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‘SEAOC 2002
7181 Annual Convention Proceedings
Timesaving Design Aids for Reinforced
Concrete
Abstract
Tools and methods are presented to design safe,
economical concrete buildings in less time. Specifically
addressed is design and detailing of non-prestressed,
reinforced concrete structural members subjected to
gravity and lateral loads. All methods conform to the
provisions in Building Code Requirements for Structural
Concrete (318-99) and Commentary (318R-99).
Introduction
AAs schedules become tighter and codes and standards
become more complex, engineers need tools and design
aids to assist them in producing safe, economical
structures in the shortest time possible. The information
provided in this paper provides ways to reduce the
design and detailing time required for non-prestressed
concrete beams, one-way slabs, two-way slabs, columns,
and walls,
‘The design aids presented here—which can be utilized in
preliminary and final design stages or to verify computer
‘output—conform to the provisions of ACI 318-99 (ACI,
1999), All referenced section numbers and notation are
in ACI 318-99. These design methods and aids are an
attempt to satisfy the requirements of this standard in the
simplest and quickest ways possible
It is assumed that a structural analysis has been
performed—which includes gravity and lateral (wind
and/or seismic) forces—and that factored reactions have
been calculated for the members. Design tools are
provided to assist in determining member size and
reinforcement based on the factored load combinations.
David A. Fanella, Ph.D., S.E., P.E.
Portland Cement Association
Skokie, IL
Beams and One-way Slabs
‘The member depth is typically determined first to ensure
that the deflection requirements of Section 9.5 are
satisfied. For non-prestressed beams and one-way slabs
that are not supporting or attached to partitions or other
construction likely to be damaged by large deflections,
the minimum thickness (h) is given in Table 9.5(e). For
the case of one end contimious, normal weight concrete,
and Grade 60 reinforcement, the minimum thickness is
424 for solid one-way siabs end £/18.5 for beams or
ribbed one-way slabs, where the span length (¢) is in
inches.
Deflection problems can also be minimized by
judiciously choosing the tension reinforcement ratio (p)
in the positive moment region. Deflection problems are
rarely encountered in beams with p = 0.5Pimax-
Consider the following strength equation that must be
satisfied at all sections:
My <4Mq =6Agfy(d~a/2)=¢pbd,(d~a/2)
where a=Agfy /0.858¢b=pify /0.85f¢b. Assuming
4,000 psi conerete and Grade 60 reinforcement, p=
0 5Pax * 0.0107 and the above equation becomes:
bd? =22.9M, =20My
where, for convenience, b and d are in inches and M, is
the governing factored moment in f-kips.‘SEAQC 2002
Any combination of b and d can be determined from this
equation, with the only restriction thatthe final depth (h)
selected must satisfy serviceability requirements. Thus, h
‘ean be determined from Table 9.5(a) and d can be taken
as h~2.5 inches for beams with one layer of steel and
h= 1.25 inches for joists and slabs. The above sizing
equation can then be solved for the width (b). Similar
equations can easly be derived for other materials,
Since one-way slabs are usually designed using a one-
foot strip, the above sizing equation simplifies to:
a=13My
‘The following should be considered when sizing beams
and one-way slabs for economy:
‘+ Use whole inches for beam dimensions; slabs
may be specified in Ys-in. increments.
‘+ Use constant beam size from span to span and
vary reinforcement as required.
‘Use wide, flat beams (same depth as joist system
when applicable) rather than narrow deep
beams.
«Use beam width equal to or greater than column
width,
Repeat the same member sizes wherever
possible in the building,
Following these guidelines results in economical
formwork, which generally leads to the most economical
structure,
For beams in special moment frames, which are required
in areas of high seismic risk, the geometric constraints in
Section 21.3.1 must also be satisfied.
‘Once the member size has been established, the negative
and positive reinforcement must be determined along the
span. The above strength equation can be rewritten in the
following form:
The relationship between p and R, for Grade 60
reinforcement and various concrete strengths is shown in
@
454
‘71 Annual Convention Proceedings
Figure 1. The relationship between p and Ry ig
approximately linear up t0 about 2Pmax/3. Therefore, the
term f, oats to that
is a constant up to that point
term fyi Taser P Point, and
the relationship can be described as follows:
¥¢M,or, using the simplified equation,
Ag 21rM,y/4d. Under certain conditions, yp may be
increased to values greater than those determined ftom
Equation (13-1) (Section 13.5.3.3).
‘The portion of the total unbalanced moment My
transferred by eccentricity of shear is yy My, where Yy =
1 ~y¢(Seotions 13.5.3.1 and 11.12.6). When the DDM is
used, the gravity load moment M, to be transferred
between slab and edge column must be 03M.
(Section 13.6.3.6).
Assuming that shear stress resulting from moment
transfer by eccentricity of shear varies linearly about the
otings SEAOC 2002 1+ Annual Convention Proceedings
= centroid of the critical section, the factored shear stresses where A, is the area of the critical section and J/e and
in (on the faces of the critical section are determined from _/c' are the section moduli of the critical section. As
s the following (Section 11.12.6.2) noted above, the maximum v,, must be less than or equal
Ya Ms to the governing ov,
Ag Ue ‘Numerous resources contain equations for determining
Vu yMy Ag We, and Ve (Fanella and Ghosh, 1993). Tables 7
Ae Wet through 9 facilitate calculation of these quantities for
rectangular and circular colurms.
Table 7. Properties of critical section-interior rectangular column.
ee =(q +42
U7 ah! Aha
We Je = 2,0
a0
s
4 f 8
af = ee eye,
= oso] 0.75] 1.00] 1.25 2.00] 0.50] 0.75| 1.00) 1.25] 1.50] 1.75| 2.00]
8 FT Too] 233] 258] 263] 308] 935] 38] 3.83
180 | 850[ 925] 1000] 10.75] 1150] 12.25{ 13.00] 340] 3.86] 433] 480] 527] s.7a[ 6.21
P 200 | 1000{ 1100] 12.00] 13.00[ 1400 1500] 600] a6r| 542] _at7| a2| tor] aaa] 9.17
1 250 | 1150] 1275] 1400] 1525[ 1650] 1775] 19.00) 613| 724] 833|943{ 1052] inet 1271
h 3.00 | 13.00] 1450] 16.00] 1750} 19.00] 2050] 2200) 7.88} 9.33] 1083[ i233) 1383] 1533] 16.83
‘30 | 1450] 1625] 1800] 1975| 2150] 25.25] 2500] 9.73] 1170] 1367/ isea] 17.60] _19s7|_21.54]
1600] 1800] 2000 2200 2400] 26.00] 2800] 11.83] 1433] 1683) 1933| 2183] 2433) 26.83
19.00] 21.50] 24.00] 2650] 29.00] 3150] 3400{ 1667] 2042| 2417] 27.92| 31.67] 3542 39.17|
: Bel et ee etal at wel el aon an em ofa a
SS ee ia Hat alan wal al se ae ont scot onl Te
i 730 | 2650] 3025] 34.00] 37.75] 41.50] 4525] #9.00] 32.40| 4036] 4833| 5630] 6427] 7224[ 30.21
‘300 28.00] 3200] 36.00] 4000) «4.00] 800] szoof 36.17] 95.17] s417) 3.17] 7a7[ a7] 90.17
° ‘aso | 2050] 3375] 38.00] 225] 550] 5075] sso] e01s| s024| e033] 7049] 90a o0.i| 10071
Sr00| 3550] 40.00] 4450] 49.00) 53.50] s800] 4a35| 5538) 6683] 7808) 69.3] 1008] 111.83
3230{ 3725] +200] 4675|_sis0} 5625] 1.00] «a 73] 6120] 7367] eo14| 9860| 11107| 123.54
3400[ 39.00] +400] 49.00] se00] 59.00] eeoof 5338] o708[ t085| 4.58] toss] 12208] 135.837181 Annual Convention =|
i
a
SEAOC 2002
‘oBp2 0} 1einoipuediod Bt
[ep +) + a4) = 2
fem + 9G + 9G) =>
ueq ‘uUIN|O9 eBps—uojes |e:
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jez [war [evse Jerse [eese |ucve [ovze fares levee [eves lowes [eows [woes [sooe [ooor las [sese laze loror |eree [eo [se
arse {sute [seve [eve [ence [este [enue [vesc lores [sev [ures |ooor [ever funze loose [arse loset [sce Jonee [scae Jorre | oe
twee [feve [wiz [ec [ovoe |i | wai fevas [ovis [ross Jovan [seer [ons [uree [oove luaee [scut |evet [ovar [ucse lecee [oe
aroe [rest [wer [som rst [ier oars |urar [aver fosce Jivee [zvor [oove [ooze [eooe loose [oove foove [ooze | o@
eres [ovur [reer freon Joo [ever soar [over [wat feree [este [sete [ooze [evor [sear |ucet [orve [ooze |svoe | st
fest forse [ast focn [vert [ecer iwer [evae [wove [over [oes rao [ooor [eva loser [acre lovee [sere Jorar | oz
acer Jose [reer freer [urer [zoer cus [race [ever feose [ze [ocar Joost [acer fscre [erve lorve fever [sem | 59
ert fsrut[enor Joron izes Jonee levee fovee [over [test Joose [orve [wore lose [ooor orat [oous f 09
ous fess [ree [ove ora [oave [core Jocet [orot feces oore |zozz |sewe [user loom evar [scsi | ss
isa_fare [ec [ros fore wwe ee |esoe [iver foros [oat [avr [ooze [scar [over feewr foout [west osm | os
soe |seo [z09 |or9 luvs [veo zor [act [orst fore forts [ows Jooce [usar [seer lever [ossi fuewt [secs | sy
s_[oos [ses fers Jus [aos st [ern [oozt [ert exe [ors Joost [ooct [anor Joost [oovr fooer [oozt [ or
ose Jory [ur [ier loer [yoo avzt for [wvor fees [vce [aso Joost [erst [seni lecer [ores [ou [svor | st
ist love [re free [see_[are 96 [ova [osx [ues |oo9 [ars [oori [seer [ores [sc sco fore [or
ie [ase [ese fore [eve _fore fere_|s59 [tos foes [ear face sco feror fore [ure |see [sz
se eer fee ec foo tis |aey [rer [ise [ere [rez ooo: Jose loos fore loos lore fone | et
eer fer fore fere ore fre [exe_fove oz Joos [ere [seu ero [oro levac|scs [su
zo_feco [eco [eco_|wco [ovo oz feo [ocr [oon fact_foos |scs_Joss_|see_[uos [eer ory [or
oo Jaci ocr [ser_Jort [sce lare lore [sci _forr [sz1 [oor oso fore [scr fest ser ie
Pa "a of pis
5 5 4
a
Porson ere
Porat
Paty
19 Jo sansadoid "g 1qe),
462SEAOC 2002
Table 9. Properties of critical section—
interior circular column.
ene =@Mtan
Atha?
Hie= Set = 26,0
Did
1.00)
1.50)
2.00)
2.50
174
2.02,
3.10
438
645;
812,
998
12.05
1430
16.76
19.4
22.26
2530
28.54
31.98
35.61
39.4
43.46
47.68
628
7.85
9.42
11.00)
1257
14.14
15.71
1728,
18.85
20.42
21.99
23.56
25.13
26.70
2827
29.85,
3142
32.99
34.56
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50
9.00)
9.50
10.00
Section 13.3 contains general reinforcement
requirements for two-way slabs, including the minimum
area of steel and maximum bar spacing. When choosing
boar sizes, the largest bars thet satisfy maximum limits on
spacing will generally provide overall economy. Critical
dimensions that limit bar size are thickness of slab
available for hooks and distances from critical design
sections to edges of slab.
Figure 13.3.8 contains minimum extensions for
reinforcement in two-way systems without beams. These
®
463
718 Annual Convention Proceedings
minimum lengths and extensions are usually not
sufficient when a two-way slab is part of the lateral-
force-resisting (LFR) system (Section 13.3.8.4), In such
cases, bar lengths must be determined in accordance
‘with Sections 12.10 through 12.12.
Details at edge and comer columns that satisfy the
requirements of Section 13.5.3 for transfer of unbalanced
moment by flexure are shown in Figure 7 for flat plates.
When two-way slab systems are part of the LFR system,
distribution of moment transfer reinforcement at interior
columns and at edge columns bending parallel to an
‘edge depends on the ratio of the factored moments fom
«gravity loads to factored moments from lateral loads in
the slab, For ratios greater than 1, the combined moment
in the slab on each face of the support is negative, and all
of the moment transfer reinforcement should be placed
at the top of the slab, However, for ratios less than 1, the
combined moment is positive on one face of the support
and negative on the other face. In this situation, it would
bbe prudent to divide moment transfer reinforcement
‘between the top and bottom of the slab, with the top and
bottom reinforcement continuous over the column to
account for moment reversals.
Columns
Total loads on columns are directly proportional to bay
sizes (ie., tributary areas), Therefore, larger bay sizes
‘mean larger column sizes. Bay size is often dictated by
architectural and functional requirements of a building.
For example, larger bays are required to achieve
maximum unobstructed floor space. The type of floor
system that is utilized also affects column spacing:
economical use of a non-prestressed flat plate floor
system usually requires columns that are spaced closer
than those supporting a one-way or two-way joist
system,
‘Aside from the above considerations, itis important that
columns satisfy all of the applicable strength
requirements of ACI 318 and at the same time be
economical, Since concrete is more cost effective than
reinforcing steel for carrying axial compressive loads, it
is typically more economical to use larger column sizes
with lesser amounts of reinforcement.
rrr ™—™rr————<—sTe[T7 [3s >[ofTolulelulu
wo.5 | 8 [| 10 | 12 [ 14 | 17 [19 | 21 | 23 [ 25 | 27 | 29 | 31 | 3a
no6 [9 [iu | 3 [is [as [20 | 22 [24 [27 | 9 [at [33 | 36
No.7 [9 [ou] | ie [is [2 | 23 [26 | 28 [30 [33 | as | 37
Nos | 9 | 12 | t@ | i7 | 19 | 22 | 24 | 27 | 2 | 32 | 34 | 37 | 39
No.9 | to [13 [16 | 18 [21 [24 [27 [30 [33 [3s [ 38 | ai | aa
Noto |u| 4 [17 | 20 [3 [27 [30 [33 [36 [39 | a2 [a6 | a9
No.1] 1 [is [18 | 22 [25 [29 [ 32 [36 [ 40 | 43 | a7 | 50 | 54
"Column face dimension rounded to nearest inch
+ For No, $—No. 8:
«For No, 9—No. Ll:
‘where m= number of bas per fice
0.29294,
1544,
y= diameter of longitudinal bare
Maximum size aggregate not larger than % minimum clear spacing between bars (Section 3.3.2),
The following equations can be used to determine the minimum columa face dimension for other cover and tie sizes:
‘Minimum face dimension = 2(cover + tie diameter) + nd, + 1.5(a~ 1) + (G+ 2¢,)e0s0 - 0.586dy, —3]
‘Minimum face dimension = 2(cover + tie diameter) + ny + .Sd,(n~ 1) + 138d
‘The design chart presented in Figure 8 based on
Equation (10-2), can be used for nonslender tied
‘columns loaded at an eccentricity of no more than about
10% of the overall thickness (i.e., columns with zero or
stall computed moments). Figure 8 provides quick
estimates for gross area (A,) of a column section
required to support a factored axial load P, within the
reinforcement limits of Section 10.9, assuming Grade 60
465
i, rrrrr——“#EEEE'NS—r—"““*'"'l.
reinforcement (i = 60 ksi). Appreciable bending
moments can occur in columns due to unbalanced
aravity loads and/or lateral forces. The ACI Design
Handbook (ACI, 1997), the CRSI Design Handbook
(CRSI, 2002) and the PCA computer program PCACOL
(PCA, 1999) are a few of the many resources available
to design columns for the combined effects of axial load
and bending moment‘SEAQC 2002 a 7141 Annual Convention Procoedings
Table 11. Maximum number of bars in columns having bars arranged in a circle with normal
lap splices*
No dapat are
Bane esheets es.782)
tas
oo No. 5 No.6 No.7 ‘No.8 No.9 No. 10 No. II
raat cera | egress |)
igen ioc [stg re [erg eave ee ge
sgt tae ees |sars ce pe | eee
our eg sua asp
| pos ae ene [segs] sre [eee
aca at aac | ee ae [eee
ae a [orci |
36 | 9 | ats
ec] sooo | oa)
So ose ea oes] eos
0g aor a)
arpa ea fc eso sag ces ae
ats trad fc fers] ogee [ss fuera
6 cara [aa [cre | spe [ee ef
Ba ca ea aye [ce es eee
ate sa ono | alae tas es ae]
iss sri teas eee el aT
A
i ee [ecco fea [ona as
Faxes geen wt gran % minum ars beween bas Soon 33.
Misi aumbar of login bars when aloe years an whes enced oy
spi (Secon 10.2), Renfercemen tao ae win Has o Seton 10.3
‘The allowing exition canbe edo deerme exam sober fas fore over nd
feormpal sess
: 180
|.
O.Sh — (cover + tie or spiral diameter)—1.5dy,
wee $15.4 dy eo 5-8
#15444, 9258 fr No. 9~No 1
4,=danete of ongtin! ban
levppin to cacur aun oly
466SEAOC 2002 @ 71% Annual Convention Proceedings
00
6.00 + = = 11 ksl =
104s!
. Bt
| zg ksi
< TO Tkeh
= : Shai i
Stat
| 100
01 ove 0s oo
Pye AalAy
Figure 8. Design chart for nonslender, tied columns (f, = 60 ksi).
I
| ‘A simplified interaction diagram, such as the one Class B tension lap splices are required when one or
depicted in Figure 9, can be created by connecting more load combinations fall within Zone 3,
siraight lines between points corresponding to certain
transition stages. The transition stages are: tary eames
Stage 1: Pure compression (no bending) Qt 85% ae
Stage 2: Stress in reinforcement closest to tension
face =0 (f,=0)
+ Stage 3: Stress in reinforcement closest to tension
face = 0.5f, (f= 0.5E,)
+ Stage 4: Balanced point; stress in reinforcement
closest to tension face =f, (f,= f,)
‘+ Stage 5: Pure bending (no axial load)
‘The type of lap splice that is required depends on where Bening Moment
the load combinations fall within the interaction diagram, Figure 9. Transition stages on interaction
(Section 12.17), For all load combinations falling within diagram,
Zone 1, compression lap splices are allowed, In Zone 2,
either Class A or Class B tension lap must be used,
1 depending on the number of bars spliced at a section.
467
ctSEAOC 2002
‘The information in Figure 10 can be utilized to
determine the critical points on the interaction diagram
for a rectangular tied column with Grade 60. bars
arranged symmetrically in the section. The equations for
4, and @M, for points 2 through 4 yield larger values
than the exaet ones, since, for simplicity, the stress
0.859, is not subtracted from the stress fg; in the bars
located in the compression block. For columns with
reinforcement ratios up to 3%, the difference between
the computed and exact values of P, is at most 10%,
withthe difference much less than that for 4M,
‘The reciprocal load method, which is described in
Sections R10.3.5 and R10.3.6, is one of the simplified
‘methods that can be utilized to design columns subjected
to bending about both principal axes simultaneously. A
tral section can be obtained from an interaction diagram
using the factored axial load P, and the total factored
moment My = Myx + Muy, where Myx and Myy are the
factored moments about the principal axes. The equation
in Sections R103.5 and R10.3.6 can then be used to
check if the section is adequate or not. Although this
design process is conservative, only an adjustment in the
amount of reinforcement will usually be necessary to
obtain an adequate or more economical solution,
Provisions for stendemess effects are contained in
Sections 10.10-10.13. According to Section 10.10,
columns must be designed based on a second-order
analysis or, when applicable, the magnified moment
method of Sections 10.11-10.13. In the latter case, 2
methods are provided to determine whether stories in a
structure are nonsway or sway (Section 10.1.3).
‘The maximum unsupported column length ¢, that would
permit stendemess to be neglected for a nonsway (k= 1)
rectangular column of size h that is bent in double
curvature with equal factored end moments is
(Section 10.12.2)
He 34-12 ML) 34-12(-1) «46> 40, use 40
r Mz
S400r ey <12h
@
468
71st Annual Convention Proceedings
Beam stiffnesses at the top and bottom of a column in a
sway frame can have a significant influence on the
degree of slendemess. For example, for a sway column,
with a column-to-beam stiffness ratio 'Y = 1.0 at both,
ends, the effective length factor k = 13 (see
Figure R10.12.1), and the effects of slendemess may be
neglected when &, < 5h. Ifthe beam stiffness is reduced
to one-fifth of the column stiffness at each end, then k =
2.2, and slenderess effects need not be considered when
fy<3h
When slendemess effects must be considered, moments
at column ends are to be magnified secording to
Sections 10.12 and 10.13 for nonsway and sway frames,
respectively, or a second-order analysis must be
performed. For columns subjected to biaxial bending,
the moment about each axis shall be magnified
separately. Columns are designed for combined effects
of axial load and magnified bending moments utilizing
the methods described above.
Details for column reinforcement ean be found in ACI
Detailing Manual (ACI, 1994), Reinforcing Bar
Detailing Manual (CRSI, 2000), and Simplified Design
of Concrete Buildings of Moderate Size and Height
(Fanella and Ghosh, 1993). Details for columns in
regions of high and moderate seismic risk are also
available (Fanella, 2000).
Walls
For buildings in the low to moderate height range, frame
action alone is usually sufficient to provide adequate
resistance to lateral loads, Since frame buildings depend
Primarily on the rigidity of the slab-column or beam-
column joints, they tend to be uneconomical beyond I1=
14 stories in regions of high to moderate seismicity and
15-20 stories elsewhere. High-rise frames often could
not be efficiently designed to satisfy strength and drift
requirements without structural walls.
1fpossible, walls should be located within the plan of the
building to minimize torsional effects from lateral toads.
Since conerete floor systems act as rigid horizontal
diaphragms, lateral loads are distributed to lateral-force-
‘esisting elements in proportion to their rigidities,SEAOC 2002 a 1 Annwal Convention Proceedings
b
‘Compression face po
¢
Layer, Avy + dn ean
di :
i ds | hn Congreson poste
es
Layeri, Ae —
ca
Layer 1, As
“Tension face Strain diagram
Refer to Figure 9 for location of points on interaction diagram.
+ Point 1: Pure compression (no bending)
$Pacpax) = 0.80A g (0.858% +5 (Fy ~0.856Z)] ACT Equation (10-2)
+ Points 2-4
e. {oapembag(t-cr4)] ie
Bd) ar$.a4(1-c2 4 Sea )jna a
j
0.003,
where Cy =0.85f,)| 2008
188th
0.003 ~ey1
cy = 2003 =
0.008
1-, $i) 5 2.0.69 to ensure thatthe sess inthe bars f= 60 ksi
a)°s
0.8528 =1.05 ~0.05f; 20.65. (Section 102.725 fin ks)
0s) Sa)
= 3 a 7 z z 7
wn GS] mw 1a] a] a afalelavals[alals
3 [000 | aon | 289 [ Tor [0 too [arr [woo] aa | too | aor | v0 | asm | 100
i Tose ame [as | ep as ise Pui tae) 339 | tae) 39 e | aa | 13
| a [10 [amaor [om | ae] arf 1 | aa6 fae] oer |e [202 [ie | 2 | 19 [327
+ Poiat S: Pure bending (no axial load)
Use iteranve procedure to determine $M,
Figure 10, Simplified interaction diagram for rectangular, tied columns with symmetrical
reinforcement (f, = 60 ksi).
469SEAOC 2002
Since walls are typically located around elevators and
stairs, their lengths are usually dictated by the size of
these openings. From a practical standpoint, a minimum
thickness of 6 in. is required for a wall with a single
layer of reinforcement and 10 in. for a wall with two
layers.
‘When walls are present in buildings of low to moderate
height, frame-wall interaction can usually be neglected,
since walls are normally stiff enough to attract the
Imajority of the effects from lateral loads. This greatly
reduces overall analysis and design time, and generally
results ita nonsway frame. In contrast, frame-wall
interaction must be considered for high-rise structures
where the walls have a significant effect on the frame: in
the upper stories, the frame must resist more than 100%
of the story shear caused by lateral loads. Neglecting
frame-wall interaction would not be conservative at
these levels. Also, a more economical solution will be
obtained when frame-wall interaction is considered.
According to Section 14.2.2, walls shall be designed in
accordance with Section 14.2, 14.3, and either 14.4,
145, or 14.8, Section 14.4 contains the requirements for
walls designed as compression members using the
strength design provisions of Chapter 10, which are
described above for columns. Any wall may be designed
by this method, and no minimum wall thicknesses are
prescribed. The Empirical Design Method of
Section 14.5 and the Alternate Design Method of
Section 14.8 may only be used when various conditions
ste satisfied.
In addition to the provisions of Chapter 14, walls in
buildings located in regions of high seismic risk must be
designed and detailed in accordance with Section 21.6
In certain situations, special transverse reinforcement is
required at wall ends (Section 21.6.6). No. special
detailing is required in regions of moderate or low
seismic risk.
In high-rise buildings, walls are ordinarily designed in
accordance with Section 14.4 ot, if applicable,
Section 21.6. Interaction diagrams can be obtained
utilizing the resources above for columns,
For buildings of low to moderate height, walls with
Uuniform cross-sections and uniformly distributed vertical
and horizontal reinforcement are usually the most
@,
470
71 Annual Conwention Proceedings
economical. For rectangular walls containing uniformly
distibuted vertical reinforcement and subjected to an
axial load (P,) smaller than that producing balanced
failure, the information in Figure 11 ean be used to
determine the nominal moment capacity of the wall,
This method should apply in a majority of cases, since
the axial loads are usually small.
Py
ay oes
Eehke
Figure 11. Approximate nominal moment
capacity of low-rise walls.
In regions of low and moderate seismic risk, shear
provisions for walls are contained in Section 11.10. The
amounts of vertical and horizontal reinforcement
required for shear depend on the magnitude of the
factored shear force (V,):
°Vy S$ $VY2: Provide minimum reinforcement in
accordance with Section {1.10.9 or Chapter 14
+ 6V,/2 Ve: Provide horizontal reinforcement in
accordance with Equation (11-33)
where $V, is defined in Section 11.10.5. Tables 12 and
13 contain minimum reinforcement per Chapter 14 and
Section 11.10.9, respectively
In regions of high seismic risk, the shear provisions of
‘Section 21.6.4 must be satisfied.errr
SEAOC 2002
Table 11. Minimum wall reinforcement
@
1st Annual Convention Proceedings
where A, is the area of horizontal shear reinforcement
Mu SV/2). within a distance s and d = 0.84 (Section 1.10.4). For
a example, for a wall reinforced with a single layer of
wat Grade 60 No, 4 bars spaced at 12 in.
maids | ] sues
ia.) x Reinforcernent 0.85 x 0.20 x 60x (0,8 x:
(tiny ov, = (08x12 y) «9 26, kips
& | om [roses | 0 | weaie a
0.12 | Nos@ur | 019 | Noa @i2e
[Ceo [neg te | om | ies @ 15" Table 13 contains values of V, per foot length of wall
D 017 | No3@l: 029 | No4@ie” for various horizontal bar sizes and spacing.
a] 020 | No @D" | 034 | Nos@ie”
ithe 38 a we = Table 13. Shear strength ¢V, provided by
Tops beioi La pueseir] — horizontal shear reinforcement (f, = 60 ksi)
Win A, HEC OTE( TD = OTR or Grade 6, No 5 bas an . 7
smal (econ 1632) ee
Nt Aft Oa72002h = D020 or Gia 6, Nos bas] | "HEE See ng of at)
and smaller (Secon 1433) = No.3 {No | Nos] No.6
ote: two layers of enforcement are required for walls thicker 6 30 163 253 359,
than 10. Sexton 143. 7 7 | 4a—[ a7 | 0a
= 67_[ 132] 190 | 289
Table 12. Minimum wall reinforcement 2 60 | 109 | 169 | 39
(iVc2 < Vu S6V,)- io sa 38 [62] as
ee 1 rr] 39 [3a | 96
Walthioess | age met 2 as a2 [| 27_| 180
in) Tez y_| Stet Relfrcement B at 78 117) 166
7: 7 wisi i 3 7a_[ wa | 154
ew 15 36 65 [01 |
16 3a ai 35] as
3 eo | tase ape eee eee eseoes eras
af ee eg VD
2 4@ ue Values oF ¢V, are for walls witha single ler of reinforcement
7 O48 a ‘Tabulated values can be doubled for walls with two layers,
i ase MSO 5"
Min, A, 7 = 0.0025(12)h= 0.03h (Seaton 1.109)
Note: swo layers of reinforcement are required for walls thicker
than 10in. (Section 143.4)
Design for required horizontal reinforcement in walls
where V, > @V, can be simplified by determining values
of the design shear strength (V,) provided by the
horizontal reinforcement. According to Equation (I1-
33):
atid
avs
82
47.
Once the required $V, = Vy ~ Ve is computed, a bar
size and spacing that provides at least that amount of
shear strength can easily be chosen from Table 13.
Required vertical shear reinforcement is determined
from Equation (11-34) in regions of low and moderate
seismic risk. When the wall height-to-length ratio hy /@y
<045, the amount of vertical reinforcement is equal to
the amount of horizontal reinforcement. When hy /ty >
2.5, the minimum amount of vertical reinforcement in
Table 12 is required.SEAQC 2002 @
Maximum spacing of horizontal and vertical bars is
given in Sections 11.10.9.3 and 11.10.9.5, respectively.
Conclusion
‘The design aids presented in this paper, which are based
fon the provisions of ACI 318-99, can ‘be used to
significantly decrease design and detailing time required
for beams, one-way slabs, two-way slabs, columns, and
walls. The PCA Web site contains design examples
illustrating the use of the timesaving design methods
presented here (www portcement.org/buildings).
References
American Concrete Institute, 1994, ACI Detailing
Manual, SP-66(94), Farmington Hills, Michigan,
American Concrete Institute, 1999, Building Code
Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-99) and
Commentary (ACI 318R-99), Farmington Hills,
Michigan.
‘American Concrete Institute, 1997, Design Handbook:
Beams, One-way Slabs, Brackets, Footings, Pile Caps,
Columns, Two-way Slabs, and Seismic Design, SP-
1797), Farmington Hills, Michigan.
Conerete Reinforcing Institute, 2002, CRS! Design
Handbook, Schaumburg, Ilinois.
Conerete Reinforcing Institute, 2000, Reinforcing Bar
Detailing, Schaumburg, Minos.
Fanella, D.A., 2000, Seismic Detailing of Concrete
Buildings, Portland Cement Association, Skokie,
Mlinois.
Fanella, D.A. and Ghosh, S.K., 1993, Simplified Design
of Reinforced Concrete Buildings of Moderate Size and
Height, 2* edition, Portland Cement Association,
‘Skokie, Illinois.
Fanella, D.A. and Rabat, B.G,, 1997, Design of
Concrete Beams for Torsion, 2° edition, Portland
Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois.
Hwang, S-J and Mochle, LP., “Models for Laterally
Loaded Slab-Column Frames,” ACI Structural Journal,
472
—
711 Annual Convention Proceedings
March-April 2000, Vol. 97, No. 2, pp. 345-352,
American Concrete Institute,
Michigan,
Farmington
Hills,

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