane.  Avoid sudden stops.gov/PubsAndReports. Skills that take extra practice include backing up. and tools for replacing the bearings on extended trips  It’s also a good idea to maintain the lug nuts on the wheels.htm and click on Towing Tips for Trailer Sailors 44 . The trailer will take the turns in a tighter radius than the towing vehicle. Maintain the bearings by:  Keeping the bearings well greased  Allowing bearings to cool first if they must be immersed in water  Repacking the bearings when necessary or as recommended by the manufacturer  Carrying spare bearings. You will also need a lug wrench and jack for changing the tire. taking corners and judging braking distances. You can do this by “exercising” or loosening the bolts. nism on the trailer hitch is properly engaged • Boat tie-downs are secure and in their proper locations • The cable that secures the front of the vessel to the trailer is attached and in good working condition • Trailer safety chains are connected in a criss-cross pattern • The spare tire is inflated and usable • The trailer lights are in working condition • The boat is not overloaded with extra gear. Always allow extra distance between your vehicle and vehicles in front of you. which could affect handling of the towing vehicle Trailer Maintenance Tips Water will rust the metal parts of your trailer. It is nearly impossible to keep the rims of the trailer’s wheels or the bearings out of water when launching. and then oiling them. because the size of the bolts and the height of the trailer may differ from your car’s. Be sure to tighten them back up! FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT TRAILERING.  Take special care when going around corners to avoid making the trailer run over curbs. lamp posts and other objects.  Change lanes smoothly to prevent whipping the trailer.

 Learn to guess distances when using the mirrors. Backing right. Do not practice at a launching area when the parking lot and ramps are busy. (See at right side. Launching your boat:  Check the ramp to make sure that it’s clear. here are some safety tips:  The trailer turns in the direction opposite to the direction you turn the steering wheel.)  Attach a tag line to your boat so that it will not float away when launched. Steering Wheel Bumper Boat & Trailer Hitch Before backing down the ramp. To adjust for this. and safety equipment are on board. the boat will be hard to get off the trailer when you are ready to leave. An empty parking lot is a good place to practice backing your vehicle with a trailer.  Take off the boat’s cover. While waiting:  Do not remove the boat from the winch cable at this time.  If the ramp has room for more than one boat. This will make it possible for others to launch or recover their boats at the same time. bailing.  Check for adequate fuel level. pull off to one side to let the bearings cool for a short time. If you back down the ramp too far.S.)  Be comfortable using your sideview mirrors when backing a trailer. the boat will float off the trailer and might get in someone’s way or hit the dock and be damaged. when you turn the steering wheel to the right. Coast Guard-approved life jacket on board for every passenger. (It may be necessary to remove the cover before you leave home to reduce wear from wind while driving.  Do not start the engine until the boat is in the water. 45 . To back the trailer into the water. you can remove the winch cable. If you do not back down the ramp far enough.  Once the boat is off the trailer. the trailer will turn to the right.  Back the vehicle and boat down the ramp until the boat begins to float.Tips for Launching Your Boat Using a ramp to launch a boat requires practice.  Remove the tie downs.  Make sure that the boat’s lights and horns are in operating condition.  Make sure that necessary rowing. because engines that are supposed to be cooled by circulating water may be damaged.  Put the drain plug in your boat.  Make sure that you have a U.  Unplug the lights. place your hand on the bottom of the steering wheel. Now. back straight down on one side of the ramp.

 If the trailer will be stored outside. Amur River clam. cover the wheels to prevent sunlight from damaging the tires. add weight over the drive axle and try again. If the drive wheels spin. Egeria densa. instructions for protecting your because it will trap moisture. Pull the boat up using the winch so that the bow of the boat contacts the bow rest.  Plug in trailer lights and check to see if they work. if necessary. Add a gasoline stabilizer circulate under the cover. Storing Your Boat and Trailer Proper storage prevents rust. not cover your boat before it has  Follow the manufacturer’s dried.  Check the tongue. Carefully center the boat on the trailer so that it rests on the cradles evenly.htm and click on Boater/Alert: Hydrilla 46 . European green crab. turn off the engine and put the car in low or first gear. hydrilla. mildew. such as an outlightly oiled rag. flush it with fresh water  Repack the trailer’s bearings if before storage. Remove all aquatic plants and drain water from your boat and trailer when you pull your boat out of the water.gov/ PubsAndReports. board.dbw. damaged wheel bearings. safety chains. Chinese mitten crab.  Take the boat to the staging area and remove the drain plug.  If you must leave the car while on the ramp.  Drive up the ramp in low or first gear. dry rot. and weathered tires. Take the vehicle and trailer to the parking area so that the ramp is clear. check out these tips:  If you cover your boat with a  Prevent water from collecting canvas tarp. Before storing your boat and trailer for the winter season. and other parts. Aquatic plants and animals that are transported to a place where they’re not native can cause problems for native organisms and upset the natural ecosystem.  If your engine has an “open” Wipe all metal surfaces with a cooling system.  Raise and secure the outboard or inboard/outboard engine.ALERT Help prevent the spread of animals and plants that cause a nuisance in California waters. hitch. CONSULT WEBSITES: www. cooling system. engine from winter weather. FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT AQUATIC NUISANCE SPECIES. and the New Zealand Sea Slug. Do not use a nylon tarp. check the level  Remove the drain plug before of antifreeze and fill the system you store the boat. prevent mildew in the gas tank by filling the tank and dry rot by allowing air to with gas. Pulling your boat out of the water:  Back the trailer down the ramp so that the trailer is partially under water and you attach the winch cable to your boat.  Use your tie downs to secure the boat to the trailer. Aquatic nuisance species in California include water hyacinth. Launching your boat: (cont. set the parking brake and put blocks under the wheels. as you did before.ca. Do to prevent gum from forming.)  Quickly move the boat out of the launching area using the engine or the tag line. necessary and rinse the trailer  If your engine has a “closed” with fresh water. If you have a manual (stick shift) transmission.

.... ........ List all electronics......ca..................... the pump battery may wear out and the boat may fill with water and sink.... and other gear by brand name.................................  Photograph or videotape the inside and outside of the boat......... FOR MORE INFORMATION ON MARINE SECURITY.T 4........htm and click on Marine Security REVIEW QUESTIONS: Trailering and Launching a Boat Answer these questions by circling T for true or F for false..........T Turn to page 84 for correct answers..gov/ PubsAndReports. trailer and equipment. F F F F F 47 ...........T 3..................... .....T 2. storage shed or backyard.. during heavy rains....... 1......T 5........... adjust the mooring lines for all ranges of the tides and shifting currents.. It is necessary to unplug the brake lights from the trailer before you launch your boat ............  Remove property from the boat after each boating trip.....  Secure the boat and trailer to a pole or tree with a strong lock and chain... It is important to check on your boat several times throughout the winter....Storage in the Water If you store your boat in the water:  Put chafing gear on the mooring lines to prevent damage...................... cover the boat because.. model and serial number....  Keep a written inventory of the boat......... Check the boat for safety equipment and fuel level while it is on the ramp.. Tips to Prevent Theft  Engrave valuable boating gear with the owner’s driver’s license number.. If your boat is registered. especially after severe storms.......  Store the boat and trailer out of sight in a garage....... CONSULT WEBSITE: www......dbw.. you do not need to license the trailer... it takes longer to stop and to pass another car .............. showing all installed equipment and additional gear carried.................... outboard engines... When trailering a boat........  Do not store your boat where ice can form.  If necessary... You should always remove the winch cable from the boat before you back down the ramp..  Even if you have a bilge pump..........

htm and select TWC Weather or NOAA Weather or cdip Weather Before you leave for your trip:  Check to see if the boat’s lights and horn work properly. such as a swimmer’s ladder. hull and device (PFD) is on board for every structure.dbw. Find out about local hazards by talking to marina operators.ca.dbw. or other attachments. Take a portable radio with you to receive updated weather forecasts. Before Leaving the Dock Check the predicted weather and water conditions. how many passengers can it carry?  Check the capacity plate for the maximum number of people. wide. Coast  Check the overall condition of the Guard-approved personal flotation boat. Capacity = GENERAL RULES: OPERATING A BOAT To operate a boat safely. the owner and operator should know what the vessel can do. passenger. A backup power source near the operator’s seat. CONSULT WEBSITE: www. including the engine. The first part of this section presents information that applies to many forms of boating.S.gov/resourc.How many passengers? The person-capacity of a boat can be calculated by multiplying the boat length by the boat width. lightning storms. They can keep you from running aground or hitting hidden obstacles. brackets. and maximum  Check that you have a backup horsepower recommended for the power source and bailing boat. Avoid boating in heavy winds. Make sure the predicted conditions match your boating skills and equipment. The capacity plate is located equipment.gov/resourc. other boaters and marine law officers. long and 6 ft. The measurement does not include outboard motors.  Check all necessary safety equipment. The second part of the section covers more specific information for water skiing. Make sure may include paddles.ca. on board than it says on the plate.  Check to see that a U. and select Weather or Lightning FOR CURRENT WEATHER CONDITIONS WHERE YOU ARE GOING BOATING. CONSULT WEBSITE: www. Boat length and width are measured in feet and fractional answers are rounded DOWN to the next number of persons. and dividing the answer by 15. 48 Answer: 6 . oars or a backyou don’t put more people or weight up engine. sailing and paddling.htm Length x Width 15 The length of a motorboat is measured from end-to-end along the centerline on the outside of the hull. FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT WEATHER TERMINOLOGY. as well as the general rules for operating boats. maximum weight capacity. QUESTION If a boat is 16 ft.  Check to see that all gear is stowed in the proper place. hard rain and thick fog.

and a major way to prevent accidents. gunwales or transom of a boat. Keep the mooring lines secured to the dock while passengers are climbing aboard the boat.  Check both sides and aft before turning. • Do not spray other  boats. be sure every person sits down. shoals.55 MHz or 162. from docks. or crowded boat ramp areas. and fishing boats. Coast Guard radio stations.  Check the charts for the local area for underwater objects. When Under Way  Check the lines. water skiers. You should: • Know the right-of- The operator of a boat with an enclosed engine compartment should run the blower for four minutes. You should show passengers how to use all the equipment. bathers. If not.  Check the area to make sure it is clear of other traffic. Courtesy is essential for safe boat operation. piers. passengers should step to the middle of the boat and sit down immediately. • Lower your speed   to reduce your wake around others. or tune to local U. • Keep a safe distance Finally  Check to see that you have enough distance (freeboard) between the waterline and the gunwale.  Check navigation rules and signs. Show them if they don’t know.S. 49 .)  Check that all passengers know where PFDs and safety equipment are stored. way rules and respect the right-of-way of others. Things you should know:  BE COURTEOUS  Check to make sure your passengers know what to do in case of an emergency.  Check that everyone is properly seated and that the boat is balanced.  Check the speed. or bathers with your wake. Trailing lines in the water can foul the propeller and damage the engine. shipping lanes. • Limit noise. Tune to 162.  Check to make sure you reduce your wake. If the boat is small.Before you leave for your trip: (cont. You are responsible for any damage to other boats and property caused by your boat’s wake. your boat is overloaded. When boarding a small boat.  Check the direction of the wind and current. Proceed slowly to reduce the wake and observe wake-free zones (5 mph).4 MHz. It’s not safe to have passengers riding on the bow. docks. A good way to get weather reports is to use a marine band radio. and the gear is stowed so that the boat is balanced.) when you’re close to swimmers.  Check the weather. and other hazards. Always travel at a slow speed (5 mph.  Check meters and gauges frequently while underway.

 Check your docking skills. For a temporary low-cost float. Make sure they are placed properly between the boat and the dock.  Check the fenders. It’s easiest to land at a dock when you are heading into the current and/or wind. The Docking  Check the current and wind direction so that you can ease the boat into the dock. stern and spring lines before leaving the boat. If it is a floating dock. or skiing when or where you’re not allowed line leads forward from the bow to the dock. or in thick fog and heavy storms  Speeding in restricted areas. This will help you understand how wind and current affect the handling of your boat. The bow California law says no one may operate a boat.  Check the type of dock you are using. gunwale or transom of a moving vessel when you’re not protected by railings  Riding your vessel over the towline of another vessel or its skiers  Steering your vessel between another towing vessel and the skiers or freight it’s towing  Boating while under the influence of drugs or alcohol  Boating around swimmers  Boating too fast in a crowded area. You typically use spring lines in rough water conditions. 50 . you should secure your boat tight to the dock.Reckless or Negligent Operation KNOW YOUR LINES Mooring lines are used to secure a boat to a dock. remember to leave enough slack in the lines to adapt to low tide. Dangerous examples include:  Riding on the bow. • Stern line. Tips for Tying Up  Check the tide level so you can make allowances when mooring your boat to a stationary pier.  Check and secure the bow. “buzzing” or “wetting down” others. If the tide is high. an aquaplane or other vessel in a way that will be dangerous to people and property. • Bow line. water skis. but not so long that the boat strays too far from the dock. • Spring lines. These lines should be long enough to allow the boat to rise and fall with the tide or flow of the water. In this case. it will rise and fall with the tides and water level. Practice docking to an anchored float in open water. use an empty plastic milk jug anchored with a line and small weight. The stern line leads backward (aft) from the stern to the dock. spring lines lead aft from the bow and forward from the stern.

With wind or current from the dock. When the boat is at a right angle to the dock.20˚ angle. If the wind is blowing from the bow. Be careful to keep the stern line from tangling in the propeller. release the lines and shove off. release the bow line and bring it aboard. Turn the helm to carry the stern away from the dock. Into the wind or current. release the stern line and bring it aboard. have them secure your bow line. If someone is on the dock. have someone else release the bow and spring lines. Approach parallel to the dock and let the wind or current push you to the dock. When clear of the dock and other boats. Put the engine in reverse. Approach the dock slowly at a 10˚. you may need to use the bow line to help you depart. 51 . Approach the dock at a sharper angle. Push the bow away from the pier and go forward. If the wind is strong and makes casting off hard. run the line around the bollard or piling. put the engine in forward gear and move ahead slowly.Without wind or current. When the boat is clear of the dock. Wrap the end around a cleat once or twice. and bring the other end aboard. you should have no problem casting off unless the wind is very strong. Approach the dock in a gradual turn at the slowest speed possible. Tie one end of the bow line to the boat. or if other boats are in the way. Secure the bow line first. Have fenders in place and mooring lines ready. Secure the bow line and use the motor to guide the stern in. With wind or current toward the dock. and back away until you are clear of the dock and other boats. Tips for Leaving the Dock If the wind or current is pushing away from the dock. bring the boat up parallel with the dock and stop with a touch of reverse power. If the wind is holding the boat to the dock.

4. Check the safety equipment. the boat operator should: a.  Close all ports. c. These vapors may explode when exposed to a spark or open flame. d. Obey the capacity plate information. Turn to page 84 for correct answers. A spring line is: a. b. check the Internet. A line that is used for the anchor. It’s not necessary if you’re not going out on the ocean. When docking a boat: a. Call the U. Keep one foot in the boat and one on the dock to steady the boat. This prevents vapors from seeping into the boat and settling in the bilge. A line that can be used in place of a bow or stern line. d. Gasoline vapors are more explosive than dynamite and they’re heavier than air. Safe Fueling Tips  Always remove portable tanks from the boat for refueling. use a flashlight or a spark-proof light. 52 . To check weather conditions: a. d. c.REVIEW QUESTIONS: General Rules for Operating a Boat Answer these questions by circling the letter representing the correct answer. Read the newspaper. A HELPFUL HINT Your nose is the best tool for finding gasoline vapors and preventing an explosion. c. and openings before fueling. b.  Try to fuel before night. b. FUELING Always use extreme caution when fueling a boat. If possible. land into the wind and current so the boat can ease into the dock.  Turn off electrical equipment and liquid propane tanks. The vapors may sink to the bottom of the boat or collect in the bilge. Fenders should be attached to the mooring lines. Stow all gear in the proper place. Tie the lines as tightly as possible so the boat does not drift into another boat or person. If you need a light to refuel. Observe the weather in the morning.S. Coast Guard. hatches. A line that leads aft from the bow or forward from the stern. 3.  Shut off motors that can make a spark or generate heat. Every time BEFORE you start your engine. 1. Check the water and weather conditions. Before leaving the dock. A line made with elastic so the boat can ride up and down on the tide. d. b. call the National Weather Service. c. and/or monitor radio transmissions. and then smell for fumes. operate your blower for at least four minutes. 2.

 Avoid overfilling—fill the tank slowly to avoid a spill.Safe Fueling Tips cont. To clear the air in the bilge properly. ports and hatches. under the California Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act of 1990. windows.  Recycle used oil through your marina. motor. Sniff around gas lines. Do not start the motor until the vapors are gone. community oil recycling center. It’s best to fill the tank away from the water.  After fueling. especially when fueling at a fuel dock or along the shoreline. oil. Remember.  Before starting the engine. or at an automobile oil change business. Open all doors. REMEMBER Discharging any oily water.  Prevent water pollution by being careful with oil and fuel near the water. Remember. You are responsible for cleanup costs and correcting any environmental damage caused by your fuel spill. use only explosion-proof fans with sparkproof switches. the automatic shutoff on the gas nozzle may not work.  Don’t drain oil into the bilge. place the fuel nozzle in contact with the fill pipe or tank. If you use fans to circulate the air in the cabins and bilges. 53 .  Never leave a gas hose unattended while refueling.  Never smoke while fueling or when you’re close to a fuel dock. you must draw or force gasoline vapors out of low pockets in the bilge. Prevent fueling spills  Think in terms of preventing even a drop of fuel from going into the water. excess fuel will flow out the vent (and into the water) when it becomes warm and expands. or petroleum product into the water is against state and federal law. Never throw the rags into the boat or the water. turn on the power blower for at least four minutes. and bilges.  Maintain the contact between the fuel nozzle and the fill pipe or tank until fueling is completed. This prevents a buildup of static electricity which could produce a spark. wipe up all spilled gasoline and air the rags after using. Even a small amount spilled into the water can pollute a large area.  Check all fuel lines and connections for leaks.  When fueling.  Be sure that all fuel system fittings are tight and not leaking.

the scope of the anchor line should be at least seven to one—that means the line will be seven to ten times as long as the distance from the boat’s bow to the bottom of the water.  Check the boat’s swing to make sure the boat will not go aground or hit something if the current changes or the wind shifts. you will lose control of the boat.  Back the engine so that the boat is moving astern very slowly. If the engine is not running. Nylon makes a good anchor line because it stretches and acts like a shock absorber during strong current. Grapnel anchors work best on a rocky bottom. More things you should know: The anchor is set when the boat turns into the wind and the anchor line stops paying out or jerking.Danforth ® ANCHORING Using the appropriate anchor and anchoring techniques will prevent collisions.   Danforth® anchors work best in clay. Try to find a spot where obstacles or debris on the bottom will not snag the anchor or rode. An anchor rode is a line. Grapnel    Mushroom  When You Anchor  Select a protected spot.  Check your position by noting several landmarks.  Make sure your foot or other objects on deck do not get caught in the line as it is paying out. wind. leaving the anchor intact.  Lower the anchor over the bow. 54 . cable and/or chain. remember to cleat or tie off the rode. For safety:  Check to see if the anchor is holding.” Any vertical movement of the boat from wave action is “absorbed” by the rope and chain. and you may run aground or collide with a dock or other boats. Mushroom anchors give a temporary hold in sand or firm mud.  As the anchor lowers. grounding. Kedge anchors are the best type to use in weeds or grass. Things you should know: Kedge The type of anchor you need depends on where you’re anchoring your boat. The line will bounce if the anchor is dragging. Never throw it. and drifting.  Cleat or tie off the rode. The chain helps keep the anchor parallel to the bottom so it can “dig in.  Keep the engine running. let out (or pay out) line. sand and mud. Once enough line has payed out. Then put the engine in neutral. or wave action. not dragging.  Head the boat into the wind or current.  For secure anchoring.

Never anchor from the boat’s side or stern.  Check your anchor. CONSULT WEBSITE: www. stop the boat—but not the engine— and lift the anchor. REMEMBER Careful boaters always have extra line. A strong current. because the hydraulic currents created by the rising or falling water can be hazardous. If the anchor still does not come free.  Never anchor in a deep water channel between red and green buoys that mark the heavily traveled areas or channels used by large ships.  Carefully stow the anchor and line so it will be ready for the next use.  Never anchor directly above a dam.  Never anchor directly below a dam. Try to free the anchor from several different angles—and don’t give up easily.  If you have to leave the anchor. or the wake from another boat may sink your boat. a heavy sea. Be careful to keep the line from wrapping around the propeller. The chain or the anchor may be hung up.  Common Mistakes  Letting the anchor go without securing the line to the boat—oops.gov/ resourc. circle slowly and try to loosen the anchor. tie a floating marker to the line so you can locate it later. lost the anchor!  Letting the anchor go with the anchor line wrapped around gear or the foot of a passenger—oops. FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT ANCHORING.  When the boat is over the anchor. Don’t put the boat or passengers in danger. especially since tides.More things you should know: cont.  NEVER pull up the anchor without starting the engine first.  Go ahead slowly using the engine while you retrieve the line. wind. such as a boom or buoys. often indicate restricted zones for traffic and anchoring. A sudden release of water from a hydroelectric power plant can suck the boat over the dam. Check your charts for these restricted zones. dropped the anchor at the wrong time! 55 . lost the passenger or the gear!  Poor communication between the boat operator and the person setting the anchor —oops. just in case! When it’s Time to Leave the Area  Head the boat toward the anchor.ca. and weather can change constantly.dbw.  Warning markers. chain and anchors along.htm and click on Anchoring/ Docking More things you should know: If the anchor does not come free:   Tie the anchor line to a cleat and go forward slowly.  Check your position often.

sand and sun wears them down.  The figure eight knot is used mostly as a stopping knot. It is also called a fisherman’s knot.  If you have an aluminum hull. Place it at the end of a line to keep it from running through a block. TAKE NOTE When cleaning your boat and its engine. The figure eight can be used temporarily to keep a line from unraveling. especially if they are of different widths or textures.  If you have a fiberglass hull. or other opening.ca. It goes around the cleat in a figure eight and then again with one loop reversed. tight and corrosion free. sand the white rust spots with fine sand paper until the metal is shiny again. hoses. repair or replace bad parts. use two half hitches to lock the clove hitch.  Hang canoes upside down.  Change the oil regularly.  Keep the engine clean.  Keep the engine tuned and the battery charged. is probably the most difficult of the six. Replace old ropes. 56 .htm and click on Marlinspike FOR KNOT TYING DEMONSTRATIONS. Fix holes with fiberglass patch compound.gov/resourc.  Check the oil and fluid levels before each trip. Seize the free end to the standing end for extra security. even after the knot has been under a lot of stress.  The bowline. bolts.dbw. Bowline Sheet Bend  The anchor bend is used to fasten a line to a ring or anchor. Older engines need oil changes more often. It is used when an eye (or loop) is needed. DO YOU KNOW WHAT A MARLINESPIKE IS? TO FIND OUT.dbw.  Keep the battery connections clean.  The clove hitch is simply two loops with an end tucked under. nuts and screws for proper fit. The bowline will not slip or jam and is easy to untie.  Sew or tape torn and frayed sails. CONSULT WEBSITE: Anchor Bend Clove Hitch www. Tighten. handiest of the knots.Cleating Hitch KNOW YOUR KNOTS You should learn six basic knots useful for many kinds of boating:  The cleating hitch is used when docking. Oil and grease buildup can soak up moisture and short out your electrical system.ca. jam cleat. Your boat and engine will also last longer so you’ll have more fun on the water. Dirt. SEE WEBSITES: Figure Eight www.htm and click on Knot Tying MAINTAINING YOUR BOAT AND ENGINE Maintain your boat and engine so you’ll be safe. To secure the boat for longer periods.  Check the inside and outside of the hull when your boat is out of the water. don’t pollute the water with your cleaning products.  The sheet bend is good for tying two lines together.  Follow the maintenance schedules found in the boat owner’s manual.  Check belts.gov/resourc.  Keep lines and ropes clean and out of the sun when you’re not using them. use gentle soap to remove oil and algae. This knot is used to temporarily secure a boat to a piling or similar structure.

REVIEW QUESTIONS: Fueling, Docking, Anchoring, Knots and Maintenance Answer these questions by circling T for true or F for false. 1. If you have a ventilation system, it is not necessary to close all ports, hatches and openings before refueling..........................................................T 2. An anchor rode is a shelf that holds the anchor while the boat is underway. T 3. Never anchor within a restricted zone near a dam .......................................T 4. Never anchor from the boat’s side or stern ...................................................T 5. When you are ready to leave, head the boat away from the anchor.............T 6. The bowline is a handy knot that is easy to untie.........................................T 7. Your boat will last longer if you maintain it ..................................................T 8. You should check oil and fluid levels once each season ...............................T 9. You don’t have to worry about oil and grease buildup on an engine...........T F F F F F F F F F
Turn to page 84 for correct answers.

POWERBOATING
Powerboats have many different types and uses, with a variety of engines and hull designs. See page 35 for general boat anatomy. Power boats come in classes, determined by length, and each class has its own set of rules and regulations for trailering and required safety equipment. More than half the recreational power boats in California are less than 16 feet long. The four classes common to recreational boating are: 1. Less than 16 feet 2. 16 feet to less than 26 feet 3. 26 feet to less than 40 feet 4. 40 feet to no longer than 65 feet
TAKE NOTE Inflatables are a special type of boat. Some inflatable boats have a rigid hull. They are very stable and can carry significantly larger loads than traditional boats of a similar size. They are frequently used as dinghies or sport boats, and may be towed astern, hoisted by davits, stored on deck, or deflated and stored in a locker. They may be powered by outboard motors or oars. Inflatables use several air chambers to prevent disaster if one chamber is punctured.

Types of Engines
Powerboats can be propelled by outboard, inboard, stern-drive (also known as inboard/outboard) or jet drive motors. An outboard motor clamps directly to the transom or can be mounted using special brackets. Outboard motors range in size from 2 to 275 horse-power. Outboard engines run on either gasoline or battery power. Inboard engines are much like automobile engines, using either gasoline or diesel fuel. These engines are usually mounted in the middle of the boat (amidships) and are connected to the propeller by long shafts. Similar to inboard motors, stern driven engines are like automobile engines. They fit into the hull, and connect to a drive unit attached to the outside of the transom. The drive unit, called the lower unit or outdrive, is like the lower half of an outboard motor. Jet drive engines consist of a pump that draws water into a housing where it shoots out at high pressure through a steerable nozzle. This jet of water propels the boat. Most personal watercraft use jet drive engines. You’ll find details about personal watercraft in Chapter 4.

57

CAUTION
Be careful of debris in the water. If you clog the cooling water intake, the engine will overheat. You should check cooling systems that empty the water into the exhaust if you accidentally drive the boat through weeds or kelp. To clear the intake, run the engine in reverse gear when in clear water. Personal watercraft and other jet-drive engines clog easily when you operate them in shallow water. Prevent internal engine corrosion by flushing out the cooling system with fresh water after you operate your boat in salt water.

Cooling Systems
Most engines use “open” cooling systems. The engine draws water in, circulates it to cool the engine, and empties the water through the exhaust system or through a small opening above the water line. If the intake is clogged with debris, or the water pump fails, you will not see a stream of water coming from the opening while the engine is being used. Some inboard and stern drives operate with a “fresh water” cooling system. This is a closed system that works like the cooling system in an automobile. A heat exchanger cools the water, working like a car’s radiator. This cooling system can reduce corrosion when the boat operates in salt water.

Hull Designs
Powerboats have two kinds of hulls—displacement or planing hulls. Powerboats with displacement hulls move through the water, and require more power to push through the water. Powerboats with planing hulls skim over the water and travel at higher speeds. Planing hulls work best when boats operate on calm or flat water. All hulls are displacement hulls when boats run at low speeds. Powerboats also have five types of hull designs. The following chart outlines advantages and disadvantages of each design:
Types of Hulls Advantages Disadvantages Examples

Flat bottom
Choose your boat carefully
You should select a boat by how you plan to use it. For example, a flat-bottomed boat is not safe on the ocean, and boats with a deep vee hull will have difficulty navigating in shallow water. Choose a boat according to: • The intended boating activities or special purposes • The bodies of water where you’ll operate the boat • Your skill level

shallow draft plane easily move easily through water at slow speeds

excessive pounding at high speeds somewhat unstable

jon boats, small utility boats, racing runabouts sailboats, canoes, some trawlers

Round bottom

Vee

smooth ride in choppy water

require more power to move at same speeds as flat bottom require even more power than vee hulls

some small utility boats and runabouts most runabouts cruisers and ships

Deep vee

smoother ride in choppy water

Multi-hull

provide great stability in most conditions

some multi-hull boats have reduced maneuverability

catamarans, trimarans and houseboats

Powerboats come in many types. Utility or jon boats are widely used for fishing and hunting in protected waters. Runabouts are commonly used for fishing, water skiing, and cruising. Cruisers offer more room and special features, such as cuddy cabins, berths, heads, and galleys. Personal watercraft (PWC) are for recreation or light duty.

58

Before leaving the dock, start the engine while you are double-checking your boat and its safety gear. This will give the engine time to warm up.  Check the weather reports. Look for any threatening clouds such as thunderheads or approaching fronts.  Check the boat, engine, and fuel lines for leaks.  Check the battery, motor and propeller to make sure they work properly.  Check the fire extinguishers, ventilation system, and other safety equipment to make sure all of them are working properly.  Check the oil and fuel levels. Plan on using no more than onethird of the fuel to reach your destination. To be safe, use onethird of the fuel going out, onethird to return, and keep one-third as a reserve.  Check the first aid kit.  Check the anchor and line.  Check the radio to make sure it’s working.  Check for your backup power source (oars, paddles, or a motor) and bailing equipment.
DID YOU KNOW? You can receive a free, vessel safety check without risk or obligation. Specially trained members of the U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary and U.S. Power Squadrons provide this service for recreational boats. Call 1-800-869-7445.

FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT COURTESY VESSEL EXAMINATIONS, CONSULT WEBSITE: www.safetyseal.net

Things you should know: If the trip is taking you offshore or to a remote region:

Always file a float plan with the local marina and a friend or relative. Remember to notify them when you return. Take along tools and spare engine parts. Useful tools include wrenches, screwdrivers, duct tape, a hammer, and vise grips. Spare parts include spark plugs, a fuel pump, fuel filter for diesel engines, lubricant, sheer pins and drive belts. Have a back-up VHF radio and/or a cellular phone. Bring foul-weather clothing and survival suits in cold-water regions.
FOR MORE INFORMATION ON HUNTERS AND ANGLERS,

 

Hunting and Angling
People who hunt or fish from boats are also considered boaters. Too often, hunters and fishers give little thought to their safety and equipment required for their boats. Their lack of boating preparation can end in tragedy. When using a boat as a sporting platform, give special thought to the boat’s proper loading and balance. Obey the weight and passenger restrictions listed on the capacity plate. Avoid standing, and keep the boat balanced. And wear a properly fitted U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jacket.

CONSULT WEBSITE: www.dbw.ca.gov/ PubsAndReports.htm

and click on Hunters and Anglers

59

In general.  Check for wood. make sure that:     is two-thirds the length of a football field. in place of the broken belt. Check the portable fuel tank for vapor lock. plastic bags. Check to see if seaweed. speed is limited to 5 miles per hour within 200 feet of a beach with bathers… a swimming or diving platform…or a landing or dock where boats are tied up or which passengers are using… or 100 feet of bathers in the water. especially in fog or storms. rope.Learn to Make Emergency Repairs PROBLEM: POSSIBLE SOLUTION: Broken Drive Belt You can temporarily use a small line. passengers should not stand up or move around. Wrap the break with duct tape. Tie the ends together tightly around the pulleys with a square knot.  Check for and obey “no wake” signs. seaweed. Broken Pipe or Hose Engine Failure Engine Oil Leak A Practical Guide to Gauging the Distance When you don’t see speed limit signs. like a bathing suit drawstring or a pair of pantyhose. or anything else that may foul the propeller or jet pump. • A distance of 100 feet The skipper is informed of passenger movement The passenger holds onto the gunwales The passenger keeps his center of gravity as low as possible The other passengers or gear are moved to counter-balance the shift in weight is one-third of a football field. 60 .  Check the posted speed signs— move slowly when near the shore or crowded areas.  Check crowded areas for collision hazards.  Check for any posted local laws or regulations. or fishing line has fouled the propeller or if the drive pin has been sheared. Catch the oil in a pan and pour it back into the engine. If a passenger must move to another seat.You may have to pay for for damage caused by your wake. Things you should know: In smaller boats. • A distance of 200 feet While Underway  Check to make sure passengers are not riding on the bow or gunwales. operate the boat so that it will not endanger others.

c. d. Enrich the fuel mixture. Have different operating rules than boaters. one-third to return. Don’t worry—engines on small boats run hot. b. d. 61 . Drift with the wind and currents whenever possible b. Change the coolant from an open to a closed system. Can ignore boating rules if you catch your fish or game. b. Monitor your fuel level: allow one-third to go out. Are also a boater and must follow the same rules as other boaters. To make sure you have enough fuel to return from your trip: a. Must display a fish and game flag while hunting or fishing. c. Check the cooling water intake to make sure it is free of debris. Thin the fuel mixture to make sure it lasts longer. 2. c. and keep one-third in reserve. When fishing or hunting from a boat. Carry two extra gallons of gasoline in safety-approved gasoline cans.REVIEW QUESTIONS: Powerboating Answer these questions by circling the letter representing the correct answer. 3. d. you: a. 1. Turn to page 84 for correct answers. If the boat engine overheats: a.

water skiers should wear wet suits under their life jackets. You must use this flag to warn other boats about gear or skiers in the water. the skier has 30 seconds to get out of the way. an observer. the observer. or trick water skiing. If the crusing boat doesn’t see the fallen skier or the raised ski flag.000 feet in front Water skiing. or barefoot. If a water skier falls: • 1. The flag must be orange or red and at least 12 inches square or rectangular. a popular sport for powerboat owners. Safety Rules  Check to see that at least three people are present when water skiing— the boat operator. and tubing.  Check to see that the ski rope is at least 75 feet long. and the skier.  Check to see that you are water skiing at legal times.  Check to see that the boat operator is at least 16 years old. And skiers are always in the water. water skiing is not allowed from sunset to sunrise.  Check to see that the observer is at least 12 years old. and a skier. may instead wear a wetsuit designed for the activity and labeled by the manufacturer as a water ski wetsuit. II. in front of a boat cruising at 20 mph. People enjoying other activities while being towed by a boat must follow the same rules and guidelines for water skiing. A Coast Guard-approved Type I. official regattas. or V life jacket must still be carried on board for each skier choosing to wear a wetsuit.  Check to see that water skiers know the correct hand signals. III.000 ft. How many seconds does the skier have to get out of the way? of a ship sailing at 10 mph. Equipment  Check to see that any person being towed behind the vessel is wearing a Coast Guard-approved Type I. the skier has one minute to get out of the way. frequent stops. Some of these activities include wakeboarding. if unsupervised. II.WATER SKIING CAUTION If the weather or water is cold. the skier could get hit. a water ski team must consist of a boat operator. III.  Check to see if a ski flag is on board. Ski boat operators must travel at high speeds and make tight turns. At the very least. or tournaments. jump. A wet suit also provides padding for protection from falls. marine parades. Any person engaged in slalom skiing on a marked course. • 500 feet in front of a ship sailing at 10 mph.  Check that the ski area is not crowded. requires extra precautions. knee boarding. Speed Up Slow Down Back to Dock Speed OK Right Turn Stop Left Turn Answer: 30 seconds Skier OK Skier in Water 62 Water Skiing Hand Signals . Exceptions: the law does not apply to performers engaged in professional exhibitions. and sudden starts. Remember. or V life jacket. Inflatable personal flotation devices are not approved for use while water skiing. QUESTION A water skier falls 1.

Team Guidelines
Each member of a water ski team—the boat operator, observer and skier— has an important role to play: Boat Operator  Practices caution to make sure the skier, tow rope and other equipment is well away from the boat’s propeller  Looks well ahead for other boats, skiers, the shoreline and other obstructions  Gets information from the observer Observer  Clearly signals the skier’s activity to the boat operator  Raises the signal flag when equipment, such as the ski rope or skis, is in the water  Raises the signal flag when the skier is down in the water for any reason Things you should know:
  

Skier  Knows and uses hand signals to communicate with the observer  Watches for floating debris, other boats, and other obstructions  Raises his skis perpendicular in the water to indicate to other boats that a skier has fallen

Do not spray swimmers or boats with boat wake or ski spray. Do not ski in shallow water or dry land at a dock or beach. Operate the ski boat in a counter-clockwise direction, unless forbidden by local law. Avoid making sharp turns in designated traffic areas.

REVIEW QUESTIONS: Water Skiing 1. It is against the law to water ski: (choose one) a. When you are in open water b. Between sunset and sunrise c. When no other water skiers are around d. When you are 12 years or older 2. Unless otherwise posted, the standard direction to drive a ski boat is counter-clockwise..........T

F

Turn to page 84 for correct answers.

63

SAILING
TRIVIA The America’s Cup, dating from 1851, is the oldest trophy in international sport and is sailing’s most coveted prize.

Sailboats come in a variety of sizes and designs and have four basic parts: the hull, sails, centerboard or keel, and rudder. The hull is designed to carry the crew, support the mast and rigging, and to move the boat through the water easily. The sails provide the power. The centerboard and the keel help keep the boat stable, so it won’t get pushed sideways by the wind. The rudder steers the boat. Smaller sailboats, commonly called day sailors, usually have flat bottoms or veeshaped hulls. On a smaller sailboat, the rudder is mounted on brackets at the stern. The rudder has a wooden or metal bar called a tiller that is used for steering. When the tiller is turned one way, the boat moves in the opposite direction. For example, if you push the tiller to starboard the boat will turn to port. Using the tiller to steer the boat may take some practice. As the size of the sailboat increases, so does the equipment. Large cruising sailboats come in a variety of mast and sail designs, and most have backup engines. Most larger sailboats have round bottoms and fixed keels. Larger boats use wheels instead of tillers to steer. The boat turns in the same direction that the wheel is turned.
Masthead

Mast Topping Lift Forestay Starboard Shroud
PORT

Port Shroud

Boom Tiller
STERN

Clew

Gooseneck

Coaming

Side Deck

Transom

Cockpit
Rudder

Foredeck

BOW

Topsid e

s
Chine Turnbuckle

Centerboard Trunk
STARBOARD

Centerboard

Chainplate

Gunwale

64

Before Leaving the Dock
 Check out your skills by taking sailing lessons or sailing with someone who is experienced.  Check to see if passengers are wearing properly fitted, U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jackets.  Check your clothing. Wear clothing in layers. Wear protective clothing, such as wind breakers, and deck shoes that provide traction on wet surfaces.  Check the radio or cellular phone to make sure it’s working.  Check your protective equipment. Wear UV-rated sunglasses and apply sun block to exposed skin.  Check the weather conditions.  Check the safety equipment. Be sure you have a fire extinguisher aboard and that it’s working. Check to see if you have rowing equipment in case of a power loss.  Check the sails and rigging for rips, tears or damaged clews.

If the Boat Has an Engine
 Check the backup engine, making sure the motor and propeller are in operating condition.  Check the fuel and oil levels.  Check the engine and fuel lines for leaks.

TAKE NOTE When a sailboat uses a backup engine, it is considered a powerboat and must observe the rules of navigation and operational guidelines for powerboats.

FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE AMERICA’S CUP, SAILING TRIVIA, AND OTHER SAILING RACES, SEE WEBSITE:
www.dbw.ca.gov/resourc.htm

and click on Sailing Trivia

REVIEW QUESTIONS: Sailing Answer these questions by circling T for true or F for false. 1. You push a tiller in the opposite direction from the direction you want to go................................................................................................... T 2. It is not necessary to wear a personal flotation device on larger sailboats because they almost never sink .................................................. T 3. All sailboats have backup engines. ............................................................ T
Turn to page 84 for correct answers.

F F F

65

rafts. and other river features in order to paddle safely. Whitewater Kayak 66 . If you paddle a utility boat at night. or take classes on river running and safety. It is important to know about currents.PADDLING Paddlecraft—including canoes. utility boats. Rowing Shells Sea kayaks and canoes may also be used on flatwater. some in white water. in that case they must give the right-of-way to ships. holes. before you take your own river trip. you must know about river hydrology (the way the water moves) BEFORE you put in. California has world-class rivers. lakes. Whitewater Raft Whitewater Paddling Whether you paddle a kayak. you must carry a flashlight and warn other boats of your presence so they can avoid a collision. If you are in a paddle boat. Bays. but you can enjoy them safely only after instruction. except when they are crossing a designated shipping channel. eddies. Some are used in flatwater. But paddle boats are easier to maneuver than other types of boats. and rowing shells—are each used in a different manner. be courteous and try not to get in the way of power and sailboats. others on the ocean. Utility Boat Flatwater Paddling Utility boats are usually used in harbors to travel between a moored boat and the shore. It’s best to hire a professional guide. or raft on a river. kayaks. Things you should know: Canoe Paddlecraft have the right-of-way in all cases. You should know that it may be difficult for other boats to see and avoid these vessels. canoe. These boats must meet all safety requirements. and harbors are perfect for flatwater paddling. California also has dozens of rivers for whitewater paddling.

but don’t take chances saving equipment. waves 2. Don’t miss your take-out point. Use a backstrainer stroke in large waves to crest the wave gently and avoid swamping.” and “hydraulic” all describe the same river feature.  An eddy is a current that tends to flow upstream. and bridge abutments.” “keeper. Downstream V with large stationary waves indicates gaps between rocks. scout and pull out of the main current.” “reversal. you can climb on top of the obstacle or your boat or abandon the boat and swim. which increases the water’s speed. Capsized? Stay at the upstream end of the craft to avoid being caught between it and any obstruction. Avoid waterfalls. Rapids usually run through steep terrain.”  Whitewater rapids are classified by six degrees of difficulty: Class I: Easy Class II: Novice Class III: Intermediate Class IV: Advanced Class V: Expert Class VI: Extreme Basic River Running Tactics PUT-IN 1. leave the craft and swim to the nearest eddy. and the landmarks of the take-out point. and “warm up” with some basic maneuvers in calm water. This is where the river current pours over an obstruction or dam and the water reverses. 4. An eddy creates a calm spot in the river that paddlers can use to rest. Before you go. If it improves your safety. Portage may be necessary (carrying boat around hole obstacle). You should avoid these “holes. TAKE-OUT 67 67 . Stern person gets in first while bow person holds craft against the current. Keep your paddle if possible. 6. usually found downstream of an obstruction in the main current. Head for shore. Paddle strongly through the curve close to the shore opposite the hazard. When approaching obstructions. position the craft sideways to the current. The point of the upstream V indicates rocks. know the level of difficulty of the river. Avoid fallen trees. Know how to “highside” to prevent a “wrap. brush. Downstream V 8. Your craft may “wrap” around an obstacle sideways. Even in slow water. Portage all of these areas. 9.River Features  A rapid is a section of turbulent water. Rapids can vary a lot in length and severity. regroup. become familiar with the craft and how it handles. waves eddy 5. these hazards can be deadly. Before heading downstream. 3. low dams. Boater in stern should be last out of the craft while bow person holds craft against the current. A flat horizon line in the river may indicate a waterfall or low dam.” To avoid being trapped. To avoid being swept into a rock or other hazards on a curve. turn into current and forward ferry to shore. plan well in advance. Upstream V 7. Launch the craft into the current facing upstream. 10.  The terms “hole. causing a revolving current that can trap boats and people. and dangerous rapids. Take-Out * See appendix C for a detailed description of the whitewater class system.

signals for hazards.ca.  Check to make sure everyone is wearing a properly fitted. Consult the radio. a knife. you should have at least three boats in a party to be safe. and a pump. U. a flashlight. Secure all ropes and other gear so they do not get in the way of paddling. and click on CA River Flows At the Put-In  Check the equipment.dbw.  Check to make sure everyone on the water knows basic verbal and hand signals. and its special hazards. Overconfidence or overestimating your ability can quickly get you into trouble. or entangle a swimmer if the boat overturns. Give your float plan to a friend or relative. righting the boat and re-entering the boat. and for general communication. emergencies.  Check to make sure you know how to “Eskimo roll.These are general safety guidelines for whitewater paddling.  Check to see if you have a first aid kit.  Check to see that you have recommended equipment such as a repair kit. Good river skills take time and practice to learn. (See page 86. Swimmer’s Position 68 . Be familiar with the river’s features before starting out.S. extra clothing. a compass. drinking water. Be sure it lists the correct put-in and take-out locations. These commands include paddle commands. Attach a whistle to each PFD.)  Check that all passengers know what to do if the boat capsizes or “flips. keeping to the upstream side of the boat. Securing ropes and gear is also important so that they will not get tangled in brush or trees. and high-energy snacks.  Check to see if you have—and know how to use—safety gear such as throw bags.  Check the river course. keeping track of people and gear.  Check to make sure you have a realistic view of your boating skills. YOU CAN CHECK FOR RIVER FLOWS FOR MANY CALIFORNIA RIVERS AT WEBSITE: www.” or escape for self-rescue. if you’re using a kayak or closed-deck canoe. newspaper.  Check your float plan. always go with a guide or experienced leader who is familiar with the river.” This means knowing swimmer’s position.gov/ resourc. course direction. its classification.  Check the boat or raft to make sure it is made well with strong materials. Coast Guard-approved life jacket. Internet or local authorities.  Check that you boat with one or more partners to make your trip safer. Before You Put In  Check weather and river conditions. or hire a river guide who knows the run.htm. and let him or her know when you have returned. For a whitewater run. bailing device. river maps. If you are a beginner.

You may need it if a group member falls into the water or you may need it to help other boaters. • Never wear cotton. synthetic or wool clothing because they do not hold water. A wet or dry suit for cold weather or water conditions. carry the boat (portage) around the obstacles. or shoes that will not come off easily. brush piles.REMEMBER Check Out Your Equipment: EACH CREW MEMBER SHOULD WEAR: • Never boat alone. which holds water and makes you cold. Coast Guard-approved life jacket. While Under Way  Check any section of the river you’re unfamiliar with. Do not apply sunscreen to your forehead where it can drip into your eyes. Remember where the eddies or safe parts of the river are in case you take an unexpected path through the rapid. 69 . If the rapid is too much of a challenge. and other obstacles in moving currents. • Drink plenty of water.  Everyone in the group should be comfortable telling the others that they want to portage around a rapid that is beyond their skill level.  Look at the rapid and mentally chart the best course. Booties. not alcohol or other diuretics like caffeinated sodas or coffee that can make you urinate. Sunglasses with a leash. and a signaling whistle. • Never wear baggy clothes.S. A properly fitted helmet.       A Type III or V properly fitted U. Consider actions you would take if you stray from the best course.  Carry a throw bag with you. or to the back of your legs because it can cause you to slip out of the raft.  Check to make sure you are aware of the effect of cold water. Hypothermia is a constant hazard on the river. air temperature and wind on your body temperature.  At especially difficult rapids. Make sure at least one experienced person is along. which tend to get caught on things. Scouting  Pull over to the side of the river a safe distance upstream of the rapid or obstruction that you want to scout. or that you can’t see from the boat. The rest of the group should respect the individual’s decision. Go to the shore and scout rapids you are not familiar with. station rescuers downstream with boats and throw lines to prepare for unscheduled swims. • Never tie yourself or others into the craft. log jams. sunscreen. Nylon.  Keep your PFD and helmet on to protect yourself if you slip and fall into the river or onto rocks. Beware of and avoid strainers such as overhanging trees. sandals with a heel strap.  Check the terrain along the river and river banks.

T 3.... T 4.. Slippery rocks or underwater objects can often cause leg or ankle injuries....htm and click on Paddlecraft REVIEW QUESTIONS: Paddling Answer these questions by circling T for true or F for false..................... T 5...gov/PubsAndReports.......................... River flows generally remain constant throughout the day .. A strainer is a significant hazard on the river....................................... Make sure to wear baggy clothes for whitewater paddling ...... T 2..... Carry out what you carried in....... CONSULT WEBSITE: www... You should get out of your boat and scout unfamiliar rapids from the shore .. T 6... FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT PADDLING......................... and you should avoid them ..... A class V river is a good choice for beginners........  Check that you are extra careful when entering or exiting the water.......... floating on your back with your toes up and your feet pointed downstream...........ca................. .....................dbw.................................... 1............. F F F F F F F F 70 ......... T Turn to page 84 for correct answers.........Returning to Shore  Check the surrounding area at put-in and take-out points so that you don’t leave any equipment or other items behind........ Whitewater paddling is a basic skill that requires no previous experience or instruction......... you should get into swimmer’s position.......... Eddies are dangerous obstacles in a river............. Leave the wilderness cleaner than you found it.... T 7.. T 8... If you fall into a river..

rushing through the pump. You’ll have fun on a personal watercraft when you treat it like a boat—with skill and respect. OBJECTIVES You will learn:  The legal require- ments for operating a personal watercraft  Personal watercraft operating guidelines  Personal watercraft and personal safety  Navigational rules and aids  Accident prevention and rescue  Other important ANATOMY OF A PERSONAL WATERCRAFT Personal watercraft. 71 . be aware of hazards.) Personal watercraft come in three main styles: standup. or PWC. through something called the impeller. while the sit-down style has seats for one to four people. and use courtesy and common sense.” which is a trademark of Kawasaki Motors Corp. The pumps draw water into the housing. wet bikes. But personal watercraft are also involved in many boating accidents and injuries. Water. sit-down sport class (one or two people). propels the personal watercraft forward. The stand-up style carries only one person. (Personal watercraft are often called “Jet Skis. and sit-down for three to four people. which compresses the water and forces it through the steerable nozzle. You see them everywhere these days. features of operating a personal watercraft EXAMPLE Jet pump action is similar to letting go of an untied balloon.. are small jet-driven powerboats. USA. A jet pump operates in the same fashion. This chapter will show you how to prevent accidents. who stands while operating the vessel. Operators often go too fast.Chapter 4 PERSONAL WATERCRAFT (PWC) Introduction Personal watercraft go by many names—water bikes. thrill craft— and they all mean fun. The air rushing out propels the balloon. powerful and fairly easy to operate. pushing the boat forward—see picture on page 77. They’re fast. don’t pay attention and don’t have much experience. Imagine blowing up a balloon and letting it go.

the cutoff switch engages and shuts off the engine. If the rider falls off. and compartment covers  Throttle—mounted on the handlebars. If the rider falls off. regulates how much fuel goes to the engine and controls the speed  Other controls—include the on/ off switch and the cutoff or “kill” switch with an attached lanyard  Steering nozzle—located at the rear of the pump and controlled by the handlebars PWC Anatomy Steering Control Lanyard Throttle Deck Hull Stabilizers Steering Nozzle Draft Safety Mechanisms Most personal watercraft are equipped with cut-off switches that must be attached to the operator by a lanyard.The main components of a personal watercraft are the:  Hull—the body of the boat  Deck—flat surfaces such as the seat. 72 . The personal watercraft engine will stop. this will make the personal watercraft circle slowly in the area until the rider can reboard. foot wells. Other personal watercraft have an automatic idle and self-circling device. and the watercraft will glide to a stop nearby.

personal watercraft operators must have the following safety equipment:  A U. to improve traction and protect your feet from underwater hazards. Manufacturers recommend wearing wet suits to prevent injury. to guard you from the sun. or preparing to participate in an official regatta.  Eye protection. 73 . Instead of wearing a Type I. III. such as wind. noise. or V Coast Guard-approved personal flotation device.SAFETY EQUIPMENT & PERSONAL SAFETY Similar to powerboat operators.  Gloves to improve your grip and make you more comfortable. or trick water skiing may choose to wear a wetsuit designed for the activity and labeled by the manufacturer as a water ski wetsuit. any person engaged in slalom skiing on a marked course. you should ventilate by opening storage spaces and seat for at least four minutes before starting the engine. II. Exceptions: a person aboard a personal watercraft or being towed behind a vessel. to protect your head from injury.  Sunscreen. a personal watercraft operator should also wear:  A whistle attached to your life jacket. spray. and after refueling  Visual distress signals if your boat is 16 feet or longer (for coastal waters only) REMEMBER TO MAINTAIN GOOD AWARENESS AND JUDGMENT • Beware of natural things that can cause stress. The type of helmet varies with the type of water activity. tournament or exhibition. marine parade. You should have a leash on your sunglasses so you won’t lose them if you enter the water. sun. and bugs. For personal safety. • If you are convicted of drinking and operating a personal watercraft. and operate a personal watercraft.  A helmet. to protect you against sun. if that person is a performer in a professional exhibition. good for gasoline and oil fires  Sound signaling device—a whistle attached to your PFD. or a stored signal horn  A backfire flame arrestor that is clean and well secured  Ventilation of the engine compartment—in order to clear the compartment of fumes. or any person engaged in barefoot. A Coast Guardapproved Type I. Coast Guard-approved fire extinguisher. or V life jacket. A properly fitted helmet is mandatory for racers.  Boat shoes/booties. you can lose the privilege of getting or keeping your driver’s license.  A wet suit. and motion. and hypothermia. or V life jacket must be carried in the tow vessel for each skier choosing to wear a wetsuit. • Do not drink alcohol Every person on board a personal watercraft (PWC) and any person towed behind a vessel must wear a Coast Guard-approved Type I. scrapes and bruises. II. • It is against the law for anyone under the age of 21 to drink alcohol. See Chapter 1 for more details on Personal Safety and Chapter 2 for details on Boating Law. III.S. wind. jump. one that works even when wet. II. III.

parades and other similar activities. the law doesn’t allow the operator of a personal watercraft to:  Operate the personal watercraft  Use unsafe or reckless practices toward any person or vessel in the  Jump another vessel’s wake water. See Chapter 2 for more details on Boating Law. This law does not apply to people in professional exhibitions. and turn sharply at close range within 100 feet of the vessel in order to spray that vessel or person creating the wake  Alter the self-circling device on a  Operate at more than 5 mph personal watercraft that is equipped within 200 feet of a beach or with such a device within 100 feet of swimmers  Operate the personal watercraft  Operate so fast and close to without a properly attached lanyard another vessel that they cause the that runs from the cutoff or “kill” other operator to swerve at the switch to the operator’s body last minute to avoid a collision  Operate the personal watercraft between sunset and sunrise 74 . The registration numbers must be applied left to right on the forward sides of the bow in block letters at least 3 inches high and of a contrasting color—light letters on a dark background. CF-1234-JS Hull Identification Numbers (HIN) A HIN is a 12-digit number/letter combination that is stamped into the hull of the vessel. if someone 18 years old or older supervises him or her on board. never ride a personal watercraft between sunset and sunrise or at other times when it’s hard to see. races. The state decal must be placed 3 inches aft of the numbers. CF-1234-JS ide Port S REMEMBER Operating a personal watercraft after dark is against the law. The registration must be carried on the personal watercraft when you are under way. Starb o ard S ide CF 1234 JS Registration A personal watercraft must be registered with the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). A person 12-15 years old may operate a personal watercraft designed to carry at least two people. Letters are separated from the numbers by hyphens or spaces equal to the width of the numbers (other than the number “1”) or equal to the width of the letters (other than the letter “I”).LEGAL REQUIREMENTS Age of Operator PWC Registration CF 1234 JS or To operate a personal watercraft alone. Ignoring the rules does not excuse you from the law. As a general rule. A HIN is required for registration and is useful in identifying a stolen personal watercraft. or dark letters on a light background. regattas. the operator must be 16 years old or older. Restrictions Applying to Personal Watercraft It’s important to know that personal watercraft are subject to the same boat operating and navigation rules as other powerboats. It’s best to keep the registration in a waterproof container. To help make personal watercraft a safer form of boating.

 Make sure life jackets are in good condition. and the mechanism that controls the personal watercraft if the rider falls off. eye protection with a leash. Ignorance is not an excuse. Be a competent swimmer.  Check the weather and file a float plan with a friend or family member. Coast Guard-approved fire extinguisher is charged and secure The backfire flame arrestor is clean and secure The cutoff switch works The start/stop button works You have a sound signaling device (such as a whistle or horn) You have a U.S. 75 .  Check the regulations that apply to powerboating and to personal watercraft.S. oil and fuel levels. Be familiar with the steering controls. Coast Guardapproved PFD for every person on board You have visual distress signals for coastal waters if your boat is 16 feet or longer       Check the recommended safety equipment:  You have a basic First Aid kit  You have an anchor and a tow line  You have an extra lanyard  You have a phone or VHF radio  You have a tool kit for simple repairs Check your personal equipment:  Wear suitable clothing—wet suit. Read the warning stickers on the craft.OPERATING A PERSONAL WATERCRAFT Before Leaving Home Check that the trailer:  Is licensed with the Department of Motor Vehicles  Lights and hitch are working  Tires are in good condition and are properly inflated  Tie-downs are in good condition and secure  Has no loose bolts. gloves. cracks.  Make sure a whistle is attached to each life jacket. battery fluids.  Check out your skills.  Check the engine. booties or boat shoes. or broken joints  Bearings are lubricated and adjusted according to the manufacturer’s recommendations  Gas cock on the personal watercraft is in the “off” position Pre-Operation Check Read and understand the owner’s manual.  Check the required safety equipment to make sure:  A U.

 Check the fuel—conserve to make sure you can get back to shore. 76 . Avoid rocky areas and jetties (barriers built to protect harbors) because of unexpected currents and a possible collision. and water skiers. Manufacturers recommend operating in at least 18 to 24 inches of water that is free of debris and weeds. because the watercraft may suck materials up from the bottom.  Check for other boats.  Check your surroundings. navigation markers.  Check the steering and throttle as you ease the personal watercraft away from the dock. While Under Way  Check the water depth.  Check the waterway.  Check the speed laws. REMEMBER Keep hands. Avoid strong currents. right-of-way.Check the condition of the personal watercraft to make sure the:  Hull is not damaged  Engine cover latch is secure  Storage compartment cover is secure  Engine compartment is vented  Gas and oil caps are secure  Spark plug cables are secure  Throttle grips are not loose  Hose connections are tight and not cracked or leaking  Bilge is drained  Drain plugs are in place and secure  Jet pump is not fouled or clogged  Throttle springs back after being pressed  Steering mechanism moves easily Casting Off  Check that the lanyard is attached to your left wrist or life jacket. because they can be dangerous to riders trying to reach and climb aboard their watercraft. feet. and hair away from the pump intake and the jet pump nozzle while the personal watercraft motor is running. Leave the dock or beach area slowly.  Check that the fuel cock is in the “on” position.  Check your noise. Be polite. Remember the one-third rule—one-third of a tank out. swimmers.  Check the current or water flow. one-third back in. Be careful when turning—look to both sides and aft. Return before dark or before you are too tired. and signs. Never operate the personal watercraft in shallow water. and limit noise by not boating in one place for too long. and one-third for safety. Watch for swimmers and other boats.  Check the time. damaging the pump.

Risk of Collision and Stopping Distance Personal watercraft don’t have a way to stop quickly because they don’t have brakes. Do not operate a personal watercraft while under the influence of alcohol or drugs.  77 . the operator will lose steering control of the personal watercraft. This is a common cause of personal watercraft accidents. Do not pollute the waterways. the steering nozzle also turns to the right and the water stream pushes the back of the boat to the left. If two boats are traveling straight at each other. causing the personal watercraft to turn right. When you turn the handlebars to the right. the distance between them will close very quickly! Things you should know:    Do not follow or operate too closely to other watercraft. Without power. you will keep moving forward for several seconds after you let go of the throttle.PWC Jet Pump Impeller CAUTION Water Flow Water Flow Water Flow Steerable Nozzle You must maintain power to steer a personal watercraft. It’s important to know that it will take time and distance for you to come to a complete stop. Do not jump the wake of another boat within 100 feet of that boat. So it’s important to be alert and always be ready to steer away from a person. your personal watercraft will continue in the original direction even if the operator turns the handlebars. Depending on how fast you’re going. It’s especially important to be careful when another boat is coming straight at you. vessel. or object. If you don’t maintain power.

Never top off when fueling on a beach.S. Air the rag until it is dry or store it in a covered metal container. Returning to Shore  Check your speed. because this is the most common way spills occur. to release any gas fumes that may have settled and may explode. Coast Guardapproved PFD.  Be aware that your personal watercraft will handle differently when towing a skier. the observer and a skier.  The skier and all persons on board must wear a U. For more detailed information on water skiing. see Chapter 3. If you need to add fuel to the personal watercraft on the beach.  Check the water depth. it’s important to take all necessary precautions to prevent spilling fuel. or at a gas station. 78 . Wrap a rag around the opening to the gas pipe and pour the gas in very slowly. stop pouring the gas. because gasoline expands as it warms.  It’s against the law to operate a personal watercraft or tow a skier between sunset and sunrise. not just straight ahead. Be ready to get off the watercraft and push it ashore or to its mooring site. • Avoid tunnel vision— look around for other boats. Replace the cap tightly when you’re done. CAUTION Before you restart your personal watercraft. swimmers. Fueling You should fuel your personal watercraft while it’s on the trailer in the parking lot.  You should not tow a skier with any personal watercraft smaller than a three-person model. it’s very important to ventilate the engine compartment for at least four minutes. and water skiers.  The observer must display a red or orange signal flag (at least 12 inches on each side) to indicate:     a downed skier a skier in the water preparing to ski a ski line extended from the personal watercraft a ski in the water near the personal watercraft  You should know the standard hand signals in order to communicate with the skier and those on board. not alcohol. When you hear or see that the tank is nearly full. Pull the personal watercraft up on the beach as far as possible so that accidentally spilled fuel will not go directly into the water. Do not overfill. which can hold the operator.To Tow a Water Skier Behind a Personal Watercraft CAUTION When operating a personal watercraft: • Take frequent breaks.  You must have an observer on board who is at least 12 years old. Slow to the lowest possible speed as you approach the landing site. • Drink water or soft drinks.

sailboats. and is the stand-on vessel. The boat being overtaken should hold course and speed. the boat to the right has the right-ofway. Pass with care on the right or left of the stand-on vessel.  Keep a wide distance between your personal watercraft and other boats or persons in the water. and carefully pass the stand-on vessel astern (behind it). The stand-on vessel continues on a steady course and speed.On Right-of-way Give-Way Personal Watercraft Rules of the Road Follow the basic rules of the road except when you need to depart from them to avoid a collision.  Know that five or more short sound blasts mean danger or emergency. 79 . each must keep to the right (starboard). you lose steering ability and you have no brakes to help you stop. Other boats. because when you release the personal watercraft’s throttle. When you overtake another boat from behind (the stern).  Always watch for all boat traffic. Know the likely hazards and high traffic areas. Cross ship channels quickly when you can’t avoid them.  Know the charts for the waterways in which you operate your personal watercraft.On Crossing Give-Way Overtaking another boat Overtaking Stand. But operating a personal watercraft is also different from driving a car or motorcycle. deepdraft ships. Stand. When crossing. or other non-motorized vessels cannot maneuver as well and have the right-of-way over personal watercraft. such as commercial fishing boats. The give-way vessel should slow and turn to starboard if necessary. just like a car at an intersection.  Avoid ship channels when possible. because you must follow rules of the road and obey signs.NAVIGATIONAL RULES AND AIDS Navigational Rules Operating a personal watercraft in some ways is a lot like driving a vehicle. you are the give-way vessel. Head-On Meeting head-on Crossing When two boats meet head-on.

numbers. have distinctive shapes. Controlled Speed Zone DAM MPH 5 . The six most important markers to know are: Boats keep out Boats Keep Out! Boats Keep Out! Danger! Danger! Controlled Area Controlled Area Information Information Information ROCK ROCK NO Wake Wake NO First Aid Station First Aid Station Marker Marker on Piling on Piling Marker on Special Marker on Special Purpose Buoy Purpose Buoy Mooring Buoy Buoy Mooring Dual Purpose Purpose Dual Marker Marker on Land on Land Speed ZoneControlled Boats Keep Out! Danger MPH 5 Danger! MPH 5 Obstruction Controlled Controlled DAM Area DAM Information Speed Zone MPH 5 ROCK SLOW NO Wake First Aid Station Next 2 Miles MPH 5 Next 2 Miles NO WAKE Marker on Piling Marker on Special Purpose Buoy Mooring Buoy Dual Purpose Marker on Land Controlled Speed Zone Controlled Area MPH Diver Down 5 5 DAM IDLE SLOW SPEED Boats Keep Out! Danger! Controlled Area MPH Information Next 2 Miles NO WAKE ROCK NO Wake First Aid Station Boats Keep Out! Danger! Controlled Area Marker Information on Piling Marker on Special Purpose Buoy Mooring Buoy Dual Purpose Marker on Land ROCK NO Wake First Aid Station 5 MPH DAM Signs also mark waterways. the primary waterway marking system.” Next 2 Miles ALL boaters must obey these signs. MPH Marker on Piling Marker on Special Purpose Buoy Mooring Buoy Dual Purpose Marker on Land 80 MPH 5 See Chapter 2 for more details on Navigational Rules and Aids. lights. Zone most the important signs to recognize are the 5 ones that read “NO WAKE” and “5 MPH. and sounds to guide boaters on a safe course.Navigational Aids Buoys.Controlled When Speed operating a personal watercraft.

Also. or the loss of a vessel. A formal report of a death or a missing person must be filed with the Department of Boating and Waterways within 48 hours.  Be aware of other boat traffic and your skill level as an operator at all times. you must file a formal report with the Department of Boating and Waterways within 48 hours.ca. which can affect how you steer  Chasing another personal watercraft in small circles Bad Weather If you’re caught in bad weather:  Reduce speed  Proceed with caution  Head for the nearest safe shore landing area If the water becomes choppy. you must report it to the California Department of Boating and Waterways within 10 days. not alcohol. or about a 45-degree angle.  Tag and turn—this involves sharp and wild turns close to each other  Overtaking another vessel closely at high speeds  Wake jumping within 100 feet of another vessel  Following other boats too closely— leave a safe distance to allow time to maneuver and avoid a collision  Operating your personal watercraft in another boat’s wake—the water may be whipped to a froth.  Do not operate your personal watercraft in shallow water. head into the waves at a slant. CONSULT WEBSITE: www. because the intake will pick up debris and clog the pump.  Do not carry more passengers than your personal watercraft can safely hold.  Check the weather and water conditions before going out. Dangerous Moves Operators of personal watercraft who perform the following dangerous moves are breaking the California boating law and can be cited for reckless or negligent operation. REMEMBER If you are involved in an accident causing more than $500 in damage.ACCIDENT PREVENTION AND RESCUE Prevention  Do not make sharp or wild turns.htm and click on Hypothermia 45-Degree Angle 81 .dbw.  Prevent fire and environmental damage by refueling correctly. if an injury requires more than First Aid.)  Drink water or soft drinks. FOR INFORMATION ON HYPOTHERMIA.gov/PubsAndReports. (Check the capacity plate.

 Signal others to keep away from the personal watercraft. If a rider falls off a personal watercraft.  Aim the nozzle of the fire extinguisher at the base of the flame.  Wave your arms. reducing your chances for injury. or use a whistle. IF YOUR PERSONAL WATERCRAFT HAS STALLED AND WILL NOT RESTART:  Wait a few minutes before trying to restart. making the personal watercraft circle slowly nearby if the operator falls off. stay with the personal watercraft until help comes. mirror or other signaling device stored on board to attract attention. The engine may be “flooded” or the fuel line may be clogged.  Squeeze the trigger.Rescue The moving parts of a personal watercraft are inside the craft.  If the watercraft will not restart. Look for the label with this information on the stern of the PWC.  In either case. If the personal watercraft has a lanyard. IF A FIRE STARTS ABOARD YOUR PERSONAL WATERCRAFT  Pull the fire extinguisher pin. 82 .  Board and restart the engine after you have connected the lanyard to the cut-off switch. IF YOU CANNOT REACH THE FIRE EXTINGUISHER  Swim a safe distance away from the personal watercraft to prevent injury in case of an explosion. most of the craft have one of the two following safety devices:  A cutoff switch will stop the engine when the operator falls off. remember to reconnect it in order to restart the engine. IF YOUR PERSONAL WATERCRAFT CAPSIZES:  Right the craft the way the manufacturer recommends. the operator should carefully climb aboard the personal watercraft.  Do not attempt to repair the engine while you’re on the water.  Use a sweeping motion.  Or the engine will continue to idle and the steering mechanism will turn all the way to port or starboard.

.. you should right it following the manufacturer’s instructions......... d.... T 6... Check to see if the trailer tires are properly inflated........... Before casting off on your personal watercraft. T Turn to page 84 for correct answers...... ... b.. Personal watercraft cannot be operated between sunset and sunrise....... 3.. If your personal watercraft capsizes... F F F 83 ..... T 5...... ...... c..... You cannot operate personal watercraft in deep water channels........ 2.REVIEW QUESTIONS: Personal Watercraft Answer these questions by circling the letter representing the correct answer....... Registration numbers must be displayed using letters that are at least 3 inches high and that contrast the hull color... 1..... Slow until the vessel passes.... Check that the fuel cock is in the “off” position...... b............. d.... Check to see if the tie downs are tight and properly attached... When a personal watercraft operator wishes to cross the path of another vessel approaching from the right. Which of the following is true? a....... Speed up to cross in front of it so the other vessel has clear passage c.. Signal with four long whistle blasts to alert the other vessel. Check that the lanyard is attached to your wrist or life jacket. and cross behind it b. c.. 4... he or she must: a....... d. Kill the engine and wait for the other vessel to clear the area......... Personal watercraft cannot race.... Personal watercraft cannot tow water skiers.. .... It is against the law to operate a personal watercraft equipped with a lanyard without properly attaching the lanyard. you should: a..

page 8: Life Jackets. Knots and Maintenance. F 2. page 47: 1. page 13: 4. T 6. T 1. 7. Channel markers. c 3. a 4. T 3. F 3. 4. F Powerboating. a 3. Boats keep out. F 1. the vessel with the right-of-way. page 70: CHAPTER 4 Personal Watercraft. Dockinig. c 2. page 57: 5. T. T 1. page 83: 1. T General Rules for Operating a Boat. Anchoring. marks the center of a channel. T 2. F 3. F 4. b 5. F 2. page 40: 1. F 6. Information. b 2. 7. T. 2. page 16: CHAPTER 2 Boating Law. F 1. b 3. F 6. F 5. b 2. b 3. watch for rock. 84 . F 2. c 3. d 5. F 5. T 2. page 34: 1. page 63: Sailing. F 3. F 9. c 1. F Safety Equipment. Boat Registration and Environmental Laws. b Navigational Rules. Red nun buoy marks right side of the channel. Controlled area. 2. T 5. page 61: Water Skiing. 8. Danger. page 65: 3. F 1. page 52: Fueling. T 3. page 19: 1. Mooring buoy: you may tie your boat here. F 3. T 2. F 4. Alcohol and Drugs. a 6. T 3. page 39: Know Your Road Signs. c 1. no wake zone. F 7. T 4. T 8. T 5. T Paddling. T 3. turn right for first aid station 5. F 4. CHAPTER 3 Trailering and Launching a Boat.ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1 Personal Safety. T 6. Red striped channel marker. Navigational Aids. c 4. b 4. T 3. page 14: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. a 2. F 2. Five or more short blasts of a signaling device to warn others of possible danger. T 2. F 2. 4. F 2. Green can buoy marks left side of the channel. d 2. The vessel not having the right-of-way that is required to take early and obvious action to avoid a collision when nearing another vessel. F 1. d 4. T Homeland Security. T 5. T. a 2. 3. F 6. Red and white buoy: marks safe water. a 4. 3. T 1. T 1. F 8. T 2. d 3. b 1. T 1. page 25: Alcohol. 7. The vessel that must hold course and speed when nearing another vessel. 1. T. page 7: 1. page 30: 4.

Coast Guard boating accident numbers show that a high percentage of boating accidents. and 93 percent of youth operators involved in accidents were operating personal watercraft. didn’t pay attention.  Many accidents happen because boaters don’t have the right equipment. and the injuries and deaths resulting from these accidents remain high. rescue injured people and prevent accidents. This chapter will teach you how to prevent accidents. occur when operators used poor judgment. especially those that cause serious injury or death. Accidents also happen when operators don’t know how to use their equipment. or don’t know the limits of their equipment.htm 85 . or any safety equipment at all. or boats collide. It includes several “what if” cases taken from real boating accidents. did not have enough experience. collision.  Many accidents.gov/ SafetyReports.dbw. accidents involving young people. no matter how prepared you are.S.Chapter 5 ACCIDENT PREVENTION AND RESCUE Introduction Face it—accidents still happen. passengers fall overboard. Among the national trends:  Ninety-two percent of boating deaths happen when small boats capsize. grounding and water skiing Trends in Boating Accidents As in any other sport. FOR THE MOST RECENT CALIFORNIA ACCIDENT SUMMARY AND STATISTICS. to help you recognize dangers.  Current trend shows more than 70 percent of personal watercraft involved in accidents in California were either borrowed or rented. Sixty-five percent of youth operators involved in accidents were under 16 years old. such as capsizing. and what to do when you can’t. CONSULT WEBSITE: www. especially deadly accidents.ca. person overboard. The Causes of Accidents  U. an accident can always happen. happen when boaters drink alcohol.  Personal watercraft continue to be involved in nearly half of the accidents that cause injuries and property damage. OBJECTIVES You will learn:  Trends and causes of boating accidents  Basics of accident prevention and rescue  Prevention and rescue methods for environmental hazards  Basic rescue for water activities.  As the number of youth operators continues to increase. And they may not maintain their equipment correctly. Knowing how to prevent accidents and rescue others will give you more confidence and make your time on the water more enjoyable. and behaved wildly.

Be sure to carefully judge the situation and condition of the people involved.  Plan how to use your own and others’ experience and resources to deal with the situation. Experience is a key resource in any type of emergency situation.Basics of Prevention  Know and practice the basic safety guidelines and the law for your type of boating.  If you send someone for help.  Always carry the proper safety equipment and know how to use it. U. be sure the person knows the details of the situation. Basics of Rescue  The first rule of any rescue situation is to never put yourself or other rescuers in danger when trying to help someone. You don’t want to become a victim and make the situation worse. and extremely dangerous to you and others.S.  Have a properly fitted.  If the group size allows.  Always boat carefully and with good judgment. Stay within the limits of your boating skills and equipment. knows where to find a phone or other means of communication. send two or more persons together to get help.  Never boat under the influence of alcohol or drugs—it is against the law. 86 .  Be water safe by knowing how to swim and tread water. knows who to contact. and either directs rescuers to the accident scene or returns to the scene of the accident after successfully contacting authorities.  Seek basic training in first aid.  Call for help on a phone or VHF radio. Coast Guard-approved PFD for everyone aboard when boating.  Stay calm. cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and life-saving skills.  Have the proper clothing for your type of boating and for the weather and water conditions.

Prevention  Check local weather sources such as the radio.  Limit your exposure to stressors.  Be ready for all types of weather and water conditions. what the person(s) could have done differently.  If possible. and actual case studies. such as hypothermia. food and water.  Be sure your skills and vessel are suitable for the conditions.  Be sure there is no danger to yourself and others at the scene.  It’s a good idea that at least one person on board have a current first aid/CPR certification. Environmental injuries. newspaper.  Always carry extra clothing. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS (Refer to Chapter 1) Introduction Environmental stressors can cause many types of accidents by impairing your judgment and reducing your awareness. Chapter headings at the beginning of each section point out the location of more detailed information on the topic. or the Internet before getting under way.  Treat the victim using your First-Aid knowledge and available resources. Constantly monitor the winds and horizon for changes in the weather.EACH SECTION BELOW INCLUDES THREE PARTS: Guidelines for prevention. suggested techniques for rescue. You should be able to read the case study and point out what the person(s) did right or wrong. 87 . remove the victim from whatever caused the emergency. Rescue  Call for outside help if necessary. by having the necessary clothing and safety equipment on board.  Be able to recognize and treat cold.  Be sure the victim does not face other dangers. TV. can result from an accident or carelessness. and how you would react to the situation.and heat-related illnesses.

Watch for victims in the water. use equipment such as line. swamping the vessel and causing it to sink.  Give help first to anyone who seems to be seriously injured or is having trouble staying afloat. 88 . life preservers or floatable objects to save lives. What could these people have done differently to prevent this accident? 3. You should be trained. but the operator was unaware of an incoming storm. and help you to choose your first rescue steps. Check the area for possible risks to yourself and other rescuers. the seas became dangerous.  Toss lifesaving devices to those who do not have them. it may be safest to rescue the victim over the side of the vessel near the stern.  If necessary—and if your boat can safely hold additional people— help victims by pulling them aboard over the stern. In heavy seas. Identify the mistakes that the people made and the proper actions.SCENARIO Case Study: The operator of a small fishing vessel and a passenger were fishing on the ocean. Turn the engine off before picking up victims—as long as you don’t need it on to maneuver against winds or currents. Always be ready to help others. careful. The water was calm in the morning when they left the dock. and responsible when attempting to help others. The victims were in the water for 30 minutes and had body temperatures of 82 degrees when they were rescued.  Whenever possible.  Communicate with people in the water. The victims were wearing life jackets but not special clothing for cold water. if other passengers are with them. They can tell you if they’re all right. Questions 1. What steps could you take to rescue the victims and/or make the situation better? BASIC RESCUE TIPS FOR WATER ACTIVITIES (Refer to Chapter 1) Introduction Water rescue is similar to any rescue situation. In the afternoon. To help in emergencies from a boat:  Approach an accident scene cautiously.  Do not jump into the water to help a victim unless it is your only choice and you face no risk to yourself. 2. but do not take needless risks.

CAUTION You should not enter the water to rescue someone unless you have been trained in lifesaving skills. Use your hand. Questions: 1. Make sure that you have a firm grip on a solid object or another person on shore before reaching. such as a stick. Throw: If you cannot reach the victim. If a ring life preserver is not available. Go: If you can’t reach. The park staff was trained in swiftwater rescue and was able to pull the father and daughter to shore. oar. Remember to put on a life jacket before rowing to the victim. raft. and also their proper actions. throw something that will float. large inner tube. For example. go for help or call 9-1-1.Things you should know: To help in emergencies from the shore:  Reach: First try to reach the person.    SCENARIO Case Study: A family was having a picnic in late Spring on a beach next to a river. throw. They were both quickly swept downstream and out of view. She suddenly found herself in the fast downstream current. you may use a small boat. you can row out to them on something that will keep both of you afloat. such as a ring life preserver with a line attached so you can pull the person to safety. Give the location information to lead rescuers to the emergency site. rope. or a fishing pole. Keep a low center of gravity by keeping low to the ground and get ready for the weight of the person you’re rescuing before you reach. Row: If the person is too far away and you know how to swim. You don’t want to be pulled into the water. The mother quickly alerted the park ranger. Their ten-year old daughter was swimming in an eddy just upstream from the beach. throw any object that will help the victim float until help arrives. or row. When his daughter grabbed the branch the added weight pulled the father into the swift current. and carry an extra PFD in case the victim needs one. Help the victim climb aboard or have him hold onto the float while you paddle back to safety. or anything else you can hold onto. The father grabbed a loose branch from the beach and extended it toward his daughter. towel. What could these people have done differently to prevent this accident? 3. What steps could you take to rescue the victims and/or make the situation better? 89 . 2. Both sustained some bruises but were otherwise OK. to reach the person. Identify the mistakes that the people made. or surfboard.

ca. HELP Positions Rescue  Do not attempt to swim ashore unless it’s safe to do so. yell or wave your arms to get attention.  Avoid hypothermia by preventing heat loss. water conditions. You can also wave your arms and yell. Stay with the boat until help arrives.CAPSIZING OR SINKING (Refer to Chapters 1.  Do not stand up or change seats in small boats. bail out the boat continuously and head for a safe shore as soon as possible. Be aware that distances are hard to judge accurately on the water.  Check the drain plug. Keep your head out of the water. Prevention  Constantly check the weather and water for conditions that may cause hazards. and have other passengers move to counterbalance the shift in weight. and click on “Safe Survival” 90 . and learn to do simple repairs. INCLUDING PERSONAL WATERCRAFT Introduction Capsizing or sinking can result from severe weather. 4) POWERBOATS. OR SEE WEBSITE: www.  If possible. an overloaded boat. Use signaling devices to tell rescuers you are in danger. A boat is far more visible than a person in the water.  Blow a whistle. right the boat and bail out the water. 2. poor judgment in operating a vessel.  Hold onto the nearest floating object. climb onto the hull and signal for help.  If your vessel leaks.dbw.htm  If you can’t right the boat. or faulty equipment.  Count the number of people to make sure that no one is missing.  Check and treat serious and lifethreatening injuries. If you have to change position. curl into a ball or huddle with other passengers and limit your movement (HELP—Heat Escape Lessening Position).  Check the automatic bilge pump in your boat (if it has one) to see that it is working properly.  Engine failure places motorboats at greater risk of capsizing. tell the operator.  Do not carry more people or weight on your vessel than the capacity plate says you can. hold onto the gunwales. If you cannot get out of the water.The shore may be farther away than you think.  Distribute the weight of passengers and gear evenly. climb up on the boat’s hull as far out of the water as possible. Carry spare parts. Maintain the engine and battery.gov/ resourc.

use your weight to right the boat (this procedure should be practiced in a calm. Look for injuries and be sure that no one is having difficulty staying afloat.  If you cannot right the boat. release sails. push the tiller away from you or steer into the wind. But you should know a few techniques specific to sailing.  Help other passengers climb aboard if necessary. holding on to the gunwale. You may need to adjust your course and sails to adapt to changing conditions. such as a boating class). immediately free the lines so the sails do not “catch” wind and cause the boat to capsize again. climb onto the hull to get as far out of the water as possible.  If the boat is small enough. Rescue  If the boat capsizes. let the sail all the way out.  Be sure to check weather and wind conditions constantly. and get to the high side of the boat. search the area to make sure everyone is accounted for. stand on the centerboard and. Prevention  If the sailboat is going to capsize.  Know how to sail and use your equipment in strong winds and stormy weather. 91 .  Once righted.SAILING Introduction Many of the prevention and rescue techniques discussed here also apply to sailing.  Begin bailing out the boat after it has been righted and secured. supervised setting.

 Do not attempt to stand in swift water.”  Know hand signals. This position allows you to push away from obstacles and prevents your feet from getting caught in anything under the water. Pointing Positive “A Safe Place to Go” 92 . Are You OK? Yes. Self-Rescue  If your boat capsizes or you fall overboard.River Signals: Stop & Pull Over PADDLING ON WHITEWATER Introduction Paddling on whitewater requires skill and experience. Keep your toes up out of the water. Prevention  The crew should check the water flow and weather conditions before starting out. and swimming to an eddy.  You may need to turn onto your stomach and swim hard to an eddy or the shore to avoid upcoming rapids. stay on the upstream end of the craft.  Hold on to your boat unless it threatens your safety. feet-first downstream. to the nearest eddy or calm area. the force of the water can push you over and hold you under. The added danger of moving water makes capsizing very dangerous.  Be sure to have the proper clothing for the weather and water conditions. This prevents your chance of being pinned against obstacles in the water. I’m OK  Do not carry too many passengers on the raft or boat. then you should swim hard toward it and vigorously climb your way to the top as you hit it.  Float on your back. If you are swept into a strainer.  Carry a throw bag and other safety equipment and know how to use them.” This technique is known as a “highside.  Know and practice the swimmer’s position.  Do not paddle on rivers that are too swift or dangerous for your abilities. Help or First Aid Needed  The crew should be familiar with the basic rules of river safety. or if help is not nearby.  You should avoid strainers if you can.  Know and practice the procedures for prevention of a “wrap. If your foot gets wedged in the rocks.

you can lift the swimmer aboard by grabbing the shoulder straps of his or her PFD. On remote sections of a river. The swimmer should not grab the bag because the remaining rope will continue to be pulled out and he will be carried farther downstream. follow the riverbank to the closest available help. If you must leave an accident site to seek help. When pulled back to the boat. This could cause serious injury. Saving equipment should wait until after all swimmers have been helped. Seek help from passing boaters if an accident happens. Do not try to go overland unless you’re familiar with the area. Most commercial rafts have guides who know how to handle emergencies.  Helping swimmers is the first priority.  The swimmer in the water should listen for instructions from the guide.Assisted Rescue  If someone falls overboard. or the victim is too far away. Swimmer’s Position       Paddlers should never put themselves in danger to rescue another. Throw the bag so it hits the swimmer or lands slightly upstream. Rope should never be wrapped around an arm or wrist. crew members will “point positive” toward a safe place.  You must use a throw bag if the current is swift. Pull the swimmer toward shore or the boat.  A paddle or oar can be extended to the person overboard if he or she is close. help will come to you faster than you can find it. stay on the riverbank. 93 . This keeps the person in swimmer’s position with his or her face out of the water. To use a throw bag:    Clearly yell the person’s name to attract his or her attention. The rope thrower should be prepared for a jolt when the rope tightens. Do not pull the victim by his or her arm or wrist. The swimmer should grab the rope and bring it over his shoulder. Chances are.

Practice these techniques in a calm and supervised setting. These can be rescues for one or more boats.  Check the group for signs of hypothermia and take necessary actions.PADDLING ON FLATWATER OR THE OCEAN Introduction Weather and water conditions can change very quickly and with little warning. During the crazy scene that followed.  If you are paddling in open water you should know and practice open water rescues. Rescue  Try to right the boat if possible.  Count the number of people to make sure that no one is missing.  Get training in the techniques used to right a sea kayak or other paddle craft. such as a boating class.  If you’re unable to right the boat. What steps could you take to rescue the victims and/or make the situation better? 94 . climb on top of the boat and signal for help. As a prank. SCENARIO Case Study: The operator had overloaded his small row boat and was allowing his passengers to ride in an unsafe position on the gunwales and transom. two of the passengers drowned. Prevention  Do not overload the vessel.  Once the boat is righted.  Carry the proper safety equipment and wear the right clothing for the water temperature. Identify the mistakes that the people made and the proper actions they could have taken. swamping and sinking the vessel.  Check and monitor weather and ocean conditions.  Do not go out when conditions are worse than your skills or your equipment can handle. The operator and many of the passengers were under the influence of alcohol. climb back in and begin bailing out the water. Be ready for the unexpected. Questions: 1. all the passengers moved to the stern of the vessel at once. What could these people have done differently to prevent this accident? 3. 2.

direct the best possible light on the victim. such as a boat on the water. Point toward the victim to help guide the operator.  Judge the situation to see if you need to get help from somewhere else. or other floatable object with a line attached.  Approach the victim from downwind or into the current. These steps will prevent serious injury from the boat’s propeller. Rescue  Even if the person overboard knows how to swim.  In a small boat. not holding onto something solid when moving on deck.  Passengers should not ride on the gunwales or the bow.PASSENGER OVERBOARD (Refer to Chapters 3 and 4) Introduction People can fall overboard or leave their boat for a variety of reasons.  When trying to rescue the victim. If there is no wind or current that would require you to maneuver the boat. Keep the injured person in the water until a trained rescuer arrives. be sure to inform the captain of the boat so he or she can get ready for the weight shift. toss the victim a PFD. unless another crew member is assigned to watch the victim.  You may not be used to being on a moving platform.  Whoever spots the person overboard should never take his eyes off of that person. a person trained in lifesaving procedures may need to enter the water to help the victim.  If the victim has (or might have) a spinal injury. Avoid hitting a person with the boat or propeller. 95 . but most often because of heavy seas. You should take time to get used to balancing and moving safely on a boat that is in motion. floating cushion. Prevention  The operator should not overload the boat. the operator should immediately slow the boat.  If the boat is under way. If you must move. You should be careful maneuvering when someone is in the water.  At night. or sitting on the gunwale or other dangerous location. put the engine into neutral and keep the victim away from the stern of the boat.  Warn approaching boats. you can turn the engine off as you pick up the victim. passengers should be careful and limit movement while the boat is operating.

buoys. and vibration. the stand-on vessel must take action to avoid a collision. Beware of tunnel vision—don’t just look straight ahead. take steps to avoid it.  Follow the rules of the road. Introduction Collisions can be two or more vessels crashing into one another. 96 .  Maintain a safe distance between your boat and other boats. such as a shore or dock.  Be aware of things that can act as stressors. Prevention  Keep a sharp lookout on all sides for boats and other obstructions. What could these people have done differently to prevent this accident? 3. The effects of natural stressors are made worse when you use drugs or alcohol.  Don’t drink alcohol and operate a boat because it can impair your judgment and depth perception. noise. 3 and 4) When a collision is about to happen. The operator of the boat panicked and took a wide turn while trying to come about and lost sight of the victim.SCENARIO Case Study: A passenger on a sailboat was sitting on the gunwale of the boat when a sudden shifting of the boat caused him to fall overboard. shorelines and floating debris. motion. What steps could you take to rescue the victims and/or make the situation better? COLLISIONS (Refer to Chapters 2. or a vessel colliding with another object. docks. pier or shore. The victim was not wearing a PFD and drowned. such as a dock.  Slow down when approaching a landing. such as overexposure to sun. wind. The victim came into view momentarily but the boat passed by quickly as it was picking up speed from the wind. All boaters have the responsibility to avoid collision. If the give-way vessel does not take proper action. Questions: 1. 2. Be extra careful. The stand-on vessel must maintain course and speed. The giveway vessel must change its course and/or speed to avoid a collision. Identify the mistakes that the people made and the proper actions they could have taken. You can prevent most collisions easily. such as piers. Be aware that two boats approaching each other head-on can close the distance between them very quickly.

She let off the throttle. Identify the mistakes that the people made and the proper actions they could have taken. What could these people have done differently to prevent this accident? 3. but instead lost control of her craft.  If you’re not involved in the collision. He sustained a fractured spinal cord. She slid sideways into her friend. SCENARIO Case Study: An inexperienced personal watercraft operator (on her second trip) was riding alongside a friend on another personal watercraft. people may have fallen overboard or your vessel may be capsized or severely disabled. Take needed actions that are outlined under CAPSIZING and PERSON OVERBOARD. The fall left her unconscious. but her life jacket kept her afloat. trying to slow down. use a radio or signaling device to call for help. or if your vessel is not seriously damaged. She was thrown into the water. What steps could you take to rescue the victims and/or make the situation better? 97 . debris or flammable liquids are in the water. you should stand by to offer help. He also had serious head and chest injuries. Questions: 1.Rescue  If a collision happens. 2.  If you need further help.  Be sure to warn other boats when people. and was paralyzed from the waist down. The friend was slightly ahead of her when he suddenly slowed down.

boils. Coast Guard for help.ca. He thought he was familiar with the area. sharp objects. FOR MORE INFORMATION ON DISTRESS CALLS. his engine stalled. CONSULT WEBSITE: www. CONSULT WEBSITE: www. He lost his bearings and struck rocks just offshore. Then.gov/ resourc. 2. Make sure you are not sinking or taking on water. Prevention  Always be alert to your surroundings. and click on Radio Procedures SCENARIO FOR MORE INFORMATION ON GROUNDING. etc.htm.dbw. and coloration can indicate shallow water. TAKE NOTE If there is an emergency and you are out to sea or in an isolated area and have a radio.ca. Don’t just guess about the depth of the water.dbw. Consult a tide book.  Use caution rather than convenience.  If there are obstacles that may increase damage to the hull. reefs or shoals. You may have good water depth in an area during a high tide. but it was too late and he was washed against the jetty.gov/ ABCindex. which destroyed his vessel.).GROUNDING (Refer to Chapters 2. Case Study: The operator of a vessel was traveling in the early morning darkness in ocean waters. so he was not using any navigational aids. or if you have serious hull damage. Ripples. Questions: 1. rock.  Learn to “read” the water surface. Check charts for possible shallow areas or other underwater hazards before boating.htm Rescue  First. 3 and 4) Introduction Grounding at high speed can seriously damage a boat and throw passengers overboard or into solid objects on board. but the area may be dangerous at low tide.  Know the expected tide levels and times. a wreck.  Waiting for a higher tide may be the solution if you ran aground because of a low tide.  If it won’t damage the hull. and by using caution in shallow areas. call the local law enforcement agency or U. Identify the mistakes that the operator made and the proper actions that could have been taken. What could this person have done differently to prevent this accident? and click on Grounding 98 3.S. hail the Coast Guard over VHF Channel 16 using the standard “Mayday” call.  Identify the cause of the grounding (sand. He tried to drop anchor. You can prevent grounding easily by learning about the area beforehand. reverse engines and attempt to back off. check the damage to your boat’s hull. What steps could you take to rescue the victims and/or make the situation better? .  Know the area where you will be boating.

The operator should take great care to avoid other boats.  The skier should be looking for floating objects. The skier should pay special attention to the tow rope to keep from getting it entangled. the propeller may continue to spin for a short time and cause serious injury.  When a skier.  An operator should keep a skier on the operator’s side so that the skier always remains within the operator’s view.  Approach the site from downwind or into the current using slow to idle speed. ski or tow rope is in the water. watch the position of the skier and alert other boats. tow ropes. You should make sure that the propeller is no longer spinning before allowing a skier near it. Prevention  The operator should be aware of the surroundings at all times.RESCUING WATER SKIERS: Introduction: Water skiing accidents are very dangerous because of high speeds. other skiers and boats. In either case. many boats specially designed for water skiing have a swim step on the stern and a propeller that is mounted amidships. REMEMBER If the boat is put into neutral while the engine is running.  The boat should return to the water skier as quickly as possible. and communicate with the operator.  If the skier is re-entering the boat.  The observer should observe the skier at all times. buoys.  The observer should raise the signal flag designating a downed skier. skiers and objects in the water such as skis. know the hand signals that the skier may use. crowded ski areas and loose equipment such as the tow rope or skis. For instance. making sure that the skier’s tow rope is not caught in the boat’s propeller. Rescue  The downed skier should hold up a ski or arm to warn other boats and skiers. The observer should also have the signal flag ready for any time that a skier or his equipment is in the water. the boat operator and passengers should take great care. 99 . swimmers and other skiers. the operator should turn the engine off before the skier comes on board. You may be able to leave the engine on if your boat design has the propeller a good distance away from the skier.You should always keep a sharp lookout for other boats. the water skier should be brought into the boat over the stern.

time. and the accident involves more than vessels involved $500 damage. county sheriff or the U. Accident Reporting If you are in a boating accident. Identify the mistakes that the people made and the proper actions they could have taken. and exact location of the died. A second vessel came very close to this vessel at a high rate of speed and ran over the ski rope. can’t be held liable for the results of that help. or needs A formal report must be filed medical attention beyond First Aid. She sustained third degree burns and a fractured pelvis. This may be the local harbor patrol. striking the person on the swim step in the stomach and leg.  Within 48 hours if there is Report the following information: someone has disappeared or  Date. which became caught in the propeller. and passengers of all boats involved A vessel operator involved in an accident that causes damage to a moored boat or other property must notify the owner or person in charge of the property. operator. the with the Department of Boating incident must be reported to the enforceand Waterways: ment agency responsible for the waterway. 2. The line then broke. This notice must give the name and address of the operator and of the owner of the vessel involved. If the operator can’t locate the owner or person in charge of the property. and a statement describing what happened.” without objection by anyone being helped. What steps could you take to rescue the victims and/or make the situation better? Accident Assistance A vessel operator involved in an accident is responsible for helping other people in the accident. as there was still a ski line in the water. If a person dies. or if a person has injuries accident that require more than first aid  Name of each person who disap Within 10 days if the peared. disappears. the operator involved in the accident must leave a written notice in an easy-to-see place on the property damaged. as long as it does not endanger his or her vessel. 100 . and passengers. died or was injured. and snapped back. crew. Any person offering help in “good faith. What could this person have done differently to prevent this accident? 3.SCENARIO Case Study: A person had just finished skiing and was sitting on the swim step of a vessel.S. Questions: 1. The ski flag was raised. pulling in the ski line. you must report it to the Department of Boating and Waterways or the local marine law enforcement authority. Coast Guard. or the boat is a complete loss  Names and addresses of the owner.

gov/ABCindex.dbw. complete this form and leave it with a reliable person who will notify authorities if necessary. Inboard .Appendices Appendix A CHECK LIST Before embarking on a cruise: 1. including the following: Vessel in good condition Vessel properly loaded Ample supply of fuel Check weather reports Compass and charts Good anchoring equipment Bailing Device Spare parts First-aid kit Flashlight 3.htm and click on Preparation 101 . File a float plan (see below) 2. Cancel your “Float Plan” when you return Tools Extra starting battery Personal flotation devices (Float Plan) Check List and Float Plan (Coast Guard-approved) (Coast Guard-approved) Visual distress signals Fire extinguishers (Coast Guard-approved) Oars or paddles Marine VHF radio FLOAT PLAN Operator Name and address of operator Phone number Search for an overdue boat has a much greater chance of being successful if the Coast Guard or other rescue agencies have certain facts.ca. Contact Name and phone number or rescue agency near point of departure Vessel Name Power. Give consideration to basic safety items.Outboard Type/Style CF Number Rig. If Overdue. For your own safety and before leaving on a cruise. If Sail Range Length Hull Color Speed Persons Number Persons Aboard Radio Frequencies Departure From Place Date/Time Depart Car Parked License # Trailer Parked License # Where parked Destination Place Stops Enroute Date/Time Return IMPORTANT: DON’T FORGET TO CANCEL FLOAT PLAN WHEN YOU RETURN THIS FORM IS AVAILABLE ON THE INTERNET: www.

engine) SAILBOAT (sail only) CANOE / KAYAK RAFT ROWBOAT OTHER (specify) OUTBOARD INBOARD INBOARD / OUTBOARD DRIFTING AT ANCHOR TIED TO DOCK LAUNCHING DOCKING / LEAVING DOCK SAILING OTHER (specify) JET SAIL ONLY PADDLE / OARS OTHER (specify) NAME OF PERSON COMPLETING THE REPORT SIGNATURE OF PERSON COMPLETING THE REPORT DBW FORM BAR-1 (1/00) QUALIFICATION OF PERSON COMPLETING REPORT OPERATOR OWNER OTHER (specify) THIS CONFIDENTIAL REPORT IS USED IN RESEARCH FOR THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS AND A COPY IS FORWARDED TO THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD 102 .Appendix B (CA Boating Accident Report) CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF BOATING AND WATERWAYS INFORMATION: OPERATOR #1 OPERATOR NAME AND ADDRESS IS OWNER DIFFERENT THAN OPERATOR? OWNER NAME AND ADDRESS YES NO OPERATOR EXPERIENCE UNDER 10 HOURS 10 TO 100 HOURS OVER 100 HOURS OPERATOR EDUCATION AMERICAN RED CROSS USCG AUXILIARY US POWER SQUADRON STATE COURSE INFORMAL NONE AGE INFORMATION: VESSEL #1 THIS VESSEL ONLY # INJURED # DEAD ESTIMATED DAMAGE RENTED BOAT YES # OF PERSONS ON BOARD NO # OF PERSONS TOWED BOAT NUMBER (CF OR DOC #) MFR.SKIER DOWN TOWING ANOTHER VESSEL BEING TOWED BY ANOTHER VESSEL SPEED MPH OPEN MOTORBOAT CABIN MOTORBOAT PERSONAL WATERCRAFT HOUSEBOAT SAILBOAT (aux.SKIER DOWN OPEN MOTORBOAT CABIN MOTORBOAT PERSONAL WATERCRAFT HOUSEBOAT SAILBOAT (aux. engine) SAILBOAT (sail only) CANOE / KAYAK OUTBOARD INBOARD INBOARD / OUTBOARD JET DRIFTING AT ANCHOR FIBERGLASS TIED TO DOCK LAUNCHING PLASTIC RUBBER / VINYL SAIL ONLY DOCKING / LEAVING DOCK SAILING OTHER (specify) OTHER (specify) PADDLE / OARS OTHER (specify) TOWING ANOTHER VESSEL RAFT BEING TOWED BY ANOTHER VESSEL SPEED ROWBOAT OTHER (specify) MPH INFORMATION: OPERATOR #2 OPERATOR NAME AND ADDRESS IS OWNER DIFFERENT THAN OPERATOR? OWNER NAME AND ADDRESS YES NO OPERATOR EXPERIENCE OPERATOR EDUCATION UNDER 10 HOURS 10 TO 100 HOURS OVER 100 HOURS AGE AMERICAN RED CROSS USCG AUXILIARY US POWER SQUADRON STATE COURSE INFORMAL NONE INFORMATION: VESSEL #2 THIS VESSEL ONLY # INJURED # DEAD ESTIMATED DAMAGE $$ RENTED BOAT YES # OF PERSONS ON BOARD # OF PERSONS TOWED NO BOAT NAME LENGTH BOAT NUMBER (CF OR DOC #) MFR. HULL ID# BOAT MANUFACTURER BOAT MODEL YEAR BUILT TYPE OF FUEL # OF ENGINES HORSEPOWER ACTIVITY RECREATIONAL TYPE OF BOAT FIRE EXTINGUISHER ON BOARD FIRE EXTINGUISHER USED LIFE JACKETS ON BOARD YES NO LIFE JACKETS ACCESSIBLE YES NO LIFE JACKETS WORN YES NO COMMERCIAL OTHER HULL MATERIAL WOOD ALUMINUM FIBERGLASS PLASTIC RUBBER / VINYL OTHER (specify) YES PROPULSION NO YES NO OPERATION AT TIME OF ACCIDENT CRUISING CHANGING DIRECTION CHANGING SPEED TOWING SKIER / TUBER TOWING SKIER. HULL ID # BOAT NAME LENGTH BOAT MANUFACTURER BOAT MODEL YEAR BUILT TYPE OF FUEL # OF ENGINES HORSEPOWER ACTIVITY FIRE EXTINGUISHER ON BOARD FIRE EXTINGUISHER USED YES NO LIFE JACKETS ON BOARD YES NO LIFE JACKETS ACCESSIBLE YES NO LIFE JACKETS WORN YES NO RECREATIONAL TYPE OF BOAT COMMERCIAL OTHER HULL MATERIAL WOOD ALUMINUM YES PROPULSION NO OPERATION AT TIME OF ACCIDENT CRUISING CHANGING DIRECTION CHANGING SPEED TOWING SKIER / TUBER TOWING SKIER.

etc. TIME OF ACCIDENT AM PM # INJURED # DEAD TOTAL $$ LAW ENFORCEMENT ON ACCIDENT SCENE? AGENCY NAME COUNTY BODY OF WATER LOCATION ON WATER DATE OF ACCIDENT (M/D/Y) YES WEATHER (CHECK ALL THAT APPLY): WATER CONDITIONS NO TEMPERATURE WATER VISIBILITY AIR STRONG CURRENT WIND CONDITIONS CLEAR CLOUDY FOG RAIN SNOW CALM (waves less than 6") CHOPPY (waves 6"-2') ROUGH (waves 2'-6') VERY ROUGH (waves >6') NONE LIGHT (0-6 mph) MODERATE (7-14 mph) GOOD FAIR POOR HAZY STRONG (15-25 mph) YES NO STORM (over 25 mph) CAUSE OF ACCIDENT (CHECK ALL THAT APPLY): TYPE OF ACCIDENT (CHECK ALL THAT APPLY): CAPSIZING FIRE / EXPLOSION (fuel) IMPROPER LOOKOUT / INATTENTION HAZARDOUS WEATHER / WATER COLLISION WITH VESSEL FIRE / EXPLOSION (other than fuel) OPERATOR INEXPERIENCE RESTRICTED VISION COLLISION WITH FIXED OBJECT FLOODING / SWAMPING EXCESSIVE SPEED IGNITION OF SPILLED FUEL / VAPOR COLLISION WITH FLOATING OBJECT SINKING MACHINERY FAILURE IMPROPER ANCHORING FALL OVERBOARD STRUCK BY BOAT / PROPELLER EQUIPMENT FAILURE ALCOHOL USE FALL IN BOAT SKIER MISHAP IMPROPER LOADING FAILURE TO VENT OTHER OVERLOADING OTHER D E S C R I B E W H AT H A P P E N E D A N D W H AT YO U C O U L D H AV E D O N E TO P R E V E N T T H I S AC C I D E N T (Explain the cause of death or injur y.ca. Failure to submit this report as required is a misdemeanor and is punishable by a fine not to exceed $1000 or imprisonment not to exceed 6 months or both. California 95815-3888.CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF BOATING AND WATERWAYS The operator of results in death. All other reports must be submitted within 10 days Reports are to be submitted to the California Department of Boating and Waterways at 2000 Evergreen Street.dbw. or injury beyond first aid.ca.) V I C T I M O R W I T N E S S I N F O R M AT I O N VICTIM / WITNESS NAME & ADDRESS VICTIM / WITNESS STATUS INJURED DEAD WITNESS ONLY RIDING IN VESSEL # AGE INJURY DESCRIPTION CAUSE OF DEATH DROWNING TRAUMA OTHER DROWNING TRAUMA OTHER DROWNING TRAUMA OTHER DROWNING COULD VICTIM SWIM? YES NO LIFE JACKET WORN? YES NO INJURED DEAD WITNESS ONLY YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO INJURED DEAD WITNESS ONLY INJURED DEAD WITNESS ONLY DBW FORM BAR-1 (1/00) TRAUMA OTHER YES YES NO NO THIS CONFIDENTIAL REPORT IS USED IN RESEARCH FOR THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS AND A COPY IS FORWARDED TO THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD For a copy of this form. submitted within of the accident. call toll free (888) 326–2822. continue description on additional paper. Use sketch if helpful. (916) 263-8189. disappearance. 103 .gov/pdf/AccidentForms/BAR scroll down and click on BAR This form can be completed online before printing. every recreational vessel is required by Section 656 of the Harbors and Navigation Code to file a written report whenever a boating accident occurs which disappearance.gov/boat_acc. Reports must be 48 hours in case of death occurring within 24 hours of an accident.dbw. Suite 100. total property damage in excess of $500. THIS FORM IS ALSO AVAILABLE ON THE INTERNET: www. If needed. or complete loss of a vessel. medical treatment. injury that requires medical attention beyond first aid.htm OR: www. Sacramento.

Scouting is mandatory but often difficult. Generally. and practiced rescue skills are essential for survival. clear channels. and rescue is difficult even for experts. or very violent rapids. but rocks and medium-size waves are avoided easily by trained paddlers. Depending on the character of the river. 104 . while helpful. Occasional maneuvering may be required. unavoidable waves and holes or constricted passages demanding fast maneuvers under pressure. Injuries while swimming are rare. but may include rapids that are only occasionally run. reliable eddy turn may be needed to initiate maneuvers. it may feature large.Appendix C (Whitewater Class System) The following classification is based on a guide for rivers established by the American Whitewater Affiliation. which are evident without scouting. Class IV • Advanced Intense. Risk of injury to swimmers is moderate to high. Rapids may require “must” moves above dangerous hazards. Scouting is advisable for inexperienced parties. For teams of experts only. Rapids may continue for long distances between pools. or difficult to reach. Risk to swimmers is slight. self-rescue is usually easy but group assistance may be required to avoid a long swim. Strong eddies and powerful currents can be found. if time is allowed for emptying water from the boat. obstructed. is seldom needed. Group assistance for rescue is often essential but requires practiced skills. turbulent. Class III • Intermediate Rapids with moderate. large waves or “strainers” such as fallen trees. Class VI • Extreme These runs often exemplify extremes of difficulty. A strong Eskimo roll is highly recommended. A very reliable Eskimo roll. irregular waves. after close inspection and taking of all pre cautions. Few obstructions. and water conditions may make self-rescue difficult. At the high end of the rating scale. This class does not represent drops thought to be unrunnable. unpredictability and danger. Complex maneuvers in fast current and good boat control in tight passages or around ledges are often required. Some higher-class rivers are suitable in open canoes if boaters are highly skilled. all obvious and easily avoided by paddlers with little training. Drops may contain large. or the trip is in a wilderness. A CLASS OF RIVER MAY CHANGE ACCORDING TO THE AMOUNT OF RIVER RUNOFF AND THE DEPTH OF WATER AT A GIVEN POINT. A fast. The consequences of errors are very severe and rescue may be impossible. congested chutes with complex. bridge pilings and undercut rocks may be present but are easily avoided. several of these factors maybe combined. Class I • Easy Fast-moving water with riffles and small waves. at favorable water levels. demanding a high level of fitness. proper equipment. Scouting is necessary the first time down. Class I and II rivers can be run in open canoes. Swimmers are seldom injured and group assistance. Swims are dangerous. or rest. What eddies exist may be small. which may be difficult to avoid and which can swamp an open canoe. The river should be considered one class more difficult than normal if the water temperature is below 50˚ Fahrenheit. unavoidable waves and holes or steep. scout rapids. self-rescue is easy. demanding routes. particularly on large-volume rivers. powerful but predictable rapids requiring precise boat handling in turbulent water. and if extra flotation is firmly installed in the boat. which expose a paddler to aboveaverage danger. Class II • Novice Straightforward rapids with wide. Class V • Expert Extremely long. extensive experience.

To release all mooring lines. A green cylindrical buoy bearing an odd number and marking the port side of a channel from seaward. or another line. pier or wharf to which mooring lines can be attached. Side by side. A submersible pump that is used to pump water out of the bilge. A lightweight. between the end and the standing part. Swimmers. Describing the after section of a vessel. All-Round Light Amidships Anchor Anchorage Anchor Line A line used to hold a vessel fast to the anchor. hold a boat in a desired position. Imaginary line amidships at right angles to keel of vessel. A modified skiff or jon boat. or material attached around a line or rigging to prevent wear or chafing. The lower. Chafing Gear Cloth. Used on lakes and rivers. seas and bottom. The forward part or front of the boat. Must be in full view of the operator’s station. B Bail Bass Boat Centerboard A pivoting board or metal plate. 360 degrees. or to warn them of dangers or obstructions. on which a knot is formed. A hitch temporarily fastening a line to a spar. A piece of wood or metal with projecting ends to which lines are made fast. The lower internal part of a boat’s hull. The name of a commonly used knot. A light which shows all the way around. A “stand by” source of power. The direction of an object from an observer. Reduces chance of fire caused by sparks in internal combustion engines. To turn over. long. Capsize Carburetor Backfire Flame Arrestor Cast Off Catamaran To remove water from a boat by pump or bailer.Glossary A Abaft Aboard Abreast Aft Toward the rear of the boat or vessel On. A fitting usually on a dock. A suitable place for anchoring in relation to the wind. The intersection of the sides and bottom of a boat. Midway between the bow and the stern on a boat. by means of a cable or rope. Ahead Aid to Navigation (ATON) C Cabin Can Buoy A compartment for passengers or crew. by the side of. Usually has a covered forward deck and a powerful motor to get to fishing places quickly. piling. Any device external to a vessel specifically intended to assist navigators in determining their positions or safe courses. aft corner of a sail. or things to the rear of amidships and near the stern. The part of the rope or line. housed in a slotted trunk. which can be raised or lowered. Boat with two hulls connected by a deck. A forging or casting shaped to grip the sea bottom and. An area in which another vessel may be obscured from view. Canoe Capacity Plate Bow Bowline Bow Line Buoy Bollard Boat A waterborne craft smaller than a ship. Across. A floating aid to navigation. narrow boat propelled by a paddle or sail. tape. When lowered it reduces a sailboat’s leeway (tendency to sideslip). A docking line leading forward from a vessel’s bow. Required equipment on all motorboats except outboards and diesels. Gives maximum weight of passengers and gear and permitted horse-power of the motor. A map of a body of water that contains piloting information. Bathers Beam Bearing Berth Bight Chart Chine Cleat Bilge Bilge Pump Blind Bend Clew Clove Hitch Closure 105 . The act of closing the distance between two vessels. in or into a boat. In a forward direction. A bed or boat slip. Also vessel’s width amidships. usually marked by ATONS or range markers. Astern Athwart Auxiliary Engine Behind or towards the rear of a vessel. Channel The part of a body of water deep enough for navigation through an area otherwise not suitable.

When activated. Caffeine in coffee or soft drinks is an example. Course Cowl Crossing Situation Cruiser Cuddy Cabin A small shelter cabin. F Fairway A navigable part of a river or bay through which vessels enter or depart. Comes in two different and incompatible shapes. a method used to navigate across a river current with little or no downstream travel. An electrical connector commonly used to connect a tow vehicle and a trailer. Federally Navigable Waters Fenders Ferry Danger Signal Danger Zone The area of a vessel from dead ahead to 22. The outward spread of the boat’s sides from the waterline to the rail at the bow. 2. A series of five or more short blasts on a vessel’s whistle. A safety device on an inboard or stern drive engine which prevents an explosion from an exhaust backfire. Eskimo Roll The primary self-rescue technique for kayakers to right themselves after capsizing. Drug or substance that increases the output of urine causing dehydration. or other signaling device. 1. Figure Eight Knot Daymark Deck Dinghy Distress Signal Fishtail Flame Arrestor Flare Diuretic Float Plan Diving Flag Forward Fouled Four-Pole Electrical Connector Freeboard Dock Documented Vessel registered with the U. It usually includes a description of the vessel. The paddler remains sealed in the kayak while performing a series of steps that brings them upright. The situation in which one vessel moves across the path of another. Any piece of equipment that is jammed or entangled.S. A device on the tongue of a trailer. flat and round. The material in some Class B fire extinguishers. and its passengers. The average heading and the horizontal direction in which a vessel is intended to be steered. Vessel Coast Guard.Compass Coupler The instrument which shows the heading of a vessel. E Eddy EPIRB A current that moves in the opposite direction of the main current. The side-to-side motion of a trailer when it does not have sufficient weight on its tongue. Mayday. air horn. A small rowboat. Any of a number of devices for showing a vessel needs help. baking soda. the act of mooring a vessel to a pier or wharf. Any permanent covering over a compartment. Mayday. (Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon) An automatic radio transmitter that should be carried on any boat that is operating off shore. Toward the bow. 2. its equipment. a part of a harbor or channel that is kept open and unobstructed. A signboard shaped like a diamond. it sends a signal that there is an emergency and guides searchers to the position. Also: 1. A visual distress signaling device. A document that describes the route(s) and estimated time of arrival of a particular voyage. pivoted at one end of the relatively long shank. triangle or octagon. A seaworthy craft that usually has some sort of living quarters. swallow-tail. D Danforth Anchor A patented lightweight anchor characterized by long. A knot in the form of a figure eight. attaches the trailer to the ball of the towing vehicle. Draft Dry Chemical The depth of a vessel’s keel and propeller below the waterline. The seas and waters which provide a “road” for transportation between two or more states or to the sea. narrow twin flukes. square. or dirtied. Mayday. or a red flag with a white diagonal stripe used to indicate a diver in the area. Daybeacon An ATON consisting of one or more daymarks and the piling to which they are attached. Hooded opening that provides ventilation. When referring to river travel.5 degrees abaft its starboard and port beams. The vertical distance measured on a boat’s side from the waterline to the gunwale. A place to moor a vessel. Current The movement of the water in a horizontal direction. The white-and-blue. Objects placed along the side of the boat to protect the hull from damage. See Visual Distress Signal. placed in the end of a line to prevent the line from passing through a grommet or a block. Alpha signal flag. 106 .

The situation which exists when two boats approach each other and each sees both the red and green sidelights of the other. in a small vessel may be on a staff or post. I Inboard Engine Inflatable An engine often mounted amidships. Hull Hull ID Number The body of a boat. covers an arc of 225 degrees. Hand-hold fittings mounted on cabin tops and sides for personal safety when moving around the boat. wheel or steering gear of a vessel. Mooring Hydrology Mooring Line Motorboat Hyperthermia A physical condition where the 107 . pumps large amounts of water which is “jetted” out to propel the craft. often used by people fishing or hunting. In river terminology a hole is a place where water flows over a submerged object.” 1.G Gear Give-Way Vessel A general term for ropes. pennant. A trailer hitch which is an attachment on the tow vehicle where the trailer is directly attached. a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile (6. Holes Horsepower The equivalent of a lift of 550 pounds one foot in one second. and model year. A water-tight boat. The permanently positioned. A short piece of rope or cord used for fastening something or securing rigging.076. (Pronounced gun-nel.2 statute (land) miles an hour. creating a reverse current that can hold a buoyant object. A bend in a line. Any watercraft 65’ or less in length propelled by machinery. Commonly. A vessel which is inflated by air or carbon dioxide. Grab Rails GPS J Jet Drive A special form of a stern drive engine. Marlinespike A tool for opening the strands of a rope while splicing. Does not have the right-of-way. if it turns over. easily righted. fore-andaft backbone member of a boat’s hull. An Eskimo canoe. This is a satellite system used for highly accurate navigation and pinpointing of location. The tiller. Hatch Head Head-On An opening in a boat’s deck for persons or cargo to go below. A straight-shank anchor with four or five curved claw-like arms and no stock. Hard-Chined Hull shaped with flat panels joined at an angle. dock or mooring buoy.. Short for Global Positioning System. A knot used to secure a rope to another object or to another rope. The distance North or South of the equator. Jon Boat Grapnel Gunwale K Kayak Keel Knot H Hailing Port A port to which a boat is documented with the U. A line for making a vessel fast to a pier. Usually shines forward. In rafting when a team of paddlers puts their weight on the downstream end of the raft to prevent a “wrap. connects to the propeller by a propeller shaft. A marine toilet.S. The distance in degrees east or west of the meridian at Greenwich.) Hypothermia A physical condition where the body loses heat faster than it can produce it. body gains heat faster than its ability to cool itself. the anchor. date of certification. Required to take early and obvious action to avoid a collision when nearing another vessel. England. a cord with a clip attached that acts as a key permitting the engine to be turned on. buoy. A light at the top of a mast. 2. Rope and cordage used aboard a vessel. can be collapsed for transporting. whether or not such machinery is the principal source of propulsion. by which a boat is permanently anchored in one location. or to form a loop or a noose in a rope. Coast Guard. 2. The upper edge of a boat’s side.10 feet) an hour or 1. Helm Highside Latitude Line Longitude Hitch M Marine A device fitted to a marine toilet to Sanitation prevent the dumping of raw sewage Device (MSD) into the water. blocks. A flat-bottomed boat with square ends used on rivers and lakes. L Lanyard 1. Mast Masthead Light A spar set upright to support rigging and sails. denotes the science dealing with the properties of flowing water. hull serial number. In river terminology. measured in degrees. chain. For PWC. Also. A number that includes the manufacturer’s ID code. tackle and other equipment. and is permanently affixed to a vessel’s hull. water does not enter. etc.

Port The left side of a boat when you are (inside) facing the bow. N Nautical Mile One minute of latitude. Paddle Craft Any boat whose primary propulsion is a paddle. spoil grounds. often intended for a solitary rider. also a destination or harbor. generally called steering and sailing rules. A larger vessel usually thought of as being used for ocean travel. Any condition in which visibility is restricted by fog. A boat powered by wind and sails. A vessel coming up on another. smoke. restricted operations. Navigation The art of conducting a ship using compasses. A vessel able to carry a “boat” on board.2 statute (land) miles. A vessel propelled by mechanical means. Overboard Overtaking P Paddle A means for propelling a canoe. narrow and relatively unstable craft powered by oars. raft or kayak. A buoy having no lateral significance used to indicate an anchorage area. Rudder Rules of the Road Running Lights The control surface. flat-bottom. wooden instrument with a flat blade at one end. at night the overtaking vessel sees the stern light of the other vessel. A board similar to a surfboard that is propelled by wind and sails. Propeller Wheel or screw mechanism that pushes water aft to propel the boat. A type of propulsion system for boats. In general. A white and orange marker used in the USWMS to indicate danger. May or may not have an auxiliary engine. slender pole. A detachable motor mounted on a boat’s transom. rafts and kayaks. A one-second sound signal given by a vessel’s whistle. R Rail Regulatory Marker A protective edge on the deck of a boat. cordage as it is purchased at the store. Outboard Motor Outdrive Right-of-Way The right and duty to maintain course and speed. supporting or extending a sail of a ship. Spar Buoy Special Purpose Buoy Powerboat Prolonged Blast 108 . Rode Rope An anchor line and/or chain. as a mast. A whistle signal four to six seconds long. When it comes aboard a vessel and is put to use it is referred to as a “line. fish net area. Used for recreation and racing. used for propelling boats. Large ones are used for anchoring mooring buoys. or an excluded area. Lights required to be shown on boats underway between sundown and sunup. Rowboat Rowing Shell Long. sandstorms.” A small. Sailboat Ship Short Blast Sidelights Spar Planing Hull Type of hull that is shaped to lift out of the water at high speed and ride on the surface. or other causes. Personal Watercraft (PWC) PFD Pier Planing Watercraft usually driven by jet pumps instead of propellers. Navigation Rules Restricted Visibility Nun Buoy Rigging O Oar A long. S Sailboard Also known as a windsurfer.Mushroom Anchor A stockless anchor with a metal bowl at the end of its shank. military exercise zone. Any pole. A channel marker that looks like a tall. etc. mist. pointed boat propelled by oars. and during periods of reduced visibility. A conical. Pay Out Line To release line in a slow and controlled manner. charts and other navigational equipment in order to get from point to point. boom or gaff. red buoy bearing an even number and marking the starboard side of a channel from seaward. The inboard motor operates the exterior drive. also called an inboard/outboard. Personal Flotation Device. The nautical traffic rules for prevent ing collisions on the water. The general term for all the lines (ropes) of a vessel. Over the side. usually aft by which a boat is steered. The red and green lights marking the port and starboard sides of a vessel. (Life-jacket) A loading or mooring platform. approximately 6076 feet or 1. A boat is said to be planing when it is essentially moving over the surface of the water rather than through the water. falling snow. yard. The regulations governing the movement of vessels in relation to each other. heavy rainstorms. Usually refers to canoes.

created by vessel motion. said of a vessel when not moored. fishing. The frequency band of “ship-toshore” radios used on small vessels. other than a seaplane on the water. Twine wound around a line to prevent fraying or abrasion. the standon vessel is also required to take any action necessary to avoid a collision if the give-way vessel does not take early and significant action. A trailer hitch which fastens to the towing vehicle’s frame and bumper. The right side of a boat when you are (inside) facing the bow. the center one the largest. U Underway In motion. canoeing or kayaking when a raft is pushed against a rock or other obstacle and held there by a strong current. contains the coupler or hitch that attaches to the towing vehicle. A vessel with an engine mounted inside the hull near its stern and with its propelling mechanism attached to the transom. and other purposes. Foaming white-tipped water marked by whitecaps. Stand-On Vessel The vessel required to first hold course and speed when nearing another vessel. fallen trees or brushy plants are common examples. rapids. In rafting. Pulling a vessel through the water. To fill with water.) Boat with three hulls. at anchor or aground. V V Bottom (Vee) Vessel Stern Stern Drive Engine A hull with the bottom section in the shape of a “V. the vessel which has the right-of-way. A line leading aft from the stern of a boat to a pier. when moving across the water.” Every kind of watercraft. Raising the anchor when preparing to get underway. etc. but not sink. any obstacle that the current flows through. The aft end or back of a boat. Willows. However. capable of being used as a means of transportation on water. Fore and aft lines used in mooring to prevent a boat from moving forward or astern while fast to a pier. In a river. Spring Line Trimaran Square Knot A knot used to join two lines of similar size. Stern Line Strainer VHF-FM Visual Distress Signal Stow Swamp Swimmer’s Position W Wake Moving waves. Track or path that a boat leaves behind it. keeping your toes up and your feet pointed downstream. hunting. On a river. Can vary on an individual boat depending on the weight of the load. (Outboard motors are usually attached to a transom. A device for directing a stream of water from left or right in a jet-pro pelled engine. Weighing Anchor Weight Carrying Hitch Whipping Whitewater Windsurfer Throw bag Tide Tiller Tongue Wrap Towing 109 . includes dinghies and prams. The line where the surface of the water hits the boat’s hull. The alternate rise and fall of waters caused by the gravitational attraction of moon and sun. thereby affecting the vessel’s heading or course. Transom The transverse planking which forms the aft end of a small. (USWMS) Starboard Steal Your Wind Steering Nozzle Unscheduled An unexpected fall into the water Swim from a paddle craft. When any vessel or object blocks a sailboat’s wind. squareended boat. a boat or vessel. floating on your back. A board similar to a surfboard that is propelled by wind and sails. The front area of a trailer.SPF Short for sun protection factor. an assistance or rescue maneuver. Also called a reef knot. To store items neatly and securely. This is a rating indicator of how effective a sunscreen is in blocking the harmful effects of the sun. Waterline T Throttle A device for regulating the amount of fuel delivered to the engine to control speed A nylon bag filled with foam and climbing grade rope that is thrown to rescue paddlers swimming in whitewater. Also known as a sailboard. Utility Boat A small boat used for transportation. Uniform State A system of marks used on Waterway state waters to warn boaters of Marking dangers and to provide general System information and direction. The person overboard should assume swimmer’s position. A signal to show that you need help and to guide rescuers to a searchand-rescue mission. A bar or handle for turning a boat’s rudder or an outboard motor.

110 .Final Exam In order to take the test. slow down to reduce the danger of capsizing d. radiation. your certificate will be mailed to the address listed on the exam form. Draining water from your motor. trailers. . your flotation is affected by: a. provide additional storage for passengers d. • Erase completely to make any changes. stay at least 100 feet away from the other vessel b. A 6. 5 percent to 7 percent of the total tow weight b. earthquakes d. It has 50 multiple choice questions. When jumping another boat’s wake.04 percent or more c. Choose the best answer and mark your answer on the Scantron form. When wearing a life jacket in the water. trailers. Some natural stress factors that may affect safe boating are sun. Boaters can help prevent the spread of nonnative species from one body of water to another by doing all of the following except: a. noise c. • Fill in the corresponding letters and numbers in each column. 16 d. fishing gear. Removing aquatic plants or animals from bait wells. The minimum unsupervised age for operating a motorboat of more than 15 horsepower is: a. carry a flashlight to warn other boats of your presence c. This exam is designed to test your understanding of safe boating. a.ca. make the boat look good b. talk softly in order not to disturb other boaters 3. fishing gear. should be hung over the stern Scantron Guidelines • Two Scantron exam forms are inserted at the back of the book along with two selfaddressed envelopes for mailing the completed forms to the Department of Boating and Waterways for scoring. Read each exam item carefully. • Remove the Scantron form and using a number 2 pencil only. place the Scantron form into the envelope provided and mail for grading and processing. Inspecting and removing any plant fragments from bait wells. . . 1. keep to the center of the channel to avoid shore hazards d. 15 percent of the total tow weight c. dive gear or props b. 21 b. When you have answered all the questions. wind. ______________ and _____________. the clothing being worn d. If you pass the exam. It is illegal for adults 21 and older to operate a boat with a blood alcohol concentration of: a. dive gear or props before you leave any body of water d. 50 percent of the entire vessel weight 2.gov. While rowing a small utility boat at night: a. turn off the engine and wait for the wake to pass 5.08 percent or more d. The weight on a trailer hitch should be no more than: a. debris 8. Fenders: a. the time of day 4. . You may request the Scantron form by calling 1-888-326-2822 or e-mailing a request to pubinfo@dbw. 20 percent to 25 percent of the total tow weight d. heavy night air b. clearly print your name and address in the spaces provided. you must contact the Department of Boating and Waterways to obtain a Scantron form that must be completed and mailed to the Department for processing.01 percent or more 7. live wells and bilge before entering new waters c. carry a transistor radio for the news b. the oxygen content of the water c. prevent damage to the hull of the boat and docks c. • Make only one mark per column.06 percent or more b. tornadoes b. 12 9. a personal watercraft should: a. 18 c. Your answers will be recorded on a Scantron form. increase speed so that the personal watercraft is not thrown off course c. SLOW signs. traffic. waves. Emptying freshwater aquariums into local rivers before cleaning and refilling with new fish.

get into the swimmer’s position b. increases the harmful effects of sun. Ventilation systems are required on all gasoline-powered boats with enclosed engines and fuel tank compartments because: a. check the tide tables d. direction to the pier 16. top off the fuel level b. launch it in a swimming pool to check the hull 17. for quicker transfer of fuel from the nozzle to the tank. Five or more short and rapid blasts of a whistle indicates: a. keep a safe distance from docks. nowhere off shore 111 . . when the wearers are not good swimmers d. within 3 miles of shore b. make wider turns d raise the front end and make the vehicle difficult to control 18. It is against the law to exceed 5 miles per hour: a. raises your chances of getting into an accident d. there is more pollution over land than water d. all of the above 11. one spark can cause an explosion if gasoline fumes are present b. to maximize the fuel delivery pressure to the motor d. While you are fueling. All passengers should wear properly fitted U. all of the above 15. within 200 feet of a swimming beach c. It is against the law for a person younger than 21 to operate a vessel with a blood alcohol level of more than: a. do not spray other boats or people with your wake d. If you fall into a fast-moving river from a raft you should: a. save your paddle first 14. always attach the anchor line to: a. more than 3 miles off shore c. within 200 feet of a dock or platform when vessels are tied to it. a green can buoy marks the: a. . . have less gas mileage c. to reduce the possibility of static electricity buildup possibly creating a spark c. they are useful during hot weather c. all of the above 20. bathers and fishing boats c. Coast Guard-approved life jackets under which of the following conditions: a. your life jacket d. grab onto floating branches d. the nozzle should be in contact with the fill pipe: a. d. within 10 miles of shore c. 23.S. to ensure you do not spill fuel b. Drinking alcohol or using other drugs while boating: a. lower the focus of the headlights so as not to properly illuminate the road ahead b. wind and noise c. When you are returning from sea. .10 percent 22. Too much weight on the hitch could cause a tow vehicle to: a. know the right-of-way rules b. 25 miles or more off shore d. all of the above 13.01 percent d. In a small boat. the system keeps noise down in the cabin 19. a dangerous situation in the area d. heading home to dump the sewage 12. waves. in rough seas b. safe entrance and exit of the channel c. the stern b.08 percent c. port side of the channel b.10. the side cleat c. check that every passenger has a U. within 100 feet of a swimmer b. It is legal to dump plastic trash in the ocean: a. You are a courteous boater if you: a. starboard side of the channel d. all clear b. pass to the rear c. Coast Guard-approved life jacket c.S. the bow 21. reduces your ability to respond to dangerous situations b.04 percent b. you should: a. stand and walk to shore c. Before you operate your personal watercraft.

red meteor flares.S. one-way traffic c. requires less power than a flat-bottom boat 25. Coast Guard’s accident reconstruction unit within 15 days 37. a qualified marine surveyor 35. planes easily d. a flip d. you should avoid using nylon tarps because: a. designed to drag significantly through the water c. the U. Diamond-shaped markers commonly seen on state and designated-state waters indicate: a. red flag with a white diagonal stripe c. a wrap c. the Federal Bureau of Investigation c. wear a wetsuit or immersion suit 29. the Department of Motorized Vehicles and Vessels c. have completed an eye exam 112 . Give a copy of your float plan to: a. While storing your boat. A sailboat’s centerboard and keel are: a. designed to travel faster in reverse 28. Boating accidents involving more than $500 in damage must be reported to: a. match the color of the boat d. they are non-recyclable and could harm the ozone 26. light signals or radio signals 27. Boat-to-boat communication can be done by: a. they are expensive and cheaper fabrics are available c. a person can a. danger 33. To prevent hypothermia when boating on cold water. to harbor or port c. for day and night use d. a regatta is underway b. Right. cellular telephone b. the observer in the boat must: a. carry a red or orange flag no less than 12-inches by 12-inches b. do nothing since hypothermia is unavoidable d. V or IV river c. A first time whitewater kayaker should start on a class: a. If your boat capsizes while whitewater rafting it is also called: a. letter correspondence d. drink alcoholic beverages for warming from inside out b. provides a smooth ride in choppy water c. they can trap moisture b.S. the California Department of Boating and Waterways within 10 days d. Coast Guard-approved visual distress signals include: a. an SOS signal 36. I river d. carrier pigeon b. a responsible relative or friend b. a nose dive b. be displayed on the rear half of one side of the bow of the boat b be reflective c. in bold block letters and: a. to a fueling station d. While water skiing. to sea or ocean b. to the Marine Patrol office or U. public address system c. flat to plane more easily d. Coast Guard Station 30. designed to keep the boat from going sideways in the wind b. be 16 years or older d. U. drive the boat c. VI river b. A deep-vee hull: a.S. II or III river 32. sound signals. the harbor maintenance office d. travels well in shallow water b. stay immersed in water if their boat capsizes c. they could attract viruses which could damage your vessel’s electronics d. Returning” reminds us to keep the red buoys and markers to our right when returning: a. a scheduled swim 34. any police officer immediately b. The term “Red. a mooring buoy d. read from left to right 31. Properly displayed boat numbers must be at least three inches high.24.

Vessel sewage discharged from vessels is a pollution problem. or in any inland waterway c. never have the right-of-way. ATON stands for: a.S territorial limit. have no rights.38. with diesel fuel 50. indicate tidal changes 46. do not use lighted buoys or daymarks c. only for boats 16 feet in length and over d. Paddle craft: a. Aids to Navigation b. Academy of Tides. Basic safety while on the water involves: a. III or V life jacket for each person on board. according to the National Association of Boating Law Administrators 40. the craft first to the collision point has the rightof-way 39. the 3 mile U. When two personal watercraft are crossing at right angles: a. one type IV throwable device is required: a. Association of Tug Operating Navigators d. must be carried on board whenever the boat is operated b. indicates the boat’s bank financing c tells the passenger capacity d. by using the “Heimlich maneuver” c at shore d. Ignoring suspicious persons and activities d. an area where the current reverses direction d. according to the manufacturer’s instructions 48. only for boats less than 16 feet in length 41. If your personal watercraft capsizes. The Lateral Markers and Safe Water Aids: a. A strainer in a river is: a. always have the right-of-way. Assistance to Others in Need c. use blue and orange lateral aids to mark the sides of channels that boaters can see when returning to port b. kayaks and sailboards c. while on the trailer in the parking lot or fuel station c. you should right it: a. while in the water b. because they are more maneuverable c. guide navigation on coastal waterways spanning more than one state d. the rock bed b a tree limb in moving currents c. having your motorboat driver’s license on board 42. and top off the tank while beached d. must be paddled by two or more people b. a marina’s pumpout tank d. never have the right of way b. for all boats regardless of length b. the craft to the left should speed up and pass in front b. with the help of another vessel b. Oceans and Navigating 47. Keeping your boat keys in the ignition in case of an emergency 113 . 25 miles of shore b. only for canoes. Keeping your distance from military. In addition to one Type I. knowing the terrain of the shoreline d. As a recreational boater you can play a part in Homeland Security by: a. the craft to the right has the right-of-way. and should maintain course and speed d. Sailboats operating under sail power: a. have the right of way over powerboats in most situations d. It is against the law under the Federal Clean Vessel Act to discharge vessel sewage anywhere within: a. You should refuel your personal watercraft: a. removing a fish hook from a finger b. a portage through the woods 44. Anchoring under bridges and using shipping channels whenever possible b. must be displayed on the forward half of each side of the bow. except when crossing a shipping channel 43. cruise-line and commercial shipping vessels c. the North American hemisphere 45. ability to swim 100 yards and tread water for five minutes c. the craft to the right should slow and pass to the rear c. always have the right of way c. depend on a tiller to turn. II. 49. A certificate of number: a. in most cases d.

Notes 114 .

Slide and Sound Catalog Boating Fuel Conservation Tips Boating Safety Card Boating Safety and Environmental Hints for Lake Tahoe BUI Information Card California Boating Course Boating Trail Guide Series: American River Parkway (Nimbus Dam to Sacramento River) American River (North and Middle Forks) American River (South Fork) Colorado River (Davis Dam to Parker Dam) Colorado River (Blythe to Imperial Dam) Kern River Merced River (Bagby to El Portal) NO. COPIES Sacramento River (Redding to Red Bluff) Sacramento River (Woodson Bridge to Colusa) Smith River Tuolumne River (Don Pedro Dam to Yosemite National Park) Charts Agents List (Limit: 1 per order) Clean Boating Habits A Consumer’s Guide to Boating Lake Tahoe Drowning Prevention Checklist Facts About Boating and Alcohol Facts About Boating Safety Classes Facts About Marine Pollution Laws How to Buy a Used Boat Marine Security Quiet Boating for Everyone Rescue Breathing Card Shipshape Sanitation. and then mail.ca. For more information.O. MSDs and Pumpouts Safe Boating Hints Series: Colorado River Carbon Monoxider Delta Fire Extinguishers Guide to Clean. COPIES Morro Bay Northern Coast Paddlecraft Personal Flotation Devices Personal Watercraft Publications List PWC Safety Course Sacramento River Salton Sea San Francisco Bay Safety Hints for Water-Skiing Safety Hints for Windsurfing Southern Coast Tomales Bay Towing Tips for Trailer Sailors Student Curriculum Materials: AquaSMART (Grades K-2) Teacher’s Guide with Activities (Limit 1) Spanish Activities Supplement (Limit 1) AquaSMART (Grades 3-5) Teacher’s Guide with Activities (Limit 1) Spanish Activities Supplement (Limit 1) AquaSMART (Grades 6-8) Teacher’s Guide with Activities (Limit 1) AquaSMART Boating (Grades 9-12) Student Text Instructor Guide (Limit 1) CUT ALONG DASHED LINE Fold The complete list of titles can be seen online at our electronic order form: www. Fill in the quantity desired for each title you order. COPIES ABCs of the California Boating Law AquaSMART Activity Book for Kids (English) AquaSMART Activity Book for Kids (Spanish) AquaSMART Boating Checklist Basic Safety Rules for Boating Sticker Boater’s Pumpout Map & Guide San Francisco Bay Boater’s Pumpout Map & Guide San Joaquin & Sacramento River Delta Boating Alert: Hydrilla Boating Films.dbw.FREE BOATING PUBLICATIONS The Department of Boating and Waterways publishes a series of free boating pamphlets. Allow one month for delivery. Large orders must have a street address. Videos. Box. Zip ______________________________________________________________________ Telephone Number _________________________________________________________________ Fold NO. online order. Green Boating Hunters and Fisherman Lakes and Reservoirs NO. call (916) 263-1331. . not a P.gov under publications. State. Name (please print) ________________________________________________________________ Address ____________________________________________________________________________ City. your name and address.

Suite 100 Sacramento. CA 95815-3888 CUT ALONG DASHED LINE .fold Fold lope in enve Place ail to: and m DEPARTMENT OF BOATING AND WATERWAYS Publications Order Desk 2000 Evergreen Street.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful