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‘SEAOC 2002 7181 Annual Convention Proceedings Timesaving Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete Abstract Tools and methods are presented to design safe, economical concrete buildings in less time. Specifically addressed is design and detailing of non-prestressed, reinforced concrete structural members subjected to gravity and lateral loads. All methods conform to the provisions in Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (318-99) and Commentary (318R-99). Introduction AAs schedules become tighter and codes and standards become more complex, engineers need tools and design aids to assist them in producing safe, economical structures in the shortest time possible. The information provided in this paper provides ways to reduce the design and detailing time required for non-prestressed concrete beams, one-way slabs, two-way slabs, columns, and walls, ‘The design aids presented here—which can be utilized in preliminary and final design stages or to verify computer ‘output—conform to the provisions of ACI 318-99 (ACI, 1999), All referenced section numbers and notation are in ACI 318-99. These design methods and aids are an attempt to satisfy the requirements of this standard in the simplest and quickest ways possible It is assumed that a structural analysis has been performed—which includes gravity and lateral (wind and/or seismic) forces—and that factored reactions have been calculated for the members. Design tools are provided to assist in determining member size and reinforcement based on the factored load combinations. David A. Fanella, Ph.D., S.E., P.E. Portland Cement Association Skokie, IL Beams and One-way Slabs ‘The member depth is typically determined first to ensure that the deflection requirements of Section 9.5 are satisfied. For non-prestressed beams and one-way slabs that are not supporting or attached to partitions or other construction likely to be damaged by large deflections, the minimum thickness (h) is given in Table 9.5(e). For the case of one end contimious, normal weight concrete, and Grade 60 reinforcement, the minimum thickness is 424 for solid one-way siabs end £/18.5 for beams or ribbed one-way slabs, where the span length (¢) is in inches. Deflection problems can also be minimized by judiciously choosing the tension reinforcement ratio (p) in the positive moment region. Deflection problems are rarely encountered in beams with p = 0.5Pimax- Consider the following strength equation that must be satisfied at all sections: My <4Mq =6Agfy(d~a/2)=¢pbd,(d~a/2) where a=Agfy /0.858¢b=pify /0.85f¢b. Assuming 4,000 psi conerete and Grade 60 reinforcement, p= 0 5Pax * 0.0107 and the above equation becomes: bd? =22.9M, =20My where, for convenience, b and d are in inches and M, is the governing factored moment in f-kips. ‘SEAQC 2002 Any combination of b and d can be determined from this equation, with the only restriction thatthe final depth (h) selected must satisfy serviceability requirements. Thus, h ‘ean be determined from Table 9.5(a) and d can be taken as h~2.5 inches for beams with one layer of steel and h= 1.25 inches for joists and slabs. The above sizing equation can then be solved for the width (b). Similar equations can easly be derived for other materials, Since one-way slabs are usually designed using a one- foot strip, the above sizing equation simplifies to: a=13My ‘The following should be considered when sizing beams and one-way slabs for economy: ‘+ Use whole inches for beam dimensions; slabs may be specified in Ys-in. increments. ‘+ Use constant beam size from span to span and vary reinforcement as required. ‘Use wide, flat beams (same depth as joist system when applicable) rather than narrow deep beams. «Use beam width equal to or greater than column width, Repeat the same member sizes wherever possible in the building, Following these guidelines results in economical formwork, which generally leads to the most economical structure, For beams in special moment frames, which are required in areas of high seismic risk, the geometric constraints in Section 21.3.1 must also be satisfied. ‘Once the member size has been established, the negative and positive reinforcement must be determined along the span. The above strength equation can be rewritten in the following form: The relationship between p and R, for Grade 60 reinforcement and various concrete strengths is shown in @ 454 ‘71 Annual Convention Proceedings Figure 1. The relationship between p and Ry ig approximately linear up t0 about 2Pmax/3. Therefore, the term f, oats to that is a constant up to that point term fyi Taser P Point, and the relationship can be described as follows: ¥¢M,or, using the simplified equation, Ag 21rM,y/4d. Under certain conditions, yp may be increased to values greater than those determined ftom Equation (13-1) (Section 13.5.3.3). ‘The portion of the total unbalanced moment My transferred by eccentricity of shear is yy My, where Yy = 1 ~y¢(Seotions 13.5.3.1 and 11.12.6). When the DDM is used, the gravity load moment M, to be transferred between slab and edge column must be 03M. (Section 13.6.3.6). Assuming that shear stress resulting from moment transfer by eccentricity of shear varies linearly about the ot ings SEAOC 2002 1+ Annual Convention Proceedings = centroid of the critical section, the factored shear stresses where A, is the area of the critical section and J/e and in (on the faces of the critical section are determined from _/c' are the section moduli of the critical section. As s the following (Section 11.12.6.2) noted above, the maximum v,, must be less than or equal Ya Ms to the governing ov, Ag Ue ‘Numerous resources contain equations for determining Vu yMy Ag We, and Ve (Fanella and Ghosh, 1993). Tables 7 Ae Wet through 9 facilitate calculation of these quantities for rectangular and circular colurms. Table 7. Properties of critical section-interior rectangular column. ee =(q +42 U7 ah! Aha We Je = 2,0 a0 s 4 f 8 af = ee eye, = oso] 0.75] 1.00] 1.25 2.00] 0.50] 0.75| 1.00) 1.25] 1.50] 1.75| 2.00] 8 FT Too] 233] 258] 263] 308] 935] 38] 3.83 180 | 850[ 925] 1000] 10.75] 1150] 12.25{ 13.00] 340] 3.86] 433] 480] 527] s.7a[ 6.21 P 200 | 1000{ 1100] 12.00] 13.00[ 1400 1500] 600] a6r| 542] _at7| a2| tor] aaa] 9.17 1 250 | 1150] 1275] 1400] 1525[ 1650] 1775] 19.00) 613| 724] 833|943{ 1052] inet 1271 h 3.00 | 13.00] 1450] 16.00] 1750} 19.00] 2050] 2200) 7.88} 9.33] 1083[ i233) 1383] 1533] 16.83 ‘30 | 1450] 1625] 1800] 1975| 2150] 25.25] 2500] 9.73] 1170] 1367/ isea] 17.60] _19s7|_21.54] 1600] 1800] 2000 2200 2400] 26.00] 2800] 11.83] 1433] 1683) 1933| 2183] 2433) 26.83 19.00] 21.50] 24.00] 2650] 29.00] 3150] 3400{ 1667] 2042| 2417] 27.92| 31.67] 3542 39.17| : Bel et ee etal at wel el aon an em ofa a SS ee ia Hat alan wal al se ae ont scot onl Te i 730 | 2650] 3025] 34.00] 37.75] 41.50] 4525] #9.00] 32.40| 4036] 4833| 5630] 6427] 7224[ 30.21 ‘300 28.00] 3200] 36.00] 4000) «4.00] 800] szoof 36.17] 95.17] s417) 3.17] 7a7[ a7] 90.17 ° ‘aso | 2050] 3375] 38.00] 225] 550] 5075] sso] e01s| s024| e033] 7049] 90a o0.i| 10071 Sr00| 3550] 40.00] 4450] 49.00) 53.50] s800] 4a35| 5538) 6683] 7808) 69.3] 1008] 111.83 3230{ 3725] +200] 4675|_sis0} 5625] 1.00] «a 73] 6120] 7367] eo14| 9860| 11107| 123.54 3400[ 39.00] +400] 49.00] se00] 59.00] eeoof 5338] o708[ t085| 4.58] toss] 12208] 135.83 7181 Annual Convention =| i a SEAOC 2002 ‘oBp2 0} 1einoipuediod Bt [ep +) + a4) = 2 fem + 9G + 9G) => ueq ‘uUIN|O9 eBps—uojes |e: coe [ico over [eves [onus [ese fz evs [inva [osvo [eves [oe [over [ower [over [ooue [orve [ooze [wet [oie [ oar jez [war [evse Jerse [eese |ucve [ovze fares levee [eves lowes [eows [woes [sooe [ooor las [sese laze loror |eree [eo [se arse {sute [seve [eve [ence [este [enue [vesc lores [sev [ures |ooor [ever funze loose [arse loset [sce Jonee [scae Jorre | oe twee [feve [wiz [ec [ovoe |i | wai fevas [ovis [ross Jovan [seer [ons [uree [oove luaee [scut |evet [ovar [ucse lecee [oe aroe [rest [wer [som rst [ier oars |urar [aver fosce Jivee [zvor [oove [ooze [eooe loose [oove foove [ooze | o@ eres [ovur [reer freon Joo [ever soar [over [wat feree [este [sete [ooze [evor [sear |ucet [orve [ooze |svoe | st fest forse [ast focn [vert [ecer iwer [evae [wove [over [oes rao [ooor [eva loser [acre lovee [sere Jorar | oz acer Jose [reer freer [urer [zoer cus [race [ever feose [ze [ocar Joost [acer fscre [erve lorve fever [sem | 59 ert fsrut[enor Joron izes Jonee levee fovee [over [test Joose [orve [wore lose [ooor orat [oous f 09 ous fess [ree [ove ora [oave [core Jocet [orot feces oore |zozz |sewe [user loom evar [scsi | ss isa_fare [ec [ros fore wwe ee |esoe [iver foros [oat [avr [ooze [scar [over feewr foout [west osm | os soe |seo [z09 |or9 luvs [veo zor [act [orst fore forts [ows Jooce [usar [seer lever [ossi fuewt [secs | sy s_[oos [ses fers Jus [aos st [ern [oozt [ert exe [ors Joost [ooct [anor Joost [oovr fooer [oozt [ or ose Jory [ur [ier loer [yoo avzt for [wvor fees [vce [aso Joost [erst [seni lecer [ores [ou [svor | st ist love [re free [see_[are 96 [ova [osx [ues |oo9 [ars [oori [seer [ores [sc sco fore [or ie [ase [ese fore [eve _fore fere_|s59 [tos foes [ear face sco feror fore [ure |see [sz se eer fee ec foo tis |aey [rer [ise [ere [rez ooo: Jose loos fore loos lore fone | et eer fer fore fere ore fre [exe_fove oz Joos [ere [seu ero [oro levac|scs [su zo_feco [eco [eco_|wco [ovo oz feo [ocr [oon fact_foos |scs_Joss_|see_[uos [eer ory [or oo Jaci ocr [ser_Jort [sce lare lore [sci _forr [sz1 [oor oso fore [scr fest ser ie Pa "a of pis 5 5 4 a Porson ere Porat Paty 19 Jo sansadoid "g 1qe), 462 SEAOC 2002 Table 9. Properties of critical section— interior circular column. ene =@Mtan Atha? Hie= Set = 26,0 Did 1.00) 1.50) 2.00) 2.50 174 2.02, 3.10 438 645; 812, 998 12.05 1430 16.76 19.4 22.26 2530 28.54 31.98 35.61 39.4 43.46 47.68 628 7.85 9.42 11.00) 1257 14.14 15.71 1728, 18.85 20.42 21.99 23.56 25.13 26.70 2827 29.85, 3142 32.99 34.56 7.00 7.50 8.00 8.50 9.00) 9.50 10.00 Section 13.3 contains general reinforcement requirements for two-way slabs, including the minimum area of steel and maximum bar spacing. When choosing boar sizes, the largest bars thet satisfy maximum limits on spacing will generally provide overall economy. Critical dimensions that limit bar size are thickness of slab available for hooks and distances from critical design sections to edges of slab. Figure 13.3.8 contains minimum extensions for reinforcement in two-way systems without beams. These ® 463 718 Annual Convention Proceedings minimum lengths and extensions are usually not sufficient when a two-way slab is part of the lateral- force-resisting (LFR) system (Section 13.3.8.4), In such cases, bar lengths must be determined in accordance ‘with Sections 12.10 through 12.12. Details at edge and comer columns that satisfy the requirements of Section 13.5.3 for transfer of unbalanced moment by flexure are shown in Figure 7 for flat plates. When two-way slab systems are part of the LFR system, distribution of moment transfer reinforcement at interior columns and at edge columns bending parallel to an ‘edge depends on the ratio of the factored moments fom «gravity loads to factored moments from lateral loads in the slab, For ratios greater than 1, the combined moment in the slab on each face of the support is negative, and all of the moment transfer reinforcement should be placed at the top of the slab, However, for ratios less than 1, the combined moment is positive on one face of the support and negative on the other face. In this situation, it would bbe prudent to divide moment transfer reinforcement ‘between the top and bottom of the slab, with the top and bottom reinforcement continuous over the column to account for moment reversals. Columns Total loads on columns are directly proportional to bay sizes (ie., tributary areas), Therefore, larger bay sizes ‘mean larger column sizes. Bay size is often dictated by architectural and functional requirements of a building. For example, larger bays are required to achieve maximum unobstructed floor space. The type of floor system that is utilized also affects column spacing: economical use of a non-prestressed flat plate floor system usually requires columns that are spaced closer than those supporting a one-way or two-way joist system, ‘Aside from the above considerations, itis important that columns satisfy all of the applicable strength requirements of ACI 318 and at the same time be economical, Since concrete is more cost effective than reinforcing steel for carrying axial compressive loads, it is typically more economical to use larger column sizes with lesser amounts of reinforcement. rrr ™—™rr————<—sTe[T7 [3s >[ofTolulelulu wo.5 | 8 [| 10 | 12 [ 14 | 17 [19 | 21 | 23 [ 25 | 27 | 29 | 31 | 3a no6 [9 [iu | 3 [is [as [20 | 22 [24 [27 | 9 [at [33 | 36 No.7 [9 [ou] | ie [is [2 | 23 [26 | 28 [30 [33 | as | 37 Nos | 9 | 12 | t@ | i7 | 19 | 22 | 24 | 27 | 2 | 32 | 34 | 37 | 39 No.9 | to [13 [16 | 18 [21 [24 [27 [30 [33 [3s [ 38 | ai | aa Noto |u| 4 [17 | 20 [3 [27 [30 [33 [36 [39 | a2 [a6 | a9 No.1] 1 [is [18 | 22 [25 [29 [ 32 [36 [ 40 | 43 | a7 | 50 | 54 "Column face dimension rounded to nearest inch + For No, $—No. 8: «For No, 9—No. Ll: ‘where m= number of bas per fice 0.29294, 1544, y= diameter of longitudinal bare Maximum size aggregate not larger than % minimum clear spacing between bars (Section 3.3.2), The following equations can be used to determine the minimum columa face dimension for other cover and tie sizes: ‘Minimum face dimension = 2(cover + tie diameter) + nd, + 1.5(a~ 1) + (G+ 2¢,)e0s0 - 0.586dy, —3] ‘Minimum face dimension = 2(cover + tie diameter) + ny + .Sd,(n~ 1) + 138d ‘The design chart presented in Figure 8 based on Equation (10-2), can be used for nonslender tied ‘columns loaded at an eccentricity of no more than about 10% of the overall thickness (i.e., columns with zero or stall computed moments). Figure 8 provides quick estimates for gross area (A,) of a column section required to support a factored axial load P, within the reinforcement limits of Section 10.9, assuming Grade 60 465 i, rrrrr——“#EEEE'NS—r—"““*'"'l. reinforcement (i = 60 ksi). Appreciable bending moments can occur in columns due to unbalanced aravity loads and/or lateral forces. The ACI Design Handbook (ACI, 1997), the CRSI Design Handbook (CRSI, 2002) and the PCA computer program PCACOL (PCA, 1999) are a few of the many resources available to design columns for the combined effects of axial load and bending moment ‘SEAQC 2002 a 7141 Annual Convention Procoedings Table 11. Maximum number of bars in columns having bars arranged in a circle with normal lap splices* No dapat are Bane esheets es.782) tas oo No. 5 No.6 No.7 ‘No.8 No.9 No. 10 No. II raat cera | egress |) igen ioc [stg re [erg eave ee ge sgt tae ees |sars ce pe | eee our eg sua asp | pos ae ene [segs] sre [eee aca at aac | ee ae [eee ae a [orci | 36 | 9 | ats ec] sooo | oa) So ose ea oes] eos 0g aor a) arpa ea fc eso sag ces ae ats trad fc fers] ogee [ss fuera 6 cara [aa [cre | spe [ee ef Ba ca ea aye [ce es eee ate sa ono | alae tas es ae] iss sri teas eee el aT A i ee [ecco fea [ona as Faxes geen wt gran % minum ars beween bas Soon 33. Misi aumbar of login bars when aloe years an whes enced oy spi (Secon 10.2), Renfercemen tao ae win Has o Seton 10.3 ‘The allowing exition canbe edo deerme exam sober fas fore over nd feormpal sess : 180 |. O.Sh — (cover + tie or spiral diameter)—1.5dy, wee $15.4 dy eo 5-8 #15444, 9258 fr No. 9~No 1 4,=danete of ongtin! ban levppin to cacur aun oly 466 SEAOC 2002 @ 71% Annual Convention Proceedings 00 6.00 + = = 11 ksl = 104s! . Bt | zg ksi < TO Tkeh = : Shai i Stat | 100 01 ove 0s oo Pye AalAy Figure 8. Design chart for nonslender, tied columns (f, = 60 ksi). I | ‘A simplified interaction diagram, such as the one Class B tension lap splices are required when one or depicted in Figure 9, can be created by connecting more load combinations fall within Zone 3, siraight lines between points corresponding to certain transition stages. The transition stages are: tary eames Stage 1: Pure compression (no bending) Qt 85% ae Stage 2: Stress in reinforcement closest to tension face =0 (f,=0) + Stage 3: Stress in reinforcement closest to tension face = 0.5f, (f= 0.5E,) + Stage 4: Balanced point; stress in reinforcement closest to tension face =f, (f,= f,) ‘+ Stage 5: Pure bending (no axial load) ‘The type of lap splice that is required depends on where Bening Moment the load combinations fall within the interaction diagram, Figure 9. Transition stages on interaction (Section 12.17), For all load combinations falling within diagram, Zone 1, compression lap splices are allowed, In Zone 2, either Class A or Class B tension lap must be used, 1 depending on the number of bars spliced at a section. 467 ct SEAOC 2002 ‘The information in Figure 10 can be utilized to determine the critical points on the interaction diagram for a rectangular tied column with Grade 60. bars arranged symmetrically in the section. The equations for 4, and @M, for points 2 through 4 yield larger values than the exaet ones, since, for simplicity, the stress 0.859, is not subtracted from the stress fg; in the bars located in the compression block. For columns with reinforcement ratios up to 3%, the difference between the computed and exact values of P, is at most 10%, withthe difference much less than that for 4M, ‘The reciprocal load method, which is described in Sections R10.3.5 and R10.3.6, is one of the simplified ‘methods that can be utilized to design columns subjected to bending about both principal axes simultaneously. A tral section can be obtained from an interaction diagram using the factored axial load P, and the total factored moment My = Myx + Muy, where Myx and Myy are the factored moments about the principal axes. The equation in Sections R103.5 and R10.3.6 can then be used to check if the section is adequate or not. Although this design process is conservative, only an adjustment in the amount of reinforcement will usually be necessary to obtain an adequate or more economical solution, Provisions for stendemess effects are contained in Sections 10.10-10.13. According to Section 10.10, columns must be designed based on a second-order analysis or, when applicable, the magnified moment method of Sections 10.11-10.13. In the latter case, 2 methods are provided to determine whether stories in a structure are nonsway or sway (Section 10.1.3). ‘The maximum unsupported column length ¢, that would permit stendemess to be neglected for a nonsway (k= 1) rectangular column of size h that is bent in double curvature with equal factored end moments is (Section 10.12.2) He 34-12 ML) 34-12(-1) «46> 40, use 40 r Mz S400r ey <12h @ 468 71st Annual Convention Proceedings Beam stiffnesses at the top and bottom of a column in a sway frame can have a significant influence on the degree of slendemess. For example, for a sway column, with a column-to-beam stiffness ratio 'Y = 1.0 at both, ends, the effective length factor k = 13 (see Figure R10.12.1), and the effects of slendemess may be neglected when &, < 5h. Ifthe beam stiffness is reduced to one-fifth of the column stiffness at each end, then k = 2.2, and slenderess effects need not be considered when fy<3h When slendemess effects must be considered, moments at column ends are to be magnified secording to Sections 10.12 and 10.13 for nonsway and sway frames, respectively, or a second-order analysis must be performed. For columns subjected to biaxial bending, the moment about each axis shall be magnified separately. Columns are designed for combined effects of axial load and magnified bending moments utilizing the methods described above. Details for column reinforcement ean be found in ACI Detailing Manual (ACI, 1994), Reinforcing Bar Detailing Manual (CRSI, 2000), and Simplified Design of Concrete Buildings of Moderate Size and Height (Fanella and Ghosh, 1993). Details for columns in regions of high and moderate seismic risk are also available (Fanella, 2000). Walls For buildings in the low to moderate height range, frame action alone is usually sufficient to provide adequate resistance to lateral loads, Since frame buildings depend Primarily on the rigidity of the slab-column or beam- column joints, they tend to be uneconomical beyond I1= 14 stories in regions of high to moderate seismicity and 15-20 stories elsewhere. High-rise frames often could not be efficiently designed to satisfy strength and drift requirements without structural walls. 1fpossible, walls should be located within the plan of the building to minimize torsional effects from lateral toads. Since conerete floor systems act as rigid horizontal diaphragms, lateral loads are distributed to lateral-force- ‘esisting elements in proportion to their rigidities, SEAOC 2002 a 1 Annwal Convention Proceedings b ‘Compression face po ¢ Layer, Avy + dn ean di : i ds | hn Congreson poste es Layeri, Ae — ca Layer 1, As “Tension face Strain diagram Refer to Figure 9 for location of points on interaction diagram. + Point 1: Pure compression (no bending) $Pacpax) = 0.80A g (0.858% +5 (Fy ~0.856Z)] ACT Equation (10-2) + Points 2-4 e. {oapembag(t-cr4)] ie Bd) ar$.a4(1-c2 4 Sea )jna a j 0.003, where Cy =0.85f,)| 2008 188th 0.003 ~ey1 cy = 2003 = 0.008 1-, $i) 5 2.0.69 to ensure thatthe sess inthe bars f= 60 ksi a)°s 0.8528 =1.05 ~0.05f; 20.65. (Section 102.725 fin ks) 0s) Sa) = 3 a 7 z z 7 wn GS] mw 1a] a] a afalelavals[alals 3 [000 | aon | 289 [ Tor [0 too [arr [woo] aa | too | aor | v0 | asm | 100 i Tose ame [as | ep as ise Pui tae) 339 | tae) 39 e | aa | 13 | a [10 [amaor [om | ae] arf 1 | aa6 fae] oer |e [202 [ie | 2 | 19 [327 + Poiat S: Pure bending (no axial load) Use iteranve procedure to determine $M, Figure 10, Simplified interaction diagram for rectangular, tied columns with symmetrical reinforcement (f, = 60 ksi). 469 SEAOC 2002 Since walls are typically located around elevators and stairs, their lengths are usually dictated by the size of these openings. From a practical standpoint, a minimum thickness of 6 in. is required for a wall with a single layer of reinforcement and 10 in. for a wall with two layers. ‘When walls are present in buildings of low to moderate height, frame-wall interaction can usually be neglected, since walls are normally stiff enough to attract the Imajority of the effects from lateral loads. This greatly reduces overall analysis and design time, and generally results ita nonsway frame. In contrast, frame-wall interaction must be considered for high-rise structures where the walls have a significant effect on the frame: in the upper stories, the frame must resist more than 100% of the story shear caused by lateral loads. Neglecting frame-wall interaction would not be conservative at these levels. Also, a more economical solution will be obtained when frame-wall interaction is considered. According to Section 14.2.2, walls shall be designed in accordance with Section 14.2, 14.3, and either 14.4, 145, or 14.8, Section 14.4 contains the requirements for walls designed as compression members using the strength design provisions of Chapter 10, which are described above for columns. Any wall may be designed by this method, and no minimum wall thicknesses are prescribed. The Empirical Design Method of Section 14.5 and the Alternate Design Method of Section 14.8 may only be used when various conditions ste satisfied. In addition to the provisions of Chapter 14, walls in buildings located in regions of high seismic risk must be designed and detailed in accordance with Section 21.6 In certain situations, special transverse reinforcement is required at wall ends (Section 21.6.6). No. special detailing is required in regions of moderate or low seismic risk. In high-rise buildings, walls are ordinarily designed in accordance with Section 14.4 ot, if applicable, Section 21.6. Interaction diagrams can be obtained utilizing the resources above for columns, For buildings of low to moderate height, walls with Uuniform cross-sections and uniformly distributed vertical and horizontal reinforcement are usually the most @, 470 71 Annual Conwention Proceedings economical. For rectangular walls containing uniformly distibuted vertical reinforcement and subjected to an axial load (P,) smaller than that producing balanced failure, the information in Figure 11 ean be used to determine the nominal moment capacity of the wall, This method should apply in a majority of cases, since the axial loads are usually small. Py ay oes Eehke Figure 11. Approximate nominal moment capacity of low-rise walls. In regions of low and moderate seismic risk, shear provisions for walls are contained in Section 11.10. The amounts of vertical and horizontal reinforcement required for shear depend on the magnitude of the factored shear force (V,): °Vy S$ $VY2: Provide minimum reinforcement in accordance with Section {1.10.9 or Chapter 14 + 6V,/2 Ve: Provide horizontal reinforcement in accordance with Equation (11-33) where $V, is defined in Section 11.10.5. Tables 12 and 13 contain minimum reinforcement per Chapter 14 and Section 11.10.9, respectively In regions of high seismic risk, the shear provisions of ‘Section 21.6.4 must be satisfied. errr SEAOC 2002 Table 11. Minimum wall reinforcement @ 1st Annual Convention Proceedings where A, is the area of horizontal shear reinforcement Mu SV/2). within a distance s and d = 0.84 (Section 1.10.4). For a example, for a wall reinforced with a single layer of wat Grade 60 No, 4 bars spaced at 12 in. maids | ] sues ia.) x Reinforcernent 0.85 x 0.20 x 60x (0,8 x: (tiny ov, = (08x12 y) «9 26, kips & | om [roses | 0 | weaie a 0.12 | Nos@ur | 019 | Noa @i2e [Ceo [neg te | om | ies @ 15" Table 13 contains values of V, per foot length of wall D 017 | No3@l: 029 | No4@ie” for various horizontal bar sizes and spacing. a] 020 | No @D" | 034 | Nos@ie” ithe 38 a we = Table 13. Shear strength ¢V, provided by Tops beioi La pueseir] — horizontal shear reinforcement (f, = 60 ksi) Win A, HEC OTE( TD = OTR or Grade 6, No 5 bas an . 7 smal (econ 1632) ee Nt Aft Oa72002h = D020 or Gia 6, Nos bas] | "HEE See ng of at) and smaller (Secon 1433) = No.3 {No | Nos] No.6 ote: two layers of enforcement are required for walls thicker 6 30 163 253 359, than 10. Sexton 143. 7 7 | 4a—[ a7 | 0a = 67_[ 132] 190 | 289 Table 12. Minimum wall reinforcement 2 60 | 109 | 169 | 39 (iVc2 < Vu S6V,)- io sa 38 [62] as ee 1 rr] 39 [3a | 96 Walthioess | age met 2 as a2 [| 27_| 180 in) Tez y_| Stet Relfrcement B at 78 117) 166 7: 7 wisi i 3 7a_[ wa | 154 ew 15 36 65 [01 | 16 3a ai 35] as 3 eo | tase ape eee eee eseoes eras af ee eg VD 2 4@ ue Values oF ¢V, are for walls witha single ler of reinforcement 7 O48 a ‘Tabulated values can be doubled for walls with two layers, i ase MSO 5" Min, A, 7 = 0.0025(12)h= 0.03h (Seaton 1.109) Note: swo layers of reinforcement are required for walls thicker than 10in. (Section 143.4) Design for required horizontal reinforcement in walls where V, > @V, can be simplified by determining values of the design shear strength (V,) provided by the horizontal reinforcement. According to Equation (I1- 33): atid avs 82 47. Once the required $V, = Vy ~ Ve is computed, a bar size and spacing that provides at least that amount of shear strength can easily be chosen from Table 13. Required vertical shear reinforcement is determined from Equation (11-34) in regions of low and moderate seismic risk. When the wall height-to-length ratio hy /@y <045, the amount of vertical reinforcement is equal to the amount of horizontal reinforcement. When hy /ty > 2.5, the minimum amount of vertical reinforcement in Table 12 is required. SEAQC 2002 @ Maximum spacing of horizontal and vertical bars is given in Sections 11.10.9.3 and 11.10.9.5, respectively. Conclusion ‘The design aids presented in this paper, which are based fon the provisions of ACI 318-99, can ‘be used to significantly decrease design and detailing time required for beams, one-way slabs, two-way slabs, columns, and walls. The PCA Web site contains design examples illustrating the use of the timesaving design methods presented here (www portcement.org/buildings). References American Concrete Institute, 1994, ACI Detailing Manual, SP-66(94), Farmington Hills, Michigan, American Concrete Institute, 1999, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-99) and Commentary (ACI 318R-99), Farmington Hills, Michigan. ‘American Concrete Institute, 1997, Design Handbook: Beams, One-way Slabs, Brackets, Footings, Pile Caps, Columns, Two-way Slabs, and Seismic Design, SP- 1797), Farmington Hills, Michigan. Conerete Reinforcing Institute, 2002, CRS! Design Handbook, Schaumburg, Ilinois. Conerete Reinforcing Institute, 2000, Reinforcing Bar Detailing, Schaumburg, Minos. Fanella, D.A., 2000, Seismic Detailing of Concrete Buildings, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Mlinois. Fanella, D.A. and Ghosh, S.K., 1993, Simplified Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings of Moderate Size and Height, 2* edition, Portland Cement Association, ‘Skokie, Illinois. Fanella, D.A. and Rabat, B.G,, 1997, Design of Concrete Beams for Torsion, 2° edition, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois. Hwang, S-J and Mochle, LP., “Models for Laterally Loaded Slab-Column Frames,” ACI Structural Journal, 472 — 711 Annual Convention Proceedings March-April 2000, Vol. 97, No. 2, pp. 345-352, American Concrete Institute, Michigan, Farmington Hills,