CHAPTER 2 MUD TESTING PROCEDURES

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CHAPTER 2 MUD TESTING PROCEDURES
In order to insure that the mud has optimum properties, certain standard tests are performed. These tests are used to make sure that the mud properties necessary for a successful drilling operation are achieved and maintained. The tests are also used as a tool to aid in diagnosing mud related problems. Detailed procedures concerning most of the following tests may be found in the American Petroleum Institute publication API RP 13B. If any questions arise concerning the procedure, this would be an excellent reference to check.

PHYSICAL TESTS
CORROSION TEST: CORROSION RING A. Description & Equipment 1. The placement of corrosion ring coupons in the drill string is one of the most common techniques used to evaluate the corrosiveness of the drilling fluid on the drill string and other steel components. The rings are used to determine the type of corrosion, whether it is localized pitting or a generalized attack. This method does not give reliable information about hydrogen embrittlement, stress corrosion cracking, etc. The corrosion rings are usually cut from metal similar to that used in making drill pipe. 2. The rings are stamped with a serial number for identification. They should be briefly inspected for atmospheric corrosion before insertion into the drill string. The rings should not be removed from the sealed wrappers until immediately before placement into the drill string. B. Test Procedures 1. Usually two rings are used for the corrosion determination. They are placed in the box recess of the tool joint. One is put in the string near the bottom, usually in the crossover sub from drill collars to drill pipe. The other ring is placed in the string near the surface, usually in the kelly saver sub. The serial number of each ring and its location should be recorded on the envelope the rings come in. 2. The rings should be in the drill string for 40 hours minimum and ideally for about 100 hours. 3. When finished, the coupons should be carefully removed from the drill string. 4. The mud should be wiped off each ring and then it should be visually inspected immediately . 5. The field visual inspection should include determining the type of corrosion present, if any. This inspection can quickly tell if there is generalized or localized attack as well as some degree of the severity of attack. The following procedure can be used to determine if the corrosion by-products are iron sulfide, iron carbonate, or iron oxide: a. Scrape some of the material from the corrosion ring into a titrating dish. b. Add a few drops of Iron Sulfide Detecting Solution
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If iron sulfide is present, the scrapings will turn bright yellow and a rotten egg odor will released If iron carbonate is present, the scraping will effervescence slowly. The absence of a bright yellow color or effervescence indicates the scrapings are iron oxide. 6. From this test, a quick determination can be made as to whether the corrosion inhibitor treatments need to be increased or changed. 7. If a more quantitative report on corrosion is required, the coupons should be dipped in light oil, re-wrapped in the shipping envelope they came in, and submitted to a qualified lab for detailed inspection. The lab will determine any corrosion by-products and calculate the corrosion rate due to weight loss. C. Calculations a) Corrosion Rate, g/m2×d = wt.loss, mg x 240 / surface area, cm2 x hours exposed b) Corrosion Rate, mm/a = wt. loss, mg x 11.2 / surface area, cm2 x hours exposed c) Corrosion Rate g/m2×d = 21.4 x Corrosion Rate, mm/a d) Corrosion Rate, mm/a = 0.05 x Corrosion Rate, g/m2×d D. Remarks 1. The importance of the quick field inspection cannot be overstressed. Obvious problems with corrosion can be kept to a minimum with early treatments, before lab results are obtained. 2. It is also important that extreme care be taken when placing the corrosion rings in the drill string. Any mechanical damage resulting from improper placement will influence the corrosion rate calculation since they are based on coupon weight loss. If the plastic coating on the ring is damaged or absent the ring should not be used. 3. The coupons should be clean before placement in the drill string. Also, if a serial number is stamped on both the coupon and the envelope it came in, check to see if the two numbers match. All the information on the envelope should be filled out.

c. be d. e.

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PRE-STRESSED BEARINGS A. Description & Equipment A method to detect the presence of hydrogen sulfide is to use pre-stressed roller bearings. They measure the hydrogen embrittling tendencies of the mud due possibly to H2S. These coupons have been pre-stressed with a 280,000 kPa load. When the coupon comes in contact with H2S, it will crack due to this stressed condition. Unfortunately, they also can crack for other reasons. However, if they do not crack, then H2S is definitely not present in the mud. So when pre-stressed bearings are used and one is found to be cracked, this indicates a strong possibility that H2S is present but it is not a guarantee. If the test indicates the possibility of H2S, then other tests should be run to confirm the presence of H2S and to determine the amount present. B. Procedure Usually a couple of the coupons are placed into a porous sample bag and anchored in the mud flow line. Periodic observations will detect any cracks that appear in any of the bearings. If cracks start to show up, then H2S should be suspected and other tests should be run to confirm it.

FLUID LOSS:

STANDARD LOW PRESSURE (API) A. Description & Equipment The filtration and wall building properties of the mud are determined by means of a filter press. The volume of filtrate depends on many factors, as is illustrated by the following equation: V = KAP / YT V= A= P= Y= T= K= flow rate area (cm3) of membrane or cake pressure (kPa) differential across cake or membrane viscosity (assume 1 mPa.s for water) of fluid passing through the cake thickness (mm) of the cake constant of permeability

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4. (Important when using Inhibitive. The mathematical equation below allows an approximation of the filtrate volume at some future time if the volume collected in some shorter time is known. results may be different from what is indicated by surface tests.6 cm2. Procedure: Fann MB & 12B Filter Press 1.5 or 15 minutes. Gyp or Saline fluids) 5. Wash parts thoroughly after each use. fill the cell to 0. Remarks These tests are designed to filter for 30 minutes through a filtration area of 45. Another observation besides filtrate volume is the deposition of a filter cake. (This conserves CO2 gas). (Important when using Inhibitive. Install cell onto regulator assembly. At the end of 30 minutes. release the pressure and record the volume in cm3 of filtrate collected.9 cm2) therefore the volume collected through the half area or Mini-Press must be doubled to correct it to the standard full size (API) filter press area.5 cm from the top with a freshly stirred sample of mud. Check to insure that the rubber O-ring is in place. put cell cap on and lock. cm3 T1 = usually 7.5 cm from the edge with a freshly stirred sample of mud.5 minutes. At end of 30 minutes release the pressure and record the volume in cm3. 2. Q2 = Q1 x (square root of (T2 / T1)) Q2 = Estimated Filtrate at Time T2. Gyp or Saline fluids) C. It is not advisable to run this unit for 7.5 minutes T2 = usually 30 minutes D. Apply 700 kPa (100 psi) pressure for 30 minutes. Place filter paper on top. 5.8 ± 0. Place a clean. and place graduated cylinder under the filtrate drip tube.Measurements made with the filter press give an indication as to what is going on down hole. graduated cylinder under the filtrate drip tube. Install screw-on base. The Mini-Press has half the area of the regular API Press (22. fill the cell (dry) to 0. 4. dry. Attach to support bracket. cake thickness and permeability variations. Page 2-5 . cm3 Q1 = Known Filtrate at Time T1. collect the remaining drop on the drip tube. The quality and visual appearance of the filter cake is almost as important as the filtrate volume. Wash thoroughly after each use. 2. Due to temperature and pressure differences. 6. Procedure: Mini Press 1. B. With the cell (dry) upside down. Apply 700 kPa (100 psi) pressure to the cell and filter for 30 minutes. 3. and a finger over the small hole in the other end. 3. With rubber liner installed. The 30 minute fluid loss can be estimated by doubling the filtrate collected in 7. The filter cake results from the suspended solids in the mud being deposited on a porous medium under pressure.

A cake thickness of less than 2 mm is usually considered acceptable. the cell containing the mud must be designed to withstand a working pressure of at least 10350 kPa (1500 psi). texture. 5. Correct the filtrate volume to standard filtration test area by doubling the filtrate volume collected in 30 minutes. 9. Insure rubber O ring is in place. place the cell into the heating jacket with both top and bottom valve stems closed. 3. (NOTE: The actual top and bottom pressure combination is shown in Table 2. 4. At the end of the test. Open the top valve stem 1/4 turn. Record the total cm3 filtrate volume. Also due to the elevated temperature. Place the pressure receiver on the bottom valve stem and lock it in place. Test Procedure 1. this indicates a no control situation. Quality of the cake should be noted. Bleed pressure from top and bottom pressuring units. such as hardness. compressibility and recovery. a pressurized collection device that is capable of withstanding a back pressure of at least 3500 kPa (500 psi) must be used. Description & Equipment The equipment and test is very similar to the standard test except that this test is run at an elevated temperature (to simulate bottom-hole temperature) and a higher pressure differential (usually 3500 kPa). as hot mud can spray out the pressure release valve. HIGH PRESSURE / HIGH TEMPERATURE A. Close bottom and top valve stems. so pressure is applied to the mud while heating to prevent water from boiling. Close the bottom valve stem IMMEDIATELY. softness. maintaining temperature and pressure as accurately as possible. Page 2-6 . and flexibility should be made. After tightening down the end cap.E.1). Apply 700 kPa (100 psi) pressure to the bottom receiver and 1380-2070 kPa (200-300 psi) pressure to the top regulator with both valve stems closed. Place the pressure regulator on the top valve stem and lock it in place. 7. open the bottom valve stem and increase the top pressure unit to 4200 kPa (600 psi) to start filtration. the filter cake should be examined. Care should be exercised not to fill the cell closer than 2 cm from the top to allow for expansion as the mud heats. Warning: If the bottom receiver gauge starts to climb rapidly while increasing the pressure on the top regulator. make sure both valve stems are closed and both regulators backed off. Filter Cake Upon dismantling the cell. Transfer the thermometer to the thermometer well in the cell. Load the cell with mud from the flowline or a freshly stirred sample. 8. 2. The thickness of the cake should be reported in millimeters. Since the test is run at elevated temperature and pressure. Connect the heating jacket to a 110V electrical outlet. 6. When the sample reaches the desired test temperature. Place a thermometer in the thermometer well and preheat the heating jacket to the desired test temperature. B. Collect filtrate for 30 minutes. then add filter paper on top. CAUTION: The HT-HP cell will still contain approximately 4140 kPa (600 psi) pressure.

Figure 2.1 RECOMMENDED TOP PRESSURE AND BACK PRESSURE Temperature Deg C To 90 90-150 Deg F to 200 200-300 Top Pressure kPa 3500 4200 psi 500 600 Back Pressure kPa 0 700 psi 0 100 2. The cations on the clay particles are replaced with methylene blue cations. Loosen the end cap locking screws and then lift the cap out with a rocking motion using the valve stem as a handle. When the clays are unable to exchange any more methylene blue cations. so the top pressure must be increased by the same amount. Page 2-7 . D. Loosen the valve stem on the solid end slowly and bleed pressure from the cell.1 shows the pressures recommended for various temperatures. Remarks 1. Figure 2. 10. As the test temperature exceeds 100°C. extreme care must be exercised at all times. the volume collected in 30 minutes must be doubled in order to correct it to the standard filtration area of 45. C. The 3500 kPa (500 psi) differential must be maintained. All safety precautions must be met.Maintain the cell in an upright position and cool to room temperature.Clean and dry the apparatus thoroughly after use. especially in the cell breakdown procedure when the filtration is complete.8 cm2. Description & Equipment This test is designed to determine the amount of active clays such as Bentonite in a mud.9 cm2. Due to the high temperatures and pressures involved in this test. The upper and lower limits of the pressure differential are determined partly by the test temperature. The amount of methylene blue needed to reach the end point for the particular sample is usually expressed as kg/m3 of Bentonite equivalent. the back pressure must be increased to allow for the increased vapor pressure of the water phase at the higher temperature. the excess dye left over in solution indicates that the end point has been reached. Calculations Since the filtration area is 22. MBT (CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY) A.

Lignosulfonates. If the greenish-blue halo is again evident. Add Methylene Blue solution in 0. Equivalent Bentonite Content. 10 cm3 2 cm3 syringe Filter paper Distilled water Hot Plate 250 cm3 Erlenmeyer Flask Methylene Blue solution Hydrogen Peroxide solution (3%) 5N Sulfuric Acid B. 1 cm3. Test Procedure 1. Page 2-8 .25 D.5 cm3 increments and swirl the mixture for about 60 seconds between additions of Methylene Blue. When the greenish-blue halo spreading from the dyed solids is detected. remove one drop of liquid with a stirring rod and place the drop on a piece of MBT filter paper. The end point of the titration is reached when dye appears as a greenish-blue halo surrounding the dyed solids. Remarks 1. While the solids are still suspended. continue Methylene Blue additions as before until a drop taken after 2 minutes shows the blue halo. Add 15 cm3 of 3% Hydrogen Peroxide and 0.2. 3. Methylene Blue Capacity cm3 of methylene blue added / cm3 mud used in the test 2. kg/m3 = Methylene Blue Capacity x 14. figure 2. 2 cm3. the end point has been reached.5 cm3 of 5N Sulfuric Acid. polyacrylates. shake the flask an additional 2 minutes without adding any more Methylene Blue and place another drop on the filter paper. and lignite’s. Add 2 cm3 of a freshly stirred sample of mud to 10 cm 3 of distilled water in an Erlenmeyer flask.This test requires the following materials: Glass Stirring Rod Pipettes. C. that absorb methylene blue. Dilute to about 50 cm3 with distilled water. Calculations 1. If the halo does not appear after 2 minutes. The additions of Sulfuric Acid with Hydrogen Peroxide are intended to destroy the effects of materials such CMS. Muds can contain materials other than Bentonite. Boil gently for 10 minutes. 2.

2 cm3 Endpoint.00 kg/m3 Figure 2. The CATION exchange capacity can then be expressed as mill-equivalents of methylene blue per 100 grams of clay.87 = 50.5 Equivalent Bentonite Content kg/m3 = 3.2.5 x 14.25 = 49. 7 cm3 Methylene Blue Capacity = 7 / 2 = 3.2 METHYLENE BLUE TEST ENDPOINT Page 2-9 . The CATION exchange capacity of clays and shales can be determined directly by the above method. Example: Sample Volume. A weighed amount of clay or shale is dispersed in water with a high speed mixer. The test then proceeds as above except that the hydrogen peroxide is omitted.

62 x psi/ft Page 2-10 . 5. NOTE: Gently tapping the bottom of the cup with the lid may aid in removing air. Any instrument of sufficient accuracy to permit measurement within +5 kg/m3 may be used.82 kg/m3 = lb/ft3 x 16. Clean and dry balance and lid. kg/m3. The SI unit for mud gradient is kPa/m. Set the knife on the fulcrum and move the counterweight along the graduated arm until the cup and arm are balanced. 6. as indicated by the leveling bubble. 2. Fill the clean. Place the lid on the cup and seal it with a gentle twisting motion being sure some mud runs out of the hole in the top of the cap. The mass of a mud cup attached to one end of a beam is balanced on the other end by a counterweight that is free to slide along a graduated scale. C. Cover the hole in the cap with a finger. 3. Description & Equipment Density is expressed in units of kilograms per cubic metro.MUD DENSITY: MUD BALANCE A. B.02 kg/m3 = Relative Density (g/cm3) x 1000 The fourth scale on the balance is a mud gradient scale with units of psi/1000 ft. The commercial mud balance is the instrument generally used. kPa/m = 22. wash or wipe all mud from the outside of the cup and arm then dry the balance. dry cup with the freshly obtained mud to be weighed. Set up the instrument case so that it is level. 4. Procedure: Mud Balance 1. Calculations The SI density units are kg/m3 and can be found from three of the four different scales on the balance by: kg/m3 = lb/gal x 119. A leveling bubble is mounted on the beam to indicate when the instrument is balanced.

then force mud into the balance pushing down of the pump knob. E. Press down on the pump assembly firmly. Screw retaining ring over lid. Fill the remainder of the balance with water then put the lid on. 7. 6. with the balance on a stable surface. as well as a pump assembly for providing the pressure. The mass of a mud cup attached to one end of a beam is balanced on the other end by a counterweight that is free to slide along a graduated scale. with the valve pushed down (open). slowly pull up on the pump assembly until the valve comes up. 2. Fill the clean. as indicated by the leveling bubble. With the balance on a stable surface place the end of pump assembly on the end of the valve. Precautions 1. Check calibration of the balance Distilled Water = 1000 kg/m3 2. A leveling bubble is mounted on the beam to indicate when the instrument is balanced. Set up the instrument case so that it is level. 5. Make sure air bubbles have not been trapped in the mud. Under pressure the bubbles are greatly compressed providing an accurate volume. Fill the mud balance with clean shale until it balances at 1000 kg/m3 with the cover on. The balance has a lid with a valve and a retaining ring to hold the lid in place. 3. To release the pressure. Clean and dry the mud balance thoroughly after use. kg/m3. While maintaining the pressure on the knob. The pressurized mud balance is the instrument used if there is entrained air or gases in the mud. Record the total density. B. 2. Wash or wipe all mud from the outside of the cup and arm then dry the balance.D. and seal it with a gentle twisting motion being sure some mud runs out of the hole in the top of the cap. put the end of the pump Page 2-11 . Description & Equipment Density is expressed in units of kilograms per cubic metre. 3. Fill the pump with mud to be tested. The relative density of the shale is calculated from: Shale Relative Density = 1000 / (2000 . 4. Pull back slightly on the knob. 3. dry cup with the freshly obtained mud to be weighed. Set the knife on the fulcrum and move the counterweight along the graduated arm until the cup and arm are balanced. Shale Relative Density 1. Place the lid on the cup.Total Density) PRESSURIZED MUD BALANCE A. The appearance of a ring on the bottom side of the lid indicates that the cup was not completely full of mud. Procedure 1. then remove the pump.

is multiplied by the cell constant. It is usually expressed in units of ohm-metres and has a numerical equivalence to the electrical resistance of a column of fluid one metre long and one square metre in cross section or ohmsmetres2/metre. b. Pull up slightly on the knob. Description & Equipment The measurement of electrical resistivity of a mud sample requires a calibrated resistivity cell.assembly on the valve and push down forcing the valve down. Clean and dry balance. lid and valve.02 kg/m3 = Relative Density (g/cm3) x 1000 The fourth scale on the balance is a mud gradient scale with units of psi/1000 ft. in ohms. C. Then the sample resistance. then remove the pump. Page 2-12 . The direct indicating resistivity meter measures a sample's resistance and then internally converts resistance to resistivity so that the reading taken from the meter is actually resistivity. A meter which measures sample resistance which has to be converted to resistivity in which the cell constant for the instrument must be known. The SI unit for mud gradient is kPa/m.82 kg/m3 = lb/ft3 x 16. D. an instrument for measuring the resistance of the sample in the cell and a thermometer for measuring sample temperature.62 x psi/ft. in metres2/metre. Two general types of instruments are used to determine resistivity: a. 8. to get sample resistivity. Calculations The SI density units are kg/m3 and can be found from three of the four different scales on the balance by: kg/m3 = lb/gal x 119. By definition resistivity is the electrical resistance offered to the passage of a current. kPa/m = 22. Precautions Check calibration of the balance Distilled Water = 1000 kg/m3 RESISTIVITY A. To clean pump draw water in and out several times.

Rmf. 2.3 RESISTIVITY NOMOGRAPH for NaCl SOLUTIONS Page 2-13 . dry resistivity cell with a freshly stirred sample of mud or mud filtrate. Also record the sample temperature. Figure 2. Rm. determine the resistivity of the sample. Procedure 1. Otherwise. It is very important that no air or gas is trapped in the sample. in ohm-metres to the nearest 0.01 ohm-metre as indicated by the dial.B. After connecting the cell to the instrument. Calculations 1. Figure 2. To find the resistivity at any other temperature. report the resistivity of the mud. use Resistivity Nomograph for NaCl Solutions.3. or filtrate. C. 2. Fill the clean. Calculate the resistivity of the sample if a resistance-type meter is used.

RETORT (Liquid & Solids Content) A. Add a drop of wetting agent (Aerosol) to a 10cm3 or 50 cm3 graduated cylinder (depending of the size of the retort being used) and place it under the drain of the condenser. 4. Fill the lower sample cup with a freshly stirred mud sample and replace the calibration lid. is measured. Lift the retort assembly from the insulator block. remove the sample cup from the retort chamber. allowing any excess to escape. The liquid vapor is passed through a condenser and then collected in a graduated cylinder. Using a spatula as a screwdriver. Add a drop of wetting agent (Aerosol) to a 100% by volume graduated cylinder and place it under the drain of the condenser. 2. or pack steel wool around the upper portion of the immersion heater. Screw the lower retort chamber into the upper chamber while maintaining both chambers in an upright position. 4. Removable Retort 1. 8. The volume of the liquid. Continue heating until liquid no longer drips from the condenser. Mud is placed in a steel container and then heated until the liquid portion has been vaporized. Fill the lower chamber with a freshly obtained mud sample. Plug in the retort and turn it on. Screw the immersion heater into the cup/chamber assembly. Pack the upper chamber with very fine steel wool or add 5-6 drops of "liquid steel wool" to the mud in the sample cup. When using a thermostated retort. Wipe off any excess mud and screw the lower sample cup (with calibration lid still in place) into the upper chamber. Attach the assembled retort to the condenser. 5. the light will go out at the end of the test. 5. both oil and water. 3. B. Replace the retort assembly in the insulator block and close the insulating cover. maintaining both upper and lower chambers in the upright position. 6. Heating time is usually 20-30 minutes depending on mud type. 7. The results are reported as a volume fraction basis. Remove the calibration lid from the chamber being careful not to remove any mud adhering to the lid. 3. Screw condenser onto outlet hose of upper chamber. Add 5-6 drops of "liquid steel wool" to the mud in the sample cup. 6. 2. Description & Equipment A retort is used to determine the amount and types of liquids and the amount of solids in the mud. Test Procedure Fann MiniStill 1. Place the calibration lid on the chamber allowing any excess mud to escape. Page 2-14 .

000 mg/L. If a Fann Ministill is used.total liquid fraction 3. The volume fraction of each constituent is the % by volume divide by 100. Figure 2. the % by volume water and oil is read directly. Be sure to unplug the retort after the test.total liquid fraction b) if a 50 cm3 retort is used: volume fraction oil. 4. Precautions 1. Careful when handling retort assembly. fw = cm3 water / 50 volume fraction solids.4 shows the volume occupied by various concentrations of salt in a mud. D. fo = cm3 oil / 10 volume fraction water. If a Baroid Retort is used. Sample assembly can be cooled in water or snow. as it is HOT! Loosen sample cup from expansion chamber as soon as possible. Page 2-15 . fs = 1. fs = 1. 2.00 .C. Make sure that the lower chamber is completely full and has no air entrapped. read the volume of oil and water. fo = cm3 oil / 50 volume fraction water. For complete SOLIDS CALCULATIONS refer to Chapter 10.00 . fw = cm3 water / 10 volume fraction solids. 2. Calculations 1. Calculate the fractions as follows a) if a 10 cm3 retort is used: volume fraction oil. It becomes harder to remove over time. Average Relative Density calculations need to be corrected for dissolved salt when the chloride concentration is greater than 10. 3.

Description & Equipment The Marsh funnel is a simple device used for routine measurements of mud viscosity. Be sure to fill the funnel to the bottom of the screen. The three basic types of viscometers: hand crank models. VISCOMETER A. and 300 r/min.VISCOSITY FUNNEL VISCOSITY A. the rheological properties are determined. will be discussed separately. The mud runs through a fixed orifice at the end of the funnel which is 50.8 mm x 4. 12 volt two speed and 115 volt six speed. but other speeds are available on some instruments.5 seconds). Do not bend or flatten the brass orifice in the bottom of the funnel. 2. From the dial readings at the two speeds. B.5 ± 0. C.76 mm. A 10-mesh screen covers half of the top and is designed to remove any foreign matter and drilled cuttings from the mud. Precautions 1. These are rotational type viscometers powered by a hand crank or electric motor. 2. Hold the funnel in an upright position with a finger over the outlet. is indicated on a dial. The cylinder usually turns at 600 r/min. Remarks 1. Remove the finger from the outlet and measure the number of seconds for one litre of mud to drain from the funnel.. B. D. Record the temperature when checking the funnel viscosity. 3. Pour mud to be tested through the screen until the mud level reaches the bottom of the screen. which is dependent on the mud viscosity. Procedure 1. 152 mm in diameter at the tip and 305 mm long with a capacity of 1500 cm3. torque arising from the viscous drag of the fluid is exerted on the bob. Clean and dry thoroughly after use. 2. 3. The Marsh funnel is conical in shape. Description & Equipment A more scientific means of measuring mud viscosity is by use of direct indicating coaxial cylinder viscometers. As the cylinder rotates through the mud. Check the calibration of the Marsh funnel (water at 21°C is 27. The torque is balanced by a helical spring and the deflection. Procedure Page 2-16 . The test measures the time in seconds it takes for one litre of mud to drain from a filled Marsh funnel.

pull the gear shift all the way up (300 r/min. setting or one setting up and continue cranking at a rate such that slippage occurs. and note the maximum dial deflection before the gel breaks. 4. switch to Page 2-17 . Slowly and steadily turn the gel knob in a counter-clockwise direction at about 3 r/min. Place a recently stirred sample of mud in a suitable container and immerse the rotor sleeve exactly to the scribed line. it is necessary to change the gear shift setting to the neutral or middle position. Fann Hand Crank VG Meter . Push the high speed stir button and stir the mud for a few seconds. 5. allow the mud to stand undisturbed for 10 seconds. reading. 5.) 2.Baroid 280 Rheometer 1. push the gear shift all the way down (600 r/min. Pull the gear selector all the way up to the 300 r/min.) 2. With the gear selector all the way down. Wait for the dial reading to reach a steady value and record the 600 r/min. (Tighten the lock nut on the leg of the leg. setting and continue cranking.) 3. is the 10 second gel strength. Divide the maximum reading by 2 to obtain 10 minute gels.100 r/min. 3. switch the gear selector to the middle position and allow the mud to remain undisturbed for 10 seconds.) 3. Wait for the dial reading to reach a steady value and record the 600 r/min. In order to measure the 10 second gel strength reading. Re-stir the mud at the high speed setting and then let it remain undisturbed for 10 minutes.) 2. To measure the 10 second gel strength.) setting. Record the 600 r/min. Continue turning the crank until a steady dial reading appears.). Stir the mud at high speed for 10 seconds. reading. setting while cranking and record a steady dial reading. (Tighten the lock nut on the leg. Repeat the measurement as before noting the maximum dial deflection before the gel breaks. In order to measure the 10 second gel strength. The maximum deflection of the dial before the gel breaks divided by 2. rotate the crank for about 10 turns or cranks. 12 V 1. 4. (Tighten the lock nut on the leg. Restir the mud at the high speed setting for 10 seconds and then let the mud stand undisturbed for 10 minutes. With the gear shift all the way down at the high speed (1. Move the gear shift all the way up to the 300 r/min.Model 34 1. Place a recently stirred sample of mud in a suitable container and immerse the rotor sleeve exactly to the scribed line. Record the steady dial reading as the 300 r/min. turn the crank until slippage occurs. reading. With the motor still running.Model 34A. Repeat the gel measurement as before and report the maximum reading divided by 2 as the 10 minute gel strength. (NOTE: The time required to reach a steady value is dependent upon the mud characteristics but is usually less than 15 seconds. It is not necessary to change the gear shift setting.) and record the steady dial reading. With the motor running. (NOTE: The time required to reach a steady value is dependent upon the mud characteristics but is usually less than 15 seconds. then release the gear shift to the 600 r/min. Fann 2 Speed VG Meter . reading. Divide the maximum reading by 2 to obtain 10 second gels. Slowly and steadily turn the handwheel in a clockwise direction at a speed of about 3 r/min. Place a recently stirred sample of mud in any suitable container and immerse the rotor sleeve in the mud exactly to the scribed line. 4.

neutral. 3.s = 600 r/min. C. Remarks 1. For the 10 minute gel strength. Pa = half of the maximum dial deflection after 10 minutes. If the unit is electric. With the motor running and the motor speed switch in the high position. Repeat the gel measurements as before and report the maximum reading divided by 2 as the 10 minute gel strength.Plastic Viscosity / 2 10 second gel strength. Pa = half of the maximum dial deflection after 10 seconds. reading. Keep viscometer upright when cleaning so that water does not get up into the bearings. On the hand crank models.s = 600 r/min. Record the test temperature when measuring rheological properties of a mud. Divided by 2 to obtain the 10 second gel strength. Precautions 1. Repeat the gel measurement as before and report the maximum dial deflection divided by 2 as the 10 minute gel strength. push the gear shift all the way down (600 r/min. Do not use a hollow bob in a heat cup. Fann 6 Speed VG Meter .) and record the steady dial reading. Place a recently stirred sample of mud in a suitable container and immerse the rotor sleeve exactly to the scribed line. reading . Wait for the dial reading to reach a steady value and record the 600 r/min.) 3. reading Yield Value. mPa. Apparent Viscosity. reading / 2 D. then shut off the motor. With the gear shift all the way down. especially with oil muds and on water muds used in deep wells. Reporting Results From All Instruments Plastic Viscosity. the correct speed is achieved by turning the crank as fast as Page 2-18 . Then allow the mud to remain undisturbed for 10 seconds.Model 35A 1. 4. reading .) before allowing it to remain undisturbed for 10 minutes. 2. Restir the mud at the high speed setting for 10 seconds and then let the mud stand undisturbed for 10 minutes. After 10 seconds slowly and steadily turn the handwheel in a counter-clockwise direction at about 3 r/min. 2. E. Sleeve and bob should be washed and dried after each operation. do not supply more voltage than the unit was designed to handle.).300 r/min. 5. (Tighten the lock nut on the platform. 5. mPa. Pa = 300 r/min. The maximum deflection of the dial before the gel breaks divided by 2 is the 10 second gel strength. 10 minute gel strength. After 10 seconds turn the motor on the low speed position and measure the maximum dial deflection before the gel breaks. re-stir the sample at high speed (600 r/min. (NOTE: The time required to reach a steady value is dependent upon the mud characteristics but is usually less than 15 seconds. switch the motor speed to the low position (300 r/min.) pull the gear shift up to the middle position and shut the motor off.) 2. In order to measure the 10 second gel strength (at 3 r/min. 4.

Finger tight only. With the instrument in this position. the dial does not have to return to zero during the undisturbed period.possible. 6. Hold the lower shaft firmly with one hand. A slipping clutch mechanism will then maintain the selected r/min. The properties and characteristics of the mud will determine if the dial returns to zero during the undisturbed periods of the gel measurements. 3. Level the unit with the adjustable feet. The principal of operation is to drive a spindle in the test fluid with a calibrated spring. USE NO TOOLS. lifting up slightly. Make sure power switch is off. The viscous drag of the fluid against the spindle is measured in centipoise viscosity or milliPascal seconds by the spring deflection and a rotary transducer. The dial reading in water should be between 0.5 and 3. in the fluid to be tested . The light on the front of the Fann Model 34A viscometer should be on when the instrument is being operated. Procedure 1. Equipment The Brookfield Viscometer is used for measuring mud viscosity at very low shear rate ranges. on the lower shaft. When measuring gel properties. This is critical in monitoring polymer systems for optimum performance. F. it should not be forced back to zero if it does not freely return to zero. Follow instructions on the display. The dial reading in air should not exceed one. Therefore. 3. Turn power switch on. The low shear rate ranges attained by the Brookfield allows the monitoring of drilling fluid properties very close to the well bore wall or drill string. LEFT HAND THREAD. Remove spindle. Lower the unit with knob on the stand. B. Page 2-19 . and press any key to autozero the unit. mount the Brookfield on the stand. The dial reading in water should be between 1. Failure of the viscometer to pass any one of the above tests indicates that the bearings are bad and should be replaced by a qualified instrument technician. BROOKFIELD VISCOMETER A. Install spindle #4. then plug in the Brookfield.3 r/min to 100 r/min. 7. while screwing the spindle on with the other. Viscometer Check The viscometer should have a zero dial reading when placed in an upright position in air prior to running any test. Place water in a suitable container and immerse the rotor sleeve to the scribed line. The spindle can run from 0. by maintaining correct polymer levels without overtreatment causing possible shear thinning effects. 2. Plug in temperature probe if it is to be used. submerging the spindle up to the raised line on the cut out section. (VERY IMPORTANT) 5. Rotate the sleeve at 600 r/min. rotate the sleeve at 600 r/min. Rotate the sleeve at 300 r/min. Tighten the knob with the bullseye bubble as level as possible. if there is one installed. Wait until you see display "REMOVE SPINDLE PRESS ANY KEY" 4.5 and 2. In an area free of vibration or movement. When determining the maximum dial deflection. no allowance needs to be made if the dial did not start at zero.

Make sure upper right hand corner of display shows "SP64" indicating Spindle #4. Clean the Brookfield. record reading then proceed to next speed. Press Set Speed to run that speed. Be very careful when installing or removing spindle. 9. C.8. Refer to Brookfield Manual for further information. After analysis is complete. Press Select Display pad once to show cP in the upper left hand corner. If cP result shows "EEEE" this indicates the sample is over-range. continue with other speeds. 11. remembering it is a left hand thread. If "?" is displayed the sample is under-range. Page 2-20 . Precautions 1. shut down Brookfield and remove spindle carefully. 3. 4. 2. Allow reading to stabilize. 10. selects the speed to be run. Pressing up or down arrows.

Measure 1 cm3 of a freshly stirred sample of mud into a titration dish using a syringe. 3. use 0.1 N) Sulfuric Acid is used. record the Pm as 0. Add 4 or 5 drops of Phenolphthalein. Dilute the mud in the dish with about 50 cm3 of distilled water. 2.02 N) Sulfuric Acid B. When used in conjunction with the filtrate alkalinity determination. the Pm is reported as volume of acid added to 1 cm3 of mud times 5.5 cm 3 of mud and report the Pm as the volume of acid added times 2. Pm. D. as the number of cm3 of N/50 Sulfuric Acid added to until the pink color disappears. Pm A. C. Description & Equipment This test measures the alkalinity of the whole mud. 4. Procedure 1. the amount of excess lime present in the mud can be determined This test requires the following materials: Titration Dish Syringe Distilled Water Phenolphthalein Indicator N/50 (0. If the mud sample is deeply colored and the color change is hard to see. titrate rapidly with N/50 Sulfuric Acid until the pink color disappears. Page 2-21 . Remarks 1. 5.CHEMICAL TESTS ALKALINITY: ALKALINITY MUD. If the sample does not change color. If the sample turns pink. Calculations Report the Phenolphthalein alkalinity of the mud. If N/10 (0.

kg/m3 = 0. 2.ALKALINITY: FILTRATE. 2.Pf) D.4. Excess lime content Lime. Pf is the amount of N/50 Sulfuric Acid required to discharge the pink color. Pf & Mf A. C. If a pink color develops. E. Add N/50 Sulfuric Acid until the color changes from a blue-green to a pink color. Procedure: Pf 1. the bicarbonate ion (HCO3 ) and the carbonate ion (CO3=) concentration. These two tests together can be used to determine the hydroxide ion (OH -).4).74 (Pm . If no color develops Pf is 0 (and pH is <8. This test requires the following materials: Titration Dish Pipettes Distilled Water Phenolphthalein Indicator N/50 (0. Pipette 1 cm3 of filtrate into a titration dish.02 N) Sulfuric Acid Bromo Cresol Green-Methyl Red Indicator B. Calculations: Pf 1. Reported in cm3. Procedure: Mf 1. add 2 or 3 drops of Bromo Cresol GreenMethyl Red indicator. Calculations: Mf Mf = cm3 acid for Pf + cm3 acid for Mf An estimation of hydroxide ion. Also the Pf can be used with the Pm to determine the excess amount of lime present in the mud. Add 2 to 3 drops of Phenolphthalein indicator solution. 2. bicarbonate ion and carbonate ion concentrations can be determined by use of Figure 2. Page 2-22 . Description & Equipment These tests are designed to measure the alkalinity contributions from soluble mud constituents. add N/50 Sulfuric Acid until the color changes from pink to that of the original sample. To the same sample used for the Pf determination.

Mf is a negative number (indicates CO3= and HCO3=) where no Pf reading or very low Pf (indicates HCO3= only) Nomenclature Pf Mf OHCO3= HCO3= = = = = = Phenolphthalein end point of the sample using N/50 Sulfuric Acid Bromo Cresol Green Methyl Red end point of sample using N/50 Sulfuric Acid Hydroxide ion Carbonate ion Bicarbonate ion Calculation Pf x 340 = mg/L OH- (2Pf .Mf) x 340 = mg/L OH[2 (Mf . Page 2-23 .4 CALCULATIONS OF ALKALINITY Test Results where Pf = Mf (indicates OH. 4. Add a measured amount (2 to 4 cm 3) of Barium Chloride solution to precipitate the carbonates. Titrate immediately to the end point with N/50 Hydrochloric Acid.Pf)] x 600 = mg/L Mf x 600 = mg/L CO3= 2Pf x 600 = mg/L CO3= (Mf . Add a measured amount (2 to 5 cm3) of N/10 Sodium Hydroxide to convert the bicarbonates to carbonates. Barium Chloride solution.and CO3= only) where 2Pf = Mf (indicates CO3= only) where 2Pf . Add 2 to 4 drops of Phenolphthalein indicator to 1 cm 3 of filtrate in a titrating dish and titrate to the end point with N/50 Hydrochloric Acid. Record the cm3 of acid as P.2Pf) x 1220 = mg/L Mf x 1220 = mg/L HCO3= F.only) where 2Pf .Mf is a positive number (indicates OH. 5. 2. Place 1 cm3 of filtrate into a titrating dish and add 24 cm3 of distilled water. Place exactly the same amounts of Sodium Hydroxide solution. Procedure: P. the following procedure can be used: 1.Figure 2. Add 2 to 4 drops of Phenolphthalein indicator and stir with a stirring rod. P1 and P2 If the filtrate is dark due to lignite or lignosulfonate.* 7. 6. 3.

Care must be taken when the filtrate is deeply colored as this will mask the end point (see P. Indicator Methyl Orange Bromo Cresol Green End Point red yellow Bicarbonates (eq/m3) = 20 x (P2 . hydroxides and bicarbonates are estimated from the following calculations: P2 greater than P1 P1 greater than P2 *NOTE: G. P1. Therefore. Other indicators can be used for the Mf end point. The test involves the reaction of formaldehyde with ammonium and the determination of the amount of acid formed when the reaction is complete. In a case like this.and indicator into 25 cm3 of distilled water and titrate to the end point with N/50 hydrochloric acid. and P2 titrations). Description & Equipment The ammonium test is used to determine the amount of ammonium ion in DAP or Ammonium Sulfate muds.P2) Carbonates (eq/m3) = 40 x [P (P1 .P2)] Hydrochloric Acid must be used at this point. Record the cm3 of acid used as P2. The carbonates. 8.P1) Carbonates (eq/m3) = 40 x P Hydroxides (eq/m3) = 20 x (P1 . Attempts to use Sulfuric Acid will result in solubilization of the carbonates. Some are listed below together with their end point colors. the test may have to be run several times to insure that the answer obtained is correct. It is the equivalent of the Potassium test for KCl muds. The ammonium ion is then calculated and the amount of DAP or Ammonium Sulfate is calculated from this value for ammonium. AMMONIUM A. The former DAP test (now called the phosphate test) had the drawback of testing the phosphates which are not responsible for preventing shale hydration. Page 2-24 . Remarks 1. the ammonium test was developed to more accurately determine the effectiveness of the mud to prevent shale hydration and the realistic concentration of DAP or Ammonium Sulfate in the system. 2.

C. Under no circumstances should the Ammonium Detection Solution be pipetted by mouth. kg/m3 = 0. mg/L = 1800 x (cm3 of Sodium Hydroxide . 2. 2. record the total volume used and allow the solution to stand for ten minutes.00367 x NH4+.cm3 of acid) DAP. (CAUTION: Do not pipette this solution. 3. Add a 1 cm3 sample of filtrate into the titration dish. Calculations Ammonium ion (NH4+). Page 2-25 . Add 2-3 drops of Phenolphthalein indicator and titrate with N/10 Sodium Hydroxide until the solution turns faint pink. Measure out 5 cm3 of Ammonium Detection Solution in the graduated cylinder. 4. Be sure to allow the full ten-minute waiting period as this reaction takes place slowly. Titrate the solution after this time with N/10 acid until the sample just becomes colorless. Remarks 1. Procedure 1.This test requires the following materials: 10 cm3 Graduated Cylinder Titration Dish Pipettes Ammonium Detection Solution N/10 Sodium Hydroxide N/10 Sulfuric Acid or Hydrochloric Acid Phenolphthalein B. kg/m3 = 0.) Place the solution in the titration dish. Add 2 cm3 of N/10 Sodium Hydroxide after the end point has been reached.00367 x NH4+. mg/L D. mg/L Ammonium Sulfate.

This test offers a simple means of monitoring the level of Biocide in a mud system. 3.cm3 acid for distilled water) / cm3 of filtrate Page 2-26 . Pipette 2 cm3 of filtrate into the titration dish. After approximately 30 seconds. Description & Equipment When a preservative is being used it is imperative that the level be maintained adequately to prevent fermentation of products. 5. 4. 2. Repeat steps 3 and 4 using distilled water instead of filtrate. This test requires the following materials: Titration Dish Pipettes Sodium Sulfite solution N/50 Sodium Hydroxide N/50 Sulfuric Acid Phenolphthalein NOTE: The Sodium Sulfite solution deteriorates rapidly. Calculations Biocide. The amount of change is related to the amount of Biocide in the system. as required until a faint pink color remains. This test involves a reaction between sodium sulfite and glutaraldehyde that results in a change of pH. If older than 30 days it should be replaced with fresh solution. or N/50 Sodium Hydroxide (if colorless). To the neutralized filtrate add 1 cm3 of Sodium Sulfite solution. kg/m3 = (cm3 acid for filtrate . B. A red color will develop. Add 2-3 drops of Phenolphthalein indicator. 6. Procedure 1. Add one or two drops of acid to dispel the color. titrate with N/50 Sulfuric Acid until the color just disappears. C.BIOCIDE A. Titrate with N/50 Sulfuric Acid (if pink or red).

using ten strokes of the Dräger hand pump (10 strokes = 1 litre). Add 20 cm3 of distilled water to the largest chamber. a floating-ball flowmeter. This test requires the following materials: Garrett Gas Train CO2 Dräger tubes 0. it consists of a transparent plastic gas train. The carrier gas used is Nitrous Oxide. With the regulator T-screw backed off. Description & Equipment This test is run on a sample of mud filtrate. hand pump and a Dräger tube. but also to the total gas volume passed through the tube. In general. Install the top of the gas train and hand tighten all screws evenly to seal. 3. collection bag. 4. For reliable results.5 cm above the bottom. Attach the flexible tubing to the dispersion tube. Adjust the dispersion tube in Chamber 1 to about 0. 2-way bore 5N Sulfuric Acid Defoamer 2 x 10 cm3 syringe with 21 gauge needle N20 gas cartridges B. 5. 2. the gas exiting from the gas train must first be captured in a one litre gas bag to allow the CO2 to mix uniformly with the carrier gas. Chamber 1. 6. as the CO2 reacts with the reagent. Page 2-27 . 7. A Dräger tube responds to CO 2 by progressively turning purple along its length. shut off N20. The contents of the gas bag are drawn through the Dräger tube. If no leaks are detected. The Garrett Gas Train separates the gas from the liquid.01%/A Dräger one litre gas bag Dräger hand pump Stopcock. install and puncture a N20 cartridge. The stain length is primarily sensitive to the amount of CO2 present. Add 5 drops of defoamer to Chamber 1 in order to minimize carry over the next chamber. an inert gas supply and pressure regulator. Gently start flow of N20 for a 1 minute period to purge any air from the system.CARBONATES GARRETT GAS TRAIN A. thereby preventing contamination of the CO2 detector by the liquid phase. Procedure 1. It uses an apparatus called a Garrett Gas Train.

12. there is a leak and the results are not accurate) 16. 0. Slowly inject 10 cm3 of sulfuric acid into Chamber 1. 15. 10. check the pump and all connections. 9. 13. To do this. mg/L = (Darkened Length x 25000) / Sample Volume.2000 ppm Carbonates. insert a sealed Dräger tube into the pump and compress the bellows. and restart the gas flow. 11. cm3 Sample Volume cm3 10. It will remain compressed if the pump does not leak. Note and record the maximum stained length in the same units marked on the tube Dräger Tube Information Carbon Dioxide Dräger Tube. Calculations The carbonates in the sample are calculated as follows: CO2. through the rubber septum with a syringe and needle. When the bag is completely empty and free of leaks. If leakage is detected. Open the stopcock on the gas bag. (if bag is somewhat full. 0.0 5. Repeat this until a total of ten complete strokes of the hand pump has been counted. Break the tip off each end of the Dräger tube.5 Tube Factor = 25000 Page 2-28 . through the rubber septum with a syringe and needle . Fully compress and release the hand pump.01%/A Carbonate Range mg/L 25-750 50-1500 250-7500 C. Attach hand pump to the "bottom" end of the Dräger tube. To check the pump alone. 14.0 2. Adjust the gas flow to fill the gas bag over a 20 minute period so it is firm to the touch (do not burst the bag).01%/A: marked 100 . the pump will remain compressed for several minutes. Open the stopcock and fully compress and release the hand pump so gas flows through the Dräger tube. Remove the tubing from the Chamber 3 outlet and immediately install it onto the "top" end of the Dräger tube. Fully collapse the gas bag and check the system for leaks. Observe any changes in the appearance of the Dräger tube color. With the bag fully collapsed. The gas bag should be virtually empty. connect the gas bag and stopcock to the hand pump. install the flexible tubing from the stopcock and bag onto the outlet of Chamber 3. Inject a measured volume of filtrate into Chamber 1.8. Shut off the gas flow and close the stopcock.

When all free Chloride is used. 4.D. If a pink color appears. CHLORIDE CHLORIDE: SILVER NITRATE METHOD A. Remarks The entire assembly should be thoroughly cleaned and dried before and after each use. Procedure 1. the chloride in it must be analyzed by titration before adding the filtrate to it. This test requires the following materials: Titration Dish Pipettes Silver Nitrate . Pipette 1 cm3 of filtrate or sample to be tested into a titration vessel. Also. Add 2-3 drops of Phenolphthalein indicator to the filtrate. for the titration to work correctly the pH of the filtrate needs to be near neutral. 3. Dilution does not influence the test in any way if there are no chlorides present in the distilled water. The chlorides can come from Sodium Chloride.0282 N) b. add distilled water to dilute the dark color of a deeply colored filtrate. 2. The silver ion combines with free chloride to form Silver Chloride. titrate with N/50 Sulfuric Acid until the color changes from pink to Page 2-29 . Description & Equipment This test measures the soluble chloride ion concentration in the mud filtrate. This can appear as a white precipitate with higher concentrations. 1 cm3 = 1000 mg/L Cl ion (weak solution. the silver ion reacts with the Potassium Chromate to form Silver Chromate which produces the orangish-red endpoint (first detectable permanent color change). 1 cm3 = 10000 mg/L Cl ion (strong solution. This is the reason for the first step in the procedure.two concentrations a. use a sample size that will cause at least half of the tube to darken. Calcium Chloride or Potassium Chloride.282 N) Potassium Chromate indicator Distilled Water Phenolphthalein N/50 Sulfuric Acid B. (determine chloride in the water and subtract from total result). If needed. If any water other than distilled water is used. 0. 0. NOTE: For accurate results.

Page 2-30 . the end point is approached much more rapidly.000 mg/L) Chloride content in mg/L = cm3 of Silver Nitrate x 10000 (1 cm3 = 10. the titration is complete. 2. until the sample just turns from yellow to orangish-red (the first detectable permanent color change). the formation of the Silver Chromate can be seen by a color change from yellow to orangish-red. the mercury reacts with the Diphenylcarbazone-Bromophenol Blue to produce the violet endpoint (first detectable permanent color change). 6. Remarks 1.0) The mercury combines with free chloride to form Mercuric Chloride.65. As soon as the red color is seen. 5. When using the weak Silver Nitrate. the end point is approached very gradually. 4. This should not be mistaken for the end point. Avoid contact with Silver Nitrate. The chlorides can come from Sodium Chloride. The color change will go from yellow to red. mg/L salt (NaCl) = mg/L chloride x 1. Calculations Chloride content in mg/L = cm3 of Silver Nitrate x 1000 (1 cm3 = 1.that of the original sample. White lumps of Silver Chloride form when titrating high concentrations of salt. MERCURIC NITRATE METHOD A. 5. Also. stirring or swirling. Description & Equipment This test measures the soluble chloride ion concentration in the mud filtrate. Calcium Chloride or Potassium Chloride. the test can be continued. C. 3. Hence the early formation of the Silver Chromate and its orangish-red color may be missed due to the larger amounts of Silver Nitrate being added. The chloride test may be run on the same sample used in the Pf determination if the Mf test was not performed. for the titration to work correctly the pH of the filtrate needs to be acidic (pH < 3. Therefore. Wash immediately with water if Silver Nitrate gets on skin or clothing. It is the first detectable permanent color change from yellow to orangish-red. If the strong silver nitrate is used. Add Silver Nitrate from a pipette dropwise. When all free Chloride is bound. If no pink color appears. Add enough Potassium Chromate indicator to give the filtrate a bright yellow color. The end point of the reaction is when the Silver Chromate is first formed. 6.000 mg/L) D. High pH will precipitate Silver Oxide.

(As most muds are neutral or higher. (determine chloride in the water and subtract from total result). Calculations Chloride content in mg/L = cm3 of Mercuric Nitrate x 1000 (1 cm3 = 1000 mg/L) Chloride content in mg/L = cm3 of Mercuric Nitrate x 10000 (1 cm3 = 10000 mg/L) D. Ferric and Chromate ions can react with diphenylcarbazone. 1 cm3 = 10000 mg/L Cl ion (strong solution. The endpoint is the first detectable permanent color change from yellow to violet. 4. 2. mg/L salt (NaCl) = mg/L chloride x 1. The chloride test may be run on the same sample used in the Pf determination if the Mf test was not performed.two concentrations a. 3. Add enough Diphenylcarbazone-Bromophenol Blue indicator to give a strong color. stirring or swirling until the sample just turns from yellow to a violet color (the first detectable permanent color change). Add Mercuric Nitrate from a pipette dropwise. 5. Add 5N Sulfuric Acid dropwise to produce a strong yellow color. If necessary. the chloride in it must be zeroed out by titration before adding the filtrate to it. When using the weak Mercuric Nitrate. If the strong Mercuric Nitrate is used. Avoid contact with Mercuric Nitrate. pH>3 blue or pH<3 yellow.This test requires the following materials: Titration Dish Pipettes Mercuric Nitrate . If needed. It does not influence the test in any way if there are no chlorides present in the distilled water. add distilled water to dilute the dark color of a deeply colored filtrate. the end point is approached gradually. C. 0. If any water other than distilled water is used. 3. 4. Wash immediately with water if Mercuric Nitrate gets on skin or clothing. 0. Procedure 1. LIGNOSULFONATE Page 2-31 . 5. the end point is approached much more rapidly. the titration is complete. Pipette 1cm3 of filtrate or sample to be tested into a titration vessel. you can add additional DBB indicator to produce a stronger yellow color.65. Remarks 1.282 N) Diphenylcarbazone-Bromophenol Blue (DBB) indicator Distilled Water 5 N Sulfuric Acid B.0282 N) b. 1 cm3 = 1000 mg/L Cl ion (weak solution.. you can expect a blue color). 2. As soon as the first permanent color change is seen.

If possible. 2. D. Lignofloc solution should be kept cold to prolong its usefulness.A. Add 4 cm3 of Lignofloc solution and stir occasionally for 2-3 minutes with a stirring rod. B.5. Hand-crank centrifuge speed calculation for 1800 r/min: (see 2. It is important to remember that the results obtained refer to the amount of free lignosulfonate in the filtrate.19 Polyacrylamide) Page 2-32 . C. Remarks 1. Centrifuge the samples for one minute at approximately 1800 r/min. This does not include the amount attached to solids particles or bound up in the filter cake. Place 4 cm3 of filtrate in each of the two centrifuge tubes. It is a precipitation reaction in which the sample must be centrifuged and the precipitate volume measured. 2. Calculations The amount of lignosulfonate in the system can be determined from the standard graph in Figure 2. Description & Equipment The lignosulfonate test is designed to monitor the amount of free lignosulfonate in a mud filtrate. 4. 3. Measure the volume of sediment at the bottom of the tubes. Procedure 1. This test requires the following materials: Lignofloc solution Hand Crank Centrifuge 2-15 cm3 Centrifuge Tubes.

5 PLOT OF LIGNOSULFONATE CONCENTRATION VS. Sediment Volume 3 2.5 2 1.Figure 2. SEDIMENT VOLUME Lignosulfonate vs.5 1 0.5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Page 2-33 .

the nitrate content of liquids recovered from drill stem tests and from wireline formation tests can be used to determine the fraction of mud filtrate in the liquid. 3. Add distilled water to 5 cm3 line in sample cells if dilution needed.. B. Since no nitrates are known to exist in uncontaminated formation water. The volume fraction of mud filtrate is equal to the following: mg/L Nitrates = mg/L Nitrogen x dilution factor (if used) x 4.4 Fraction Filtrate = produced water nitrate / mud filtrate nitrate Page 2-34 . Add the contents of a NitraVer powder pillow to one of the cells. Shake for 1 minute. This test requires the following materials: Hach 0-50mg Nitrate Test Kit Pipette Distilled water (nitrate free). 4.e. in the mud filtrate while drilling through the zone in question. The volume fraction of mud filtrate in a sample of produced water can then be determined by measuring the nitrate content of the produced water. The nitrate content is maintained at a fixed level. 6. If nitrate present. Place the blank cell into the left cell holder and the sample cell into the right cell holder. 2. Hold the color comparator up to good light or bright surface. Multiply mg/L of nitrogen by dilution factor then 4. Procedure 1. i. 8. 7. Add mud filtrate to each cell (to get in the 5 .4 to obtain mg/L of nitrate.40 mg/L range). C. 10. Rotate the nitrate nitrogen color disc (0-50 mg/L) until the color of the blank cell closely matches the sample color. Let stand for 5 minutes. Rinse two sample cells thoroughly with distilled water. Description & Equipment The nitrate ion can be used as a tracer in a mud in order to distinguish mud filtrate from formation water.NITRATE TRACER A. if dilution was done.4 to convert to mg/L Nitrates. Calculations The result shown on the color comparitor (mg/L Nitrogen) must be multiplied by the dilution factor. 200 mg/L. an amber color will develop. then multiplied by 4.

then insert it into the mud and swirl once or twice. Allow sufficient time for the color indicators to soak up liquid (from a few seconds to a couple of minutes). A drill stem test contains water with a nitrate content of 55 mg/L. These are the pH meter and the pH test strips. B.D.264 pH (STRIP AND METER) A. C. Both methods will be discussed. 4. Read the constant meter reading after it has stabilized. 5. 3. The pH of the filtrate may differ from that of the mud.5. This is a delicate instrument so it should be handled carefully. Make the necessary adjustments to calibrate the pH meter with standard pH buffer solutions according to instructions supplied with the instrument. Match the colors of the strip with the chart on the side of the dispenser to determine the pH.4 = 52. Report pH to the nearest 0. which usually takes less than 15 seconds. Wash the tip of the electrode with distilled water. The calibration of the instrument depends both on correct buffer calibration solutions and on the temperature.1 unit. Page 2-35 .S. Description & Equipment There are two generally accepted methods for measuring mud pH. pH paper does not give an accurate measurement when the chloride concentration is greater than 10000 mg/L. water is calculated as follows: Sample diluted x2 (2. 3. 6. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages.8 Fraction Filtrate = 52.5 cm3 sample diluted to 5 cm3 with distilled water) Color Comparator = 6 mg/L Nitrogen mg/L Nitrates = 6 x 2x 4. Determine the mud pH according to the instructions supplied with the unit. Dip a pH strip the mud or filtrate.8 / 200 = 0. 2. pH Strip Method 1. 4.T. 2. The volume fraction of mud filtrate in the D. pH Meter Method 1. Remarks a. b. The pH of the mud can now be reported to the nearest 0. Example: The nitrate in the mud filtrate is maintained at 200 mg/L.

Titrate with 2% Calcium Chloride until the solution changes from blue to wine red. Add 25 cm3 of distilled water. Remarks This test was formerly called the DAP test. Pipette a 1 cm3 sample of filtrate into a titrating dish.PHOSPHATE A. This test requires the following materials: Total Hardness Buffer Total Hardness Indicator Solution 2% Calcium Chloride Solution Distilled Water Titration Dish Pipettes B. the excess calcium turns the solution from blue to red. Calculations Phosphate. Page 2-36 . Add 20-40 drops (2-4 cm3) of Total Hardness Buffer solution and 10-15 drops of Total Hardness Indicator Solution. The same indicator is used and a standard 2% Calcium Chloride solution is prepared for titrating the filtrate. 2. Procedure 1. mg/L = 11400 x cm3 CaCl2 / cm3 of sample D. To determine the amount of DAP in a system. Description & Equipment The concentration of phosphate in a mud may be determined by reversing the total hardness test. please refer to the Ammonium Test. The phosphate will react with the added calcium chloride to sequester the calcium. 3. When all the phosphate present in the filtrate is consumed. C.

2. as required until a faint pink color remains. Page 2-37 . Centrifuge the sample for one minute at 1800 r/min Hand-crank centrifuge speed calculation for 1800 r/min: 1. If polyacrylamide is present. The calculations are divided for both solid products and liquid products. The volume of precipitate formed is directly related to the amount of polyacrylamide in the system. Procedure 1. Allow the sample to age for five minutes while occasionally agitating with the stirring rod to break up the flocs. 2. This test requires the following materials: Hand Crank Centrifuge 2. The test is accomplished by neutralizing the sample and flocculating the polymer with a Tin Chloride solution. Add 2-3 drops of Phenolphthalein. large white flocs will being to form immediately. The rotary speed will be 1800 r/min. Determine the number of revolutions of the rotor for each complete turn of the crank. 3. Add one drop of acid to dispel the color. Determine the number of cranks to get 1800 revolutions. Pour 10 cm3 of filtrate into each of the centrifuge tubes. To maintain a constant speed for 1 minute. 3. take the required number of crank turns and divide by 12. Add 2 cm3 of Acrylofloc solution to each of the tubes and gently invert several times to ensure thorough mixing. 5. The procedure forms a precipitate and the solution is centrifuged to determine the volume of precipitate. 4. This will give the number of crank turns needed per 5 seconds. Description & Equipment This test can be used to determine the amount of any polyacrylamides that may be in a mud or sump water sample.POLYACRYLAMIDE A. Titrate with N/50 Hydrochloric Acid (if pink or red). or N/50 Sodium Hydroxide (if colorless). if the crank is turned the calculated number of times in one minute. If only limited filtrate is available then one tube may be used provided the other is filled with an equal volume of water. 15 cm3 Graduated Centrifuge Tubes Stir Rods Pipettes Acrylofloc Solution N/50 Sodium Hydroxide N/50 Hydrochloric Acid Phenolphthalein B.

c. Standard Curve for Potassium Chloride. Pour the clear fluid into a graduated cylinder. Calculations Dry Polyacrylamide kg/m3 = 2. Remarks 1. This test requires the following materials: Hand Crank Centrifuge 2. C. If the number of turns is greater or smaller than required per 5 seconds. If present they must be removed.cm3 D. Standard Potassium Chloride solution (14. Salts. Lignosulfonates will interfere with this test. adjust your speed accordingly and count turns for the next 5 seconds. 3. POTASSIUM A. Page 2-38 .0 x average floc volume. The result is read from a previously prepared standard curve. Start cranking the centrifuge rapidly and count the number of crank turns in 5 seconds. calcium and other polymers do not interfere with the test. 15 cm3 Graduated Centrifuge Tubes Standard Sodium Percholate solution (150 grams in 100 cm3 distilled water). Add 2 cm3 of Lignofloc solution and mix.5 cm3 KCl solution diluted to 7.0% KCl.4.00 grams dry KCl dissolved in distilled water and made up to 100 cm3 in a volumetric flask) [0. Usually. d. Maintain the speed for the remainder of the minute. Be sure to centrifuge the sample for the full time. Description & Equipment This test is used to determine the potassium content in mud filtrate by centrifuging precipitate formed in a reaction with Sodium Perchlorate. Place 10 cm3 of filtrate in each centrifuge tube.0 cm3 = 1. Centrifuge the sample to remove the flocs. cm3 Liquid Polyacrylamide L/m3 = 5.0 x average floc volume. This may be accomplished as follows: a. clean the tubes and proceed with the test in the usual manner. b. with a little practice. 2. the required number of turns per 5 seconds can be achieved within 15-20 seconds.

Plot cm3 of precipitate versus per cent Potassium Chloride. Figure 2. Add 3 cm3 of Sodium Perchlorate solution to the tube. 4. 3. and read the precipitate volume immediately. polymers. Potassium test must be made with the same centrifuge used to construct the Standard Curve. 3. Run the centrifuge at a constant speed of 1800 r/min. Preparation of Standard Curve for Potassium Chloride 1. 4. A new standard graph must be prepared if a different model of centrifuge is used. Hand-crank centrifuge speed calculation for 1800 r/min: (see 2. 5. Precipitation occurs immediately.B.19 Polyacrylamide) D. The precipitate may become slightly discolored in high lignosulfonate concentrations. Page 2-39 . 4. 5. Prepare standards over the range of 1 to 8% KCl by adding 0. See the example plot. clays and pH do not interfere with the test. Centrifuge for one minute at 1800 r/min. 2. lignosulfonates. C. Determine Potassium Chloride concentration by comparing precipitate volume measured with the Standard Curve for Potassium Chloride. Immediately dispose of precipitate by rinsing from tube into a bucket of water.5 cm 3 per 1% KCl required of Standard Potassium Chloride solution to centrifuge tubes and diluting to the 7. Centrifuge for one minute at 1800 r/min. Add 3 cm3 of Sodium Perchlorate solution to each tube.6. Salts. using rectangular graph paper. Field Procedures 1. The perchlorates are not hazardous if kept water wet. Remarks 1. 2. 6. and read precipitate volume immediately. They will decompose harmlessly if dispersed in a bucket of water. 2. Only the Kolmer-type clinical centrifuge tubes are satisfactory for the test. but the test is not affected. Measure 7cm3 of filtrate into the centrifuge tube.0 cm3 mark with distilled water. 3.

6 STANDARD PLOT EXAMPLE for KCl DETERMINATION Sample Plot Page 2-40 .Figure 2.

C. 4. A biocide treatment such as glutaraldehyde is effective in eliminating bacteria from these type fluids. or heavy. medium. This test requires the following materials: Test Tube Barium Chloride solution 5N Nitric Acid B. Sulfate reducing bacteria can convert sulfate ions to sulfide ions which can cause the pipe and casing to corrode rapidly. Add a few drops of the 5N nitric acid. The formation of a white precipitate or a milky white color indicates the presence of sulfates and/or carbonates. it is sulfates. Add 1 cm3 of mud filtrate to a test tube. Description & Equipment This test is designed to determine the presence of any sulfates. 2. If the precipitate or milky color disappears. Calculation Report the sulfate amount as light. it is carbonates. SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA A. If it remains. This test requires the following materials: Sulfate Reducing Vials (5) Syringe (2 cm3 with 20 gauge needle) Felt tip marker Page 2-41 . Test Procedures 1. It does not determine the amount of sulfates present. after the acid treatment. Description & Equipment This test is used to determine the concentration of sulfate reducing bacteria present in a drilling fluid. Add a few drops of the Barium Chloride solution. 3.QUALITATIVE SULFATE A.

3. 6. 4. Continue until all five vials have been injected. Incubate the vials at room temperature for 1 to 3 weeks. Additions of 3-6 kg/m3 of glutaraldehyde are effective in eliminating bacteria from most mud systems. Remove 1 cm3 of liquid from Vial No. Page 2-42 .2. Number the sulfate reducing vials from 1 through 5.2 and inject into Vial No. Procedure 1.7 shows the range of concentrations of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria for the various combinations where the black precipitate or clouding appears: Figure 2. 3.3 and 4 1. Remarks 1. 1 and inject in Vial No. The number of microorganisms present per cm 3 of mud is determined by noting which of the vials contain the black precipitate or clouding. there are no sulfate reducing bacteria present in the mud.7 Vial Number Containing Black Precipitae or Dark Clouding 1 1 and 2 1. D. 2.000 If no precipitate or black clouding forms in the vials. Invert the vial several times with the needle still in the vial to homogenize the mud into the serum broth. C. Inject Vial No. 7.2 and 3 1. Results Formation of a black precipitate or a gray to black clouding indicates the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria in the mud. 8. Remove 1 cm3 of liquid from Vial No. 5.3.B. 1 with 1 cm3 of mud to be tested. Invert the vial several times.2. 2.4 and 5 Range of Concentration of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria Organisms. cm3 1-9 10-99 100-999 1000-9999 >10. Figure 2.

2000 ppm b) high range. H2S 0.2%/A. a floating-ball flowmeter and a Dräger tube. H2S 0. an inert gas supply and pressure regulator. GARRETT GAS TRAIN A. H2S 100/a.SULFIDES HACH H2S TEST KIT A. A Dräger tube responds to H 2S by progressively darkening along its length as the H2S reacts with the reagent. It uses an apparatus called a Garrett Gas Train. Description & Equipment This is basic test to determine the presence of H2S and the approximate amount in small concentrations. goes through a lead acetate disc causing discoloration.0 vol % 5N Sulfuric Acid Defoamer 10 cm3 syringe with 21 gauge needle CO2 gas cartridges Page 2-43 . In general. The Garrett Gas Train separates the gas from the liquid. The gas. is blue until H2S turns them black. marked 0. The two types of Dräger tubes used will span a sufficiently wide range for sulfide analysis of mud filtrates.7. if present. marked 100 . Equipment & Description This test is run on a sample of mud filtrate. This is matched to a color chart with low concentration ranges. it consists of a transparent plastic gas train.2%/A. No known common mud component or contaminant causes this coloration of the Dräger tubes as does H2S.2 .two ranges a) low range. This test requires the following materials: Garrett Gas Train H2S Dräger tubes . thereby preventing contamination of the H2S detector by the liquid phase. is white while the high-range Dräger tube. This test uses a container with the filtrate sample and Alka-Seltzer to drive out any H2S that may be present. H2S 100/a. The carrier gas used is usually Carbon Dioxide. The low-range Dräger tube.

Procedure 1. install the flowmeter tube. Chamber 1. 5. Slowly inject 10 cm3 of sulfuric acid into Chamber 1 with a hypodermic syringe and needle through the rubber septum. Gently start flow of CO2 for a 10-second period to purge any air from the system. 10. 3. After breaking the tips off of both ends of the Dräger tube. Install the top of the gas train and hand tighten all screws evenly to seal. 4. 7. Page 2-44 . Attach the flexible tubing to the dispersion tube and to the Dräger tube. 6. A volume of mud filtrate is added to chamber 1 based upon an estimation of the concentration of sulfides present. shut off CO2. With the regulator T-screw backed off. Add 20 cm3 of distilled water to the largest chamber. install and puncture a CO2 cartridge. making sure all O-rings seal around the body of each tube. Add 5 drops of defoamer to Chamber 1 in order to minimize carry over the next chamber. If no leaks are detected. 8.GARRET GAS TRAIN B. Adjust the dispersion tube in Chamber 1 to about 0. Also. 9.5 cm above the bottom. 2. gently push the tip of the Dräger tube with the arrow pointing downward into the bored receptacle at the other end from Chamber 1.

cm3 High Range H2S 0.0 5. mg/L = (Darkened Length x 1500) / Sample Volume.2000 ppm Sulfides.11. In the high-range tube an orange color may appear ahead of the black front if any sulfides or sulfites are present in the sample. Dräger Tube Information Low Range Dräger Tubes Sulfide Range Sample Volume cm3 mg/L 1.5 30-1050 60-2100 120-4200 10. Note and record the maximum darkened length in the same units marked on the tube. mg/L = (Darkened Length x 12) / Sample Volume.7 vol % Sulfides. Sample Volume cm3 High Range Dräger Tubes Sulfide Range mg/L 10. Adjust the rate to about 200-400 cm3 per minute (ball in flow meter is between the two lines).0 5. so know which ones you are working with for the calculations.2-24 2. cm3 High Range.8-96 C.0 2. At the same time.2%/A: marked 1 .4-48 4. cm3 Page 2-45 . One cartridge should provide about 1520 minutes of flow at this rate. H2S 0. mg/L = (Darkened Length x 0.12) / Sample Volume.17 cm tube factor = 600 (*batch factor / 0. Observe any changes in the appearance of the Dräger tube color. 12. This orange region should be ignored and only the darkened length recorded.0 2. H2S 100/a: marked 100 . cm3 Present Dräger tubes Low Range.4) Sulfides. Calculations The soluble sulfides in the sample are calculated as follows: NOTE: The DRÄGER tubes have recently been changed.5 Previous Dräger tubes Low Range H2S 100/a: marked 1 . immediately restart CO2 flow.20 tube factor = 12 Sulfides.2%/A: marked 0. The CO2 should be flowed for a total of 15 minutes. even though the front of the darkening area may become diffused. mg/L = (Darkened Length x tube factor) / Sample Volume.2 .

Page 2-46 .12) / 5 = 150 / 5 = 30 High Range H2S 0.5 % Sulfides. use a sample size that will cause at least half of the tube to darken. Swirl to mix. Add Sulfite 3 Reagent dropwise (with constant swirling of the mixing bottle and counting the drops) until a permanent gray-blue color appears. 2. 4. Due to changes in tube graduation.D. mg/L = (2.2-7 vol% 5 cm3 of sample darkened length = 2. be sure of which type you are using. Add the contents of one Sulfamic Acid Powder. NOTE: For accurate results. SULFITE: Hach Sulfite Test Kit A. Example Low Range H2S 100/a: marked 100-2000 ppm 5 cm3 of sample darkened length = 1000 ppm Sulfides. Each drop of Sulfite 3 Reagent is equal to 1 mg/L Sodium Sulfite (Na2SO3). Add the contents of one Sulfite 1 Reagent Powder Pillow.5 x 1500) / 5 = 3750 / 5 = 750 E. Measure a sample by filling the flask to the 100 cm3 mark. 3. Swirl to mix.2%A: marked 0. Remarks 1. 2. Procedure Low Range [1 drop = 1 mg/L Sodium Sulfite (Na2SO3)] 1. All flexible tubing and gas train components must be H2S resistant. mg/L = (1000 x 0. The entire assembly should be thoroughly cleaned and dried before and after each use. 3.

The calcium ion concentration can be determined separately and when it is subtracted from the total hardness. To express as mg/L Sulfite (SO3=). 3. Add 3-4 drops of Total Hardness Buffer solution and 3-4 drops of Total Hardness Indicator solution. Add 1 cm3 of filtrate to a titration dish. 2. NOTE: TOTAL HARDNESS CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM A. 2. the result is called total hardness. and record end point. Different buffer-indicator combinations are used in these determinations. Swirl to mix. Add Total Hardness Titrating solution . 4. Description & Equipment This test measures the amount of soluble magnesium and calcium ions in the mud filtrate. the filtrate contains hardness. Swirl to mix. Page 2-47 . until the sample turns blue. It is imperative not to intermix the various buffers and indicators. Add Sulfite 3 Reagent dropwise (with constant swirling of the mixing bottle and counting the drops) until a permanent gray-blue color appears. Add the contents of one Sulfite 1 Reagent Powder Pillow. Add Total Hardness Titrating solution dropwise while stirring until the water turns to blue. Procedure 1. Each drop of Sulfite 3 Reagent is equal to 10 mg/L Sodium Sulfite (Na2SO3).64. Measure a sample by filling the square mixing bottle to the 10 cm3 mark. Add the contents of one Sulfamic Acid Powder. This test requires the following materials: Titration Dish Pipettes Buffer Indicator Total Hardness Titrating solution (1 cm3 = 20 eq/m3 of hardness) Distilled Water B. stirring continuously.High Range [1 drop = 10 mg/L Sodium Sulfite (Na2SO3)] 1. the magnesium ion concentration can be determined. multiply the result in Step 4 by 0. When measured simultaneously. If a wine red or purple color develops.

Page 2-48 . 2. CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM SEPARATELY A. Description & Equipment This test is run identically to the total hardness test except that a special indicator and buffer system is used. 3. 3. 5. 2. Baroid Versenate Buffer (Ammonium Hydroxide. 1. Manver Indicator with Ammonium Hydroxide Buffer (pH = 12-13). Procedure Pipette 1 cm3 of filtrate into the titration dish. Add Total Hardness Titrating solution. Add a few grains of Calver II indicator and mix to produce a strong wine red color. If this is the case: mg/L Calcium = eq/m3 total hardness x 20 D. Eriochrome Black T indicator with Ammonium Hydroxide Buffer (pH = 12-13). The buffer is a Potassium Hydroxide (pH = 14) and the indicator is the Calver II powder. All of these are used to determine total hardness.C. stirring continuously. 4. pH = 12-13) with Baroid Versenate Indicator (Calgamite). Add 5-6 drops of Calcium Buffer to raise the pH. If no calcium is present the sample will be blue. 4. Dilute with a small amount of distilled water. until sample turns blue. Various Buffer-Indicator Combinations 1. Calculations The total hardness is calculated as: eq/m3 Calcium and Magnesium = cm3 of total hardness titrating solution x 20 Sometimes the total hardness is reported as calcium. This test requires the following materials: Titration Dish Pipettes Calver Buffer Calver II indicator Total Hardness Titrating solution (1 cm3 = 20 eq/m3 of hardness) Distilled Water B.

and manganese. Calculations Calcium concentration eq/m3 eq/m3 Calcium = cm3 of Total Hardness Titrating Solution x 20 Magnesium concentration eq/m3 eq/m3 Magnesium = eq/m3 Total Hardness minus eq/m3 Calcium Calcium concentration mg/L mg/L Calcium = eq/m3 Calcium x 20 Magnesium Concentration mg/L Magnesium = eq/m3 Magnesium x 12.1 D. zinc. Page 2-49 . This test actually measures several metal ions simultaneously: calcium. aluminum. lead.C. Usually the results are reported as being all from calcium and/or magnesium since the quantity of the other metal ions is usually negligible. Remarks 1. magnesium. iron.

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