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U.S. Food & Drug Administration


Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition

Bacteriological Analytical Manual Online


January 2001

Chapter 22D
Examination of Containers for Integrity
Glossary and References
Authors

(Return to Table of Contents)

Glossary

BASE PLATE PRESSURE. Force of the base plate that holds the can body and end against the chuck
during the double seaming operation. In general, it has the following effect on the seam formation: low
pressure, short body hook; high pressure, long body hook.

BODY - The principal part of a container, usually the largest part in one piece comprising the sides.
The body may be cylindrical, rectangular, or another shape.

BODY HOOK - The flange of the can body that is turned down in the formation of the double seam.

BOTTOM SEAM - Double seam of the can end put on by the can manufacturer, also known as factory
end seam.

CABLE CUTS - Cuts or grooves worn into can ends and bodies by cables of the runway conveyor
system.

CAN, SANITARY - Full open-top 2-piece drawn can and 3-piece can with double seamed bottom.
Cover or top end is attached with a double seam by the packer after filling. Ends are compound-lined.
Also known as packer's can or open-top can.

CANNER'S END - See packer's end.

CAP TILT - Cap should be essentially level with transfer bead or shoulder.

CHIPPED GLASS FINISH - Defect in which a piece of glass has broken away (chipped) from the
finish surface.

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CHUCK - Part of a closing machine that fits inside the end countersink and acts as an anvil to support
the cover and body against the pressure of the seaming rolls.

CHUCK WALL - Part of the can end that comes in contact with the seaming chuck (Fig. 2).

COCKED CAP - Cap not level because cap lug is not properly seated under glass lug.

CODE CUT - Fracture in the metal of a can end caused by improper code embossing.

COLD WELD - Weld appears narrower and lighter than normal and may be scalloped. Fails the pull
test, possibly exhibiting a zipper or sawtooth type of failure.

CONTAMINATION IN WELD AREA - Any visible burn at one or more points along side seam.

COMPOUND - Sealing material consisting of a water or solvent dispersion or solution of rubber and
placed in the curl of the can end. The compound aids in producing a hermetic seal by filling spaces or
voids in the double seam

COUNTERSINK DEPTH - Measurement from top edge of double seam to end panel adjacent to
chuck wall.

COVER - See packer's end.

COVER HOOK - The part of the double seam formed from the curl of the can end. Wrinkling and
other visual defects can be observed by stripping off the cover hook.

CRACKED GLASS FINISH - Actual break in the glass over the sealing surface of the finish. Also
known as split finish.

CRAWLED LAPS - Occurs when two layers of metal are bent and the outer layer looks shorter
because it has a greater radius to traverse than the inner layer, which has a smaller radius, perhaps
being bent almost double. Also known as creep.

CROSS-OVER - The portion of a double seam at the juncture with the side seam of the body.

CROSS-SECTION - A section cut through the double seam for the purpose of evaluating the seam.

CRUSHED LUG - Lug on cap forced over glass lug, causing the cap lug not to seat under glass lug.

CURL - Extreme edge of the cover that is turned inward after the end is formed. In metal can double
seaming, the curl forms the cover hook of the double seam. For the closure for glass containers, the
curl is the rolled portion of metal at the bottom of the closure skirt (may be inward or outward).

CUTOVER - A break in the metal at top of inside portion of double seam caused by a portion of the
cover being forced over the top of the seaming chuck. This condition usually occurs at the cross-over.
Also known as a cut through by some can manufacturers. These manufacturers refer to a cutover as
the same condition without the break.

CUT THROUGH - Gasket damage caused by excessive vertical pressure.

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DEADHEAD - An incomplete double seam resulting from the seaming chuck spinning in the end's
countersink during the double seaming operation. Also known as a spinner, skidder, or slip.

DELAMINATION - Any separation of plies (laminate materials) that results in questionable pouch
integrity.

DOUBLE SEAM - Closure formed by interlocking and compressing the curl of the end and the flange
of the can body. It is commonly produced in 2 operations. The first operation roll preforms the metal
to produce the 5 thicknesses or folds; the second presses and flattens them together to produce double
seam tightness.

DROOP - Smooth projection of the double seam outside and below the bottom of the normal seam.
Usually occurs at the side seam lap area.

FACTORY END - See manufacturer's end.

FALSE SEAM - Double seam where a portion of the cover hook and body hook are not interlocked,
i.e., no hooking of body and cover hooks.

FINISH - That part of the glass container for holding the cap or closures.

FLANGE - Outward flared edge of the can body cylinder that becomes the body hook in the double
seaming operation. For weld cans, any flange crack at or immediately adjacent to the weld is a major
defect.

FLEXIBLE CONTAINER - A container, the shape or contour of which, when filled and sealed, is
affected by the enclosed product.

HEAVY LAP - A lap containing excess solder. Also called a thick lap.

HOOK, BODY - See body hook.

HOOK, COVER - See cover hook.

IMPROPER POUCH SEAL - A defect (e.g., entrapped food, grease, moisture, voids, or fold-over
wrinkles) in that area of the closure seal that extends 1/8 inch vertically from edge of seal on food
product side and along full length of seal.

IRREGULAR WELD WIDTH - Any obvious irregularity in weld width along length of side seam.

JUMPED SEAM - See jumpover.

JUMPOVER - Double seam that is not rolled tight enough adjacent to the cross-over; caused by
jumping of the seaming rolls at the lap.

JUNCTURE - The junction of the body side seam and the end double seam, or that point where the 2
seams come together. Also known as the cross-over.

KNOCKED-DOWN FLANGE - Common term for a false seam where the bottom of the flange is
visible below the double seam. A portion of the body flange is bent back against the body without

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being engaged with the cover hook.

LAP - The section at the end of the side seam consisting of 2 layers of metal bonded together. As the
term implies, the 2 portions of the side seam are lapped together to allow for the double seam, rather
than hooked, as in the center of the side seam.

LID - See packer's end.

LIP - Projection where the cover hook metal protrudes below the double seam in one or more "V"
shapes. Also known as a vee.

LUG CAP - Closure with raised internal impressions that intermesh with identical threads on the finish
of the glass container. It is a closure with horizontal protrusions that seat under angled threads on the
glass container finish.

MANUFACTURER'S END - End of the can that is attached by the can manufacturer.

NOTCH - Small cut-out section in the lap designed to facilitate the formation or the body hook at
cross-over.

OPEN LAP - A lap that is not properly soldered or has failed by separating or opening because of
various strains in the solder.

OVERLAP - Distance the cover hook laps over the body hook. Any observable loss of overlap along
the side seam is a critical defect.

PACKER'S END - End of the can attached and coded by the food packer. Also known as the canner's
end.

PLATE - General term for tinplate, aluminum, and the steel sheets from which cans are made. It is
usually tin plate, which is black plate with tin applied to it.

PRESSURE RIDGE - Impression (chuck impression) around the inside of the can body directly
opposite the double seam.

PULL-UP - Term applied to distance measured from the leading edge of the closure lug to the vertical
neck ring seam.

SAWTOOTH - Partial separation of the weld side seam overlap at one or more points along the seam.
If observed after performing the pull test, it is considered a critical defect.

SEAM NARROWING - A steadily visible narrowing of the weld at either end of the weld side seam is
a critical defect.

SEAM THICKNESS - Maximum dimension of double seam measured across or perpendicular to


layers of seam.

SEAM WIDTH (LENGTH OR HEIGHT) - Maximum dimension of double seam measured parallel to
folds of seam.

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SECURITY - Residual clamping force remaining in the closure application when gasket has properly
seated after processing and cooling.

SEMIRIGID CONTAINER - A container, the shape or contour of which, when filled and sealed, is
not affected by the enclosed product under normal atmospheric temperature and pressure, but which
may be deformed by external mechanical pressure of less than 10 psi (0.7 kg/cm2) (i.e., normal firm
finger pressure).

SIDE SEAM - The seam joining the 2 edges of the body blank to form a can body.

SKIDDER - Can with incompletely finished double seam because the can slipped in the seaming chuck.
In this defect, part of the seam will be incompletely rolled out. The term has the same meaning as
deadhead when referring to seamers that revolve the can. Also known as a spinner.

SOFT CRAB - Colloquial term used to describe a breakdown in the packer's can resulting in a hole
between end and body.

SPINNER - See deadhead and skidder.

STRIPPED CAP - Lug closure applied with too much torque, which causes lugs to pass over glass
lugs. May have vacuum but has no security value.

TIGHTNESS - Degree to which the double seam is compressed by the second operation roll.
Tightness is determined primarily by the degree of freedom from wrinkles in the cover hook. Tightness
rating is a percentage that ranges from 100 to 0, depending on the depth of the wrinkle: 100%
indicates no wrinkle and 0% indicates a wrinkle extending completely down the face of the cover hook.
A well-defined continuous impression around the circumference of the can in the double seam area
indicates a tight seam. This impression is known as a pressure ridge.

TOP SEAM - Top of packer's end seam.

UNEVEN HOOK - Body or cover hook that is not uniform in length.

WELD CRACK - Class I corrosion products plus any observable seam crack, and any cracks that
extend 25% or more across the width of the weld at any point along the weld seam are considered
critical defects.

WELD PROTRUSION - Protrusion of the weld in excess of 1/16 inch beyond the leading or trailing
edge of the can body.

WRINKLE (COVER HOOK) - A waviness occurring in the cover hook from which the degree of
double seam tightness is determined.

ZIPPER - Gross separation of the side seam overlap along all or any part of the side seam. If observed
during pull test, it is a critical defect.

References

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1. American Can Company. 1975. Test Procedures Manual (Internal Publication). Barrington
Technical Center, Barrington, IL.

2. American Can Company. 1978. Top Double Seam Inspections and Evaluation: Round Sanitary Style
Steel Cans. Book No. 4800-S. Barrington Technical Center, Barrington, IL.

3. APHA. 1966. Recommended Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods, 2nd ed. J.M.
Sharf (ed). American Public Health Association, New York.

4. APHA. 1984. Chapter 55. Canned foods--tests for cause of spoilage. In: Compendium of Methods
for the Microbiological Examination of Foods, 2nd ed. Marvin L. Speck (ed). American Public Health
Association, Washington, DC.

5. Arndt, G.W. 1990. Burst Testing for Paperboard Aseptic Packages with Fusion Seals. Michigan
State University, School of Packaging, East Lansing, MI.

6. ASTM. 1980. Test for leaks using the mass spectrometer leak detector in the inside out mode.
E-493. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. ASTM, Philadelphia.

7. ASTM. 1980. Test for residual gas using the mass spectrometer in the tracer mode. ASTM E-498.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards. ASTM, Philadelphia.

8. ASTM. 1980. Method for testing for residual gas using the mass spectrometer in the detector probe
mode. ASTM E-499. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. ASTM, Philadelphia.

9. ASTM. 1985. Tensile properties of thin plastic sheeting. ASTM D-882 A or B. Annual Book of
ASTM Standards. ASTM, Philadelphia.

10. ASTM. 1992. Method of compression testing for shipping containers D-642-90. Annual Book of
ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.09. Paper; Packaging; Flexible Barrier Materials; Business Imaging
Products. ASTM, Philadelphia.

11. ASTM. 1992. Method of drop test for filled bags D-959-80-86. Annual Book of ASTM Standards,
Vol. 15.09. Paper; Packaging; Flexible Barrier Materials: Business Copy Products. ASTM,
Philadelphia.

12. ASTM. 1992. Methods for mechanical handling of unitized loads and large shipping cases and
crates D-1083-91. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.09. Paper; Packaging; Flexible Barrier
Materials; Business Imaging Products. ASTM, Philadelphia.

13. ASTM. 1992. Methods for vibration testing of shipping containers D-999-91. Annual Book of
ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.09. Paper; Packaging; Flexible Barrier Materials; Business Imaging
Products. ASTM, Philadelphia.

14. ASTM. 1992. Practice for conditioning containers, packages, or package components for testing
D-4332-89. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.09. Paper; Packaging; Flexible Barrier
Materials; Business Imaging Products. ASTM, Philadelphia.

15. ASTM. 1992. Standard practice for performance testing of shipping containers and systems
D-4169-91a. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.09. Paper; Packaging; Flexible Barrier

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Materials; Business Imaging Products. ASTM, Philadelphia.

16. ASTM. 1992. Terminology of packaging and distribution environments D-996-91. Annual Book of
ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.09. Paper; Packaging; Flexible Barrier Materials; Business Imaging
Products. ASTM, Philadelphia.

17. ASTM. 1992. Test method for drop test of cylindrical shipping containers D-997-80-86. Annual
Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.09. Paper; Packaging; Flexible Barrier Materials; Business Imaging
Products. ASTM, Philadelphia.

18. ASTM. 1992. Test method for drop test of loaded boxes D-775-80-86. Annual Book of ASTM
Standards, Vol. 15.09. Paper; Packaging; Flexible Barrier Materials; Business Imaging Products.
ASTM, Philadelphia.

19. Bee, G.R., R.A. DeCamp, and C.B. Denny. 1972. Construction and use of a vacuum microleak
detector for metal and glass containers. National Canners Association, Washington, DC.

20. National Food Processors Association. 1989. Flexible Package Integrity Bulletin by the Flexible
Package Integrity Committee of NFPA. Bulletin 41-L. NFPA, Washington, DC.

21. Wagner, J.W., et al. 1981. Unpublished data. Bureau of Medical Devices, Food and Drug
Administration, Washington, DC.

General Reading

Bernard, Dane T. 1984. Evaluating container integrity through biotesting. In: Packaging Alternatives
for Food Processors. Proceedings of National Food Processors Association. NFPA, Washington, DC.

Carnation Company, Can Division. No date. Double seam standards and procedures. Oconomowoc,
WI.

Code of Federal Regulations. 1991. Title 21, part 113. Thermally processed low-acid foods packaged
in hermetically sealed containers. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Continental Can Company. 1976. Top double seaming manual. New York. (Revisions by H.P.
Milleville, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR).

Corlett, D.A., Jr. 1976. Canned food-tests for cause of spoilage, pp. 632-673. In: Compendium of
Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. M.L. Speck (ed). American Public Health
Association, Washington, DC.

Food Processors Institute. 1982. Canned Foods, 4th ed. FPI, Washington, DC.

Grace, W.R. & Co., Dewey and Almy. 1971. Evaluating a double seam. Chemical Division, Lexington,
MA.

Lampi, R.A., G.L. Schulz, T. Ciavarini, and P.T. Burke. 1976. Performance and integrity of retort
pouch seals. Food Technol. 30(2):38-46

National Canners Association. 1968. Laboratory Manual for Food Canners and Processors, Vol. 2.

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AVI Publishing, Westport, CT.

Put, H.M.C., H. Van Doren, W.R. Warner, and J.T. Kruiswijk. 1972. The mechanisms of
microbiological leaker spoilage of canned foods: A review. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 35:7-27.

Hypertext Source: Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 8th Edition, Revision A, 1998. Chapter 22.
*Authors:Rong C. Lin, Paul H. King, and Melvin R. Johnston

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