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SEUNATH 808010180 FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES BSc PSYCHOLOGY SOCI 3036- POLICE and SOCIETY
Course work essay Develop a program for community policing in a specified area in Trinidad and Tobago that includes consideration of successful reintegration of deportees into communities and must identify a method for evaluating the effectiveness of the program. Your answer should involve a discussion of Trinidad and Tobago¶s societal background, define and explain community policing, analyse the advantages and disadvantages of such an approach and identify the challenges associated with deportees. You must use theory and course material to support your analysis.
and by extension that of Trinidad and Tobago. in his discussion of a Caribbean Criminology postulates the need for research and theoretical work to take note of factors such as the islands¶ history of race-slavery during the days of colonial rule and its effect on the present day societies. According to Ramesh Deosaran (2003). alienated from the 1 . Lebanese etcetera). ineptness and fraudulence i. thus. Therefore. the police itself feels discouraged. this former British colony is a mixture of 40 per cent African.Karenn M. 40 per cent East Indian. The spectre of race-slavery is still felt with the gulf between the police and the general populace. He posits that policing in the Caribbean. has a quandary due to its past as a plantation society. This mistrust is fuelled by the numerous µuse of force¶ incidents by the police where members of the public are victims of assault and murder. While under British rule. Seunath 808010180 Trinidad and Tobago. on the general public i. the police service has a weak legitimacy. corruption in the force as well as decisions against the service in the courts. Syrians. every aspect of the slaves¶ lives were governed by the slave master. this can be attributed to incidents of drug charges. a twin-island state at the bottom of the Caribbean has an ethnically diverse population of 1. Laws and the formal institutions of social control that carried out the laws discriminated in favour of the white slave master. He further claims that in the eyes of the general populace the police is seen as an agent of social control of the ruling class and are treated with mistrust.e. This agent of social control was developed to meet the needs of the British imperialists. 18 per cent Mixed and the remaining two per cent is classified as Others (Chinese. the working class. Kenneth Pryce (1976). Justice and Community Policing. According to Pryce not much has changed in the intervening years. the police by and large have only operated as an antagonistic agent of formal control.´ discusses the problem faced with Caribbean policing. 2003). indeed as Lowenthal puts it: ³What distinguishes Caribbean legal systems is that those discriminated against constitute the great majority´. so much so that even efforts at bridging the divide using community policing has had failure. This lack of faith in the police by the Trinidad and Tobago further hampers attempts at community policing (Deosaran.3 million. Trinidad and Tobago was a plantation society. Deosaran in his piece ³A Caribbean Portrait of Crime.e. The general perception of the police service is one of indifference. Bennett and Morabito (2006) postulate that the Trinidad and Tobago police service has become estranged from the general population.
Oliver (1998) claims that community policing is a model of policing whereby in a specific geographical areafor instance Marabella in Trinidad and Tobago. with the police and the residents being partners in the maintenance of social order. The AACP sees community-oriented policing. Chappell and Lanza-Kaduce (2004) points out that as Oliver (1998) states. there is little agreement on a specific definition of community policing however there are several concepts that are mentioned repeatedly in the literature and seems to be included in most discussions of the topic: ³community involvement.Karenn M.´ ³decentralised authority´ these still remain just theoretical concepts.a sense of community is encouraged and promoted so as to improve the quality of life. and (3).´ As quoted by Chappell and Lanza-Kaduce (2004): The decentralization of the police helps to improve the quality of life of the citizenry according to Oliver (1998). Furthermore. and organizational decentralization. this is so since according to Deosaran (2002). a concerted effort to tackle the causes of crime problems rather than to put band-aids on the symptoms´. with the assistance of three mechanisms that are executed in tandem.. as according to Trinidad and Tobago former Commissioner of Police Hilton Guy (2000). Deosaran (2004) however notes that even with all the ideas such as ³forming community partnerships. Deosaran sees it as a total ideological change from the former law enforcement model to one focussed on sociological and psychological philosophy. the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP) only adopted community policing as a measure in its 24 states in 1993.. problem-solving. For any of these community-based policing techniques to be worthwhile. it needs to be adapted 2 . This makes the police and community equal stakeholders in the drive to promote the safety and quality of life of the designated neighbourhood. These are known as: ³(1) « the redistribution of traditional police resources. the police are no longer sole custodians of law and order.´ ³serving community needs. Indeed. Seunath 808010180 public and thus are openly hostile towards members of the community. a system of cooperation between the police service and the community which aims to recognize and resolve the problems in the community. Community policing is still a relatively new phenomena in Trinidad and Tobago society. (2) « the interaction of police and all community members to reduce crime and the fear of crime through indigenous proactive programs. Bennett and Morabito further note that since community-based policing measures need the support and cooperation of the public to exist the issue of legitimacy is of grave consequence to the service.
Brogden posits that the new forms of police institution are still motivated ³donor interest and customer demand´ in the same manner as its colonial counterpart. in order for community policing to be effective the police service needs to ensure a close relationship with the members of the area under their jurisdiction. Brogden (2004). This upholds Durkheim¶s belief in social solidarity and value consensus in that. comments that the community is seen as dividing the responsibility for crime control and order maintenance. members of the community aids the police in troubleshooting. Williams (2008). normal and functional for society. Chappell and Lanza-Kaduce (2004). it may be more important that deviance is factor in social change than the actual at of deviance itself. in that the African continent especially the English-speaking part has some similarities to the Caribbean state. claims that Durkheim saw deviance as necessary. however. This point has been discussed at the Eight Meeting of the Caricom Task Force on Crime and Security with Commissioners from across the region noting that although some of the concepts of community policing may be common to all parts of the world. this applicable to the Trinidad and Tobago. For instance. residents of Marabella (a suburban area in San Fernando) may react differently to deportees than persons from a rural area such as Penal in Siparia. In a very Marxist way of thinking. Both belong to third-world nation states formally under colonial rule thus this export drive from Western societies is nothing new. Thus. Thus. The police institution is seen as a stabilising force during social change. Sutherland (1942) an ecologist. in following a Functionalist line of thought. furthermore as Williams observes the social solidarity of the community is essential when discussing the position towards a particular crime or law.Karenn M. friends has more of an impact than secondary institutions or formal agents of social control like the police service. coming from the Chicago School of thought put forward that it is quite likely that exposure to crime by primary institutions such as the family. school. political and legal characteristics must be noted if communityoriented policing is to be a valid entity in the region. this is so since crime can lead to social change as well aiding in the maintenance of social cohesion. the Caribbean¶s unique social. Seunath 808010180 to a Caribbean construct. talks about exporting community policing strategies in an African context. while also being profitable to transnational corporations and businessmen as they look to find a suitable 3 .
The official data on crime notes that deportees were 3. it is quite unsurprising that there was a severe sense of culture shock with deportees feeling as if they did not belong in Trinidad and Tobago. In a study done for CARICOM in 2008. deportation has distressing social and psychological effects to all those involved. Most claimed to be repeat offenders who took part in two or more crimes since being sent to Trinidad and Tobago. 2008). there is also the financial aspect of the situation. In addition. it is especially noteworthy that deportees consented to self-report interviews thus there is first-hand accounts in the data. and furthermore. Barnes and Seepersad discuss some of the social impacts that deportation has on the citizenry. The self-reported criminal activity shows that respondents claimed to have committed crimes to much a larger extent and that seen in the official statistics. Community policing techniques should try to reintegrate this vulnerable section of the population since according to Barnes and Seepersad (2008) that according to respondents 62 per cent took part in criminal activities after they had been deported. As reported by the study 74 per cent of Trinidad and Tobago deportees.5 times more likely than the general populace to be arrested. Leaving aside the emotional problems this separation causes on the families. As it can be seen. Assaults and drug-related crimes were the most common forms of offences committed. stated they were unable to provide monetary assistance to their offspring. there was a strong positive correlation in increases in deportation and the increase in the crime rate in Trinidad and Tobago. Seunath 808010180 market for their Western style. the bulk of deportees had been permanent residents when they were deported (63 per cent in fact). Indeed. Deportees can be considered a specialized part of the population of Trinidad and Tobago because in many cases for most of their lives they did not consider themselves citizens of this particular nation (74 per cent claimed that had left before they were twenty according to Barnes and Seepersad. Since the deportees had no real connection with their country of birth. Another more altruistic motive is community policing as a measure in favour of human rights issues.Karenn M. To further compound this. they saw themselves as suffering a grave injustice in being sent away from the place they had known as µhome¶ for most of their lives.7 per cent of respondents left behind their children in their former county when they were deported. 4 . 98. This is additionally highlighted by just over half of the sample population claiming they were unemployed.
and Trojanowicz. However. Important factors of note are that dealings between the community and the police service must both redefine what is considered traditional police work as well as develop ways to improve the results. the loss of anonymity is good 5 . and Harden (1986) a new wave of policing has been started.e. the former Trinidad and Tobago Commissioner of Police started an ³immersion programme´ in 2001.Karenn M. In the course of implementing community policing. Deosaran (2002) believes that Trinidad and Tobago is the state with the most progress in the development of community policing. Marabella in San Fernando is a suburban community in Trinidad and Tobago. and according. This course of action is suitable for Marabella. No other Caribbean island has made such declarations. there is good basis for a community-based policing system to be able to succeed. This is part of the ideology that community policing should be personalized to suit the district. Colgan. For instance. Officers in the service are given classes on community police sensitisation (Deosaran. in terms of manpower and vehicles. they are an easy way to explain the rapid rise in criminal activity and see this as quite unfair especially in light of the fact they have reformed. Some deportees saw themselves as scapegoats in regards to the crime situation. others see crime as the only way a deported individual can eke out an existence. that community policing would benefit from a reformation of the police as well as more resources i. Pollard. Greene and Mastrofski (1988). Seunath 808010180 This is not to say that deported persons are the main reason for this trend during the review period (1990-2005). The officers are now reachable to the public. relatively well-off and stable neighbourhood. Bennett and Morabito (2006) believe that due to writers such as Goldstein (1990). 2002). the announcement by both the police service and the government in 1996. since understand the concerns of individuals they are charged with the responsibility of overseeing as well as being able to communicate in a manner that is both professional and accessible. to Chappell and Lanza-Kaduce (2004) since it is a generally homogenous. the approach of the service needs to move away from a reactionary role in law enforcement to a more proactive role. insofar as possible the police officers should be on a first-name basis with residents. with the idea that strategies for policing and policing itself must have participation from the community members-at-large. they believe that there is no other option open to them. In addition to this.
individuals from the top to 6 . This may prove necessary since as Barnes and Seepersad found deported persons lack familial support and are generally experiencing culture shock due living away from this country for most of their lives. . Thus. However. this information would be useful in an area like Vistabella where the community police would be able keep a watchful eye on a deported person depending on his risk-level. Seunath 808010180 in that the police officer is accepted into the community. Community policing in Marabella can provide assistance to vulnerable groups such as deportees through random welfare checks. Barnes and Seepersad (2008) found in that those involved in law-enforcement articulated a desire for more information from the deporting counties. for instance there community-based police officers should be given adequate and timely information about any deportees in their area. all the relevant paperwork etcetera. there should also be seminars on ways to deal deported persons. The social worker and community police officer can evaluate the deportees in order to judge how much of a risk the individual is to other members of the society. for instance help the deportee find a transition centre where social workers would be able to better assistance in the form of counselling. Meetings with all relevant stakeholders should be held regularly to ensure the smooth functioning of the community-oriented policing. Indeed. In a like manner. thwart and take action in response to community problems. they need to be dealt with so the individual should be monitored by officers regularly.¶ The community officers should try to help bridge the gap inasmuch as possible. officers lack capability to make decisions regarding the possible risk levels of deportees. the community police are able to provide a full-service to the area under its supervision. if any deported person has identified as a threat to public safety. since it is likely the residents would be suspicious of anyone who they would consider an µoutsider. The attitude of tight-knit communities in a suburban area like Marabella would not be helpful. In ways like this. in this case Marabella. There should be a system whereby there are certain criteria that must be met for monitoring orders to be issued against individuals. This leads to a higher probability that the officer would be able comprehend. Deosaran (2004) speaks of the need for roundtable discussions to create a structure for community policing. job training.Karenn M. thus the accountability to the citizenry is enhanced.
the public can be better informed of the rights of deported persons. one of the mandates of a community-based policing system would be fulfilled. Bennett and Morabito (2006) highlight that: community policing is a move away from traditional police roles (Lurigio and Skogan) through the launching of highly significant partnerships within the community (Cordner. Crime data is seen as crucial to attract and maintain support for community policing.e. he will be accessible through technology as well. Proactive partnerships between the community police and the neighbourhood should be cultivated. This gives members of the community a sense of empowerment i. 7 . feedback from the general public is necessary. it is needed for a new type of appreciation for the role of this information with regards to good governance (Deosaran. stereotype and discriminate against another person. meetings with relevant interest groups where individuals can air their grievances and discuss what is needed to move forward. only those aspects relevant to the area will be those implemented instead of trying to use Western ideals wholesale. Community policing means that not only will the police are available physically at all times of the day and night. therefore. crime-mapping tools. To ensure that community-based is functioning properly. the confidence that they do have a say in their future. Seunath 808010180 the bottom of the police hierarchy should be in attendance to meet with the residents of the district. Barnes and Seepersad (2008). through meetings with the community as well as the internet. the citizens could help in the creation of effective ways to check the impact of community policing. Hence. 2004). Deosaran sees this as important to both officers and the community.using the experiences of those at the top. Through problem-solving data can be gathered from the community in ways such as: community surveys. Moreover. suggest that public education on their situation should take place to deal with the stigmatization meted out to deportees.Karenn M. A knowledgeable public is less likely to stigmatize. 2001). open forums. it will be built from the ground up. focus group meetings. Thus. This can take place through community impact/satisfaction surveys. the basic concepts of community policing can be discussed in light of the Caribbean experience. to get a proper understanding of the existence of crime patterns in the community according to Chappell and Lanza-Kaduce. With respect to deported persons. label.
tourist crimes.maybe mistrustful of the service as a throwback to the days of plantation society and what Pryce (1976) called race-slavery. community officers should be able to judge the effectiveness of the programme also so their input is needed to have a democratic management system. Using ideas from Cordner (2001).e. community policing as a crime-fighting measure takes time. Thus far. the use of force beyond what is considered justifiable. transnational terrorism. but. According to Goldsmith (2005) trust in the police service gives it legitimacy and is more likely to encourage collaboration between the police and the community. Deosaran (2004) comments on the desire of Caribbean nations to see a reduction in criminal activity as soon as possible. Due to the rapid spread of globalisation. Furthermore. according to former Commissioner Guy. Community policing is not effective in the short-term so it is not considered viable by many of those in authority such as governments that wish to be seen as doing something to alleviate crime in the short-term. a strong system of community-based policing would inspire confidence in potential tourists. all the potential benefits to Marabella. the police organisation itself may have problems adapting from the militaristic style of training they underwent to a community policing-based system. Deosaran (2004) also mentions that there are the possible risks of getting too involved in community affairs or somehow supplying a community cover to criminals. transnational crimes such as: drug trafficking. officers need to time to gain the trust of community members. Deosaran (2003) sees µuse of force¶ as a way the relationship between the community and the police become strained. yet there are downsides to the creation of community-oriented policing. as discussed in the lecture notes. In addition. However. customs and immigration scams countries such as the United States of America. 2002). the members are motivated to take part in community policing due to incentives.and Marabella in particular. they are kept interested in the programme because of advancements in employee assistance and attitude surveys can be use to figure how satisfied they are with their position. the public of Trinidad and Tobago in general. San Fernando have been discussed.Karenn M. Deosaran 8 . Seunath 808010180 However.for example. This status of Trinidad and Tobago as a tourist destination necessitates that security and safety must be taken quite seriously. Canada and the United Kingdom feel it is necessary to monitor community policing in the Caribbean (Deosaran. Another reason for this mistrust is what Goldsmith (2005) defined as excessive force i.
Seunath 808010180 (2002) notes that there is a lack of confidence in the police system due in part to the way in which police complaints are dealt with issues of µuse of force¶. stable and is not impoverished. is seen to be an area suited to Caribbean policing in that it is homogenous. but possible solutions to the problems that may arise have been found.Karenn M. Marabella. The inclusion of deported persons may pose some initial problems with regards to community policing measures. The history of the country as well as the way the police have dealt with the citizenry may pose much more daunting challenges to the future of community policing in the area. 9 . a suburban part of Trinidad and Tobago.
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