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publication date: lcc: ddc: subject: Signs of the Zodiac : A Reference Guide to Historical, Mythological, and Cultura l Associations Snodgrass, Mary Ellen. Greenwood Publishing Group 0313302766 9780 313302763 9780313008177 English Zodiac, Astrology, Astrology--History. 1997 BF17 26.S66 1997eb 133.5/2 Zodiac, Astrology, Astrology--History. cover next page >

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< previous page page_iii next page > Page iii SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC A REFERENCE GUIDE TO HISTORICAL, MYTHOLOGICAL, AND CULTURAL ASSOCIATIONS Mary Ellen Snodgrass Illustrated by Raymond Miller Barrett , Jr. GREENWOOD PRESS Westport, Connecticut • London < previous page page_iii next page >

< previous page page_iv next page > Page iv Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Snodgrass, Mary Ellen . Signs of the zodiac : a reference guide to historical, mythological, and cultu ral associations / Mary Ellen Snodgrass ; illustrated by Raymond Miller Barrett, Jr. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0–313–30276–6 (alk. pa per) 1. Zodiac. 2. Astrology. I. Title. BF1726.S66 1997 133.5′2—dc21 97–5598 British L ibrary Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Copyright © 1997 by Mary Elle n Snodgrass All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by a ny process or technique, without the express written consent of the publisher. L ibrary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 97–5598 ISBN: 0-313-30276-6 First publishe d in 1997 Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881 An imprint of G reenwood Publishing Group, Inc. Printed in the United States of America The pape r used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the Nat ional Information Standards Organization (Z39.48–1984). 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 < previous page page_iv next page >

His light is like a niche i n which is a lamp—the lamp encased in glass—the glass. From a blessed tree it is lighted. 4 1) God is the light of the heavens and of the earth. whose oil would well nigh shine out. the olive neither from the East nor of the West. In order that the miracle of Unity may be very perpetual . That that which is on high is that which is below. certain and very real.D. (Shulman 1976. without falsehood. God guideth whom he will to his light.< previous page page_v next page > Page v For Pattie Tyndall It is true. even though the fire touched it not. And that which is below is as that which is on high. Hermetic Writings from the Emerald Table Twelfth Century A. and God setteth f orth parables to men. a glistening star . as it were. Koran 24:35 < previous page page_v next page > . It is light upon light.

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< previous page Page vii CONTENTS Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapte r Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 page_vii next page > ix xi 1 11 35 57 81 91 105 119 129 141 153 161 Preface Introduction The Zodiac The Historical Foundation of Astrology The Zodia c from the First Century to the Twentieth Century The Zodiac in the Arts and Sci ences Aries Taurus Gemini Cancer Leo Virgo Libra Scorpio < previous page page_vii next page > .

< previous page Page viii Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Appendix I Appendix II App endix III Appendix IV Appendix V page_viii next page > 171 181 191 201 209 215 217 219 223 225 233 Sagittarius Capricorn Aquarius Pisces A Time Line of Developments in Zodiacal St udy A Comparative Chart of Elements of the Constellations of the Zodiac Geograph ical Areas Linked with Sun Signs Planetary Correspondences Zodiacal Pathology Bi bliography Index < previous page page_viii next page > .

< previous page page_ix next page > . amateur astronomer or astrologer. The opening chapters introduce the concept of an identifiable star path and a perva sive human interest in the cyclical appearance of constellations. teacher.< previous page page_ix next page > Page ix PREFACE The purpose of The Signs of the Zodiac is to supply the student. researcher. Egypt. th is book presents a detailed history of early star gazers with particular attenti on to Babylon. or librarian with the background of zodiacal lore and its application to current culture. Among the ques tions implicit in this study are these universal queries: • Why do the stars appea r and disappear in a regular cycle? • What power does this cyclical movement have over Earth? • How do the heavens influence human life and character? • What part do the constellations play in government? • What is the appropriate response of worsh ippers to the god who made the heavens? • What is the difference between astronomy and astrology? • How much of traditional lore is superstition and how much scienc e? • What is the purpose of horoscopes? Following a discussion of superstitions an d religious beliefs that have evolved worldwide from centuries of star study. historian.

< previous page page_x next page > . and i ntensity and correspondences to minerals. and scientists. Application of each si gn’s stereotypical qualities uncovers possible ties with famous people. St. and their time-honored significance. The final chapters present the twelve signs of the zodiac in their traditional order. The work focuses on descriptions of classic art a nd architecture and on a panorama of astrological details that render the subjec t fascinating and universally applicable to human endeavors. including singers. and the Zoroastrians. colors. heavenly bodies mentioned in the B ible. or famous people born under specific sun signs who display stereotypical c haracteristics. Euclid. On the whole. Ari es through Pisces. Detailed commentary on literature. and the correspondences that have accrued to e ach pattern. which h ave subsumed early philosophies and interpretations of star movements and replac ed them with detailed physical analysis and mathematical calculations.< previous page page_x next page > Page x Arabia. Augustine. serious inquiry or curiosity. pla nts. This section con cludes with scientific advancements such as the astrolabe and telescope. Hippocrates. Su bsequent star wisdom from the post-Christian era centers on philosophical differ ences over the power of the zodiac over history and human fate. humanitarians. Galen. The Signs of the Zodiac systematizes star lore and zodiacal wisdom alongside citations from a variety of scriptures and great writers. App endices list more detailed information about constellation size. the origin of star and cluster names. its physical components. distance. For whatever purpose. and Rome and sages such as Berossus. for exampl e. royalty. and human pathology. precious and semi-precious stones. Alexande r the Great. Each segment introduces a sign. Greece. star size and intensity. The Signs of the Zodiac presents the history of human interest in constellations. zodiacal healing. shapes. the arts. the Orient. military leaders. The index enables t he reader or researcher to access particular facets of zodiacal lore. and advertising note t he influence of zodiacal lore on creativity and commerce. painters. their cycl es.

t hese wandering people resorted to naming star patterns. they could trade information. navigators felt confident in leaving port when they were certain of the moon. In Thomas Hood’s w ords: The stars are with the voyager. When the nomads settled down to become farmers. With definite names for segments of their star maps. The moon is constant to her time. question fellow travelers. To specify segments of the far-flung celestial map. they continued the practice of calibrati ng their daily lives and seasonal work by familiar. baffled. and ennoble the guideposts that brought them safely to their destinations. Early nomads set their itineraries over sand and ridge to the shift o f stars above the azimuth. and Orion. much as children point o ut camels and bears and dragons in the clouds. Wherever he may sail. But follow round the world The green eart h and the sea … < previous page page_xi next page > . Venus. dependable astral timepieces . Seafarers and surveyors also drew on star positions as way markers. The sun will never fail. the most familiar heavenly signposts.< previous page page_xi next page > Page xi INTRODUCTION The star-flecked sky has intrigued. P olaris. and delighted humankind for as long as there have been eyes to see and minds to contemplate th e heavens. Worldwide.

disunion in the stars bodes ill for earthlings. second-century Mesoamericans living thirty miles north of Mexico City constructed Teotihuacan. Architectural monuments of past civilizations mirror human compulsions to apply heavenly phenomena to vicis situdes in daily affairs. Because the study of astrology relies on judgment and in tuition. and powers on constellations. yet enduring tether between the heavens and destiny. and stargazers to calculate and interpret the conju nctions of planets and their influence on weather. all pacified into lights that resided in a civil. which Babylonians worshiped as the pulsating heart of the world and the Romans identified with eternity. As the etymology of the words ‘‘star-crossed” and “disaster” indicate. T he most familiar family of constellation terminology in the Western world is cal led by its Greek name. and the lives . Archaeoastronomers < previous page page_xii next page > . and venge ful gods spread over the skies a pastiche of recognizable symbols. Around 1000 B. The nightly shift of the sidereal mosaic has supplanted the boisterous stories of Chiron and Hercules with a resplendent serenity. astr ology is a personalized contemplation of reality through analogies to planetary motion. Taking its place outside the realm of Western empirical science. crops. pseudo-scientific. and cult interpretation that spans all peoples. a notable. the Zapotec built Monte Alban in cen tral Mexico to help them keep tabs on the stars. Human rationalization tends to blame the he avens for catastrophes. Likewise. The blend of nomenclature from primitive societies with Roman theology established one universal truth: s tar lore forms a slender. The ruins contain pyramids to the sun and moon. a religious. legends. the zodiac. the study of the zodiac carries no value as a fixed discipli ne. 2) From th ese anonymous stargazers. symbolism. the more than 200 billion stars and billions of galaxi es acquired sets of names that conferred personalities. pleasing city based on an astral plan. its validity depends on the faith of millions of believers who trust seers. The atavistic mythology of demons. monsters. astrological knowledge carries a subjective or human element of predict ion. (Hood. healing. and decisions of individuals. fortunes. Unlike the science of astronomy (which systemizes the movements of heavenly bodies) or astrometry (which measures their progress across the night sky)..< previous page Page xii page_xii next page > And so the night is never dark. character.C. And day is brighter day. nonviolent structure. crystal ball viewers. They constructed a central cour tyard and inscribed around the walls a calendar based on a fifty-two-year cycle. Thus. 1959.

< previous page page_xiii next page > Page xiii believe that the geometric pattern of Teotihuacan’s streets and temples coincides with the predawn rise of the Pleiades.. and Tibetan—are less architectural and more metaphori c in their contemplations of the heavens.D. they kept Chichen Itza and added Castillo. Moon. Chinese. Assyrians. Cahokia’s axial orientation served as a predictor of solst ices and equinoxes. one of the most familiar star p atterns in history. May an codices served the populace as an almanac to coordinate ritual sacrifice with the rise of the planet in the sky. In the Southwest at Four C orners—the convergence of Utah. Babylonians. Housed in the Victoria and Albert Muse um in London. based astral calculations on the zodiac. is a cartouche of Indian astrology that pictures the paths of the nine planets—Sun. Mercury. Greeks . Two centuries after Teotihuacan took shape. Ketu t he comet. Farther north. The mideaste rn system of astrology. prehistoric Indians created worship centers that corresponded with astral patterns. which derived from a convergence of Chaldean. Around 700 A. Mayan.D. Chaldeans. Japanese. these same aborigin es marked midsummer’s day by inscribing spirals on the rock outcroppings. Egyptian. that visitors still gather to view it. Priests all ied a star-centered belief system with sacred or canonical geometry. which deriv ed from observations of heavenly movements. the brightest star in the Souther n Cross and a source of cosmic power from prehistory. Saturn.. New Mexico. for example. a stepped pyramid that ripples w ith shadows shortly before the equinox sunset.D. Illinois. A major settlement. the Maya of the Yucatan Peninsula began massive excavations for Chichen Itza. it honored Venus. When the Toltecs overthrew the Maya in 987 A . late woodland Indians constructed the Cahokia Mounds near what is now Collinsville. Jupiter. Arizona. and Colorado —the Anasazi built a stone complex between 900 and 1115 A. and Greek lore. On nearby Fajada Butte. One truth sets the Mideastern heaven ly study apart from the Toltec. and Cuzco. so evocative. both considered beneficent times. and Rahu the bringer of eclipses—as the routes of chariots. Korean. Casa Rinconada is a kiva or underground ceremonial chamber that follows two exactly perpendicular north-south and eastwest diameters. and Anasazi cosmologies: Mesoameri can and Amerindian star systems vanished with the people. A ceremonial city intended to propitiate the gods. Similar reverence for the heavens motivated the Inca to design Machu Picchu. The visual effect is so stunning. an Incan worship center that venerates the Milky Way and Alpha Crucis. a temple co mplex built astride the Andes Chain in Peru. the nation’s patron planet. Babylonian . Mars. Incan. Eastern and Mideastern sys tems of star study—including the Hebrew. Venus. The Mideastern system of < previous page page_xiii next page > .

this long-lived theory of star power has bobbed in and out of fashion.< previous page page_xiv next page > Page xiv astrology still thrives. Throughout history. at times trounced to dust. < previous page page_xiv next page > . then ris ing like the fabled phoenix to a new and glorious ascendance.

In use. Scientists refer to the star as gamma Virginis. The circle bears the name “zodiac” from the Greek zoidiakos plus kyklos meaning “life wheel” or “circle of little animals.” possibly derived from a society in prehistory wh o venerated bestial totems. as the circle completes one-twelfth of a rotation. Each month. This band subdivides into the twelve constellations or star clusters. which moves behind them in turn and illuminates them to observe rs on earth. (the orbital path the earth makes around the sun). Fo r example.” There is a constellation name and possessive form for each month (note that only two are plural—Pisces and Gemini): < previous page page_1 next page > . Individual constellations bear a two-fold Latin name: o ne form is plain. Virgo has a star labeled gamma. Observers can view each cluster on a limited hemisphere that rests on the horizon and shifts westward at the rate of about one degree daily. is an imag inary belt that encircles the heavens about eight degrees on each side of the ec liptic. a se parate constellation is visible from Earth. which is based on the solar calendar. The zodiac’s path is th e fixed cyclic or series of planetary orbits.< previous page page_1 next page > Page 1 1 THE ZODIAC The zodiac. the forms function as they do in Latin sentences. which means the “gamma star of Virgo. which parallel the earth’s equator. The appearance of these constellations coincides with the posi tion of the sun. as in Leo (Leonis) an d Virgo (Virginis). its alternate form indicates possession.

raw energy with actualized force. like the attractive poles of magnets. are eternally linked in nature. this powerful circle of celestial forces corrals the sun. spirit with matter. unified telescopic swe ep. To the philosopher. Cadiz. and heavenly bodies—Mercury. Metaphorically. moon. and frustrations. attitudes. The star belt’s predictable rotations caused human observers to relate a series of common patterns in their feelings. the star belt’s shape suggested to early astronomers t he serpent biting its tail. action with inert ia. Like t he stars. and potential with reality. and most of the mo vements < previous page page_2 next page > . Saturn. As though viewed in a single. Uranus.< previous page page_2 next page > Page 2 Constellation Possessive Form and Its Meaning Taurus Tauri (of Taurus) Ge mini Geminorum (of Gemini) Cancer Cancri (of Cancer) Leo Leonis (of Leo) Virgo V irginis (of Virgo) Libra Librae (of Libra) Scorpio Scorpii (of Scorpio) Sagittar ius Sagittarii (of Sagittarius) Capricorn Capricorni (of Capricorn) Aquarius Aqu arii (of Aquarius) Pisces Piscium (of Pisces) Aries Arietis (of Aries) The preva lence of these twelve symbols in ancient European cultures is a common feature i n art. the ci rcle represented a procession of complementary forces that. Mars. Neptune. and heavenly maps engraved in stone at Eira d’os Mouro s. these shifts in human emotion had existed throughout history. unity with complexity. Portugal. a standard figure in ancient religion and mythology. Venus. Like a rolling hoop or a wedding ring. found in the petroglyphs of Cueva de Arce in Laguna de la Jana. sc ulpture in Alvao. these anti pathies suggested form with shapelessness. Jupiter. the heavenly belt and its twelve compone nts have no identifiable beginning or end. To early poets and stargazers. From th e merger arose the concept of astral prediction—the forecasting of human events de rived from heavenly powers. Over tim e. the star patterns merged with their counterparts in the human psyche. Galicia.

Aquarius (water bearer) Jan. 22–Jan. 19 cardinal fire masc. This variance reflects the imperfect shape of the earth and the slight bulge at the polar axis. which displaces the equinoxes. 18 fixed air masc. The study of the twelve houses of the zodiac is complicated by additional influences on each sign. the components.. 20–Feb. By 1 00 B. Cancer (crab) June 22–July 22 cardinal wa ter fem. which continues its orbit beyond the circle. Add itional data establishes the influence of the four elements—fire.< previous page page_3 next page > Page 3 of Pluto. Pisces (fish) Feb. or the decline of a season (mutable). 22 fixed fire masc. Gemin i (twins) May 21–June 21 mutable air masc. Taurus (bull) Apr. 23 cardinal air masc. air. 23–Oct. 21–Apr.C. Astrologers use thes e metaphoric signs to determine the control of the stars over earthly life. 24–Nov. the sun firmly fixed in a season (fixed). Groupings by f ours determine whether the house marks the beginning of a season (cardinal). In the pseudo-science of astrology. Sagittarius (archer) Nov. Scorpio (sc orpion) Oct. the raw materials from which all matter is made. Capricorn (goat) Dec. Astrologers added an arb itrary designation of duality—the star’s tendency toward masculine or feminine. whic h alternates every other month. earth. 20 mutable water fem. counting west to east from the vernal equinox. were ide ntified by metaphoric images. the symbol of spring. whi ch must be computed exactly by Greenwich Mean < previous page page_3 next page > . 19 cardinal earth fem. and water. beginning with Aries. Each of the circle’s twelve arcs corresponds to an arbitrary astrological sign. An exact natal horoscope requires more particular study calculated on the e xact moment of birth. 22 mutable earth fem. 21 mutabl e fire masc. The alliance of these tendencies coordinates int o a single chart: Sign and Symbol Dates Quality Element Tendency Aries (ram) Mar . Libra (scales) Sept. Virgo (maiden) Aug. 21 fixed water fem. Leo (lion) July 23–Aug. 20–May 20 fixed earth fem. 23–Sept. 22–Dec. 19–Mar. star-watchers determin e the planets’ influence on human beings by placing the earth at the center of the solar system and measuring positions of the planets at a particular moment. The ar rangement of signs along the circular band varies about one degree in 70 years.

For example. Because the thirty-degree arc of each constellation varies from ex act center. And never likes to be outdone? Whose walk is almost like a run? Wh o? Aries. To study the general predictions for an individual house (sun sign) is to estimate a broad spectrum of possibilities for people occupying the same h ouse. Taurus. In the mid-seventeenth century. a position known a s the cusp. comprised of attitude. “hour watch’’). Who’s fo nd of life and jest and pleasure: Who vacillates and changes ever? Who loves att ention without measure? Why. the most? Who loves good things: baked. The claim “to be born under a sign” implies that the individual knows what the sun’s position was at the t ime of birth. e’en would analyze a sneeze? < previous page page_4 next page > . Who changes like a changeful season: Holds fast and lets go without reason? Who is there can give adhesion To Cancer? Who c riticizes all she sees: Yes. the astrologer determines the horoscope (literally. intelligence. Gemini. which can improve a business career. meticulous concern for details. but can ruin an over-zealous housekeeper. and behavior.< previous page page_4 next page > Page 4 Time. that evolves from the influence of the stars. or roast? Oh. Astral divination projec ts for each of the twelve signs a range of positive and negative character and b ehavior traits. Who smiles through life—except when crossed? Who knows. People who believe in star power and who claim a sun si gn learn the general personality type. a person born in the center of the arc is more strongly influenced b y the specific sun sign than one born at the edge of the arc. an objective diagram or natal chart summarizing locations of heavenly bodies at the horoscopu s (the moment of birth). By establishing the geographical coordinates of longitude and latit ude. boiled. essayist Joseph Addison satirized these po ssibilities by reducing them to absurdly small parameters: Who works from morn t o set of Sun. or thinks he kno ws.

Who puts you off with promise gay. Who prays and serves.< previous page Page 5 page_5 next page > Who hugs and loves her own disease? Humpf. But bows his head to no command— And higher laws doth understand? Inventor. And keeps you waiting half the day? Who compromises all the way? Sweet Libra. And mourns his brothe r’s fall from grace— But takes what’s due in any case— Safe Capricorn. which have been published in newspap ers and magazines since the 1930s. (Wedeck 1973. A nd feeds the beggar at the door— And weeps o’er love lost long before? Poor Pisces. Who praises all his kindred do : Expects his friends to praise them too— And cannot see their senseless view? Ah. he lets it go? A fervent friend. And if you prod. 138) Such narrow stereotypes. Who keeps an arrow in his bow. a subtle foe— Scorpio. and prays some more. Who gives to all a helping hand. Leo. are too imprecise to advise someone desiring an accurate individual horoscope. Superman— Aquarius. Who loves the dim r eligious light: Who always keeps a star in sight? An optimist both gay and brigh t— Sagittarius. Genius. Who climbs and schemes for wealth and place. To say that all Pisceans are dreamers or < previous page page_5 next page > . Virgo.

knowledge. vitality. early environment.< previous page page_6 next page > Page 6 that all Cancerians are difficult to love. cooperation. fruitful. authority Luna type: cold. health. a sun sign comes into power or ascendancy. determination. passion. when t he sun is at its height. striving. life. fruitful. signs of the zodiac. a meticulous chart that names the relationships to each sun sign moment by moment . The symbolic code of astrology results f rom three sets of information—the planets. 90. The result is a preci se document stating heavenly powers that require a professional interpretation. Horoscopy by the traditional method involves an exact numerical calculation of constellations. the astrologer locates the sidereal or “star moment” of birth in Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and establishes the birthplace in degrees and minutes of longitude and latitude. The exact position of the heavens at the time of birth corresponds to a position on an ephemeris. will. one linking the ascent of the sun a t dawn and its descent in the evening. logic. The planets. rising and setting sun signs. electric the human body. unconsciou s emotions. < previous page page_6 next page > . luck . specifically. moist. By studying the traits of each house. At each two-hour rotation of the heavenly chart. power. affect specific aspects of human life: S ol type: hot. siblings. communication. reflection. with the depth of night or imum coeli (bottom of the sk y). femininity. adaptation Mercurytype: dry and moist. masculinity. and the angles that evolve from t he two diameters. creative and regenerative power. To apply the chart to an individual. movement. nocturnal. Casting of h oroscopes requires a knowledge of Euclidean geometry. the arcs of a circle and the placement of two diameters. magnetic the mind. andr ogynous. finances. expression. desire. and the twelve hou ses that range around the 360–degrees of the solar cycle. which indicate the magnetic attraction of the planets. dry. masculine. emotions. By applying the powers that motivate and stymie the subject. The most significant placements are 60. nerves. and 180 degre es. personality. which bear Roman names and unique sets of factors. change. psychic e nergy. honor. is too general a summary to as sist anyone seeking to chart destiny on the positions of the stars. the astrologer must blend mathemat ical calculations with a shrewd guess at their implications for the subject’s soci al position and educational attainment. a skilled astrologer locates the influence s and counter-influences on the subject’s personality and destiny. magnetic the spirit. Crossing this straight line at right angl es is a second diameter linking noon or medium coeli (middle of the sky). 120.

tradition. genius. drunkenness. fire. imagination Pluto type: superior power. labor. demagoguery The planets Pluto and Uranus are more recent discoveries and lack th e thorough definition of type found in the better known heavenly bodies. psychic power. travel. electric. action. mining. superior wealth. adventure. po etry. superior concentration. mediation. service. rule. sexuality. humor. sternness. inhibition. inven tion. hope. personal magnetis m. pleasure. superior violence. principles. intuition. development and expansion. superior physical energy. providence. courtship. luck. despotism. judgment.< previous page Page 7 Venus page_7 next page > versatility. barren. restriction. diplomacy. mysticism. masculine. The ast rologer simplifies names for the planets by using a standard set of < previous page page_7 next page > . art. children. ethics. delay. earth. eccentricity. philosophy. sex. dry. persevera nce. deceit. magnetic. catastrophe. health. death. propaganda. selfishn ess. cre ativity. nocturnal. gravity. speculation. art. confinement. friends. feminine. barren. feelings. dry. love. partnership. wounds. m aturity. idealism. social status. common people. superior fantasy. energy. taciturnity. harmony Mars type: hot. inheritance. constriction. aggression. impulse. limit ations. drugs. problem-solving. home life. intellect. children. susceptibility. money. vivacity. vocation. enthusiasm. reticence. vibrance. separation. malefi c. attraction between the sexes. individua lism Neptunetype: fruitful. rebellion. brutality Jupiter type: fruitful. religion. ruthlessness. aspiration. invisible force. unexpected luck. emotional genius. excitability. critical ability type: beneficent. spontaneity. intelligence. libido. ownership. dynamism. optimism. melancholy Uranus typ e: barren. old age. war . success. law. wealth. sudden changes. disturbance. a nalysis. romanticism. enlargement Saturn type: cold. fraud. ceremony. feminine art. courage. competition. dreams. pleasure. morality. b eneficent. power. science. alteration. reform. the occult. disappointment.

intense. competitive.< previous page page_8 next page > Page 8 symbols to represent each. The corresponding female symbol is the hand mirror of Venu s. instincti ve. sporting. the twelve signs of the zodiac carry their own influence s. obstinate. outdoorsy. cautious. indecisive C ancer sensitive. deep-thinking. preten tious. affectionate. intuitive. quick-tempered. stubborn. evaluative. chaste. optimistic. a sign of belligerence and readiness. proud. verbose. practical. affectionate. secretive. unable to concentrate over long period s of time Taurus persistent. loyal. enthusiastic. opinionated. complex. spiteful. elusive. attentive. detail-oriented. reserved. conservative. close d < previous page page_8 next page > . just. progressive. circumspect. rational. knowledgeable. ene rgetic Sagittariusmannerly. persevering. stubborn. fast idious. intelli gent. artistic. courageous. pas sionate. The symbol or ideograph for Mars is a shield a nd spear. determined. home-loving. bold. alert. tactful. colorful. ambitious. In addition to the power of the twelve planets. candid. discriminating. outgoing. Although the position of earth has slowly shifted in the heavens since ancient times. unstable. cheerful. inspired. impulsive. li vely. adventure-loving. stoic. curious. Archetypal personality traits and behaviors cluster around each sign: Aries e nergetic. moody. practical. sensible. sensible. impulsiv e Capricorn abstract. secretive. industrious Libra balanced. driven. forceful. self-righteous. di plomatic. lurking. persistent. emotional. grudge-bearing Gemini witty. just. which allies womanhood with vanity. generous. hot-tempered. honorable. bashful. loyal. moody Leo powerful. serious. methodical. uninhibited. intelligent. pleasant. moody. modern astrologers maintain the tra ditional names for the positions of the constellations. patriotic. selfabsorbed . restless. sympathetic. companionable. exacting. hast y. domineering Virgo logical. dig nified. artistic Scorpio insistent. independent. which is also the scientific sym bol for the male sex. modest. restless. possessive. dignified. patient. painstaki ng. beneficent. impetuous. relaxed. expansive.

probing. aims. health. the astrologer must add an other influence—the focuses of the twelve houses or positions on the circular char t. up-to-date. each of these signs carries a symbol or glyph. pleasure. Because this informati on was difficult to recall. lucrum. emotional. sexuality. melancholy. appearance. affable. death. artistic. fame 11. sensitive. beginning with dawn: 1. ob scure problems. serious. changes of fortune 3. benefits. seclusion.< previous page page_9 next page > Page 9 Aquariusprincipled. evolution of the ego. freedom-loving. physica l body. na ti. dowry 9. a circle topped with hor ns to represent Taurus the bull and an arrow set against a bowstring to symboliz e Sagittarius. mysticism 10. lazy. personality 2. independent . sympat hetic. To these sun sign specifics. speculation 6.D. money. communication. moderate. unfocu sed. vague. marriage. popular. secret enemies. spiritual life. outgoing. partnership . accidents. inherited traits. intelligent. Roman astrologers memorized the twelve focuses by li nking them with corresponding mnemonic nouns: Vita. < previous page page_9 next page > . the experienced astrologer can draw some exacti ng conclusions. these symbols were standardized by the Greeks of Alexandria during the Hellenistic period. social life 12. publi c life. profession. friends. open-minded. capricious. possessions. or the second century A. religion. neighbor and family relationship s 4. servants 7. spiritual. popular. environment. inheritance. sense of well-being. vulnerable. scienti fic. logical. travel. material goods. for example. travel. affable. genitor. procreation. fratres. gentle. home 5. such as a tendency to fool oneself with fantasies and dreams or the likelihood that the subject will succeed in business. childhood. community. childhood. retiring. risk s. confinement By establishing the dominant or ruling pl anets in the ascendant position. personal enemies 8. prosperit y. According to manuscripts dating to the Middle Ages. work. honest Pisces tolerant. humane. wishes. philosophy. curious. kind Like the planets. unlucky.

< previous page page_10 next page > . f or example. career. As n ovelist Henry Miller characterizes horoscopy.< previous page page_10 next page > Page 10 valetudo. Scoffers label such fortune-telling as false science. uxor. even blasphemy. benefactaque. offspring. amusement. pietas. carcer (Life. wife. health. prison) . sire. the study of the stars allies huma n life with the rhythms of the universe. mors. regnum. Believers accept the indications for wh at they are—an interpretation of astral influences on human life and destiny. love with a tendency toward domination or good health compromised or threatened by accidents. death. brothers. duty. superstition. benefits. The aspects form an emerging picture as traits bolster or negate each other. money.

Academic study of the ancient world’s fascination with the zodiac—called arch eoastronomy or astro-archeology—discloses a common thread in Akkadia. India.< previous page page_11 next page > Page 11 2 THE HISTORICAL FOUNDATION OF ASTROLOGY THE ANCIENT WORLD The paralogic al or occult concept of evaluating planets and constellations to determine their influence on human life is the only prerational doctrine to survive from early times.” To aid farmers. Their priests. Egypt. employed herding metaphors to name the planets. an Akkadian king who < previous page page_11 next page > . predecessors of t he Babylonians. Africa.C. and to describe the stars. now the juncture o f Iran and Iraq). which lies north of the Persian Gulf. Because these state priests reported directly to monarchs. Persia. branching rivers that water the land kno wn as the fertile crescent. which they called bibbu or wild goats. who lived in what is now southeastern Iraq. whic h they called the “celestial flock. their observations and interpretati ons were honored nationwide and their writings revered as divine scripture. Bab ylonia. and Chaldea (sometimes lumped under the name Assyria. and Celt ic Britain. Lyrical star mythology evolved from the Akkadians. Spain. Judea. who c ombined the work of magus and astrologer. The first archeological evidence of symbolic analysis of stars dates to 2750 B. priestly stargazers predicted f looding along the Tigris and Euphrates. Parallel strands of thought about star power is obvious in anc ient ruins in the Americas.. d uring the reign of Sargon of Agade. Sumeria.

a forerunner of the modern concept of seven-day biorhythms. Sargon oversaw the compilation of The Day of Bel . Of weather. was called the Anu-Ea-Enlil. a collection of predictions and omens. the Anu-Ea-Enlil had much to say: • A darkly haloed moo n meant a cloudy. which lists and explains in fluences of the skies on earth. • A haloed moon insured a strong monarchy. a conjunction of M ars and Gemini foretold the king’s death and a power struggle of rivals. wet month. an astrolog ical handbook. Gullible people who studied the implications of Sargon’s document felt small and powerless against so great a manifestation of heavenly power as they saw in the stars. Just as Stonehenge served as a microcosm of the universe and calculated solstices and equinoxes. The Babylonians divided the year into twelve lunar months and added an intercalary month to complete the solar year. but inauspicious for Syria. An apparent devotee of a stral prediction. the Babylonian calendar charted the emergence and disappearance of constellations. the coastal pow er that was Akkad’s enemy. Babylon’s < previous page page_12 next page > . Sargon hired a team to codify and standardize zodiacal interpretation. they evolved astral con templation into a science of correspondence or sympathy in nature. • Thunder during the month of Shebat preceded swarms of locusts. The completed document.—a half century after the Celts constructed Stonehenge in southern Englan d to calculate lunar and solar movements—the Babylonians made a shrewd plan to seg ment time into seven-day weeks. Examples demonstrate the era’s unsophisticated all iance of cause and effect: • The appearance of the moon the first night of the mon th presaged peace. • A large setting sun with three bluish rays spelled doom for the king. • A moon on the thirti eth of the month was good for Akkad. • Thunder during the month of Nisannu meant a diminished barley crop.C. The extremes of prognostication were arbitrary and. To benefit his dynasty and nation.< previous page page_12 next page > Page 12 possessed charts that predicted solar eclipses. at times. In 1750 B. terrifying: Jupite r entering the moon preceded a collapse of national finances. Based on th e belief that planetary motions were messages from gods.

dry signs. who became the world’s first official astrologers. snake. the cold. who lived around Mexico City seven centuries after the Maya. dog. death. grass. appears to have relied more on calculation than astronomical observation. rain. a moon figure. and Kan Te. evolve d by astronomers Hsien. planetary deities posed around the core. stone knife. hare. and flower.. which stone engravings preserve from the third century A. wind. and Saturn and Venus as an Indian couple. The Inca. Le o.D. Shih Shen. the twisted. Scorpio. house. Not all ear ly systems arrived at the same interpretation of star movements. Before the Chinese system was cod ified. Far more complex than the Islamic and Hindu zodiacs were China’s moon stations and star stations. the Maya of Mexico and Central Americ a evolved a cyclic system of star interpretation based on twenty objects: crocod ile. The North was the home of the cold. wet triad. the Aztec. hare. To the south lay Taurus. knife. reed . water. recited an almost iden tical list of astral signs: crocodile. and flower. which settled the heav enly procession of star patterns on twelve arcs or sectors of thirty degrees eac h. th e Spanish conquistador who reached the Yucatan Peninsula in 1520. and Aquarius. which totaled 360 degrees (one rotation of the sun’s annual cycle). The Mayan c alendar. The number of these signs varied until the advent of mathematical astronomy. The west housed Gemini. jaguar. rain. snake. Later Mesoameric an cultures reflect the wisdom of the Mayan calendar. grass. a hot. dog. ape. and Sagittarius. A calendar called the Tonalamah linked the signs of auspicious and inauspicious days with solstices and equinoxes. earthquake. reed. the sky contained six wet or northern signs and six corr esponding dry or southern signs. wind. Libra. death. and Capricorn. eagle. who formed the head and tail of a dragon or supreme power. which featured Rahu and Ketu as Jupiter.. To the east they saw three fiery shapes—Aries. In the Western Hemisphere. drew zodiacal signs reflecting twenty days of the week. jaguar. Chandra as Mars. formulated rit uals and ceremonies to mark the appearance of star clusters.D. deer. and Pisces. ape. lizard. His satellite powers included Buddha as Mercury. around the first century A. According to Hernán Cortéz. wet trio—Cancer. The sun held the center. water. vulture. Islamic and Hindu astrologers also applied a set of pictures to a distinc t zodiac. To the Arabs.< previous page page_13 next page > Page 13 priests. In western Asia. deer. eagle. the contemporarie s of the Aztec who lived along South America’s western coast and east into the And es Mountains. vulture. lizard. house. Virgo. The Hindu created a zodiac in the shape of a wheel of signs called the Rasi chakra or evolutionar y dance. a royal astrologer named Wen Wang made rudimentary observations from a st ate tower before < previous page page_13 next page > .

Call igraphers pictured the elements as twelve animal ideographs—the rat. whi ch were not mapped until the collaboration of cosmologists Shih Shen and Kan Te in the fourth century B. This long-lived zodiac extended into the thirteenth century. symbol of the Chinese constel lation Niu . and celestial influen ces.” On e theory of the spread of this alphabet of concrete nouns places its origin in I raq. and pig. which numbered sixty elements in a single cycle. along w ith loan words and idioms. ha re.C. The f irst letter contains six stars forming an ox head. The second letter. a calendar designed for farmers. Chinese travelers studied the zodiac and chose propitious days for journeys. Chinese imperial seers use d these elements to predict harmonic convergences between earth and heaven. sheep.C. cataloged the stars. tiger. and Greeks wrote as beta .< previous page page_14 next page > Page 14 1000 B. To as sure order and positive outcomes. parents conceived children during lucky convergences. Philologists conclude that the Sumerian letter system of 2000 B. These two pioneers colorcoded the procession of star clusters in white. Thus. dog. the Chinese zodiac influenced most of the mundane and f estive events of human life. rooster.C.000 magi and clairvoyants supplied Emperor Kublai Khan with data gained from weather and star study. which Phoenicians called beth. The sign is the same as the Phoenician letter aleph . Taoist philosophers claimed that the s oul could purify itself by feeding on sunshine. Hsien. These twelve fig ures—six wild and six domestic or six yin and six yang—individually dominate a singl e solar year or Year Tree. red. dragon. Similarly. ox. According to Chinese cosmology. As visual evidence of divine order in the universe. couples selected promising times for b etrothals. and mourners se lected the favorable dates for funerals. monkey. derives from four stars that indicate ‘‘house. moonlight.. a s keletal bronze globe formed of interconnected hoops representing planetary orbit s. Star knowle dge animated a variety of Asian sciences.D. and Greek alpha . snake. Keng Shou-Ch’ang augment ed China’s two-dimensional studies with a useful invention—the armillary sphere. His successor. the Arabic al if. traveled west to Phoenicia in what is < previous page page_14 next page > . when the Venetian explorer Marco Polo returned from his seventeen-year trek from Hangchow with reports that 5. a court shaman. Arabs na med ba . Orientalists surmise that the star lore also underg irded literacy. and black. Three centuries later. the purpose of the twelve code names was to ha rmonize human destiny with space and time. Chinese drew individual letters of the alphabet from the twentyeight constellations of the lunar zodiac. even if they had to wait years before b urying their dead. which is based on movements of Jupiter. horse. the Year Star . Ch’ien Le-chieh pictured an d labeled China’s traditional lore on China’s first star map in 790 A.

the literate world allied astral observat ions with the symbols they used to write words. In this fashion. But you have power over him. tuk the scales. the matriarch who presides over order. (Leeming 1990. These shapes have remained static for centuries. And as “a thousand souls” did you teach them Tha t they should not leave you—as the stars. In the prehistory of India. and Tefnut. Brahmin priests continue to apply these astral signs to the interpretat ion of the Veda. kuda the pitcher. Aquarius. A f ocal myth in the Egyptian pantheon describes how the twins were separated and pl aced in individual spheres—Geb on earth and Nut in the sky. the Indo-European evolution of a symbolic code required a smaller number of a nimal shapes. Sag ittarius. the sun. About 1000 B. O high above the earth! You are supported upon your father Shu. yal the harp. Egyptians structured mythology around Aton. Cancer. Geb calls to his sister: O Great One who has become the sky! You have the mastery.< previous page page_15 next page > Page 15 now western Syria about the time that it passed east through India and B urma to the Far East. P arallels to current zodiacal figures—particularly Aries. 97–98) < previous page page_15 next page > . and Nut. Egypt took a different path to its zodiac. He so loved you tha t he placed himself—and all things beside— beneath you So that you took up into you every god with his heavenly barque. even during the metamorphosis of zodiacal philosophy and interpr etation. I sh all join the whole earth to you in every place. In a pyramid text. Shu and Tefnut produced twin offspring: Geb. Libra. Shu. and min the fish. The whole earth lies beneath you. nand the crab. their sacred texts. the zodiac symbolized sun worship and a mystical eight-part cosmology: edu the ram. amma the mother. you h ave taken possession thereof.C. kani the dart. Virgo. As Geb shall I impregnate you in your name of sky. and Pisces—are unmistakable. you have filled every place with beauty. the younger spirit of life.. the l ife spirit. You have enclosed the whole earth and everything t herein within your arms. In contrast to the Chinese zodia c. the cosmos.

opera.< previous page page_16 next page > Page 16 From the union of sky and earth come Egypt’s durable pantheon: Osiris. Scientists and priests of both the Egyptian and Ba bylonian cultures became adept at interpreting dreams. they believed t hat an understanding of the heavens contributed to their knowledge of all nature . the bloody-handed warmonger . Because the Babylonians venerated the external world as divine or as a god. and so they have applied themselves to that kind of divination called astrology. They faithfully observed the heavens and recorded mundane events as well as anomalies. Although the early panoply o f divinity lacked direct association with planets and constellations. Isis. and Horus. Nergal (Mars). Seth. the people of Egy pt and Babylonia had a natural advantage over lands occupied by Romans and Greek s: [They] reside in vast plains where no mountains obstruct their view of the en tire hemisphere. and trademarks. god of evil and darkness. goddess of death. (Shulman 1976. the Egyptians had formulated a c ycle of constellations. The pu zzling shape has remained so entrenched in Egyptology that it still appears in l iterature. began at Virgo and ended with Leo. and five planets—Ishtar (Venus). The union of maiden with lion produced the sphinx. such as star showers and comets. which they revered as mys tical messages from the gods. According to figures in the portico. 24) Supplied with adequate star lore. Archeological evidence of these astral shapes appear on the ceiling of the tenth chamber of the tomb of Sethos I . Babylonia n seers cast horoscopes based on the sun. g oddess of fertility and evening star. According to Cicero’s De Divinatione (About Divination). They passed basic assumptions abo ut the denderah north to the Babylonians. Although the Egyptians created an astral cycle and maintained that human fate was determined by natal stars. goddess of the moon. the founders of horoscopy. a term meaning “closely united. By the time the Temple of Esneh was erected in central Egypt across the Nile from Luxor some five centuries later. god of light. god of the underworld. cinema. art. which functioned as a unit.” The serene fi gure—a recumbent lion marked by outstretched forepaws and the uplifted head of a w oman—represented the juncture of the heavenly procession from Virgo to Leo.C. Civilizati ons at the eastern end of the Mediterranean gained a reputation for skill in ast rology. Marduk (Ju< previous page page_16 next page > . moon. called a denderah or zodiac. Egypt’s gods established the power of the stars over earth. which was built in the valley of Biban el-Muluk near Thebes in the fourteenth century B. they cannot be credited with inventing the zodiac. the celestial circl e. N ephthys.

recommended that priests perform ritual safeguards. Babylon. the r ed planet. Bel-u. Hebrew astronomy dated to < previous page page_17 next page > . that Mars. The central path. is the equivalent of the Tropic of Capricorn.C. one of Ashurbanipal’s priests at Nineveh. Anu’s way. Babylon’s religious hierarchy kept vigil on the skies from square-based pyramidal towers that were built ziggurat or step style. an d southern sky. Their location was so vital to both state and monarchy that it sh ared space with government offices and warehouses of emergency food and weapon s upplies.. northern sky. the authoritat ive Jewish historian adopted by imperial Rome. flushed with anger and aggression or that Venus smiled on love. Priests drew conclusions about the heavens. and Ninib or Ninurta (Saturn). Bel-u. By the midseventh cen tury B. who appears to have worried about his own infallibility.” a series of clay tablets written in cuneif orm. the “night sun. Nebo or Nabu (Mercury). The area around the Tigris a nd Euphrates rivers was so closely linked to contemplation of the skies that dis dainful Hebrew writers referred to magicians and astrologers by the pejorative “Ch aldeans. Babyl onian kings submitted to astral readings and noted in particular the unpredictab le behaviors of Ninib.” a te rrible dual-natured divinity who could launch thunderstorms as well as spring ze phyrs. Hebrew sages also studied star p atterns. Contemplation of these heavenly bodies and their anthropomorphic behaviors evolved into a religion that associated seven p lanets with fate and the number seven with magic.’’ No less interested in heavenly messages. Growth of astrological knowled ge and skill at forecasting spans most of Babylon’s history. an ancient writing system. is a solar system that prefigures the current zodiac. Uruk. King Ashurbanipal had expanded his royal library at Nineveh.< previous page page_17 next page > Page 17 piter). shifty deity. composed a lengthy comme ntary on the hazards of eclipses and urged his lord to write to the monarchs of Assur. for example. its counterpart. According to Josephus. Enlil’s way corresponds to the Tropic of Cancer. he included the “Creation Legend. They called their zodiac the Mazzaroth and referred to the four brighte st stars as Cherubim or the Four Brigades. ill-tempered king of gods and sender of disasters. Eager to boost their repu tations for accurate predictions of the future. a sly. To make certain that no evil would befall Baby lon by default. Among ancient texts and contem porary observations and records collected from Eridu and other Assyrian temple c ities. a royal city on the Tigris river north of modern Baghdad. This valuable piece of sky study documented a di vision of the sky into three heavenly paths: the zodiacal belt. and Borsippa to compare notes on a predicted eclipse that may have been occluded by clouds. Ea’s way. the king’s star.

God eases Abra ham’s worries about heirs by comparing his dynasty to the stars: “And he brought him forth abroad. for that he is strong in power. both of whom call Abraham their patriarch. ambivalent writers of the Talmud claimed that stars foretold the bir th of their patriarch. (Josephus 1960. Abraham. which was founded on the worship of one god. According to Genesis 15:5. they made two pillars. and at anoth er time by the violence and quantity of water. to the Hebrews. Yah weh. a prize city west of the Jordan River in what is now Israel. that bringeth out their host by number: he calleth them all by names by the greatness of his might. Identified in Josephus’s Antiquities of the Jews . Seth and Enos were the inventors of that peculiar sort of wisdom which is concerned with the heavenly bodies. and said. such foretellings were a sacrilege against their faith. warred against Jerusalem. So shall thy seed be. “Lift up your eyes on high.D . and also inform them th at there was another pillar of brick erected by them. Still. w hich in 710 B. published in 94 A. and their order..” An integral part of both Judaism and Islam. Now this remains in the la nd of Siriad to this day. the other of stone: they inscribed their discoveries on them both. A con temporary of two Assyrian kings. They contended that he was an astrologer who learned from the stars that he woul d be childless until late in his life. Sargon II and Sennacherib. the one of brick. To the Babylo nians. Isaiah spoke positively of the constellations as evidenc e of the Creator and urged. 27) A major difference between Hebrew sky lore and Babylonian astrology is the matter of interpretation.< previous page page_18 next page > Page 18 Adam and his sons Seth and Enos. and tell the stars. the Hebrew prophet I saiah led his followers in a moral and philosophical battle against Babylonia. not one fai leth” (Isaiah < previous page page_18 next page > . the founder of monotheism in the Western world. Look now toward heaven. who were the first human males and the first stargazers. God’s promise presages the rise of the two great relig ions. the heavens foretold the future. if thou be able to number them: and he said unto him. upon Adam’s prediction t hat the world was to be destroyed at one time by the force of fire.C. the pillar of ston e might remain and exhibit those discoveries to mankind. that in case the pillar of brick should be destroyed by the flood. and behold who hath create d these [stars]. Differences in attitudes toward astrology perpetuated cultural differences between Hebrews and Assyrians. And that their inventio ns might not be lost before they were sufficiently known.

and compiling six centu ries of observations. I will spare no one. 9–13) Struggling to reclaim Israel from its decline. and configuration. Which you have labored at since childhood … Let your astrologers come forward. Keep on. “No one sees me. In anger at their effrontery toward Jehovah. and there is none besides me. Isaiah snarled. for example. th en. Let them save you from what is coming upon you. Ob servations of the clusters caused astronomers to believe that the appearances an d disappearances of heavenly signs indicated either favor or disapproval of the attendant god. like the < previous page page_19 next page > . and zodiacal sy mbols. ‘‘I am. The viewers made up stories to account for the shifts in heavenly bodies and for such idiosyncrasies as color. Ther e are two possible interpretations for the astronomers’ stories: they were either simple nature lore explaining these complex phenomena or.” Disaster will come upon you. cult objects. Against the Babylonian practice of horoscopy. Isaiah taunted that a heaven ly flame would devour them like wheat stubble. (Isa iah 47:3–4. the Kneeler. And you will not know how to conjure it away.” Your wisdom a nd knowledge mislead you when you say to yourself.< previous page page_19 next page > Page 19 40:26). I will take vengeance.C. magnitude. with your magic spells And with your many sorceries. a series of tablets dating to 700 B. According to the MulAlp in (Plough Star). Our Redeemer—th e Lord Almighty is his name— Is the Holy One of Israel… [Destruction] will come upon you in full measure. In spite of your many sorceries and all your potent spells . but his harsh mouthings railed fr uitlessly against the widespread practice of divination. now called Hercules and Draco. which the Hebrews considered pagan and godless. En Gonasin. the visionary proph et castigated “the lady Babylon” for venerating idols. You have trusted in your wickedness And have said. Babylonian astrologers assigned metaphoric names to star c lusters. A calamity will fall upon you That you cannot ward off with a ransom. Those stargazers who make predictions month by month. Your nakedness will be exposed and your shame uncovered.

the symbols also offered practical info rmation. reading “Mene. They connected their twelve berous or zodiacal houses to fam iliar images: the twins. was quick-witted when threatened and impressed the king by interpreting h is dreams of the clay-footed statue and the giant tree laden with fruit. It was in Nebuchadnezzar’s court around 590 B. and Anu’s true shephe rd for Orion. Parallel histories of Daniel’s ordeal appear in the Torah (the first five books of the old testament) and in Josephus’s Antiquities o f the Jews .C. goatfish. for example. lion. bested a team of royal astrologers. and mermaid. Josephus states that Nebuchadnezzar took four noble Jewish children into his court to be trained by Chaldean savants.< previous page page_20 next page > Page 20 teachings of Christ and Aesop. sca les. which features cre scent moons and eight-pointed stars. gula. Archeological evidence of a written star code derives from the translation of the tablet of Cambyses from the sixth century B . tekel uparsin. The staunchest of the four. which lay on a bend of the Euphrates river south of mo dern-day Baghdad. The Babylonian circle of constellations matches classical mythology in poetic imagery—the hairbrush for the Pleiades. the furrow for Spica. Figures include a flying pig. the sickle sword for Auriga. As celestial guideposts. Babylon. Still attractive and in rem arkable repair. tethered bird. dragon. weighed. numbered. Priests derived names for these Mesopotamian star clust ers from mythology. a weak glow in Pisces foretold a year of low-grade spawnin g among sea creatures.C. scorpion.” Alarmed. priests. which developed into Sagittarius. and it omits the bow in the hand of the hippo-centaur. divided” and interpreted the phrase as an om en that the kingdom would fall < previous page page_20 next page > . he called his astrologers and d iviners and promised. and he will b e made the third highest ruler in the kingdom” (Daniel 5:7). the great swallow for Pegasus. bull. The re sulting cosmology varies from later nomenclature in three houses: it refers to A quarius as Gula. “Whoever reads this writing and tells me what it means will be clothed in purple and have a gold chain placed around his neck. Belshazzar or Baltasar. artist models of a zodiac cover a vivid teal brick facade decora ted with 575 ceremonial bulls. which the Babylonians sup planted with the laborer. and magi cians and fled a den of lions. th e Old Testament visionary. D aniel. saw indecipherable handwriting on the wall. Nebucha dnezzar’s successor. winged lion. they were parables meant to upgrade the n ation’s morality. Similar signs mark the Ishtar gate of Nebuchadnez zar’s fabled city. charioteer. Ishtar’s symbols. Daniel translated the words to “Numbered. mene. a hippo-centaur. and two-tails (the fish). that Daniel. crab. a maiden holding an ear of grain. it lacks the current figure of Aries. Further proof of a star system comes from Babylonian art.

87 seconds.. Egy ptian. In old age.< previous page page_21 next page > Page 21 to Belshazzar’s enemies. A child born with rising Nergal and setting Marduk could expect happiness and the decline of personal en emies. their mode of prediction b ecame the passion of rulers. Caliph Ma’mun built an observatory and discovered uncharted stars to add to th e Arabian zodiac. and Vega. A rising Marduk and setting Ishtar boded well for a man. Sagittarius. the Indian mathematician Gautama Siddhartha. Greek. 44 minutes. His unsophisticated math scarcely overshoots the current calcul ation of 29 days.. An ascendant Nergal and desce ndant Marduk presaged capture by an enemy. a setting planet negative. A rising Ishtar and setting Marduk pr edicted that the woman would be stronger than her mate. In general. His Muslim contemporaries viewed the sky from the clear.C.3 seconds. Aldabaran. and Pisces plus t he Pleiades. Ea rly in the fifth century B. Leo. The invention of these images served astronomers as an organizing patte rn by which they could identify celestial observations. About this same time in Arab ia. Babylonian star knowledge expanded. Cancer. Praesepe. and Spica. 12 hours. the Medes and Persians.C. 12 hours. Around 600 B. he calculated the lunar month as 29 days. unclu ttered desert landscape and named these new stars Algol. which were later changed to Taurus. To basic metaphors descr ibing the heavens. Using the clepsydra (water clock) and gn omon (sundial). After 539 B. Scorpio. 44 minutes. the predictive power of the zodiac extended to commoners and linked birth dates to destiny < previous page page_21 next page > . augmented the list of twelve identifiable constellations to Aries.” This period of intense in terest in the zodiac and prophecy extended into the east to India and Arabia. but indicated that his wife would desert him. foun der of Buddhism. and 2. Gemini. and 3.. The Eastern nomenclature remains in use. Ishtar brought serenity. Libra.C. Marduk’s dominance indi cated wealth and longevity.C. who sought guidance from seers or wisemen known in the gospel of Matthew and among Zoroastrian astrologers as magi (the plural of m agus or sorcerer). A cuneiform document da ted 419 B. Daniel was ho nored for his prophecy and bore the title of ‘‘king’s savant. published an astrological almanac. a strong moon was the forerunner of stability. the third-century Babylonian astronomer Kiddinu theorized how heavenly gyrations produced equinoxes. and Roman terms with Arabic designation for stars and nebula. The astral relationships they interpreted were simplistic: a rising planet was positive. Aquarius. Over the centuries. interspersing Babylonian. th e Babylonian analysis of celestial powers grew more sophisticated and inventive in applying astrology to human fate. Duri ng the next century. an d Virgo. Capricorn. Betelgeuse.

it will be favorable [for him]. replaced t he Babylonians with the Greeks. (Gauquelin 1967. Phoenician—brough t an upsurge of pan-Babylonism to the Greeks. an emerging. The place of Mercury means: the brave one will be first in rank. well. from the 4th day. a pragmatic people who had already imported Assyrian weights and measures. The moon set its face from the middle toward the t op. That day: Moon in Leo. he will become rich. Crossfertilization of sky observations from adjacent civilizations—Persian. Around the end of the ninth century. Greek astronomers rejected veneration of the planets. predictions for a Babylonian man are precise and professional: Year 77 of the Seleucid era. Homer. ASTROLOGY AND THE GREEKS The zeitgeist. he will grow ol d. As early as the ninth century B. believing Venus to be two ent ities.C. which the Chal deans had called “interpreters.” or revelations of the gods’ will. Sun in 30° Gemini. Hindu.< previous page page_22 next page > Page 22 and character. [there will ensue] destruction. and star names and tables from Babylonia. openminded culture whose energized intellectualism welcomed knowledge from all quarters. and sun d ial. records. Venus in 4° Taurus. had given two names to the planet—“herald of dawn” at sunrise < previous page page_22 next page > . Jupiter in 18° Sagittarius.. Chaldean. The place of Jupit er means: [his life will be] regular. [his] days will be numerous. 43–44) Although Aristocrates’s horoscope ends abru ptly. or spirit of the times. The place of Venus means: wher ever he may go. In their own cosmology. and which the Babyl onians had worshipped as deities. i n the last part of the night of the fifth day. but rejected cosmic fatalism. They applied a secular nomenclature to ide ntifiable constellations and heavenly bodies. it models the Babylonian style of horoscopy. monetary system. Greeks had gained astronomical principl es. which they called planetes or wand erers. Eclectic Greek scientists retained Assyria’s cos mology. Mercury in Gemini. with the Sun. he will be more important than his brothers. he will have sons and daughters. Aristocrates was born. For example. Saturn: 6° Cancer. which characterized the futur e of a commoner as well as it had once foretold the fortunes of the lord of the land. Mars: 24° Cancer. instruments. month Siman. water clock.

nature meant work: when Arcturus. arose. used these same star designations in his Theogony and Work s and Days . the daugh ters of Atlas. His contemporaries knew Mercury as “Twinkle Star. the bear watcher. Several generations after Homer. To the farmer he promised. Homer named six constellations—the Pleiades or Seven Sisters. in the mid-twentieth century. Begin your harvest. spread sails and taking his s eat artfully with the steering oar he held her on her course. The Pleiades are hidden for forty nights and forty days. and she alone is never plunged in the wash of the Ocean. had told him to make his way over the sea. keeping the Bear on his left hand. the mythographer and moralist o f the eighth century. and then. to whom men give also the name of the Wagon. As the hero takes his leave of the enchanting Calypso in Book V of the Odyssey. in the Iliad and Odyssey. bright among goddesses. (Homer 1967. happy with the wind. he honed his sickle and hired helpers < previous page page_23 next page > . For so Calypso. are rising. Hyades or Rainmaker. To him. 95) The astral re ading is so exact that. all of which guided Odysseus d uring his ten-year journey home from the Trojan War. and the Bear. and Sirius or Orion’s Dog. who turns about in a fixed place and looks at Orion. 65) Ever the dour. At the time when the Pleiades. ( Hesiod 1973. navigator Ernle Bradford w as able to calculate Odysseus’s position and determine where he would have arrived within eighteen days.” Mars as “Fiery Star. at the time you first sharpe n your iron. Orion the Hunter.” Ju piter as “Luminous Star. Ursa Major or the Great Bear. Hesiod felt no com pulsion to delight in stars. and plow again when they are sett ing. Hesiod pruned vines.” and Saturn as “Brilliant Star. he follows her directions e xplicitly: Glorious Odysseus.” In addition to planets. Boötes the Pl owman. as the t urn of the year reaches that point They show again. frugal farmer. after the Pleiades set. the time it took Odysseus to sail from Calypso’s isle to Ph aeacia. Hesiod.< previous page page_23 next page > Page 23 and “Vespertine’’ at sunset. nor did sleep ever descend on his eyelids as he keeps his eye on the Pleiades and late-setting Boöte s.

followed the Mediterranean shore s outh to Egypt. the hunter at its height initiated the grape harvest and wine-making. and political adviser named Thales of M iletus. Cleostratus of Tenedos. he all at o nce let them upon what terms he pleased. The preliminar y theories of Thales. Anaximander. After the Greeks advanced from star myths to sidereal sc ience. Anaximander. and others helped the Ionian Gree ks synthesize a stable zodiac through rigorous logic. Hesiod fertilized his vineyard and broke ground for the next season. Winnowing and grain storage began when Orion rose... Aristotle reports that Th ales recovered his dignity by proving to contemporaries that stargazing had its practical side: Thales. where he learned Chaldean astronomy. But when the season came for making oil.< previous page page_24 next page > Page 24 for the harvest. a philosopher and mapmaker who flourished arou nd 550 B. while it was yet winter hired at a low price all the oil presses in Miletus and Chios. When Orion dis appeared along with the Hyades and Pleiades. Anaximander’s contemporary. the philosopher Anaxi menes of Miletus. two first-century Roman e ncyclopedists. a coastal city in what is now Turkey. From journeys along Phoenici an colonies on Africa’s northern coast.C. His attitude toward stars was purely utilitari an: if the heavens could ease his burden and deflect agricultural losses. Anaximenes. he absorbed their cosmology and was so rap t in observing star motions that he fell into a ditch. About 600 B. many persons wanting them. He saw the eart h as a floating cylinder and the sun as the hub of a massive wheel. (Durant 1939. importe d the Babylonian sidereal < previous page page_24 next page > . astronomer. then t hey were worth knowing. challenged Thales by picturing the heavens as a crystal layer rotating above the earth. Unlike Thales and his belief that the universe was made of water and gover ned by its dynamics. perceiving by his skill in astrology that there would be great plenty of olives that year. According to Pliny and Hyginus. convinced them that it was easy for philosophers to be rich if they cho se it. Nailed to the surface were fixed stars. there being no one to bid against him. a Greek merchant. which ruled out faulty or romanticized concepts. an island off Turkey’s Asian coast. their cosmology centered on the physical structure of the universe.C. supplied a mechanistic description of the universe. and raising a large sum of money by tha t means. a forerunner of Galileo’s geocentric universe.C. 136) Thales introduced the Ionian Greeks to mathematics and astronomy and surprised Ionia by correctly predicting an eclipse on May 28. 585 B.

each fastened to a sphere or wheel. the astronomer Meton and the philosopher Democritus used star movements to i mprove the calendar. these intervals—the octave. Forty years lat er. and the first academic to claim that the earth is round. He voluntarily exiled himself from his native Samos to Croton. set the stage for constellation study by identifying the ecliptic. in the air. Italy.< previous page page_25 next page > Page 25 code and other advancements in astral study around the second half of th e sixth century B. Pythagoras of Samos. an island off Turkey’s western coast. a Greek astronomer. Greek stargazers adapted these foreign explanations o f heavenly mechanics to their observations of the sky. by a renowned scho lar and world traveler. depending on the ratios of their respective orbits—just a s the tone of a string depends on its length. which they first accessed in Anatolia. The swift revolution of each of these bodies causes a swish. now in Asi an Turkey. where he est ablished a learned community. (Gauquel in 1967. Evidently each planet will h um on a different pitch. At the beginning of the fifth century B. Me ton < previous page page_25 next page > . Eustemon or Euctemon of Athens wrote a weather almanac. the Greeks embraced the Pythagorean concept of the universe and its workings and expanded science with a burst of discoveries and enhancements. Stated in numerical ratios. th e raw materials were in place for exciting breakthroughs. Oenopides.C.—a period known as the Greek Enlightenment—astronomers profited from Mesopotamian calculations of equ inoxes and phases of the moon.. He was the first to call himself a philosopher.C. At last major players in the world of astrology. moon. which the Roman scientist Lucretius admired and adopted. and planets revolve in concentric ci rcles. The most numerical explanation of the universe was made about 530 B. They shunned mythology an d superstition as their calculations moved closer to pure mathematics. Arou nd 475 B. fifth. and transmigration of souls. Thus the orbits in which the plane ts move form a kind of huge lyre whose strings are curved into circles.C. Released from old sup erstitions. and fourth—epitomized a new way to explain divinity. nume rology. or musical hum. While teaching disciples about vegetarianism. In it he li nked weather forecasting with Aquarius and other constellations. he hypothesized that planetary movements pr oduced sound: Around [earth] the sun. the first to use the word cosmo s to name the world. With his advancement in celestial contemplation.C. 47) Pythagoras characterized a harmony of heavenly bodies that correspo nded to musical intervals.

He cautiously l egitimized a progressive attitude toward Ptolemy’s harmony of the spheres and the “s pindle of necessity” on which the heavenly orbits turn. n. astronomy. a nd these with month and month with year. he urged that students access astrology as a gat eway to truth: [The true astronomer] will believe that the great architect of th e heavens has framed the skies and all that is in them as beautiful as such work s can possibly be. Greeks so appreciated Meton’s system that they re ferred to his calculation as the Golden Number and in 432 B. and harmonics. 26) In Book VII of the Republic. he championed objective inquiry: The sight of day and night and the months and the revolutions of the years have cre ated numbers and have given us a conception of time and the power of enquiring a bout the nature of the universe. To his listeners. Like Pythagoras and Meton.) Plato explained the cyclical concept of history. and planets in Timaeus . moon.< previous page page_26 next page > Page 26 upgraded sidereal notation by formulating a dating system for astronomic al observations. His system of intercalation. is called the enneakaidekaëteris or Metonic cycle.C. and when he reflects how night and day are fitted together. which rep eats itself every 25. than which no greater good ever was or will be given by the gods to mortal man . he commented: “There is no difficulty in seeing that the perfect number of time fulfills the perfect year when all the eight rev olutions … are accomplished together and attain their completion at the same time. Athens’s marketplace. and from this source we have derived philosophy . Although progress answered questions about nature. engraved it in go ld in the Agora.” (Thorndike 1964. and the < previous page page_26 next page > . Socrates. p. a nineteen-year period which sync hronizes lunar and solar cycles. Plato discredited hucksters and fortune-tellers who merchandized the data. explains creation and formalizes harmony betw een the soul and the sky. Plato advanced the cause of pu re science by naming the five branches of mathematics necessary to education—arith metic. fixed stars. Avoiding undue piety and d idacticism. the conundrum of forecasting fate by zodiacal movements was no closer to settlement. With his usual idealism. plane geometry. or evening out of the calendar. the philosopher Plato echoed his era’s upb eat enthusiasm for the sun.000 years or one Great Year —the time it takes stars to make one revolution about the heavens and to return to their original positions. (Plato 1996. solid geometry. On t he perfection of heavenly motion. a dialog ue in which the speaker.

C. drew a two-dimensional planetary guide hypothe sizing that the earth rotates. Composed about 250 B. will he not consider it absurd t o believe that these things. 329) Unable to refute astral projection or to e mbrace it wholeheartedly. Aratus’s volume broke new ground by < previous page page_27 next page > . the planets move about the sun. the Greeks pressed on toward fuller understanding of star movements. astrologers d eveloped the concept of heavenly power over life into formal zodiacal statements called horoscopes. His contemporary. After setting up an observatory in Cnidus.. the first work in the ancient world to describe for ty-four constellations. Greek astrol ogy supplanted primitive patterns established by Eastern seers. He taught his students that fortune-telling by the stars bastardized science. Phenomena.< previous page page_27 next page > Page 27 other stars with these and one another. Phenomena. the southern portion of Babylonia from the Persian G ulf northwest along the Euphrates River. but the stars rem ain fixed. Following Eudoxus’s example and echoing his title. a sacred Egyptian city a t the base of the Nile delta. In 331 B.C. After this shift in power. and absurd to seek with all his power to gras p reality in these? (Plato 1956. he wrote an extended poem. He studied astronomy and geography with the priests of Heliopolis.C. a translation of Eudoxus’s work commissioned by King Antigonus Gonatas of Macedonia in northeaster n Greece. zodiacal analyses reached Egypt and took on an abstract meaning based on mathem atical calculation of the constellations’ positions. The earliest extant horoscopes date to 409 B. the coastal kingdom northwest of Syria. a philosopher and revolutionary astronomer from the coastal c ity of Heraclea on the Black Sea. THE FIRST FORMALIZED HOROSCOPES A few decades after Plato. exist as th ey are forever without any change. Military superiority advanced the Greeks’ knowledge by placing at their disposal the wisdom of Assyrian astrolo gers. was a graduate of the Socratic school. Her acleides Ponticus. which both have bodies and are visible. Eudoxus from the peninsula of Cnidus on the souther n coast of modern-day Turkey. he concluded poetically that astronomy was a means to know God: it forced the soul to gaze upwards and led humanity from earth to the divine. d etailed the stars with his eloquent verse cosmology.C. From simple begi nnings.—during Alexander the Great’s subjugation of eastern states—the Greek military subsumed Chaldea. the poet Aratus of Cilicia.. Eudoxus explained how heavenly bodies moved in uniform h omocentric spheres around different axes. By 400 B.

theater.C. had applied his axioms to a stronomy.. and Hipparchus. had au thored a seventeen-volume encyclopedia. By the late third century B. a Greek colony on the African coast due south of Greece. education. Euclid. which elucidate the significance of the Milky Way. 297– 299) Aratus’s Phenomena was so useful that it b ecame Rome’s standard textbook and influenced the orator Cicero and poets Manilius . Good rule it is to look for sign confirming sign. collected forty-four sidereal myths. and the signs of the zodiac. For this brilliant exploration of the heavens. A versatile authority on geogra phy. with confidence…. where Greek scholars based their operations at the learning center of Alexandria. After being named director of Alexandria’s library. a myth ological handbook completed about 225 B. Over two centuries. He credited Zeus with setting zodiacal signs and advised: Make light of none o f these warnings. Eratosthenes referred to himse lf as a philosophos . and a chronology of major world events. In 300 B. he calculated the earth’s circumference. the triad of hellenized Assyrian priests who maintained close academic ties with Greek academics. Eratosthenes. ast ronomers had synchronized their observations with the discoveries of four scient ists—Euclid. ( Aratus 1989. Nabourianos.C. and history.C. Lucretius.. and Soudines. the Ale xandrian mathematician and father of plane geometry. Formal shift in planetary study from astrology to the precise science of astronomy occurred in Egypt. ‘‘Let us count him second to Zeus. . when three. A coastal city on the western tip of the delta crest. a lover of learning. Study all the s igns together throughout the year and never shall thy forecast of the weather be a random guess.. the poet Leonidas proclaimed. a respected scholar who lived in Cyrene. literature. two learned Greeks—Hypsicles and Hipparchus of N icaea—placed a stronger mathematical basis under Chaldean astrology.< previous page page_28 next page > Page 28 explaining the zodiac and weather signs and accounting for the system of naming star groups as a method of simplifying and standardizing astral notation . In addition to writing an epic on Her mes. Alexandria drew from all parts of the Mediterranean the brightest and most open-minded thinkers and researchers. 297). Ursa Major. In the next century. which they le arned from Kidenas.C. forecast with hope. When two poi nt the same way. Eratosthenes. Around 150 B. in that he made the stars b righter” (Hadas 1954. he became a k nowledgeable geographer and cartographer. Hypsicles. and Virgil. commentary on comedy. Hypsicles of Alexandria composed On Rising < previous page page_28 next page > . His Catasterisms (Star Events).

Pliny the Elder. From these char ts. discounted Egyptian calculations as fascinating. 95). an arithmetic formula for computing the appearance of zodiacal fi gures. later declared in his H istoria Naturalis (Natural History) that Hipparchus would never reap the praise he had earned “since no one has better established the relationship between man an d the stars.C.< previous page page_29 next page > Page 29 Times. The earth’s turn within a turn accounted for a phenomenon that had teased astronomers since the beginning of time—the migratio n of constellations in a steady pattern about the zodiac. Hipparchus was the first to explain the precession of the equinoxes. At this point in the development of zodiacal study. a gradual shift to the west caused by two simultaneous movements—the sl ow rotation of the earth as it spins. In a ddition to compiling a sine table. After patient scanning of the skies. and plotted its course by polar longitudes. Employing this body of revolutionary advancements. Egyptian seers regrouped sidereal knowle dge in charts called sphera barbarica (foreign spheres). the most illustrious of Babylon’s hellenized priests. Temple keepers etched the star charts on courtyard pillars for general reference. critical research allied astrology with medicine. but dism issed them as unscientific. wrote in Greek the three-volume Babyloniaca. A generation later. which he divided into six c lasses of brightness.080 heavenly bodies. the Egyptians—who are sometimes erroneously credited with inventing the zodiac and astrology—developed a late-blooming expertise in sta r study. he constructed a globe of the sky and mapped sidereal positions by a new tec hnique—applying the degrees of a circle as a measure and establishing star locatio ns in the latitude and longitude used for land measure. Around 120 B. or shown more clearly that our souls are particles of heavenly fire” (Pliny n. acquired a reputation as an astronomer and the father of trigonometry. he cataloged 1. The symmetry and precision of Egyptian sidereal cycles impressed Hindu and Arab astrologers. who had grown pompous and over-confident. 48 conste llations. the most notable being A Commentary on the Phenomena of Eudoxus and Aratus . Berosus (or Berossus). Educated Greeks and Rom ans. an encyclopedia of Assyrian lore in which he applied star knowledge to the < previous page page_29 next page > . A contemporary of Aratus and h istorian of Sennacherib. Inclined to doubt foreign calculati ons. an inland city south of the Bos porus Strait in Turkey. the Roman encyclopedist.C. and the relative magnitude of major stars. the Greco-Roman astrological community admired the pillars as art. but spurious.. he foll owed Eratosthenes’s example and wrote texts on the heavens. a three-volume work.. They fine-tuned the science of astrology and assigned priests to make c alendars and to locate auspicious days. Hipparchus of Nicaea.d. Hipparchus observed Scorp io’s comet in 136 B.

who had founded medic ine during the fifth century B. he was by birth a Chaldean. Berosus emigrated to Cos. The Stoics expande d Berosus’s learning to a cosmology based on sympathetic forces that derived from the stars.C. Their elite corps of aristocrats comprised a sizeable p ublic hierarchy: • sixteen augurs to determine the will of the gods • fifteen pontif ices or calendar supervisors • six Vestal Virgins to tend Rome’s sacred altar • fiftee n flamines or priests of the three major gods—Jupiter. A priest once in service to Marduk.. The influx of pseudoBabylonian rivals infuriated the entr enched Roman priesthood. textbooks. the historian Josephus displ ays his respect in a lengthy entry beginning. hawked to the unwary a phony astrology manual called The Revela tions of Nechepso and Petosiris. a purported sacred tome named for a fabled king and his court priest. 613). on account of his publication of the Chaldean books of astronomy and philosophy among the Gree ks (Josephus 1960. Unscrupulous con artists of many nationalities who claimed to be Egypti an necromancers. “Berosus shall be witness to what I say. They thrived on city boulevards and col lected outside the Circus Maximus to advise avid gamblers on the outcome of hors e races. Mars. and Quirinus • fifteen superintendents of foreign cults • a college of twenty fetiales or regulators of p ublic treaties • a board of fifteen men to take charge of the Sibylline books and to interpret oracular sayings < previous page page_30 next page > . They didn’t learn it from teachers.” The thriving medical colony accepted Berosus’s astrologica l knowledge and added local herbalism and medical techniques. a man well known by the learned.< previous page page_30 next page > Page 30 diagnosis and healing of human ills. In Against Apion. the island home of Hippocrates. Romans were in turn captivated by Eastern s idereal lore.C. or scientific researc h—it was Greek slaves who cast horoscopes. ASTROLOGY COMES TO ROME The fall of the Babylonian and Greek civiliza tions introduced a major chapter in the development of the zodiac after Romans a pplied their skill to zodiacal study and interpretation. After the Roman general Titus conquered Greece in 196 B.

hastened augur y’s decline with his sneer at soothsayers: “I cannot see how one liver-diviner can m eet another without laughing in his face” (MacKendrick 1960. one of the most valuable astronomical artifacts from ancient times. In addition to populist sentiments. augurs clung to the ancient Etruscan dis section of livers. Republican Rome’s venerated orator and political essayist. but the old-school priests lost permane ntly to Babylonian astrologers as Rome became more cosmopolitan. a noble Roman statesman and public censor of morals. and market place palm readers. shows thirty-five positions that correspond to a pantheon of g ods. mesmerists.C. strictly delineated star study and fortune-telling in his Intr oduction to Astronomy . A separate faction of astrolog ers and stargazers undermined the priesthood by offering the Roman commoner a sk ill once reserved for patricians. Rival methods of reading signs and portents developed into a power struggle over orthodoxy. The tug of war between augury and astrology spanned four cen turies. which were removed from freshly slaughtered birds and beasts and analyzed to determine the auspicia or religious sanction of the gods. exemplifies academi a’s ambivalence toward divination about the < previous page page_31 next page > . science also favored star study over the perusal of animal entrails. earthquakes. The globe is a c opy of a Greek original. Thirty years later. the figurehead at the top. A bron ze model of an ox’s liver dating to the third century B. whom they rated on a par with fakirs. The priestly caste of purple-robed liver-reade rs unified in outrage at interlopers from the East and demanded the expulsion of suspect Chaldeans. which the augurs used to predict the future. The life of Cice ro. a factual description of planets and constellations. well-paid state jobs were at risk if the Chaldean tradition supplanted Roman augury.C. Claiming to protect Rome from dangerous foreign influence. Spo kesman Cato. who was more political appointe e than religious leader. now housed in the Piac enza City Museum.. animal entrai ls. Around 100 B.. 55).. which was painted to show the positions of the constell ations. an obscure mathematician and scientist acti ve about 70 B. The college of auguries temporari ly ousted the hated Chaldei in 139 B. Roman marble workers sculpted the Farnese Globe.C. Several forces worked in tandem to discredit the Etruscan tradition and to legitimize Eastern Mediterranean astrology. Geminus.C. Such high-ranking..< previous page page_31 next page > Page 31 • quasi-official haruspices to study lightning. and other prodigies to settle matters of prophecy left in doubt by the augur s • a pontifex maximus.

He questioned rhetorically. a thoughtful centrist essay that credits Zeno. He lambasted superstition as obvi ous silliness and asked. which debated the existence of free will. 44 B. “Can anything more absurd be s aid?” (Shulman 1976. prodigies. Cicero’s ultimate fillip was a snicker at astrologers who claimed that celestial influence over all living things must ext end to animals as well. the fourth-century B. 42). sybils. A year after Cicero was appointed augur in 53 B. the majority of Rome’s citizens became devout believers in astral powers. “Were all those who perished at the battle of Cannae born under the same star?’’ (Shulman 1976. who sided with the Chaldei. a detailed essay that contended that astrology is ignorant superstition. C. Cicero displays the influence of his teacher by respecting both pro-astrology a nd anti-astrology points of view and by balancing the pros and cons of divinatio n. He had been the pupil of a learned but obscure Syrian scholar named Poseidonius of Orontes. In spite of Cicero’s substantive essays on Roman theology.. In the chaotic months before his own execution in 43 B. He countered the earlier treatise with De Di vinatione (About Divination). called “Babylonian numbers. lion. ram. and prophetic dreams. Poseidonius had correlated Semitic traditions with Greek philosophy and passed to his disciples a rich ecumenical body of religious wisdom that proclaimed the heavens eternal and humanity the heir of generous go ds. water-carrier. portents. with calling stars a vis divina (divine power). De Natura Deorum (Concerning the Nature of the Gods). as are beliefs in omens. bull.C . As the government shifted from the fallen empire to Octavius’s nascent empire.. An enthusiastic syncretist.< previous page page_32 next page > Page 32 time that the Republic crumbled. the zodiacal houses derived their titles from concrete nouns desi gnating the scorpion. he composed De Legibus ( Concerning Laws). and crab.” The demand f or horoscopes preceded standardization of the names for the twelve constellation s. scales. which received a death blow on March 15. which supported state-mandated augury and portents. citizens bel ieved that the heavens were exalting their leader and welcoming him among the ra nks of the divine. He followe d with an early theological treatise. arche r. That same year.C. Overall. Eventually. 45). debate over astrology rose to a clamor in the aftermath of astral portents of Julius Caesar’s death. including the appearance of a ghostly owl and dead men wal king the city’s streets.C. aus pices. maiden. twins. he completed De Fata (Concerning Fa te). popular opinion gravitated to the proastrology side. Ci cero abandoned his original stance. Near the end of the Republic. All but Capricorn < previous page page_32 next page > . fish. founder of stoicism. After a comet blazed the heavens the night before the gri sly assassination on the Senate floor at the base of Pompey’s statue..

Into the first quarter of the second century A. whose erud ition had impressed Rome’s intelligentsia during a year-long visit in 156 B.D. in an era that demanded zo diacal signs on medals. continued to oppose the zodiac. Rome’s famous quartet of Republican leaders—Octavius. They worshipped him as their patron divinity and honored the first of March. Roman plebeians had long before adopted Babylonian assumptions about Mars. and trinkets. and Julius C aesar—sought detailed horoscopes. the month of Mars. Pompey. as the first day of the year .. feisty contention still raged between the pro-astrology Stoics and the anti-deterministic disciples of Carneades of Cyrene. these vocal Carneadites debated whether free will out weighed zodiacal influence on human fate. For two-and-a-half centuries. Yet. unchanged in spelling and meaning from their incep tion. Although philosophers on both sides of the issue dominated the academic arena.C. an empiricist and head of the Academy in Athens. < previous page page_33 next page > . Rome’s most respected philosophers .< previous page page_33 next page > Page 33 are pure Latin words. doorways. Lucretius and Cicero. each Mars based. Marius.

< previous page Page 34 This page intentionally left blank. page_34 next page > < previous page page_34 next page > .

The shift of imperial attitude toward astrology preceded a delug e of sidereal obsessions.. However. he sought astrological counsel during crises when the emerging Empire needed hea venly guidance. or devote ourselves to the profession of arms? Rather let us lift up our minds by means of the science which reveals to us the future. after Augustus became emperor. to restore the fait h of the fathers and bolster tradition. The instability of astrology’s validity paralleled the political a nd social upheaval that jostled postRepublican Rome. and that we can live in the midst of the gods? Why exhaust ourselves in efforts to acquire eloquence. 82) A devotee of the zodiac by 19 B. According to the biographer Suetonius. seeing that the stars unveil themselv es for us.C.< previous page page_35 next page > Page 35 3 THE ZODIAC FROM THE FIRST CENTURY TO THE TWENTIETH CENTURY The dawn of the first millennium A.D. why do no t men of every age devote themselves to this study: Why from our infancy do we n ot fix our eyes on nature and on the gods. and before the appointed hour of death let us taste the pleasures of the blessed. Augustus had sil ver coins struck with the profile of Capricorn. his natal sign.C. (Cumont 1960. After < previous page page_35 next page > . clutching the wo rld’s rudder. brought no consensus on the issue of the zodiac’s influ ence over fate. Seneca quotes the rhetorician Arellius Fuscus in a dra matic paean to astrology: If the pretensions of astrology are genuine. Augustus temporarily banned horoscopy in 33 B.

and firmed up the Pax Romana (Roman peace). According to the biographer Plutarch. To assess star p ower in prehistory. To t he end of its five-century rule. when they are making computations from the musical harmony of the stars” (Thorn dike 1964. Lucius Tarrutius. a more appealing scholar gained popularity with the public around 110 A. Plutarch also deduced from Tarrutius’s work that astral prediction could cas t a city’s fortune the same as that of a person by calculating the astral configur ation that ruled the heavens when the city began. The emperor’s architect. Versed in a broad range of disciplines. < previous page page_36 next page > . wrote comprehensively on theolog y. Subsequent emperors studied their own sun signs and emulated Asian rulers in demanding accurate prognostication from court astrologers. a ma thematicus skilled in casting horoscopes. and magic. began to seek heavenly direction by applying astrological principles. the Babylonian astrologer. Augustus Caesar’s personal couns ellor. An erudite supporter of the pro-astrology e lite. the zodiac was in.< previous page page_36 next page > Page 36 he ended the post-assassination revolution. he was too obtuse to suit the needs of the average reader of his time and died in exile in 45 A. quelled Mark Antony’s threats. justified the caesaristic autocracy. especially when forecasts lauded the government. Whatever their reason in courting the stars. He informed the emperor of innately insidious court upstarts and inf luenced imperial advisers by charting their futures. 184). Vitr uvius. was more successful and better known than Nigidius Figulus or Tarrutius.D. the Roman Empire never lacked astrologers. Analysts surmise that the imperial court may have been less gullible than shrewd: they may have broad cast zodiacal divination for propaganda to bolster public relations. an Etruscan mystic. and p redicted beneficent outcomes. boosted the reputation of astrologers by charting the natal signs of Romulus. Vitruvius proclaimed th at the zodiac’s influence was properly discerned by such Chaldean specialists as B erosus. Rome’s legendary founder. According to Plutarch’s Lives of the Noble Romans . citi zens relaxed once more and settled into familiar habits. He demonstrated how he mapped out floor plans on four equilateral triangles inscrib ed in a circle “as the astrologers do in a figure of the twelve signs of the zodia c. Tarrutius overturned the usual pursuit of the future by movi ng backward to prehistory. “it w as possible for the same science that predicted man’s life from the time of his bi rth.D. to infer the time of his birth from the events of his life” (Thorndike 1964. Thrasyllus. the i mperial hierarchy ended the controversy: augury was out. Cice ro’s friend Nigidius Figulus. Pythagorean astronomy. and by his followers. which included horoscop y. named himself Augustus Caesar. 209).

that any child born to himself and Agrippina was bound to have a detestable na ture and become a public danger.. it is not surprising that emperors of the Julio-Claudian line depended on as tral influence to sustain their dynasty. but Nero returned wholeheartedly to zodiacal divination. Nero’s tu rbulent reign brought serious threats to the empire. which br ought the emperors Claudius and Nero under the influence of Balbillus. d. astrology had b ecome Patrician Rome’s obsession. < previous page page_37 next page > . The symbiotic relationship between astrologer and ruler continued in the third and fourth reigns. (Thorndike 1964. The astrologer’s consultancy extended to Tiberius. Their l earning deserves the admiration of mankind. Thrasyllu s’s son and apprentice. with divining minds. (Hale n. Thrasyllus grew powerful among the emperor’s cou rtiers. As a result. the author remarked: The sun was ris ing and his earliest rays touched the newly-born boy almost before he could be l aid on the ground. cav iling satirists reviled the whole business. Rome’s second emperor abandoned the state religion and tossed from a cliff seedy fortune-tellers and obvious hangers-on and crackpots. for they were so solicitous as even to be able to predict. In general.< previous page page_37 next page > Page 37 to whom belongs the art of casting nativities. Ti berius valued his learning and advice over that of envious priests. In Suetonius’s De Vita Caesarum (On the Lives of the Caesars). the signs of the we ather which was to follow in the future. By the midpoint of Augustus’s long reign. for his father either to acknowledge or di savow. Under these circumstanc es. which enables them to dec lare the past and the future by means of calculations based on the stars…. near annihilation to Christians. 185) As the actions of Augustus and Vitruvius indicate. Claudius temporarily evicted soothsayers. where the emperor led. violent death to his mother . On the one hand. long beforehand. a public wrangl e arose: poets lauded the night skies and the stargazers who described them. Pliny the Elder ide ntified in Historia Naturalis (Natural History) a cosmic sovereignty. Fed by differing points of view.D. During a period of doubt in 52 A. Rome’s most incisive co llection of biographical data from the era. the intelligentsia followed.. Rome’s second emperor. as the custom was. 334) The father was right. and a signifi cant comment was made by his father in reply to friendly congratulations: namely . Nero’s horoscope at once occasioned many ominous predictions. and disorder to Rome.

Suppose she is ill in bed. A well-thumbed Almanac. Juvenal. misogynistic sixth satire.< previous page page_38 next page > Page 38 which he called principale naturae regimen ac numen (the chief rule and divinity of nature) (Cumont 1960. When her husband is leavin g for camp Or home. < previous page page_38 next page > . whatever An astrologer says. When she decides to travel a mile. Be sure to keep out of the way of that type. Which months of the year are assigned to loss. the aphorist characterized dependence on horosco pes as a failing of vapid females: An even greater trust is placed in Chaldaeans . there is one right t ime and one only. ridiculed sidereal study as a secular fad. but rather She herself is consulted. 73). In his caustic. written about 127 A. a suitable hour Is produced from her book. they fondly believe is drawn from the fount Of Am mon. Rome’s chief satirist . or under what sign joyful Venus emerges. she studies her horosc ope before sending for ointment. She no longer consults. In rebuttal. if there’s an itch in the corner of her eye When she rubs it. she will not go too. you will see her Carrying r ound in her hands. if Thrasyllus and his sums detain her. like a ball of scented amber.D. now that the Delphic oracle speaks no more … Your Tanaquil inquires about her mother who is dying of jaundice: How long will she last? (Already she has a rep ort on you!) When will she bury her sister and uncles? Will her lover survive Wh en she is gone? (What greater boon could the gods vouchsafe?) Yet she at least c annot tell what the gloomy planet of Saturn Portends. too. and which to profi t..

Al l things that are subject to death are also subject to change. their predictive powe rs improved. the Greek Strabo wrote a geography text that proclaimed the accuracy of the Chaldean zodiac. for it is unchangeable throughout the ages. for taking food—the time Ptosiris lays down.. Around 15 A. If she is less well off. they would have scorched Olympus and devoured the earth in flame. but Heaven remains invariable. the flight of time adds nothing to them. grifters. nor does age take aught from them. he noted that. while popping her lips as instructed.D. Juvenal tweaked the fl aunted sophistication of the Roman Empire by associating female followers of ast rology with the underside of the Circus Maximus. the work parallels the Christian concept of eternity: Thrones have peris hed. Because Roman astrologers derived technology and theory from skilled Mediterran ean artisans and improved the accuracy of astral readings. (Juvenal 1992. composed the Astronomicon . which its founders revered as a gift from the god Bel. sh e will wander between the pillars At the racetrack. body parts governed by each constellation. In op position to simplistic mythology. because forever it has been the same. It is God. 56–57) Keen on ridiculing women. By association.. the gathering place of racetrac k touts. each century transforms the features of na tions. the years glide a way. thus will our descendants behold it. < previous page page_39 next page > . and astral projection. a contemporary of Strabo. Profound in its vision and daring in its themes.D. In the first century A. and preserves all its parts. Manilius challenged pagan notions of creation. 60) In his masterly verse theol ogy. It will remain th e same forever. drawing cards for her fortun e and letting the seer Inspect her palm and forehead. star configurations. Juvenal’s unsubtle d ig maligned all practitioners and followers of astrology. the poet M arcus Manilius. Thus it appeared to the ey es of our forefathers. peoples passed from dominion to slavery.< previous page Page 39 page_39 next page > It seems. (Cumont 1960. a five-volume. and lands become unrecognizable. Such lethal ridicule r ailed in vain at the immersion of Romans in the zodiac and its prognostications. from captivity to empire.200-verse summation of the mystical star lore of his day. but the same months of the year have always brought up on the horizon the same stars. 4. and coaxing streetwalkers. if the stars were as powerful a s they are numerous. zodiaca l signs.

which reinterpreted mythology as a form of astrology. lit erary and scientific support of zodiacal lore proved that star study was more su bstantial than a craze or a hobby. he parried the question of divination by proclaiming that all star worship is sinful because it trivializes God. According to Manilius’s view of th e heavens. a revered body of priestly m yths. Sent to Rome as a government liaison from Alexandri a.” For these reasons. Lucian made a stron g case for an astral interpretation of the Orphica. two days before he formed Adam and Eve. wrote Deorum Diologi (A Dialogue of the Gods). Mixi ng their force. he insisted that humankind should r espect the stars as God’s emissaries.D. Although he held the heavens in awe. Philo proclaimed that God created the heavenly bodies on the fourth day.< previous page page_40 next page > Page 40 In addition to introducing the eternal as a religious entity. Lucian developed his theory with numerous examples of Bellerophon. < previous page page_40 next page > .D. Manilius r escued astrology from didacticism or superficiality with an injunction: No sign nor planet serves itself alone. he believed that propitiating stars violated the first commandment of Moses’ decalogue: “Thou s halt have no other gods before me. and interchanged they reign. However. ‘‘Before now some men have conjecturally predicted disturbances and commotions of the earth from the revolutions of the heavenly bo dies. By characterizing Orpheus’s lute as a seven-stringed instrument corresponding to the planets. From his perspective. In the second century. Syria. a Jewish philosopher who flourished around 40 A. Another confirmation of a more erudite view of zodiacal study came from an unlikely source—Manilius’s contemporary. they strayed from ort hodoxy by venerating creation instead of the creator. Each blends the other’s virtues with its own. Philo wrote. 354). (Gauquelin 1967. Philo surmised that the stars are virtuous elements that determine events. In his De Mundi Opificio (Concerning the Cre ator of the World). divination requires judgment and observation of more than the natal c onstellation. the Greek satirist Lucian. Phaëton. 53) The implications are clear: analyzing behavior o r character via sun signs is a chancy business. and innumerable other events which have turned out most exactly true” (Thorn dike 1964. and planets si gns again. a native of Samosata. Around 120 A.. the ambassador and scholar Philo J udaeus. just as the Bible i ndicates in its opening verses. and who used astral s igns to interpret the Torah. Philo felt compelled to upb raid the Chaldeans for idol worship. Citing Genesis. Signs planets bound.

my feet no longer touch the earth. their genealogies establish the two planets under which they were born. but when I follow the serried multitude of the stars in their circular c ourse. He developed a rationale for astrology. His cosmology pictured the universe as a series of concentric circles floating in crystal-cle ar ether. Lucian claimed that Aeneas w as not Venus’s son. is endowed with a < previous page page_41 next page > . a conundrum that bedeviled later centuries. Ptolemy pondered obscure points of science.. he aler and anatomist Galen. at conception or birth. Ptolemy became the first astronomer to categorize stars by ma gnitude and the first to describe the parameters of the Milky Way. A fter Galen retired from practice. I know that I am born for a day. became cou rt physician to the emperors Marcus Aurelius. thus proving the power of heavenly bodies to direct and enhance human life. a native of Pergamum in present-day Turkey. the food of the gods. Buoyed by an e cstasy of sidereal glory.D. His writings have remained in cir culation and are still cited by astral physicians today. Alexandria’s greatest mathematician and geographer. (Gauquelin 1967. which he published in his Tetr abiblos (Four Books). A generation after Lucian. didactic treatises on star power that defended horoscopy a nd legitimized the link between the zodiac and human character. he confided: Mortal as I am. and Septimius Severus. greeted the heavens wi th an enthusiasm and awe that surpassed that of Lucian and Galen. I ascend to Zeus himself to feast me o n ambrosia. nor was Aesculapius the son of Mars: rather. In 140 A. Furthermore. Commodus. His Prognostication of Disease by Astrology favors the ancient be lief that the moon in the twelve zodiac signs triggers disease and responds to a ppropriate treatments favoring astral healing. One of the great minds of the classical era.< previous page page_41 next page > Page 41 Daedalus. One phi losophical question he wrestled was the moment when life began. But the mo ment of birth. He claimed that Bellerophon and Phaëton utilized sta r knowledge to enable them to soar to the skies. His conclusion draws on univ ersal power: Conception is regarded as the natural beginning of life. Claudius P tolemy. He described the inventor Daeda lus as educating his son Icarus on astrology before testing the wings he designe d to fly them out of bondage in Crete. though subordinate to the other. 204) A scholar as well as an astral worshipper. he wrote treatises on medical issues that he k new firsthand. and Icarus.

Almagest. Caliph Harun Al-Rashid. was the first oriental observer to duplic ate Ptolemy’s observations. but Beg’s work was not completed until 1437. (Shulman 1976. Alexander of Aphrodisias. so admired t he master’s scholarship that he had the Almagest translated into Arabic. which he declares is molded by celestial energies both at concep tion and at the time of birth. just as generals receive military acumen from the ascendence of Mars at their births. Unschooled in Ptolemy’s refinements. that people born when planets are at their height grow tall or attain su bnormal height if they are born when planets are descending. since this energy is brought to bear on a complete human being and not a seed. A stringent v oice. warned that stargazers were losing touch with lo gic and declared that their blend of omenism. whi ch still carry Arabic names. the name it still bears. were accurate enough to guide Hispanic explorers to the New World. which remained in use un til the end of the Middle Ages. for e xample. inconsistent human invention founded on “pitiful sophisms” (Cumont 1960. At the juncture of Rome’s decline and < previous page page_42 next page > . a constellation map as seen from ear th. Ptolemy’s cosmology was passé. who produced atlases that. Ptolemy’s work. In the third century. Also. which defined astronomy throughout Semitic and Western civilizations for fifteen centuries. a Ptolemy fan. changing Chelae to Libra.D. The aftermath of Rome’s fall in the fifth century A. grandson of Tamerlane. By that dat e. they gave up astronomy and horoscopy and restored pagan sun worship . The Mongol king Ulush Beg. and is added to a similar influence already brought to be ar on the embryo. In Centrilocus he collected sayings related to heavenly bodies. Only two mino r advancements eclipsed the Almagest. 87).022 stars. formalized zodiacal study with exacting descript ions and locations of 1. it standardized signs of the zodiac. Muslim astronomers classified stars of the first three magnitudes. Overall. 37) Ptolemy’s conclusion eludicates the question of personality. propelled to power a debauched mob of barbarian invaders.< previous page page_42 next page > Page 42 greater energy. His subsequent works clearly defined astrological elements. The data influenced Arab cosmographer Al-Sufi. In the next decade. an anonymous cartograp her produced the Planisphere of Geruvigus . fatalism. His thirteen-book astronomy text. the Mediterranean’s perpetual ambivalence toward astrology again favored skeptics and naysayers. A classical masterwork. and prayer proved that s tar-based theology was a failed. came to be known as the Ptolem aic system. He also stated that beauties owe their physical perfection to the influence of Venus on their natal houses. centuries later .

who also demand sacrifice and propitiation? • How can God be reduced to mere numbers or tones. published in < previous page page_43 next page > . Anaximenes. and Lactantius. author of the Mathesis (Learning ). The City of God . Jacob and Esau. Augustine battered the proponents of star lore and astral healin g—Pythagoras. Saint Augustine of Hippo. a scholarly Catholic bishop of North Afr ica and zealous proselytizer. Hippolitus. Hermes Trismegistus. Anaximander. he who is only proudly rotting flesh. he leveled question after question at the i nconsistencies of the poet Varro. early Ch ristian dogmatists and anti-cultists. Aesculapius. warned in his Confessions : The astrologers say: “it is from the heavens that the irresistible cause of sin comes. In his magnum opus. possessing neither past. (Gauquelin 1967. nor futu re? One by one. Drawing on polemics. who wrote Collectanea Rerum Memorabilium (A Collection of Memorable Things) on the origins of the world. Julius Firmicus Maternus. t he Stoics.< previous page page_43 next page > Page 43 fall. Thales. who had produced Res Divinae (On Religion) aro und 30 B. Against all suspect practices. 51) Augustine’s charge of heresy silenced church savants who were attempting to cast a horoscope for C hrist. and Bishop Synesius of Cyrene. a Neoplatonist and follower of the occult who believed that the Star of Bethlehem was a pivotal example of a celestial message . Augustine made an irrevocable stand for orthodo x Christianity. have shared the birth moment. The blame is indeed given to the creator and ruler of the heavens and of the stars. it is due to the conjunction of Venus with Mars or Saturn. which he called pernicious and fatuous. Calling on the wisdom of Origen. He stood against these and four prestigious Christian astrologers: the zo ologist Horapollo. geographer Gaius Julius Solinus. author of Hieroglyphics.: • How could the biblical twins.C. but lived remarkably different lives? • Why are stars and other inanimate objects considered separate deities when the entire universe is divine? • How cou ld pagans erect altars to a handful of stars without angering all the gods of he aven. present. Augustine thundered his rejection of the o ccult and fatalism.” Thus man is absolved of all his faults. as Pythagoras tried to prove? • How can heavenly deities shift and change when God is ever the same.

An accounting of the astral influence on abrupt c hanges in weather and on agriculture. flight. a Jewish philosopher and court physician of Saladin. 76) . European scientists translated into Latin Kh itab ash-Shifa (Healing of the Soul).D. from caliphs to camel drivers. Without success. court physician.. star study separated into specialized fields: • natural astrology or astronomy . Christian apologists saw the universe as an emblem of the human relationship to God. h eaven and God’s throne reposed on the planets’ outer edge. the term astrology failed to delineate th e growing expanse of zodiacal writing. Arabia. medicine. In addition to theory and texts. Around 1200. a two-dimensional star plotter that guided navigators and enabled Arab astrologers to cast horoscopes for all levels of society. Syria. advising them that dreams came true under certain signs. post-Augustine prelates blasted the zodiac as un-Christian. For the western Mediterranean. even heresy against God’s divinity. A basic charting of heavenly motions us ing compass. without god’s appointment are to be silent and not to be heard … for what doth this opinion but flatly exclude all deity” (MacNiece 1964. shipping. a nd fishing < previous page page_44 next page > . They also published the star studies and a letter on astrology composed by Moses Mai monides. sultan of Egypt an d Syria. “Those who hold that stars manage our actions or ou r passions. and other exacting tools • meteorological ast rology or weather forecasting. Persian encyclopedist. mathematics. Under strict Catholic doctrine. hunting. According to Church interpretation. and astronomy. Sages a nd astrologers counseled clients on heavenly influences. the universe was a divine metaphor: earth. for instance. In place of the pagan metaphors of twelve zodiacal signs. good or ill. astronomy fl ourished in Muslim and Hindu strongholds—Turkey. and other of his 170 books on philosophy. he demanded. Because the discipline covered both ortho dox and experimental spheres of interest. the military. As a serious study. Qanun fi at-tibb (Canon of Medicine). astrolabe. but misled and confused under ot her signs. the rise of Christian ity spelled the demise of seers and horoscopes. Fixed orbits exemplified the creator’s control of nature. dogmatists tried to extirpate th e twelve zodiacal houses and replace them with an unrelated and artificial subst itute—Christ’s twelve apostles. chronometer. this pro-science era produced numerous models of the astrolabe. and India. represented humanity. and pharmacologist Ibn Sina. recorded astral calculations and zodiacal medical trea tments in Arabic from 1000 to 1037. called Avicenna in Latin.< previous page page_44 next page > Page 44 410 A. the center of the heavens.

An open-minded German theoretician and Domi nican friar. c haracter. produced Metaphysica Naturalia (Natural Metaphysic s) and De Coelis et Mundi (Concerning the Heavens and Earth). The application of biochemical salts to problems of h ealth. enterprise. the laying of the cornerstone on a cathedral or the launching of a fleet of ship s • retrospective astrology . emotional well-being. and astronomy to justify astral prediction. attorney. people hired electional astrologers to assist in fami ly decisions. begin a child’s education. or monument. a Franciscan monk who composed the Speculum Astr onomiae (The Mirror of Astronomy). A study of natal signs to determine human fate and national trends and such catastrophes as the end of the world • medical astrology . abilities. In the late-thirteenth century. alch emy. or nutrition • electional astrology . disease. and tastes . Because of his open< previous page page_45 next page > . On the popular side of astrolog y. The study of small areas of the human face and their implications for human personality. The ap plication of the zodiac to an expedition. or parish priest. These calculations also indicated propitious moments when parents should name an infant. during the Middle Ages. The electional astrologer became as essential to family well-being as a physician. Babylonians. for example. The plotting of each day’s ho roscope and application of sun signs to current questions.< previous page page_45 next page > Page 45 • mundane astrology . or arrange a be trothal. Albertus Magnus. negotiate an apprenticeship. he allied the progression of nine zodiacal houses with the nine months of human ge station and blamed inauspicious planets for stillbirths and mental and physical retardation. The examination of lives and events from history and their alliance with conjunctions of stars • physiognomical astrology . astronom y and the study of the zodiac progressed in steady increments. a scientific text that draws on Kabbala. The prognostication of the fate of kings and state g overnments as well as of nations • judicial astrology . Prospective parents often sought soothsayers to chart influences o n a child at conception and birth and to foretell talents. In The Secrets of Women. learned treatises that synthesized knowledge of the universe by drawing on a wide range of tenets derived from ancient Arabs. An example of special ization comes from Roger Bacon. or fate • horary or genethliacal astrology . Johannes Campanus systematized the twelve zodiacal houses and issued astrological tables to facil itate the preparation of horoscopes. and Greeks.

In Italy. horoscopy was a job for t he royal astrologer. One of the orthodox Renaissance churchmen. Arabic.” a dvisers and nobles read daily horoscopes and cast their children’s futures as fait hfully as they attended to Catholic baptism. midwife. by declaring that heavenly signs are the work of God and angels. or attacking an enemy. almanacs. and Babylonian text s and horaries sparked a flourishing business in zodiac calendars. a Dominican friar. h e pursued instead the Augustine philosophy. Popularized in the Renaissance. the French evangelist who railed against “devilish superstition. sailor. Western astrology dropped its traditio nal ties to God and religion and developed into an adjunct to mathematics and sc ience. Despite criticism from poets Dante and Petrarch. a practical compendium that introduced a lettering system to identify individual stars in the constellations. building a house. Martin Luther supported Progn osticatio in Latino (Prognostication in Latin). humanist Pico della Mirandola. and astral handbooks. A practical aid to the surveyor. and weather prediction. which thoroughly denounced horoscopy and damned as heretics all who sought guidance from the stars. Egyptian. Magnus anticipated the surge in humanism t hat buoyed fourteenthcentury Italian universities and laboratories.< previous page page_46 next page > Page 46 minded approach to knowledge. farmer. confirmation. builder. Aquinas abandoned divination. arranging a marriage. the work of astrologer Johannes Lichtenberger. signing a contract. A factor of court life throughout Europe. after considering the pros and cons of astral projec tion. Alessandro Piccolomini of Amalfi printed the first c ollection of astral charts in De le Stelle Fisse (Concerning the Fixed Stars). and John Calvin. Guido Bonatti ear ned a devout following for his Liber Astronomicus (Book of Astronomy). seasons. However. and he rder. astrology concentrated on lunar cycles. A demand for translations of ancient Greek. geographer < previous page page_46 next page > . His willingn ess to learn from seers of early times earned him the title doctor universalis. Followers standardized divination. a series of proc edures that predicted the best time for planting. a manual that amalgamated traditional and Arabic astrology. mass. Magnus’s positive attitude toward the zodiac influenced his pupil Thomas Aquinas. Aquinian stringency preceded a necess ary shift in astrology—its divorce from religion and its establishment as a pseudo -science. Although Aquinas believed that the heavens control the tides. A long-suffering example. In 1540. and confession. who often wielded power over royalty and courtiers and over the Pope and his bishops as well. and human bodies. he decl ared in his Summa Theologia (Highest Theology) that free will overrules any powe r that threatens choices and consequences. feast days. seasons.

was p rognosticator and physician to King Charles IX and Queen Catherine de Medici of France. better known as Nostradamus. Geronimo Cardano. including volcanic eruptions. causeth Tempest. Dee wa s alternately lauded. He translate d Ptolemy’s Almagest as the basis of his Ephemerides 1475–1506. a sharp-bladed executioner that rid France of its parasi tic aristocracy. scientific tables th at determined planetary positions by spherical trigonometry. Two parts Voltorte Herne. a German astronomer known as Regiomontanus. Pursued by murderous rebels. Paracelsu s.< previous page page_47 next page > Page 47 and magician John Dee. magnetic fields. surreal vision with Louis XVI’s capture in 1 791. An enigmatic genius. the white stone. earthquakes. Elizabeth outmaneuvered Spain in 1588. Marie Antoinette. According to favorable analysis. experimented on the unconscious mind by coordinating medic al lore with alchemy and astrology. Nostradamus’s Centuries . (MacNiece 19 64. The black monk in grey with in Varennes. a coll ection of grim. Michel de Nostre-Dame. rewarded. an Italian physician. and floods. To his benefit. and calamities of nature. Be cause Nostradamus doubted that humanity was ready to possess its future. 15) Interpreters link this vivid. Nostradamus’s bloody image correctly fore tokened the guillotine. astrology was the focus of crucial research in the late Renaissance. blood running. fire. The defeat of Philip and his Spanish Armada restored Dee’s freedom and reputation. unsettling predictions. castigated. a Swiss physician. the French king disguised himself as a monk an d fled from Paris to Varennes. interrogated. comets . served Queen Elizabeth I as counselor during a ne rvous era that saw the rise of Philip II as an empire builder and of Spain as a competitive sea power. and imprisoned. < previous page page_47 next page > . Apart from politics . a formulation that calculates angles and distances on ball-shaped objects such as the earth. While advising the Queen on international matters. solar storms. two world w ars. Elected captain. he fore cast in cryptic quatrains such as this: By night shall come through the forest o f Reines. depend ing on the outcome of affairs and his ability to project what people wanted to h ear. Johann Müller. The pack at his heels brought him down along with his disdainful queen. Less flamboyant was Nostradamus’s con temporary. foretold the rise of Hitler. coll ected horoscopes of famous people in Genitarum Exempla (Examples of Birth Signs) . His uncanny accuracy provoked both admiration and fear in the French.

astrologers altered the ir vocabulary and selected common terms in place of Greek and Latin phrases. the late Renais sance reclassified astronomy as pure science and demoted astrology from “the queen of the sciences’’ to pseudo-science. The public shunned guesswork and mumbojumbo and demanded tec hnological accuracy through telescopy. Tucana the Toucan. res ulted in widespread copies of Nostradamus’s predictions.300 s tars and 60 constellations. he cataloged 1. Attorney Johann Bayer improved on the heavenly layout with his star atlas . low-cost printing broadened the reach of astrology from an exclusive royal science to a thriving cottage industry that ap pealed to the reading public at large. and arrases dropped the s tereotypical black robe dotted with moon and stars and the uplifted wand in favo r of the scholar’s gown and the compass and astrolabe. By 1536. invented in Germany around 1450. polemicist and crea tor of the modern essay. for example. Uranometria (Uranus Measure). Bacon later amended his den unciation with a quibble: “I would rather have [astrology] purified than altogethe r rejected” (MacNiece 1964.” To cover any possibility that he might be wrong. earth and star measure. Müller’s tables. and Apus the Bird of Paradise. Sketches. Employing data from Keyser. Navigators charted the southern skies an d added the stellar figures of Indus the Indian. < previous page page_48 next page > . and other as trology textbooks and almanacs. In 1603. Pavo the Pea cock. This era in the history of stargazing demanded a full accounting of astrological method and an explanation of interpretations of heavenly phenomena. he boldly sneered “that astrology was unsound and full of superstit ion. On a voyage to the East Indies. and computation a nd analysis. Artistic representation of Renaissance astrologers illustrates the abandonment of pagan star-charters.< previous page page_48 next page > Page 48 Improvements to the printing press. Jus t as the rise of Christianity separated astrology from religion. At first. was a noted fence-sitter on the issue of zodiacal valid ity. At the same time. Dutch navigator Pieter Dircksz Keyser enhanced zodiacal drawings by appending twelve constellations to the sout hern star map. is anothe r name for Aldebaran. Dorado the Goldfish. and assigned Greek letters to individual stars—both named and undesigna ted—within a grouping. mosaics. As a result of technology that replaced the labo r-intensive job of hand-copying texts. known in Latin as Petrus Apianus. grouped stars in the southern horizon into new const ellations. The scholar Francis Bacon. Peter Bienewi tz. executed an elegant woodcut of forty-eight constellations. Merlin’s pointed black hat ga ve way to the telescope pointed upward. Johann Hondius placed Keyser’s discoveries on a celestial globe. 15). alpha Tauri. or the alpha of Taurus.

streamlined Copernicus’s calcul ations and determined precise planetary orbits. which Kepler notated on staff paper in chord progressions. only a hail of curses and blows will force it to step in that mire” (Gauquelin 1967. The scientific community embraced Kepler as warmly as they had welcomed t he work of Copernicus and Brahe. 821). Kepler had risen to p rominence from the publication of two prestigious works. Kepler’s triad of laws proved that planets orbit in elli ptical patterns equidistant from the sun. he had measured the positions of 777 star s. Brahe studied s tar movements night by night. De Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestium (On the Motions of Heavenly Bodies). Well situated in an island obser vatory that Danish King Frederick II built for him at Uraniborg. He disdained the role of fortune-teller with a taunt directed at charlatans: “Like a stubborn mule.< previous page page_49 next page > Page 49 The sire of the modern science of astronomy was the Polish mathematician Nicholas Copernicus. A discip le. which invalidated 4. Prince Rudolph. Tycho Brahe. not the earth. In 1596. England. his Mysterium Cosmographicum (Cosmogra phic Mystery) demonstrated five planetary orbits. Kepler expanded Brahe’s research by improving the telescope and by formu lating laws governing planetary motion. These patterns follow a mathematical f ormula by which astronomers can substantiate the relationships of heavenly bodie s at any given time in the past or future and can duplicate the harmony of the p lanets. who publishe d his master’s observations in the Rudolphine Tables. reasonable mother a stronomy” and declared that no star in the heavens broadcasts evil (MacNiece 1964. he completed a major document. a mind trained in math ematic deductions will resist for a long time when confronted with the erroneous foundations of astrology. In 1543. and issued a catalog that served as tronomers for centuries. a Danish astronomer and inventor. 59). Astronomia Nova (The Ne w Astronomy) and Harmonice Mundi (World Harmonics). Working from Kepler’s < previous page page_49 next page > . Absorbed in serious stargazing. the founder of di fferential calculus. proved that their orbits were elliptical. was the center of the universe. 340). His calculati ons proved that the sun. he downgraded astrology as the “foolish little daughter of the respectable. The explosion of scientific advancement moved on to new territory in Lincolnshire. a nd the laboratory of alchemist and mathematician Isaac Newton. By 1619. named for his patron. The chain of interconnected discoveries continued from Copernicus and Brahe to Brahe’s brilliant associate. which states: “The square of a planet’s periodic time is proportional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun” (Magnusson 1990. By 1596.000 y ears’ worth of theories and practice based on a geocentric universe. Johannes Kepler.

without which it is h umanly impossible to understand a single word of it. he declared that the universe stands continually open to our gaze. which states the laws of universal gravitation. Galileo Galilei conducted experiments in physics that preceded the invention of reliable telescopes. a witty exchange that prompted the church t o try him for heresy. and other geometrical figures. One iconoclast belied any n otion that scientific advancement is easy. and moon craters. Th ree years later. Newton was la uded throughout Europe. he published The St arry Messenger . and that the earth is not the center of the world and < previous page page_50 next page > . a slim volume that described the Milky Way as a vast carpet of thousands of stars. 101) By incr easing the acuity of the Dutch telescope to a power of thirty. For his expertise. he published his masterwork. (Blitzer 1967. These objective studies of the heavens joined Co pernicus’s laws in eradicating medieval concepts. but it cannot be understood unles s one first learns to comprehend the language and interpret the characters in wh ich it is written. A skilled mathematician and astronomer. and its charact ers are triangles. and. Pope Paul V sent for Galileo and questioned his premise that the sun i s the center of the universe. Galileo’s work shook t he established church to its foundations. Galileo. Saturn’s rings. Galileo remained silent. circles. The Inquisition found him guilty. Galileo recanted: I.< previous page page_50 next page > Page 50 laws. Against adversaries. … mu st wholly forsake the false opinion that the sun is the center of the world and moves not. sunspots. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia M athematica (The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). In this same post-Renaissance period of fervent scientific inquiry. at his death. Church apologist Christopher Clavius denounced the new cosmology as defian t of God. of Florence. Galileo was able to chart Jupiter’s moons. For nearly twenty years. knighted by Queen Anne. but on observation and objective anal ysis. honored with burial among England’s laureates in Westminster Abbey. Forced into submission. In 1610. In 1632 he published Diologo sopra i due massimi sistemi del monto (Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World). Newton produced Motu Corporum (The Motions of Objects) in 1684. These discover ies formed the substance of his revolutionary dissertation. he maintained tha t truth depends not on dogma or tradition. son of the late Vincenzio Galilei. It is written in the language of mathematics.

defend. (Blitzer 1967. and sideshows. That some believed he had been there. Continental Europe’s educated people gave up zodiacal study to street charlatans. Vox Stellarum (Voice of the Stars). a study of evil forces and their i mpact on bodily ills. For healing. Because empirical science had determined that the earth did not s tand at the center of the solar system and that stars did not attract each other . grew wealthy from his predictions contained in tw enty volumes on astrology. 34). it does move). palm readers. Knew when she was in fittest mood . Sentenced to prison. 104) Under his breath. In the mid-seventeenth century. and feignings of imaginations” (Shulman 1976. a medical a strologer from Leicestershire. “ Eppur si muove !’’ (And yet. Or to the bum applying leeches. he bided hi s time. The satirist Voltaire added h is own castigation by exclaiming “ cette chimère d’Astrologie ” (this chimera of astrolo gy) (MacNiece 1964. < previous page page_51 next page > . the fai thful called on Robert Fludd. Louis XIV banned astrology from the French Academy of Sciences. to cast horo scopes and interpret zodiacal implications for human lives.< previous page page_51 next page > Page 51 moves. the Babylonian suppositions about the zodiac and heavenly motions sank to the level of ignorant tales. 14). “At length I learned that wholly and altogether [astrology] was based upon no other foundation but upon mere trifles . the feisty astronomer mu ttered. where Galileo continued his research despite diminished sigh t and hearing. and that I might not hold. the satirist Samuel Butler snickered in Hudibras about the physician’s knowledge of the moon: Her secrets understood s o clear. Countering Lilly’s confidence in stargazing. He affirmed. When for anointing scabs and itches. “I believe God rules all by his divine pro vidence and that the stars by his permission are instruments” (MacNiece 1964. Only t he English retained the complicated zodiacal lists and tables. Other monarchs emulated his edict. French physician Henry Cornelius Agrippa voiced the per vasive disgust with horoscopy when he stated. Pope Urban eventually commuted the sentence to house arrest in Siena and later in Florence. 34–35). They continued to consult Francis Moore’s almanac. or teach the said false doctri ne in any manner. For cutting corns or letting blood. an English physician and author of Integrum Morbor um Mysterium (The Whole Mystery of Diseases). William Lilly.

which occur red two years later. Childe Harold’s Pilg rimage : Ye stars which are the poetry of heaven! If in your bright leaves we se ek to read the fate Of men and empires—’tis to be forgiven < previous page page_52 next page > . During this same period.< previous page Page 52 page_52 next page > When sows and bitches may be spayed. 49) To justify a pro-astrology stance. he foresaw “a strange catas trophe of human affairs in the commonwealth. And in what sign best cider’s made. when Johann Elert Bode introduced maps sho wing the shift of constellations by month. monarchy and kingdom of England. 105).000 stars. Lilly issued one of the earliest a lmanacs. and the cessation of the monarchy. containing splendid color drawings of constellations and winged beings. A resurgence of interest in the zodiac coincided with the rise of romantic ism. Contemporaneous with Lilly’s work came Andreas Cellarius’s Atla s Coelestis Seu Harmonia Macrocosmica (An Atlas of the Heavens or the Harmony of the Universe). which he mapped in 1763 in his Coelum Australe Stelliferum (Sta r Catalog of the Southern Sky). a complex attitude toward nature and the self that emphasized mysticism. Lilly also predicted the rise of the Puritan faction. His work brought the list of star patterns t o 88. many of which he named.” whi ch he called “so grand a catastrophe and great mutation unto [the king’s] monarchy a nd government” unlike anything in English history (Shulman 1976. (MacNiece 1964. their unprecedented incarceration an d decapitation of King Charles I. and individualism. which numbered 3. John Flamsteed. Merlinus Angelicus Junior (Merlin Angelicus the Younger). In 1729. a comprehensive listing of 10. Paul’s Cathedral to melt and run down the gutter. Lilly’s foreb odings were so precise that. English poet George Byron expressed the mystical be auty of the zodiac in Canto III. These two works l ed the field in precision until 1800. The accuracy of Lilly’s foreknowledge precipitated his arrest and interrogation. He proved himself innocent of conspiracy against the crown a nd gained a release. England’s Astronomer Royal. Stanza 88 of his verse epic. th e occult. published the exactin g catalog Historia Coelestis Britannica (A British History of the Skies) and Atl as Coelestis (Atlas of the Skies). he anticipated the London Fire that caused the lead roof of St. French astro nomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille journeyed to the Cape of Good Hope to observe an d measure stars. in 1647. In his Astrological Predictions.000 stars and cons tellations. and published Christian Astrology.

in our aspirations to be great. German astrologers evolved a modern system of astrology.000 followers of theosophical tea chings on mysticism from China. a universal unknown. and Egypt. Annie Bes ant. Blavatsky’s successor. author of Isis Unveiled and T he Secret Doctrine . American theosophists founded a national league.< previous page Page 53 page_53 next page > That. consulting ephemerides. Two German star studies—Alfred Witte’s Hamburg School o f Astrology and Reinhold Ebertin’s method—exclude the zodiac. India. he mailed pamphlets to people who wanted to see into the future. Under the pseudonym Raphael. By winnowing out quackery. In the last quarter of the ni neteenth century. In 1824. 550) The English reclaimed medieval zodiacal lo re in the late eighteenth century. affirmed the zodiac in her Autobiography . disciples gained over 100. Witte’s Hamburg School d raws on an eight-part collation of tables based on the Transneptunian planets. In 1 875. people were holding seances. T he Ebertin method. who predicted national dis asters in his Manual of Astrology. he launched a more sophisticated version. Significant to popular horoscopy was the development of theosophy. Led by philosophers Henry Steel Olcott and Madame Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. Throughout Europe. revived medieval zodiacal texts. an d studying the Kabbala. Fame. a streamlined approach < previous page page_53 next page > . a modern theosophist and publisher of Astrological M agazine . introduced popular horoscopy with the publica tion of Straggling Astrologer. Alan Leo. a weekly magazine intended for the masses. which remained in circulation until his death in 1832. with the French following a generation later. To solve human inequalities by instru cting the world on horary astrology. then continued into the twentieth century as Raphael’s Almanac. the Prophetic M essenger . led by the poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Our destinies o’erleap this mortal state And claim a kindred with you: for ye are A beauty and a mystery and create In us su ch love and reverence from afar That Life. an ancient body of mystical Jewish teachings. (Bernbaum 1948. The Germans. the stud y of God through mystical insight into divine essence. were the last to reviv e it. a strology entered the print media. which declared that energies fro m the depths of the universe impinge on humankind. Prophet Messenger and Weather Gu ide. Power and Fortune have named th emselves a star. His influence rejuvenated in Germany an interest in predic tions through sun signs. Robert Cross Smith.

colors. Jung diagnosed the faulty temperaments of unstable patients an d mapped out potential cures. for example. Br own. In private. or failure. In his 1950 treatise Synchronicity . 156). Prestigious people such as Jawaharlal Nehru. she forec ast for President François Mitterrand and maintained a wide sphere of influence th rough the < previous page page_54 next page > . which create sounds. Psychologist Carl G. on the theme of sun signs and love. Jung. which expresses the power of heavenly inf luence. P. and artists have embraced astrology. The Planets. As did other physicians and counselors. writers O swald Spengler and Henry Miller. In France. planet clocks to human ar chetypes. which turns inexorably in the heavens thr ough a cycle of 25. Jung related the zo diac to the concept of a cosmic wheel. including financier J. and heavenly vibrations. By categorizing similar psychological susceptibilities. and foot problems in Pisceans. solar activity to accident frequency. In Interpretation of Nature and the Psyche. he use d astrology to assess character and to predict the success of marriages and care ers. Composer Gustav H olst produced a symphony. editor Karl Ernst Kr afft. and physicist Albert Einstein. In his words. kidney problems in Librans. a Nobel prize-wi nner and pioneer of intuitive psychology. and lunar cycles to the body’s natural rhythms. frustration. Morgan. In the last quarter of the twentieth century. astral study deviated from Ba bylonian determinism.< previous page page_54 next page > Page 54 described in Combinations of Stellar Influences. British choreographer Frederick Ashton created a ballet. castigated skeptics for summary dismis sal of centuries of ancient wisdom and celestial observation.920 years. like vintage years of wine. the biological clock predisposes the individual to success. The Horoscope . Astrology does not lay claim to anything mor e” (Cavendish 1970. actress Shirley MacLaine. unstable ankles in Aquarians. poet William Butler Yeats. Scientists linked sunspots to epidemiology. and ocean tides. sunrise to blo od serum levels. wind. Japanese trade barons. scholars. concentrates on the mat hematics of an astrological dial. rai nbows. Numerous twentieth-century leaders. Germaine Soleil. broadcast an astrolo gy column on television from 1970 until her death in 1996. he applied the z odiac to his patients to map such physical and emotional weaknesses as susceptib le hearts in people born in Leo. “We are born at a given moment. in a giv en place and. we have the qualities of the year and of the season in which we are born. an d former First Lady Nancy Reagan have sought these latter-day predictions and an alyses. He lauded the retu rn of zodiacal horoscopes because they supported his theory of archetypal or ori ginal patterns of behavior. known as Madame Soleil. These rotations alter lives via arbitrary influenc es. According to Frank A.

500 years. < previous page page_55 next page > .< previous page page_55 next page > Page 55 Internet. newspapers in the United States. India. and Japan disseminate a onesize-fits-all horoscope that perpetuates wisdom accum ulated over 4. Today. Great Britain.

page_56 next page > < previous page page_56 next page > .< previous page Page 56 This page intentionally left blank.

” Hindu artisans adorn temple walls and linte ls with Mesha the Ram. Simha the Lion. Tula the Balance. Capricorn. a blended animal sh ape and Capricorn. a bow and the heavenly archer. Sagittarius. and Aquarius are slight enough to m aintain connections between a human pair and the star twins. Egyptians carved circles compose d of animal and human shapes and hieroglyphs representing the twelve houses arou nd the lids of sarcophagi and inscribed them on pyramid walls and canopi or buri al urns.< previous page page_57 next page > Page 57 4 THE ZODIAC IN THE ARTS AND SCIENCES Zodiacal figures are pervasive in human affairs. Kanya the Virgin. Kumbha the Waterpot. detailed drawings from ancient India of the figu res paralleling Capricorn and Aquarius adorn a circle of shapes similar to the G reek concept of the “circle of animals. < previous page page_57 next page > . ART AND ARCHITECTURE From Mediterranean nations come the stand ardized twelve shapes and glyphs of the zodiac. Egypt’s hawk r esembles Tibet’s Garuda-vulture. Across cultures. In a Roman funerary relief from the Empire. Vrishika the Scorpion. and a water vessel and the sta rry watercarrier. Astral figures on a mirror of the T’ang dynasty pro duce a graceful circular motif. Makara the Seamonster. Vrisha the Bull. and Mina the Fish. D hanus the Bow. Karkata the Cr ab. Al terations to Gemini. Mithuna the human couple. the characteristics of standard astral houses im ply a continuity: the Chinese red bird equates with Mexico’s vulture. a procession of musicians.

Cetus. Marcus Manilius. illuminations on the initial letter of the first word on parchments a nd religious documents incorporated sun signs. Taurus. which survived to the present day with no change in form or style. They sometimes combined a single zodiacal figure. In addition to ident ification. The facing map. < previous page page_58 next page > . Nuremberg artist and engraver Albrecht Dürer produced a woodcut of a two-sided sk y map in 1515. A sidenote adds. and Al-Sufi. the zodiac remained a popu lar theme. zodiacal symbol ism remains a design constant. along with the family initial. these insignia were still too complicated to be forged. s uch as the crab.< previous page page_58 next page > Page 58 servants. his cosmology features fanciful drawi ngs of Orion. Gemini. The dynastic motifs omitted family or institutional mottoes becaus e there was not enough room. embassies. or mercantile houses during sojourns in unfamili ar territory. a crescent moon and stars link the soul to the u niverse. Augus tine’s frontal attack on astrology failed to quell enthusiasm for natal horoscopy. and the eighth-centur y palace of Qasr al-’amral outside Amman. which features a zodiacal motif on the mosaic floor. the shapes of Cancer. acclaimed early proponents of astrological study. feature s Atlas supporting a globe covered in symbols of forty-eight constellations. Ioam Stabius ordinavit. and family accompany the deceased on a funeral bi er. and Hydra on a twelvepart circle. pallbearers. signs of the zodiac enhance universal themes and characterize t he passage of time and the labors of the seasons. Art from the Renaissance to the present maintains zodiacal figures as celestial iconography. Seal rings. Italy. names and depicts all twelve signs of the zodiac. Nea r his right hand. and Sagittarius stand ou t from the background in high relief. In more European and Near Eastern art and architecture. and family stamps sometimes preserved the sun sign of the patriarch as a modified family crest. Ptolemy. Representative of the first ce ntury A. Traveling nobles used thei r rings and stamps for sealing letters and legal documents and for establishing identity with banks. On the Southern Hemisphere. which showcases a zodiac on the ceiling of its main chamber. During the Medieval era. Two Mideastern zodiacs appear as decoratio ns of elegant buildings—the sixth-century synagogue of Bet Alfa in northeastern Is rael. Above the reclining figure. some indicating the conjunction o f heavenly bodies at the time of a birth or historic event.. which cov ers the Northern Hemisphere. Jordan. T he corners honor Aratus.D. keys. Inscribed over the doorways of Romanesque and Got hic sanctuaries. a statue now housed in the National Museum in Naples. The fact that subscr ibers commissioned ornate copy work to religious orders indicates that St. jewelry. Less detailed than a formal shie ld.

For example. The most familiar of these heraldic crests adorn coins minte d to commemorate a monarch or event. Conrad Heinfogel positioned the stars. Spent worldwide as Europeans opened markets in the New World and traded with the Orient. monies carried the arrogance of ro yalty to mercantile centers and obscure outposts. armory. Failed voyages dumped whole ca rgoes in the sea. During an era that saw the ris e of feudal estates. the Vatican’s Borgia popes. creato rs of heraldry devised conventions to honor the great. In addition. England’s houses of York and Lancaster. thus all ying the twin boys with the horn of plenty in a detailed study of Father Tiber. Calligraphers inked them on vellum and parchment and painted them on the doors of coaches. Bernini’s design honors both the earthly and astral aspects of Rome’s mythic and legendary foundation. the legendary wolf-mother. workers adapted and embellished zodiacal symbols to adorn genealogies. Albertus Dürer imaginibus circumscripsi t (Joachim Stabius arranged it. Artisans blazoned these grandiose designs in gilt and silk threads o n throne upholstery and ceremonial robes. Woodcrafters carved them on table legs and treasury casks and fitted them into intaglio circles and shields at the ent rances of baronial estates and lordly palaces. Metalsmiths pressed the devices i n repoussé on shields. livery. noble houses. France’s Bourbon kings. and harness makers chosen to serv e the royal family. and crests. well muscled with full beard and abundant hair. once graced the piazza of Rome’s Campidoglio and is now ho used in the Louvre Museum in Paris. Scottish clans. armorial cabinets.< previous page page_59 next page > Page 59 Conradus Heinfogel stellas posuit. drapers. salvers. a mythic figure sculpted by Neopolitan L orenzo Bernini in 1651. suckling Romulus and Remus. and the British royal lines of Plantagenet and Tudor. Austria’s Hapsburgs. goblets. < previous page page_59 next page > . escutcheons. To aid the n onreader and to keep the rising bourgeoisie in their place. At the bottom right of the figure sta nds Rome’s legendary lupa. and coronets. Some late Renaissance sculpture and bas-relie f display a combination of earthly and zodiacal figures. Albrecht Dürer drew it from his imagination). and the logos of vintners. where divers still scour the ocean floor for crested doubloons and pieces of eight. He bears an oar in his left h and and cradles a cornucopia in his right. Spain’s Aragonese royalty. Bernini carved emblems of Gemini. and Aquarius. Their clients included th e d’Este and Medici of Italy. Rome’s traditional water bearer. The pose depicts the semi-recumbent patriarc h. Capricorn. and aristocratic and ruling dynasties. the founta in grouping that features Father Tiber. tiaras.

squatting frontward on its haunches. winged. Trademarks and the logos of colleges. eel. aflame. religious groups. Other zod iacal symbols are less common to heraldry than Leo. Lux. represent their own style of defiance or independence in a family line. lying down. guarding. walking. or scepter to signify the lion’s eminence as the king of beasts. and bull. human twins. Not to be outdone. The minut e details of European crests showcase fantastic augmentations of the beast in na ture. tail knotted and flouri shed. perhaps because they represent virtues less valued to heraldry.< previous page page_60 next page > Page 60 Heraldry Heraldic iconography features animal shapes in dramatic poses. and stingers to demonstrate challenge or menace. or stylized to suggest the f eatures of a gryphon or dragon. Groups or institutions stressing fair trade. Virgo with sc ales in hand traditionally tops a decorated shield or entablature. or standing. and pike. Liberty). Painted escutcheons commonly display gold f or background or highlight. and manufacturers e cho the popularity of certain figures found in heraldry. these devices had become standard < previous page page_60 next page > . ranging from unembellished glyph to ornate line drawings. The ram. collared. claws abnormally flexed or barbed. Leo in a variety of for ms and poses is most common. orb. for which the lion is a national symbol. A common figure is the lion. Among world shipping lines. the underclasses formed their own heraldic conventions. They appear as stylized sea creatures or in the natural shapes of dolphi n. refl ect the ancient tradition pairing sea creatures with luck. publishing houses. salmon. for example. body finned like a sea creature or scaled like a serpent. with either straight or twined horns. or Veritas et Justitia (Truth and Justice). For companies a nd financial houses wishing to appear even-handed and trustworthy. and water bearer are less common among zodiacal symbols used on c rests. trout. sitting . justice. herring. sleeping. fleur-d e-lis . The hybridized lion’s mane and tail may appear lea fy. and impartiality combi ne Virgo and Libra with depictions of the maiden with scales in hand. the lion itself is often a bold red. A ribbon or s croll may round out the image and display a two-part motto on the theme of balan ce. Fish—eit her alone or paired as they are in the zodiac—occupy one entire wing of natural he raldry. or university histo ry. which may be lunging. or tongue and ta il elongated. for example. Libertas (Light. Deus et Patria (God and Country ). especially in Britain and its former colonies. whale. pincers. robed. goat. company logo. numer ous fish symbols. but no less fanciful. The head is often crowned and forepaws grasp a sword. The archer . As representations of good fortune. The heraldic crab and scorpion flaunt claws. the feet splayed.

Schlitz malt liquor (‘‘Look out for the bull!”). and backdrops. Sagittarius. and Wall Street’s bull market. the fish appears on bumper stickers and lapel pins. hair dressing. a 1978 adventure thriller about a space hoax. Aries Research. ironworks . Ben Hur . Scorpio. Libranet web builders. the author’s conn ection with a sun sign echoes the use of Gemini. for instance. and firearms. denoting members of Christian fraternal organizations and sodalities. The bull and ram highlight tra demarks for companies linked with strength and precision. Sco rpio Music Distributors. such as Cleopatra . costumes. < previous page page_61 next page > . the n ame suggests both the venom of the scorpion in nature and the archetypal behavio rs of those born under the sign of Scorpio. drapery. Quo Vadis. names a 1970 s py flick bristling with brutality and a complex doublecross. and Aries Nat ural Language Tools. The Wives of Henry VIII . films on current subjects have used zodiacal figures. and Satyricon incorporate planetary symbols and zodiacal glyphs in costuming. El izabeth I. Mercury. Sagittarius archery club. a made-for-TV film replicated the crimes of the notorious Zodiac kill er. which is too closely associated with an often fatal disease. The Fall of the Roman Empire . As emblems of Christ. Pisces software. The latter. for example. Another zodiac-based title. Titles based on t he Middle Ages and Renaissance—for example. In this case. Familiar logos on television and in the popular press inclu de the Dodge Ram and Ford Taurus. and Cancer. Some current examples include the Zodiac mood watch. jewelry. and military insigni a. Cinema Historical cinema r eiterates the use of zodiacal figures in past times. Monty Python and the Holy Grail . Pisces. Advertising Zodiacal symbolism abounds in product advertisement and service id entification. creates an obviously negative connection . Ivanhoe . Calig ula . tire manufacturers. Camelot. Classic movies about ancien t Mediterranean civilizations and the rise of Christianity. To a lesser degree. automotive parts. a stalker of lone women who picked victims according to sun signs. The Lion in Winter . and Columbus —emblazed heraldic devices o n armor and inscribed their symbols on backdrops. and Apollo in NASA’s ter minology for space missions.< previous page page_61 next page > Page 61 notation on pub signs and the logos of oceanside bistros. Less common in title identification are Aquarius. In the ti tle Capricorn One. Libratees shi rts from Libra Square manufacturers.

On stone tables i n cuneiform. Atlantis. Discovery. Space Exploration For obvious reasons. the moon go d. blood pressure. one to pilot and one to navigate. The Ba bylonians absorbed Sumerian icons and reiterated their themes. for example. Centaur. The dominant mythological figure. Protected from heat by a plastic shield and launched by a Titan rocket. Important segments of the U. the episode in which Gilgamesh relates a puzzling dream to his mother: < previous page page_62 next page > . became the first duo of astronauts to orbit the earth. Sumerian scribes wrote of a primitive astronaut. Apollo. a reflection o f the integration of the zodiac with all phases of human life.< previous page page_62 next page > Page 62 Complementing these images of masculinity and forcefulness are genteel V irgo figures. and leather sa ndals and posed in indolent or ladylike stance. star lore is likewise universal.S. resilient male and the pliant. names th e successful series of craft that carried the first lunar explorers. Columbia. aboard Gemini III. a ten-stage project named for the twins to reflect the craft’s design for two human occupants. Designed in 1961 from an enlarged Mercury capsule. Challenger. Virgil Grissom and John Young. and the effects of weightlessness on digestion and sleep.6 × 3. successive stages practiced in-flight docking and orbital rendezvous techniques as well as two-man biomedical experiments on heart rate. hand cream. The psychological impact of these evocative shapes from the zodiac demonstrate the universality of archetypes. space exploration has relied on names from mythology and history. Luna. balance. Dressed in classic beribboned hair. Magellan. Seven stages later. the original sh ape of the Gemini module was 5. a circular boat. space progra m include the Atlas. s uch as Cameo cleansing bars. Gemini X was the first to complete in-space docking with a target vehicle . Preceding Apollo was Gemini.1 meters and weighed 4. such as Virgo. particularly those t hat reflect gender stereotypes of the strong. and shampoo. Neil Armstr ong and his crew. and Mercury. among the stars and planets. STAR LORE In world literature. the maiden often graces vials of perfume and jewelry and the trademarks of face soap. a painted china figurine in Giorgio Armani’s zodiac c ollection. A urora. diaphanous chiton. Nanna. com ely female. who paddled his quffah .500 pounds.

the meteorite of the heavens. A star fell from the heavens. Babylonian priests who slew a black bull at the New Year fes tival whispered in its ear that it was the “Great Bull that treadest the celestial herbiage. a gift of the gods. And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so. who depended on the regularity of the seasons and heavenly motions as an assurance that order predominated over chaos. Let th ere be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night. God separat ed sky from earth. And God made two great lights. 10) She replies that the fallen meteor represents a “strong companion. A parallel to Babylonian cosmogony. The Genesis author indicates that the heavenly bodies have an assigned role in nature—as timekeepers. and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw it was good. and th e lesser light to rule the night: He made the stars also. God challenge s Abraham to count the stars. the greater light to rule the day. According to cuneiform verse. and land from water. And lay on the empty plain outside Uruk. and givers of light b y day and night. which are as numerous as the coming generations of Hebrews. a nd let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years. light from dark. bringers of seasonal change. the basis for the Assyrian calendar. star study remains pertinent to human behaviors. the Babylonians e volved the god Marduk. a meteorite. as explained in Genesis 1:14–17. the powerful deity who organized the universe and establi shed the solar and lunar cycles. I was drawn to it as if it was a woman. In later episodes. ( Gilga mesh 1992. This pivotal verse in the JudaeoChristian tradition expresses t he normality of stars and planets within an ordered universe. I strove w ith it to lift it but could not.< previous page page_63 next page > Page 63 I had a dream. The delineations of nat ure progress to the heavens.” the bull the Romans later named Taurus (Hooke 1963. And God said. 62).” Out of thei r faith in the reliability of heavenly bodies in their orbits. In Genesis 15:5. the Hebrew story of the heavens precedes the creation of humankind. and to rule over the da y and over the night. In the first days. powerful as a star. The men and women came and wondered at it. The verse suggests two < previous page page_63 next page > . And God set them in th e firmament of the heavens to give light upon the earth.

Horus has gripped Seth. O Osiris. and that they provide a sure. speaks of the constellations. The < previous page page_64 next page > .. Cetus. As signs to the psalmist. 6). Anubis. unfailing pattern of celestial li ght. and Arcturus. composed in 2150 B. Horus. the work of thy fingers. contends that God named the stars. how excellent is thy name in all the earth! who hast set thy glory above the heavens … When I consider thy heavens . and Isis. which astrology provided to the Egyptians as well as all ancient sky gazers. that he may bear thee and tremble under thee. “Thou madest him to have dominion o ver the works of thy hands. th y soul is within. that thou visitest h im? The psalmist replies to his own questions. 3–4. which in Job 38:33 become the “ordinances of heaven. the sky god. 69) The dispensation of punishment and the restoration of justice resembles early yearnings for order in the universe. the moon and the stars. particularly the intricate myths of Ra. Orion. naming the Pleiades. Egyptian lore. which thou hast ordained. that thou art mindful of him? and the son of man. thou has put all things under his feet” (Psalm 8:1.C. A later book. An older Hebrew work. The zodiac flouris hed in Greek mythology through applications of sun signs to numerology. in particular. The vacant spot on Horus’s face represents the dark of the moon. (Hooke 1963. Horus has a venged thee. so that they cannot escape from thee. A hymn to Osiris describes the tussle: Thy son Horus struck [Seth]. Osiris. Horus has caused thee to grip thy enemies . interwove celestial elements to universalize mythic figures. Seth. the Psalms o f David. correspond s to the twelve sun signs. whom the ancients a ssumed lived in the skies and looked down on earth dwellers. the twelve Olympian gods. The recu rrence of the number twelve. the book of Job. Seth. thy power is within. wha t is man. he saved his eye from his hand. which the gods reclaimed.’’ another example of biblical referenc es to the stars as regulatory agents of the almighty. and placed him b eneath thee. The sonorous quality of the lines has served liturgists and composers of ch urch anthems with a suitably majestic contemplation of the skies. and gave it to thee. the earth deity. lost an eye while fighting his ri val. they evoke a conclusion from the viewer: O Lord our Lord. Serpens. Horus.< previous page page_64 next page > Page 64 factors about the stars: that they fill the heavens with ample examples of God’s creation. In a violent episod e from Egyptian mythology.

To a culture familiar with ethical and mo ral interpretations of myth. no noise resounded—the darkening g loom was gripped by silence. and other Greek heroes. one < previous page page_65 next page > . 83) In a naturalistic commentary on the seasons. whom the Romans popularized as Hercules. figures in a twilight scene f rom Apollonius’s Argonautica. and Leo with the Nemean lion. His victory corresponds with Aries’s renewal of the zodiacal year. such as Cerberus. and Aquarius with the eagle that p ecked the liver of the villain Prometheus. Virgo represents Hercules’s victory over the Amazons. their green l eaves forming a canopy high overhead. Orion. and an exhausted slumber embraced a mother whose chil dren had died. Libra corresponds with a restoration of balance—the pur ging of the manureclogged Augean stables. the sign that governs the completion of H ercules’s labors. through the city no dogs barked. Capricorn with the golden-horned stag. Beneath them flowed four permanent springs which Hephaistos had dug out. along with Perseus. Cancer with the vanquishing of the Lernaean hydra and the b irds on Lake Stymphalus. a poetic epic of Jason’s voyage on the Argo: The night was now drawing darkness across the earth. (Apollonius 1995. who angered the gods by stealing fire from heaven to warm humanity. Ajax. Hercules. one of the most familiar and frequently mentioned. Jason. Geryon and Cacus. The last five episodes return to monst ers: Scorpio with the Erymanthean boar. Sagittarius with centaurs and Diomedes’s h orses. the traveller and the gatekeep er were longing for sleep. atones for c haracter flaws through struggles against perverse anomalies. Greek lore emulates surrounding civilizati ons in honoring constellations as significant elements in everyday life. Hercules slew two gian ts. Gemini with the pillars of Hercules. Apollonius identifies autumn with the setting of the Pleiades. A demigod who symbolizes reclamation of self and striving for perfection. Sailors on the open sea looked from their ships toward Helike and the stars of Orion. Pisces. such monsters easily correspond to the sins and vic es that torment and entice humankind. N ear the entrance [of Aietes’s palace] vines flourished in profusion. Multiple triumphs follow the zodiac: Taurus with the killing of the Cretan bull.< previous page page_65 next page > Page 65 ancients used zodiacal interpretations to typify the twelve labors of th e strongman Herakles. To restore order and remove obstacles from his fellows. t he three-headed dog of the underworld. corresponds to his rescue of Hesione from the Trojan sea monster .

the maw of the raging Lion. and not go straying from t he course. And miller rising f rom your annual toil. the p oet turns to the night skies to tell of Phaëton. the Haemonian Archer. and Cancer as images of menace. he endangers the Bears—Ursa Major and Ursa Minor—with excessive heat and enlivens the fierce Serpent. a distant constel lation that is usually sluggish in the firmament’s cold extremes.< previous page page_66 next page > Page 66 gushed forth milk. Virgil compiles agri cultural star wisdom: Sow beans and clover in a rotten soil. reaching out in the opposite direction” (Ovid 1984. the Roman mythographer from the Golden Age of poetry. In Book II. Ovid. Otherwise. a nd the last streamed water which was said to be hot when the Pleiades set. which embraced almanacs and zodiacal projec tion as essential to planting. especially the harvest. a series of stories derived from Greek sources. In his coordination of the constellations of Taurus. Ovid concludes that the decision to sacrifice the boy was appropriate. and the Crab. death. Leo. The Romans perpetu ated the notion that the stars play a significant role in crucial aspects of rur al life. When. Ovid connects the study of star motions with cap ricious or grim aspects of human character and fate. 71) The integration of the constellations in the seasons demonstrates a unity of nature in Greek thought. finance. Sagittarius. (Godolphin 1949. Scorpio. whom Zeus’s thunderbolt strikes dea d and catapults to earth. The Bull beat s down the barriers of the year. reaping. curving his savage arms in lo ng sweeps. displays appropriate reverence to the heavens in his M etamorphoses . but i n turn when they rose it bubbled up from the hollow rock as cold as ice. another wine. Boötes realizes th at the boy is caroming haphazardly and flees to safety. 67). As Phaëton faces the conseque nces of his foolish ride on the sun’s chariot. a third flowed with fragrant unguent. healing. all creation might have suffered. the Scorpion. The Scorpion stretches o ut tail and arms and threatens to sting Phaëton. in full career. In Book I of the Georgics. the boy who longed to drive the s un god’s chariot: “And though thou shouldst hold the way. marr iage. (Apollo nius 1995. sailing. 143) < previous page page_66 next page > . still shalt thou pass the horned Bull full in thy path. And Argo and the Dog forsake the northern spher e. and other commonalities of life. worship. with his golden horns.

Virgil turns to zodiacal prediction. And pity’d Rome. What tempers they be stow’d. A survivor of the anarchy that followed Julius Caesar’s assassi nation.” “Red Vesper. rain. Its daily show “re veals the secrets of the sky. Another star-bas ed verse treatise. 152) Rome’s epicist supports reliance on stars. < previous page page_67 next page > . and too great for prose. 496) Manilius proposes to revea l “celestial secrets” extracted from the heavens. wind. weather. He menti ons the use of “starry signs” to foretoken spring. The wondrous work of H eaven’s first wise design. And who was doom’d a king. In numerous verse I boldly first inclose. and revolutions. ghosts. an d other aspects of augury and astrology as predictors of the upheaval that preci pitated the Republic’s collapse and the rise of the Roman Empire. who born a slave.” and “the er” as familiar star clusters. plots . Of the heavens. both astral and botanical. who observe 10. smoke streams. In iron clouds conceal’d the public light. Virgil claims: He first the fate of Caesar did foretell.” “the bright Gnossian diadem. heat. when Rome in Caesar fell.” In a subsequent canto. opens with a statement of astro logy’s worth: Stars conscious of our fates and arts divine. and abrupt weat her fronts.< previous page page_67 next page > Page 67 Virgil’s lyric farmer’s almanac unites the forces of nature. (Godolphin 1949. In his conclusion to the farmer’s annual toils. he acknowledges zodiacal powers: [Priests] markt the influence . Virgi l balances out the agricultural calendar with lucky days from the zodiac’s “twelve b right signs. He declares sacred the work of pri ests. And impious m ortals fear’d eternal night. Too high a su bject. flights of birds. Marcus Manilius’s Astronomica .” ‘‘the spiry Dragon. (Godolphin 1949.” including the rise and fall of empires. wars. and every fatal hour. and observ’d the power Of every sign.000 revolutions of the earth to divine “fates hanging at each star. Subsequent advice refers to “Maia with her sister s.” Reverently. to enhance the crop. animal behaviors. he affirms that the sun never lies.” “the Bears. what fortunes gave.

The speaker. a tray arranged with the twelve signs of the zodiac spelled out in foo d awaits celebrants: On the Ram ram’s-head pease. and Sagittarians as cross-eyes. He characteri zes Virgoans as effeminate perverts. 498) Manilius subscribes to natal horoscopy. In 60 A. and rending of the skies.” He urges the wise to learn constellations by shape and name and to honor heavenly courses as a sign of godly mastery over humankind. co llapse of stars. but whose glib interpretation evaluates sun sig ns with idiotic correspondences.D. on Aquarius a wild goose. who is the prophet Moham med during a revelation at Mecca. At a high point of the feasting. on Capricornus a lobster. and clever entrees. who se humor complements the course. on Libra a balance with a tart in one sc ale and a cheesecake in the other. < previous page page_68 next page > . Scorpios as poisoners. on Scorpio a small seafish. Petronius derides the self-important host. on Pisces two m ullets. The poet orchestrates this scene to remind foll owers of the zodiac that serious application of planetary convergence must inclu de more factors than birth signs. A stark contrast to Petronius’s frivolity comes from the Koran. the collected sacred wisdom of Islam composed about 615 A. on the Twins fried testicles and kidneys. a sixteen-book parody of manners and epic lore. on the Crab simply a Crown. which determine s the rule of birth stars over earthly destiny. And the b reath of morning That this is in truth the word of an honored messenger. S tar lore also illuminates imperial Rome’s humor and satire. (Godolphin 1949. The stars which rise and set. The satiric gem of the few extant lines is “Trimalchio’s Feast. Librans as tradesmen .< previous page Page 68 page_68 next page > How aspects vary. their control gener ates “fixt unalterable laws. on Sagittarius an eye-seeker. Though little. (Petronius 1925. great variety in fate s. posturing. Their host comments in an off-the-cuff speech about zodiacal influences. 43) The diners applaud the cook’s witty symbolism. but I call to witn ess the planets. on the Bull a piece of beef. And the close of night. Petronius Arbiter composed The Satyricon . on the Lion A frican figs. and their change creates.” a banquet punctuated by ebullience. looks upward and cries: Oh. To the poet. ribaldry. on a Virgin a sow’s [udder].D.. A s tirring description of the world’s end in Surah 81 calls for the sun’s overthrow.

Speaking of his encounter with Allah.” The following surah reiterates the image of heaven’s disruption as an emblem of Judgment Day. Around 750 A. which resemble a river. Like the Egyptian seer or Assyrian astrologer. unto whomsoever of you willeth to walk straight. Greeks. the figure in the tower d elights in stilling earthly disquiet by studying constellations.< previous page Page 69 page_69 next page > Mighty. One to be obeyed and trustworthy. Egyptians.” he describes a figure contemplating the sky: While winter daylight shorte ns in the elemental scale And snow and frost whiten the cold-circling night. and Romans. And ye will not. Mohamme d’s choice of heavenly bodies as symbols of reliability suggests that Muslims. (Miller 1970. In ‘‘Night in the Watch -Tower. The stars and the River of Heaven pulse over the three mountains … Sleeping-Dragon. unless it be that Allah willeth. when Allah’s order will supercede the plan of the stars. (Tu Fu 1991. dragon. declares the orthodox church < previous page page_69 next page > . are no generals now. “Surely he behe ld him on the clear horizon. he continues. Dante Alighieri published his Divin e Comedy. In the early years of the Italian Renaissance. the speaker declares.D. Permeated with astrology.. The universal fascination suggests a need to confer order over events by locating a celestial pantheon. and horse. they are dust— Hush for a moment. his verse. like the philosophies of Augusti ne and Aquinas.” Attesting to Allah’s might. reverenced the rotation of constella tions and studied them as guides to Allah’s will. the Lord of Cre ation. Plunging-Horse. a literary epic that surveys creation by degrees from heaven to the pi t of hell. 238) Tu Fu’s crystal moment captures a stargazer in the act of naming ast erisms. established in the presence of the Lord of the throne. Chinese poet Tu Fu filled his verse with less forbidding zodiacal elements. a force greater than war. 237) The speaker vows on the stars that his predi ction is true. “This is naught else than a reminder unto creation. Sta rk sounds the fifth-watch with a challenge of drum and bugle. O tumult of the world. lik e Assyrians.

For impiety. to a greater pow er and to a better nature. He weeps. was a Theban seer who separated wi th his walking cane two copulating snakes. counterfeiters. and that creates in you a mind which the heavens have not in their charge. nor do I believe the like was ever se en…. the evil ditch. Following him. flatterers. squanderers of church property. chastises Dante for pitying arrogant fools. The second. The sentence enabled Teiresias to empathize wit h both men and women because he alone had lived both lives. in your freedom. panderers. Here the damned share Malebolge. Virgil. hyp ocrites. for the face was reversed on the neck. (Dante 1982. 140) As Dante and his guide stray do wn the declivity into Purgatory. An earthquake d evoured him as he ran. the gods forced him to l ive seven years in a woman’s body. Dante comments i n Canto XVI of the Purgatorio: Ye lie subject. cheats. for to look before them was forbidden. and they came on backwards. but never to my knowledge. who has no sympathy for diviners. the d iviner Eurypylus suffered punishment for advising the Greeks on a propitious < previous page page_70 next page > .< previous page page_70 next page > Page 70 position that no heavenly motion can destroy free will. in you is the cause. and conspirers and plotters. they discern that fortune-tellers and astrologe rs occupy Hell’s eighth circle. (MacNiece 1964. the debasement of human sorrow overcomes Dante. foretold his own death and tried to escape it. w ith seducers. if the world today goeth astray. leaning his face on a crag. Fortune-teller s suffer an appropriate punishment: Each of them was hideously distorted between the top of the chest and the lines of the jaw. Although the image is laughable. Among the no ted fortune-tellers are three from Greek literature. I saw the image of our humanity distorted so that the tears that burst from t heir eyes ran down the cleft of their buttocks. in you be it sought. Therefore. one of the Seve n against Thebes. 175) In a moment of black humor. alchemists. Someone sometime in the grip of a palsy may have bee n distorted so. staring backwards at their loins. the poet pictures twisted bodies weeping rivulets that course the clefts of their rumps. Teiresias. Amphiareus.

a knowledgeable diplomat and courtier. No testimony proves that Chaucer believed in astrology. How God creat ed as constellations Bird. Or Atalanta’s seven daughters. Canterbury Tales. studied astr ology and incorporated dream interpretation into his writings. 178). and thanks the twin stars for granting him poetic geni us. Like the Gilgamesh poet. or Delphinus.< previous page page_71 next page > Page 71 moment to sail from Troy. and Dante. fissh. he says: For when thou redest poetrie. and dolls. Or Arionis harpe fyn Castor. 291) This statement focuses on Corvus. Or Arion’s fine harp. and rags” (Dante 1982. In the latter. and House of Fame. Lyra. One of the dark scenes from the era. As Corvus. which he composed in Middle English. or either Bear . How all these are set in heaven. prominent English poets relied on astrological data for imagery and subjects of verse. Comments on astrology appear in The Complaint of Mars. or him or here. Guido Bonatti. As the Raven. Desp ite the degradation of star gazers. How go ddes gonne stellifye Brid. fish. How alle these arn set in hevene. and the Pleiades. or Delphyn.) (Chaucer 1961. or eyther Bere. best. but he appears knowledgeable on predestination and respects the i nfluence of the planets on human life. Pollux. Ursa Major or Ursa Minor. Castor. In the fourteent h century. his natal sign. Or Athalantes doughtres s even. Dante believes in the zodiac enough to prais e Gemini. Delphinus. On the Astrolabe. or him or her. as demonstrated by the character flaw of Criseyde in Troilus < previous page page_71 next page > . to assure favorable winds. From Dante’s time come three modern sinners: as trologers Michael Scott. Gemini. Equatorie of the Planetis . Pollux. Virgil points out their com panions in sin. “the wretched hags who left their spinning and sewing for soothsay ing and casting of spells with herbs. al l of which Chaucer’s readers recognized. and Asdente. (For when you read poetry. Tu Fu. beast. Geoffrey Chaucer. Muhammed. the princess Iph igenia. the depar ture of Agamemnon’s ships required the sacrifice of his daughter. Troil us and Criseyde.

Possibly. In the seventeenth century. And where it were of a hot. conjunctions. parfit praktisour” made a worth y diagnosis. equinoxes.) (Chaucer 1961. and of what humour. In the tragedies. Were it of hoot. comets. or drye.< previous page page_72 next page > Page 72 and Criseyde and in The Canterbury Tales by the Doctor’s use of astral hea ling: In al this world ne was ther noon hyn lik. Avicenna. or coo ld. (In all the world there was none like him. His knowledge of astral-based healing derived from Hippocrates. but certainly the first holds true. Averroes. moist. and planetary aspects. eclipses. For he was grounded in astronomye. Wel koude he fortunen the ascendent Of his ymage s for his pacient. For he was gr ounded in astronomy. and other noted healers. He could easily calculate the ascendent Of the signs for his patient . both statements apply. and what humor caused them.” although the prologue declares that his love for Juliet < previous page page_72 next page > . especially in revelations of character motivation. There is a wealth of astral detail in Shakespeare’s verse and drama. oppositions. cold. This pattern of astra l influence suggests two conclusions: that astrology was popular in Elizabethan England and that the poet himself believed that the zodiac influences human dest iny. popular intere st inclined readers to expect star lore. And where they started. Gal en. eve n though post-Copernican scientists doubted zodiacal predictions. or dry influence. or moyst. He knew the causes of every disease. To speke of phisik and of surge rye. To speak of treatment and surgery. this “verray. He kept watch over his patient By the hour by employing nat ural magic. 21) By calculating the influential stars at the time when a fever began or eruptions appeared on a patient’s body. Romeo hopes that a dose of poison will break the hold of “inauspicious stars. And where they engendred. i ncluding favorable and unfavorable planets. He kepte his pacient a full greet deel I n houres by his magyk natureel. He knew the cause of everich maladye. crescent moons.

Edmund. ii. (Blitzer 1967. the protagon ist equates success with the rise of tides. II. John Milton. England’s Puritan apologist and epic poet. ii. liars and adulterers by an enforc’d obedience of planetary influence. Beatrice. Likewise. a tragedy that focuses on the theme o f free will and the psychology of the dysfunctional family. contrive To save appearances. when we are sick in fortune. thieves . 31). He comment s on the Ptolemaic star system in Paradise Lost : When they come to model Heav’n. Orb in Orb. fools by heavenly compulsion. Cassius declares that people must fault the mselves and not the stars for their frailties. by a divi ne thrusting on. the moon. Cycle and Epicycle. conversely.” A generation later. perpetuated the tradition of zodiacal themes and subjects. drunkards. that. In Julius Caesar’s tragedy. as if we were villains by necessity. challenges fatalism: This is the excellent foppe ry of the world. Cleopatra rejects the governance of the inconstant moon. and all that we are evil in. knaves. to lay his goatish dis position to the charge of a star! (Shakespeare 1957. In a lighter vein. and the stars. we make guilty of our disasters the sun. 98) < previous page page_73 next page > . often the surfeit of our own behaviour. unbui ld. 44) Edmund tempers h is outburst by reckoning his own sun signs—Dragon’s Tail and Ursa Major—which predispo se him to crudity and lechery. In Act I. declares that she was born under a da ncing star. He concludes with brazen self-assurance that he w ould have been the same even if “the maidenliest star in the firmament twinkled on my bastardizing. Othello blames th e moon for men’s lunacies. how build.< previous page page_73 next page > Page 73 is “star-cross’d” and therefore doomed. his wife Calpurnia cowers in fear fr om the ‘‘exhalations” of a raw night and claims that “the heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes” (Shakespeare 1959. how they will wield The mightie frame. Scene ii. and treachers by spherical predominance. fema le protagonist of Much Ado About Nothing . but. how gird the Sphear With Centric and Eccentric scribl’d o’er. And calculate the Starr. Shakes peare commented on horoscopy in King Lear. Gloucester’s bastard son. I. An admirable evasion of whoremaster man.

and Pisces . (Stewart 1970. Straight as a thrown torch. astrology lends itself to patterns of correspondence or sympathy. a career sol dier turned king who spurns religion and star gazers. and water. Obeying Aristotle’s division of matter into earth. which derive from the belief that all nature interli nks. Virgo. Scorpio. to blur and fade almost immediately in the wide light of a winter’s dawn. On a cold morning beside t he Giants Dance. The modern era returns to the patterned stars with as much vigor as did poets of old.” The mathematical precision with which Merlin pla nned the annual astral display impresses even the cynical Uther. and the last three. Natural correspondence or sympathy between t he sun sign and its complementary colors. For perhaps twenty heartbeats the huge sentinel trilithon before us stood bl ack and stark. Then the sun lifted over the horizon so quickly that you could see the shadow of the linked circle move into its long e llipse. and metals has produced a series of groupings: Sign Colors Stones Flowers Tree Metal Aries red amethyst sage thorn iron < previous page page_74 next page > . evil-tempered uncle. framing the winter blaze. drew back like a veil. Uther Pendragon. flowers. a lyric name for Stonehenge. the Mage of Camelot. Babylon. Merlin. CORRESPONDENCE As demonstrated in the arts and medicine. signs. 325) By building an architectural astrolabe. Cancer. comprising the three water signs. gems. or an arrow of fire. and the su n came up. air. and Greece. the first of a trilogy of historical fi ction about Merlin. Libra. his dead father. Gemini. Taurus. Leo. and Aquarius corresponding with air. carries out a promise: “I will deck his grave with not hing less than the light itself. In Mary Stewart’s The Crystal Cave . and Capricorn the earth. a defining moment pits the intellectual Merlin against his choleric. and Sagittarius repre senting fire. medi eval science groups the sun signs into triads: Aries.< previous page page_74 next page > Page 74 Milton’s denunciation of the astrologer’s scribblings echoes the scientism o f the Baroque Age. faithful to Ambrosius. when people were more likely to embrace the physical laws of Copernicus and Newton than the astral horoscopes of Egypt. light pierced throug h the grey air and laid a line clear from the horizon to the kingstone at our fe et. fire. Merlin prepares Uther for a specta cular light show: In the east night slackened.

< previous page Page 75 Sign Colors Stones diamond bloodstone aquamarine emerald moss-agate sapp hire turquoise diamond beryl aquamarine agate emerald moss-agate emerald moonsto ne pearl ruby diamond topaz tourmaline sardonyx hyacinth pink jasper carnelian j ade peridot diamond opal lapis lazuli sapphire topaz malachite carbuncle beryl o pal carbuncle turquoise topaz page_75 Flowers milfoil geranium honeysuckle vervain clover rose poppy foxglove gladiolu s vervain lavender lily-of-the-valley comfrey acanthus anemone cyclamen sunflowe r marigold peony calaminth morning glory Tree next page > Metal Taurus indigo pink apple copper Gemini yellow chestnut quicksilver Cancer violet ice blue orange yellow-gold rubber silver Leo palm gold Virgo gray navy blue brown blue rose deep red hazel quicksilver Libra needleplant scorpion’s-tail lilac artemisia hound’s tongue carnation chrysanthemum p impernel mimosa pinks dandelion ash .

copper Scorpio blackthorn steel iron Sagittarius light blue purple lime oak tin < previous page page_75 next page > .

The twelve signs fit neatly : Aries corresponded with Peter. crests. Ca pricorn with Simon. Judaism and Christianity have used the signs of the zodiac to represent sequenc es of twelve. Libra with Philip. Three ritual crosses share the zodiacal signs.< previous page Page 76 Sign Capricorn Colors green deep blue black page_76 Stones white onyx moonstone jet black onyx turquoise zircon sapphire opal garnet zircon Flowers sorrel stinking tuscan pansy hyacinth ivy Tree pine next page > Metal lead buttercup cherry uranium edderwort peach platinum fennel orchid daffodil Pisces sea-green chrysolite birthwort willow tin moonstone aristolochia amethyst waterl ily tulip This alliance of natural elements demonstrates the extension of star s tudy to the manipulation of plants. shap es. Crosses were set with sy mbolic gems and metals to represent Christ’s apostles. Aquarius with Judas. Gemini with James the Elder . for example. and Pisces with Matthias. Taurus with Andrew. smells. Astral patterns have also been appl ied to numerous other disciplines. tableware. minerals. In medieval times. Sagittarius with Matthew. and precious and semiprecious stones (Se e Appendix IV). flavors. People who valued nature-based horoscopy often grouped significa nt stones in symbolic patterns on jewelry. astrologers connected sun signs with planets. Libr a. Cancer. senses. Virgo with James the Yo unger. In other rituals and ceremonies. the twelve tribes of Israel. The cardinal cross—featuring Aries. and Capricorn—have been associated with four archanAquarius electric blue < previous page page_76 next page > . An outgrowth of the use of stones to reflect a propitious heavenly reading is found in the Holy Grail. Scorpio with Bartholomew. Leo with Doubting Thomas. pathology. for example. Cancer with John the Divine. and metals in the analysis and tre atment of human behaviors and physical ills. the mathematical correlation of months of the year and the spectrologist’s use of the twelve major tones of the co lor scale. or coats of arms t o duplicate a favorable prediction. a priceless Christian relic that was described as bearing a recognizable pattern of precious stones t o denote its sanctification at the Last Supper.

France. As persuaders and fun-lovers. pra gmatism. Ta urus. enduring. and touching. The air signs are Gemini. and Aquarius. Leo. Sagittarius. the eagle. The moveable cross is composed of Gemini. and Matthew. and Gemini to pairs of crags or pe aks. and contemplation. These concrete symbols aid art lovers and historians in identifying human characters. and parks.< previous page page_77 next page > Page 77 gels—Uriel. A lush. The fixed cross. and Aquarius. By resituating these pre-Christian symbols to correspond with elem ents of church doctrine. are studded wi th stone rosettes containing zodiacal symbols. formal c ourtesy. Virgo. tasting. the watery three easily motivate others and enjoy close personal relationships. Mark. The last five move into < previous page page_77 next page > . harmony. and Capricorn. T he last triad—Cancer. Leo to mountains. and self-confidence. tight-pursed. Earth-linked people are passionate. Gabriel. Scorpio. the three seek the ideal and generally greet the day with optimism. and Virgo to home. symbolizes the four directions and four Christian e vangelists: Luke. the angel. and Sagittarius—form a combu stive. have a strong feel for solidity. Priests also allied the twelve pl anets with the twelve stars set in the crown of the symbolic “heavenly woman” in Rev elation 12:1. hearing. intuition. Libra with palaces and estate s. encompassing Leo. superstitious worshippers continued to associate stones with a talisman t hat could ward off evil or counter acts of the devil. Taurus to the plains. Mark in the piazza of Venic e. Virgo. For instance. PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALING The correspondence between the twelve signs of the zodiac and the four elements giv es some useful leads to analyzing human behavior and healing disturbed minds. and Pisces— comprise the water signs. Michael. on the statue of St. powerful trio radiant with magnanimity. abundant series of correspondences appears in the next quartet: Can cer to rivers. A connection with gaseous elements injec ts an uncertain note and inclines the trio toward abstraction. the bull. and Pisces. which distingui sh themselves through empathy and sensuality. prelates intended to strip astrology of its glamour. Ho wever. Scorpio. These constellations predispose the personality and temp erament to impressions of the five physical senses—seeing. Mark’s lion tops a dramatic column and holds a book. Aries t ends toward the desert. and stability. Ta urus. the lion of God. Libra. As thinkers. symbolic of the New Testam ent gospel of Mark. smell ing. Matc hups with aspects of the earth’s topography reflect personal proclivities. trees. The fire signs—Aries. The walls of the cathedral at Amiens. and Raphael. a nd patient folk who delight in meeting the body’s need for food and sleep. as earth signs. John.

modern analysts of Hermetica dismiss cult writings as gibberish. Perhaps the best of Chaucer’s psychological studies is Alice.) (Chaucer 1961. my lechery.. Capricorn to fortresses. In the resulting holistic nature paradi gm. And Mars gave me sturdy hardihood. a jolly companion who rationalizes her five marriages: For certes. And Mars yaf me my sturdy hardynesse. Alice easily shucks off blame for her gadabout ways and hearty sensuality. mouth and skin disease. Because tables of correspondence give no reason for their alliance. Hermetic astrologers systematized the magic correspondence of the zodiacal h ouses with herbs and plants. the twelve sun signs correspond to sympathetic plants and herbs classified by the mystical Hermetic cult in Egypt late in the second century A. the first formal tie betwe en zodiacal houses and parts of the body comes from the Hermetics. for example.D. unfettered love life. In Chaucer’s The House of Fame and The Canterbury Tales. I am al V enerien In feelynge. Venus me yaf my lust. the su bjects of health and astrology recur frequently as reflections of character anal ysis. (Surely. My ascendant w as in Taurus and Mars. and psychosomatic ills. the Ariean’s need of potassium in the diet to offset migraine headache. According to one of the brotherhood of writers identified only as Hermes: < previous page page_78 next page > . a natal conjunction of Mars in Taurus predisposed her at birth to a lively. when a mys terious Egyptian mage known as Hermes Trismegistus or “Hermes Thrice-Great.< previous page page_78 next page > Page 78 a gloomier domain: Scorpio over caves and prison cells. and myn hert is Marcien.’’ allied A sculapian wisdom with the Egyptian gods. 82) By establishing a correspondence betw een behavior and sun signs. In her explanation. In matters of healt h. Aquarius to sewers and cesspools. signs link natural cures wi th physical tendencies. Hermetic practitioners mixed appropriate plants into dec octions. I belong to Venus In feeling. Myn ascendant was Taur and Mars ther einne. Sagittarius to f ens and quicksand. They also incorporated them into incantations that strayed from astral lore into the murkier realms of magic. an d Pisces to tombs. depression. the Wife of Ba th. According to Hermetica. my likerousn esse. For good or ill. Venu s gave me my lust. Apart from herbal tonics and abracadabra. and my heart belongs to Mars.

Digestio n and the lower gut are governed by Virgo. The macrocosm has twelve signs of the zod iac. springs and seas. the left to the moon. The macrocosm has sun and moon. Libra rules the skeleton and marrow. Cancer the upper t orso. man contains them too from his head. and Scorpio. shoulders. replacing Leo with Aries. are subject to your rule: I’ th’ Shoulders Leo. the Romans already followed corr espondences of natal signs with anatomy: The Ram defends the Head. The remaining eleven signs descend down the body to the feet. Capricorn the knees. and the Goat commands The Knees. which is link ed to the cranium. and lungs. and spreads unruly Fire: The Thighs the Cent aur. man has flatulence. and liver. the healer Crinas of Marseilles carried healing to greater e xtremes: he grouped foods according to astral signs and limited patients to diet s of favorable dishes. Sc orpio warms Desire In Secret Parts. the Neck. The macrocosm contains breath—the winds—springing from its bosom. (Shulman 1976. heart. (Shulman 1976. 44) By establishing which dis eases and ailments related to which signs. in the same way man has fleas. And P isces gives Protection to the Feet. lice and tapeworms. Gemini the arms. which are governed by Pisces. The mysticism and indeterminate sourc e of Hermetic lore continues to puzzle historians. According to the verse of the poet Manilius. 41) Current astrological healing has r otated the houses. man has two eyes. < previous page page_79 next page > .< previous page page_79 next page > Page 79 The macrocosm has animals. hands. Between these two extremes. whi ch correspond to the fish. As explained in Plin y’s Natural History . including stomach and breast. and in the Guts the modest Maid: I’ th’ Buttocks Libra. practitioners could estimate the onse t of disease and predict the abatement or cure of each ill. Taurus controls the t hroat and neck. the kidneys and reproductive organs. The Arms. the right rel ated to the sun. The macrocosm has rivers. The lower extremities fall to signs nine through eleven: Sagittarius rules the thighs and hips. and Aquarius the calves and ankles. the head of the year. and binds them up with double bands. and t he Crab’s obeyed I’ th’ Breast. to his feet. the Bull. and Leo the back. namely from the lion. bright Twins. It appears to have followed a nd extended the writings of Galen and Hippocrates concerning the stars and healt h. terrestrial and aquatic. man h as intestines.

assimila tion 35–42 Libra deliberate I weigh. This detailed application of heavenly po wers over person and personality impacts every human aspect. and Scorpio the nose. equilibrium 42–49 Scorpio emotional I control. Cancer the forehead. a correlation found in the study of individual horoscopes and their archetypal tendencies and behav iors. For example. lo yalty 70–77 Pisces spiritual I believe. Scorpio and Capricorn tend to tyrannize. assurance 28–35 Virgo sensitive I serve. administration 56–63 Capricor n perceptive I master. When the face is divided according to birth sign influences.< previous page page_80 next page > Page 80 Practitioners of astral healing have carried zodiacal correspondence to minute applications. Capricorn the chin. Aries and Libra the right and left ears. Aquarius and Leo the righ t and left eyebrows. sun signs indicate how the subject perceives and faces the world and the segment of life each controls: Mode of Sign Perception Motto Key Word Age A ries intuitive I am. creativity 49–56 Sagittarius expansive I philosophize. integration 7–1 4 Gemini cerebral I communicate. expan sion 21–28 Leo intuitive I create. vivification 14–21 Cancer emotional I feel. Pisces and Virgo the right and left cheeks. Astrologers apply astral sympathy specifically to the head. Libra and Sagittarius see the greater picture and f orm broad-based conclusions about life. aspiration conception–6 Taurus sensuous I have. Sagittarius and Ge mini rule the right and left eyes. As keys to psychology. discrimination 63–70 Aquarius thoughtful I universalize. appreciation 77–84 The overlap of qualities illustrates how certain signs share archetypal traits. < previous page page_80 next page > .

< previous page Page 81 page_81 next page > 5 ARIES < previous page page_81 next page > .

page_82 next page > < previous page page_82 next page > .< previous page Page 82 This page intentionally left blank.

abbreviated Ari. there are four major stars: alpha star Hamal. the two signs gamma star Mesarthim. Hindu s. regeneration. the altar of righteousness. Aries features a daytime meteor shower in Jun e and a nighttime shower in December. Pi sces. Syrians called it Amroo and Hebrews named it Taleh. Of the twenty-eight members in the group. They formed Oei. the belly The gamma star was o ne of the first identified double stars. and Triangulum. Arie s. the fat ram delta star Albotein. Arabs pre< previous page page_83 next page > . ASTROLOGICAL HISTORY AND TRAITS Governing the thirty days between March 21 and April 19. is the initial sign of the zodiac bec ause it heads the traditional astral year. birth. The brightest star is Hamal. Aries has remained a zodiacal con stant in the art. Greeks. by blending Alshartan wi th Hamal and Mesarthim. the horsemen. from four minor stars in Ari es. and the creat ive force.< previous page page_83 next page > Page 83 ASTRONOMICAL FACT A symbol of spring. both meaning the lamb. but dim cluster of sixty-six stars. a pearles cent star on the ram’s northern horn. religion. Ancient Akkadians referred to the constellation as Baraziggar. the bearer. The Hindu preferred Alsharatan. which Robert Hooke discovered in 1664. The Chinese made their own constellation. Perseus. it borders Cetus. Persians. Taurus. and lore of the Babylonians. In addition to separate stars. is the thirty-ninth constellation in size. also known as the Northern Fly. the star on the ram’s forehead. Leu. which they called Asvini. the train of the garment. which shines at the s econd magnitude with a yellowish glow. and Egyptians. the ram beta star Alsharatan. the belly. Aries is prominent in the Northern Hemisphere in l ate autumn and winter. An identifiable. The Latin for male sheep or ram. A le sser star they identified by the Hindu is Bharani. Aries (a’ reez).

a kingdom on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea. According to Greek mythology. which thrive in its waters. the god of the sea. like the Persians. they. the constellation of Aries is noteworthy for its alliance with fire and wi th Mars. The gods rewarded the ram by turning it into a heavenly constellation to browse the skies near Pegasus. the god of war. the Greek poet. In honor of Aries’s r ise. send Zeus’s own golden-fleeced ram to the rescue. The weak glow of the golden fleece accounted for the cluster’s dimnes s. he led his followers to Egypt. the strait was named the Hellespont. In a sacred orchard guarded by a wakeful dragon. Another possible origin of the Aries sign is the myth of Phrixus and Helle. the son and daughter of Athamas . She los t her balance. The author recounts in detail the rescue of Phrixus. The story of the r am and the children relies on the stereotype of the weak female and the enduring male. Dionysus summoned a ram. depicted as thou gh really listening to the ram. the sheep. slipped off the ram’s back.< previous page page_84 next page > Page 84 ferred Alhamal. the most stirri ng account of Jason’s voyage on the Argo. During an expedition about the Medit erranean. While soaring o ver the Bosporus Strait. saddened at his first separation from his sister Helle. a figure represented in the bordered cloak that Athena gave him whe n he started building his ship: Upon it was Phrixos the Minyan. the god of wine. As you looked on the < previous page page_84 next page > . who appeared alongside a spring that saved them from death. Apollonius. Egyptians saw it as the ram-headed figure of the sun god and named it Tamelouris Amon. retrieved Helle and turned her into a sea sprite. which blended reli gious worship with a cultural celebration of winter’s end and the planting of fiel ds. the celestial fish. Aries’s importance derives from the acts of Dionysus. the f lying horse. composed the Argonautica. Phrixus. it borders Pis ces. the Reign of Amon. their mother Nephele had Hermes. he slaughtered the ram to honor Zeus and placed its fleece over a tree limb. To the Gr eeks. and the ram seemed to be speaking. held an annual spring festival. and tumbled head over heels into the wa ter below. King of Thessaly. Because the children’s stepmother plotted to sacrifice them to the gods to salvage a threatened harvest. Jason mounted a nautical campaign to retrieve the treas ured pelt. In a subsequent myth. mess enger of the gods. Helle disobeyed one stipulation—not to look down. They intended the propitiation of Aries to bolster their harvests. In her honor. Poseidon. Because they wandered the Libyan desert without food or drink. There. hung on until the ram reached Colchis. Dionysus commemorated the gush of water by hurling the ram into the firmament as a sign of heavenly blessing. Phrixus and h is sister flew on the ram’s back from Greece toward the Black Sea.

blending well with Leos and Sagittarians. Arieans are enthusiastic friends a nd ardent lovers. testy. financier. a failing zodiac-based analysis charges to Ariean writers Isak Dinesen and Maya Angelou. you would be struck dumb with amazement and deceived. who look forward to retirement and th e opportunity to develop hobbies. pioneer. U. disappointed. poet Robert Frost. The ram is typified as soldier. Astrologers name Arieans such as child-care expert Clara Hale. the ram i s stereotyped as hardhanded and unyielding. Supreme Cou rt Justice Sandra Day O’Connor. Holoca ust survivor Corrie ten Boom. For these reasons. reckless. Such expenditures of energy prove wasteful. engineer. and learned magic tricks to delight his guests. enterprise. A tendency toward self-promotion colors the style of the Ariean. a trait that marks entrepreneur Sam Walton. Tradition depicts the ram as a think er. who kept a greenhouse. But the compliant ma te should have a care: spirited Arieans such as Renaissance genius Leonardo da V inci. actor. The empty nest syndrome is seldom a problem for Arieans. In traditional psychology. architect. or peevish. 21) Jason’s itinerary took him and his bold sailors far from Greece through the Hellespont to an unfamiliar harbor where Greek ships se ldom traded. titles. an endearing quality of electronics wizard Cha rles Proteus Steinmetz. singer Aretha Franklin. for you woul d expect to hear some wise utterance from them. Assertive. and leader who dislikes inactivity. but never possessive. the Arie an can develop into a militant. With this you would gaze long up on them.< previous page page_85 next page > Page 85 pair. and medals. and labor leader Cesar Chavez. musician Arturo Toscanini. the type may overplay aggression and become overbe aring. appeasing human doormat for a mate. A front-row figure connected with initiative. and primatologist Jane Goodall as examples of sing lemindedness and attention to rules. an Ariean similar to the < previous page page_85 next page > . Easily flattered and greedy fo r honors. also firefighter and law enforcer. especially the professional athlete. or doctor. As a parent. the Ariean personality is similar to Jason. and feminist Gloria Steinem don’t domesticate easily and may require a docile. (Apollonius 1995. and uncompromising. a quality shared by authors Hans Christian Andersen and Washington Irving. the ram is typically wiry and muscular. a nd drive. In spirited word play. Arieans who control dogmatism and domination make appeal ing conversationalists. Jason’s reclamation of the fleece is one of the major voyage sagas of Greek literature. sharp-tongued martinet rather than a debater or diplomat. and rock star.S. often frustrating the purp ose. According to astrological archetypes. collected animals for a zoo.

symbol of the Sumerian sky g od Baal. Judaism and Christianity echo their admiration for the ram by allying it with the abstract qualities of strength and leadership. T hey supposedly die from accidents arising from impulsive. The virile s ymbol decorates coins that honor Alexander the Great. The face displays an expressive brow. such as delicate digestion. a character pattern of Mattie Ross. At its worst. apples. Odysseus weakens the giant wit hout killing him. a one-eyed giant. Astrologers des cribe people influenced by the ram as small. and psycho somatic illness. the archetype is descr ibed as childish. high blood pressure. The d esign implies that Alexander achieved heroic stature because he was the gods’ elec t and because he used inborn traits for worthy purposes. In astral healing charts. The upward cast of the horned figure anticipates victory and a bold thrust into the unknown. A rampant winged ibex with outsized horns is among the treasure of the sacked city of Persepolis. and candid to the point of embarrassing the unw ary. dandelion salad. Twelve < previous page page_86 next page > . When he finds himself imm ured in the cave of Polyphemus. now housed in the Louvre Museum in Paris. and deny advancing age. outspoken confrontations with adults as adolescent weaknesses to be overcome by maturity and experience. Those born under Aries are linked with perfect health and thus are said to rej ect medical advice. self-absorbed. celery and tomatoes. the Hindu fire god Agni. Beneficial additives include potassium supplements and herbal decoctions of broom and wild cherry. heroine of Charles Portis’s True Grit . R eaders may forgive her annoyingly bold. refuse to take prescription drugs. migraine headache. and parsn ips. melancholia. hero of Homer’s Odyssey. o r they collapse in old age. SYMBOLISM IN ART AND RELIGION In iconography. irregular features. vigorous. and lean with a toughened frame. Aries pres ents a fiery dawn image allied with the rising sun. The ram implies a simil ar divine approval of Odysseus. Neither handsome nor ugly. headstrong behavior. even tyrannic behavior until balanced by an equally strong temperament. conqueror of the world. tooth and gu m disease. god of fertili ty and creativity. the rare disease in Ariean s emanates from the head—acne and skin irritation. epilepsy. Healthful regimens in Aries require a diet of citrus fruit. and the Egyptian Jupiter Ammon. fits of anger. The horns also point to heaven and establish a connection with the celestial realm. passionate Vincent van Gogh is thought to blame others for failure and to rage out of control in annoying. and dark complexion . they walk briskly and present a firm handshak e.< previous page page_86 next page > Page 86 poorly directed.

court physician of the Caliph of Baghdad. he will have no fear and app rehension for one year. According to the Bible. or ram’s horn. the blast of the shofar . The problemat ic nature of the ram’s thrust derives from its nature and body shape. but acknowledges the animal’s re striction to an awkward < previous page page_87 next page > . but Odysseus survives. chrismons. God tested Abraham by commanding him to sacrifice his child on the altar. seeing tho u hast not withheld thy son. plunge it into the Cyclops’s one eye. Thor. publish ed a bestiary. neit her do thou any thing unto him: for now I know that thou fearest God. the only son of the patriarch Abraham and his wife Sarah. the ram also sa ved Isaac. thine only son from me. Bakhtish u advises. Abraham lifted up his eyes. the Jewish New Year. stained glass windows. until the sun again reaches the sign of Aries” (Stewart 19 67. When the sheep and goats depart the next morning to graze. symbolized by a blast on the ram’s horn. Lay not thine hand upon the lad. the Manafi al-Hayawan (The Uses of Animals).< previous page page_87 next page > Page 87 mariners heat a sharpened stake. The story of the ram is a common symbol in religious art . and behold behind him a ram caught in a thicket by his horns: and A braham went and took the ram. (Genesis 22:12–13) The passage is crucial to Christians and Jews. welcomes Rosh Hashanah. the n hide among his herds. also values the ram as a symbol of physical and political might. oratorios. God’s son. At the last momen t. the ram inspires the psalmist David to string its ten sinews into a lyre. In J udaic tradition. Jungian inte rpretation notes the strength of the butting ram. The hero and his six surviving crewmen cling to the undersi des of a trio of rams and flee unharmed. God stays the father’s hand: And he said. and offered him up for a burnt offering in the ste ad of his son. and statuary. and looked. In 1295. the Germanic hammerer and storm god . The Cyclops devours six men. I t delineates the Hebraic concept of faith at the same time that it prefigures th e sacrifice of Christ. Of the Ram. As an icon of faith . This blend of astrology and herbal healing suggests a tie between folk healing and star lore. The ram has a similar beneficent meaning in Arab lore. Aries connects with thunder. 138). the blinded Cyclops feels the furry shapes as they exit the cave to prevent Odysseus and his men from wal king out among them. Ibn Bakhtishu. In Yoruban and Germanic lore. “If one half dram of the goat’s bile is taken in the juice of wild lettuc e by a person when the sun is in the sign of Aries.

Geoffrey Chauce r made extensive use of zodiacal signs in The Canterbury Tales. Chaucer describes signs of spring. Whan zephyrus eek with his swe ete breeth Inspired hath in every holt and heeth The tendre croppes and the yong e sonne Hath in the ram his halve cours yronne. When sweet zephyrs blow their breath. 17) Balmy weather relieves the tedium of winter and causes the pilgrims ‘‘to seek en straunge strondes. His courage and daring mark him as the natural rebel. but rashness and an uncurbed temper prove his undoing. And bathed every veine in sw ich licour Of which vertu engendred is the flowr. ebulli ent son of the Earl of Northumberland.” they trek to Ca nterbury to “the holy blisful martyr. (In April when showers are sweet. They enliven on every meadow and heath Tender crops and the sun in Aries Has run hal f its yearly course. And smalle fowles maken melodye That sleepen al the night with open yë. Part I. Thomas à Becket. lusty Aries personality for Henry Percy. And baby birds sleep all night with open eyes. yet suffers inherently from an unbalanced personality.< previous page page_88 next page > Page 88 downturn of the head to impale an adversary. excitable warrior who anticipates combat as rousing sport. A thrall to nature. the ram is therefore limited in effectiveness and versatility. which presages good traveling weather and passable roads: Whan that aprille with his showres so ote The droughte of March hath perced to the roote. They pie rce to the root the drought of March. headstrong scrapper in Henry IV. William Shakespeare drew on “a capteine of high courage” from Holinshed’s Chronicles to create a vibrant. A fierce. In the English Renaissance. The immediacy of spring e nlivens the introduction to Chaucer’s sequence and energizes the storytellers to d o their best as they jog toward Canterbury.” Departing “from every shires ende of Engelond. (Chaucer 196 1. Hotspur at age thirty-nine < previous page page_88 next page > . keen-wi tted qualities expected of a soldier. familiarly known as Harry H otspur. a volatile. Hotspur represents the admirable. In the prologue to a collection of stories told by a motley assemblage of travelers going to the shrine of St. The dashing. In 1385. vain.” who cures the sick.

” acquaints Hal with t he manly pursuit of chivalry and honor. Adieu. But n ot remember’d in thy epitaph! (Shakespeare 1960. Are s. In typical form.< previous page page_89 next page > Page 89 serves as a foil to the phlegmatic Prince Hal. where rebel forces threaten the English monarchy. Hotspur merits soldierly honors. fearsome figure not unl ike the archetypal Ariean personality. An honest fighting man deserving of his medals. In Roman times. 87–101) As though parting wi th a compatriot. iv. how much art thou shr unk! When that this body did contain a spirit. the precipi tate. Aries is often confused with a homonym. India. a sixteen-year-old laggar d who prefers vulgar barroom companions to the king’s forces on the battlefield. and take thy praise with thee to heaven! Thy ignominy sleep with thee in the grave. a major ass ault weapon was the aries . Prince Hal thr usts himself into battle and eventually kills his mentor in a duel at Shrewsbury . Greek god of war. With Hotspur in the lead. Germany during World War I and World War II. Africa. especially En gland. which sets it apart from the Greek. V. and Rome throughout most of its ancient past. The hammer was a single tree trunk rounded at the end wi th a carved ram’s head topped with curling horns—a stirring. A kingdom for it was too small a bound … I’ll thank myself For doing these fair rites of tenderness. flourished under the sign of Aries. H otspur. the opinionated Ariean nation thrives on empiremaking and domination of lesser countries. or battering ram. Hal speaks his eulogy: … Brav e Percy: fare thee well. Rueful at sight of his quicksilver opponent’s mangled corpse. Astrologers maintain that great nations. whom Shakespeare honors as “Mars in swathling clothes. which soldiers hauled over open gr ound to a walled city and swung on heavy ropes against a gate as they did during the assault on Masada. Germany. but was originally pronounced Roman style with three syllab les (ah’ ree ays). and ancient Rome. great heart! Ill-weaved ambition. ever-feisty Hotspur expires without completing his final sentence. < previous page page_89 next page >   . History has proved true the charge wi th England in the New World. Hal acknowledges Hotspur’s brimming vitality and gallantry and re grets his impulsiveness. As prime p layers in the balance of power. and Australia. especially the late Republic and early Empire.

Israel’s lawgiver. the father of the Russian Communist stat e.< previous page page_90 next page > Page 90 Memorable Arieans have established their place among orators. Ariean Wyatt Earp.S. and Marlon Brando. particular ly Moses. Lenin. A rieans include leaders in the arts and entertainment: Johann Strauss. Constitution. On the American frontier. the captivating actor who played Fletcher Christian in the film Mutiny on the Bounty . Charlie Chaplin. pantomimi st and creator of filmdom’s Little Tramp. illusionist and escape ar tist. < previous page page_90 next page > . Harry Houdini. and Thomas Jefferson. a recurrent event in frontier literature and film. a failed soldier who proved an invaluable leader during the formulation of citizen rights and reponsibilities in the U. and the prophet Mohammed. Ariean leaders include Hitler. ada pted his zeal for authority to law enforcement. Kansas. His lack of control over inheren t traits may have precipitated the shootout at the OK Corral. In addition to outstanding political figures. the militarist who tried to “purify” the Aryan race by exterminating the Jews. the redoubtable founder of Islam. marshal of Dodge City. the Austri an composer who introduced the waltz craze in Europe.

< previous page Page 91 page_91 next page > 6 TAURUS < previous page page_91 next page > .

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and the Hyades. the sufferer Taurus 28 Pleione. the rain star d elta star Hyades II. the butting horn gamma star Hyades I. Taurus is visible on January nights in mid-northern latit udes high over the southern horizon. the great one Taurus 21 Asterope. Auriga. Bordered by Aries.< previous page page_93 next page > Page 93 ASTRONOMICAL FACTS Taking its name for the Latin for bull. Eridanus. the swarthy Taurus 17 Electra. Taurus is alternately known as the V. is abbreviated Tau and symbolized by a circl e topped with curving horns. the long-cheeked Taurus 20 Maia. the man y little ones Taurus 16 Celaeno. Of the ninty-eight heavenly bodies in the g roup there are seventeen major stars: alpha star Aldebaran. the morta l Taurus 27 Atlas. the sailing queen < previous page page_93 next page > . the fox Taurus 1 9 Taygeta. the bull’s eye zeta star Alhe cka. the follower of the Pleiades beta star Alnath. and Perseus. Taurus (taw’ ru hs). the rain star epsilon star Ain. Cetus. Orion. The seventeenth con stellation in size. the Winter Octagon. th e Winter Oval. the stubborn-faced Taurus 23 Merope. the light eta-two star Althurayya. which mimics its configuration. the second sign of the zodiac. th e sun-faced Taurus 22 Sterope II. Gemin i. the driver eta-one star Alcyone.

the eta star they called Mao. the eta star they called Krittika. but he moves no closer. the seventh. and Fomulhaut in forming Persia’s four Royal Stars. A mbrosia. The group derives its lore from the myth of the se ven Nysaean nymphs. Artemis. a cool rosy-orange star that has teased the imaginations of viewers from early history. Eidothea. Alnath. Another account of the myth says Zeus assisted the maidens b y arranging them into a pattern of stars. Althaea. the Genera l of the Celestial Armies. a diffuse nebula known to early stargazers and characterized by the poets Aratus and Virgil and the astronomers Eudoxus and Ptolemy. Taurus’s beta star. It also displays a notable cluster in which lies Hyades. Phyto. the celibate goddess of the hunt. B ecause the star marked the vernal equinox. Taygete. Celaeno. Only six stars are clea rly visible. Erato. The Hindu called th e alpha star Rohini. Directly northeast ap pears the Pleiades or Seven Sisters. t he Constellation. Merope. the Little King. The Chinese also focused on these two: the alpha star they called Pi. named by varying combinations of Adraste. Polyxo. Regulus. Merope. Lying on the lion’s torso. Eudora.< previous page page_94 next page > Page 94 Most spectacular of Taurus’s members is Aldebaran. Macris. The Pleiades is the brightest and most prominent cluster in the sky. Nysa. the Red Deer. and < previous page page_94 next page > . Orion still pursues them. a handsome gi ant unlucky in love. They established a body of myth that connects the alp ha star with activities leading the bold to fame and fortune. Because the stars are fixed in their celestial positions. a s tar on its upper limb favored in ancient times by farmers. I t derives from Greek mythology. Residing on the bull’s north horn. Bacche. Maia. it bears the Persi an designation of Watcher of the North. the Persians named i t the Watcher of the East. Aldebaran joins An tares. is a triple star burning white and ultramarine. Brome. Sterope—who ran from Orion. features g amma Tauri as the chief star. about 3000 B. Taurus is unique in that it features a meteor shower in June a nd two in November. its stars were named for Atlas’s daughters—Electra. Coronis.. Philia. In the sky. Aesyle. it was as cendant during two London disasters of the seventeenth century—the bubonic plague in 1664– 1665 and the devastating city fire in September 1666. Dione. Pedile. the Watchers o f Heaven. the Handnet. or the Rabbit Net. they never elude him. the celestial rainmakers. the Lost One. Cleia or Cleis. It reposes at t he heart of the constellation and burns fortyfive times brighter than the sun. The Hyades cluster. Alcyone. is the twentyfourth brightest star in the heavens.C. Phaeo. Phaesyle. tossed the girls into the sky to rescue them from the would-be ravisher. requires some magnification to b e visible on earth. The sign of the summer solstice. Regulus.

he discovered Ceres i n Taurus. The Babylonians call ed the eta-one star Temennu. Taurus was his incarnation when he spied on Europa. An alternate myth claims that the seven nymphs wept at the pitiable wreckage of their brother’s body and were turned into celestial r ain-bringers. the mother or the hen. He made valuable observations about constellations and published a cat alog of stars in 1814. the god also made them perennially young. was first sighted in 1054 A. Derived from one of Zeus’s many amorous escapades in Greek mythology. Misinformed astronome rs thought the yellow-green star was the core or axle of the universe. the Phoenician princess. Hyas. whom they mourned after beasts killed him in the wilds nea r Libya. once heralded the sun on the first day of spring. the ruins of the brightest supernova in the sky. whom th e Greeks called the Pleiad. ASTROLOGICAL HISTORY AND TRAITS Governing the thirty-one days between April 20 and May 20. In 1801. connected with harsh and fearful moods. the brightest of the Pleiades. Other stars in Taurus draw viewers’ admiration. Like Syrians. an Irish astronomer. Zeus placed the sisters among the stars. the foundation stone. Babylonians valued the bull as a symbol of light and a sign of earth’s rejuvenation. sits on the bull’s southern horn. and was named around 1850 by Lord William Parsons Rosse. The Egyptians identified the constellation with Osiris. a small heavenly body shaped li ke a star. Because he swam with her on his back from < previous page page_95 next page > . Important astronomic phenomena and discoveries have occurred in Taurus. The Crab Nebula. Sumerians. Giuseppe Piazzi. Taurus also contains the double star Alnath. S icily. Taurus. god of fer tility. perches on the bull’s shoulders. It was also the site of the discovery of the first asteroid. the Chinese saw it as a white tiger or huge bridge. After she agreed to climb on the back of the magnificent white bull. Alhecka. a monk who taught mathematics in Palermo. Alcyone. Zeus easily seduced her. one of the original members of the zod iac. the Hindu thought of it as Am ba.D. As a reward for sheltering the infant Dionysus in a cave and feeding hi m milk. where. who is als o the sire of the Pleiades and the Hesperides. Their name may reflect their love for a brother. on New Year’s Day. The seven sisters were daughters of Aethra and Atlas. At Medea’s request.< previous page page_95 next page > Page 95 Thyene. composed of one white and one gray star at the tip of the bull’s northern horn. Fr om the heart of Taurus beats the strongest of the heavenly pulsars. while she played by the Tyrian seas hore. established an observatory. and Arabs. Hebrew ast rologers named it the shepherd.

This fanciful story is a favorite in ancient lore and a rt and appears in Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey. and Horace’s Olympic Odes. A natural farmer who respe cts the earth. physical comforts. and val ues a good joke. Zeus had the bull appear as a heavenly token to legitimize Minos’s rule. A second ero tic myth connected with the bull is the story of the Minotaur. Scenes fro m the myth highlight the ruins of Knossos. The traditional Taurian establishes a satisfying flower b ed and prolific vegetable garden as a natural part of the homestead. < previous page page_96 next page > . uppe r torso. the Minotaur demanded seven maids and seven youths from Athens as a blood sacrifice.C. luxury. He also designed the subterrane an labyrinth in which the royal family hid their shame —the Minotaur. Because the king failed to follow orders to sacrifice the original bull to Posei don. sl ew the bull with his sword. and indolence. Taurus is a fixed earth sign ruled by Venus. According to standard astrology. the sea god stirred an abnormal passion in Queen Pasiphaë to mate with the an imal. Zeus’s constellation contains only the bull’s head. The hero Theseus volunteered for martyrdom with the next contingent of human offerings. the archetype avoids hysteria or depression. and other Cretan ar tifacts. Emotionally. Each year. and camaraderie. organization. tol erance. Under the influence of her love and appreciation of beauty. As a friend. he used a ball of string to mark his way into the dark labyrinth. Strengths such as determination. and caring.< previous page page_96 next page > Page 96 Phoenicia to Crete. the Taurian is considered truthful. the bull’s attention to health and frequent outdoor walks build stable ph ysical constitutions. Pasiphaë’s halfhuman. modesty. On advice from the prince ss Ariadne. the monster of Cr ete. Apollonius’s Argona utica. the typical Taurian recognizes th e rhythms of agriculture and remains in tune with the seasons. slow motion . persistence. The bull stereotype is a land lover. Ovid’s Metamorphoses. In astral healing. straightforward. and front legs. Lumbering at a stolid. At his splendid palace at Knossos. the Homeric Hymns . and atten tion to soil building. the Taurian is said to keep all four feet solidly planted in real ity. Gardens tended by a Taurian are said to flourish from proper cultivation. ritual bull leapers hono red Minos and his court with graceful tumbles over the horns of prancing bulls. whic h dates to 2500 B. half-taurian offspring. unremarkable pace. Taurians avoi d ugliness and value art. The lurid bestial story involves the inventor Daedalus’s creation of a devic e that would accommodate their perverse sex act. and common sense balance the negative traits of taciturnity. statues of bulls. and followed the string back to daylight. Hyginus’s Fables.

< previous page page_97 next page > Page 97 Honored for integrity, the standard Taurus governs wealth and resources. In business and friendly relationships, Taurians are drawn to Capricorns, Virgo ans, and Cancerians. Because bulls possess judgment and patience for managing in vestments and adapt well to shifts in the economy, Taurians achieve business and financial success, especially through sale of art, jewelry, fine china, and ant iques. Just as Taurians know when to plow, plant, and sow, as investors they are described as conservative, but surefooted in purveying real estate, stocks, bon ds, and securities. As workers, they supposedly hate new beginnings, changes in the chain of command, and moves to unfamiliar offices or work sites. They accept direction from authority figures and maintain scrupulous business ethics. Bulls are allegedly ambitious, yet conventional. They tend to work for the same compa ny or in the same elected post or professional career over a long period without losing enthusiasm for a product, responsibility, or service. Astrologers declar e that, as a mate, the bull is deliberate and somewhat calculating, particularly where money is concerned. Marriage to a Taurian is said to produce a staid, lov ing relationship grounded on loyalty and trust, but a breach of faith unleashes torrents of anger, even violence. The Taurian demands good food, beautiful surro undings, and a tight family bond. Because Taurians are allegedly shy and backwar d, they are thought to make wooden, unromantic wooers, but to develop into lovin g, trustworthy, and faithful mates who remain married for life. The archetype ne eds no complicated love rituals to inflame ardor and shies away from glamour or allure. When their usual devotion and good nature give way to jealousy or anger, the bull is said to strike out without mercy or may nurse a grudge. This transf ormation from lover to hater explains the ambivalence that accrues to the bull s ymbol. Other detractions from the bull’s good traits include self-indulgence, iner tia, absurd rituals, and extremes of caution. As parents, Taurians are character ized as excellent care-providers and character-builders in their young. Astrolog ers claim that children delight the bull parent, who is said to pressure offspri ng to attend the parent’s alma mater, pursue the same clubs and profession, and re ar the bull’s grandchildren according to Taurian standards. Traditionally, family arguments erupt when independent offspring reject any aspect of the Taurian poin t of view, including religion, politics, deportment, and mores. Wise children do not court confrontations with the disgruntled bull. According to astral healers , the Taurian’s health is among the best of the twelve houses of the Zodiac. In yo uth, the archetype offsets a tendency toward awkward, squarish hands and unappea ling hair with wide-spaced eyes, broad face, and generous lips. Although powerfu lly built, the Taurian < previous page page_97 next page >

< previous page page_98 next page > Page 98 is said to avoid fights until sufficient provocation turns a mild person ality into a raging, snorting pugilist. In mid-life, the typical Taurian mellows . Gluttony and a mellow type B personality inclines the chubby archetype toward burliness and a well developed paunch. A marked thickening of the jowls exacerba tes the bull sign’s love of exaggerated facial expressions and a deep rumbling chu ckle. In astro-medical tradition, sickness will fell the mighty bull for a long period of time. Taurians are thought to make good patients because they scrupulo usly follow doctors’ instructions and health care regimens. The most inert and lei sure-loving extend recuperation until forced back into the daily routine, which uplifts and renews by its familiarity. The worst afflictions arise from overeati ng, imbibing in wine and rich foods, and excess weight. Sudden shock is said to force the predictable Taurian into collapse or even death. As demonstrated by as trological anatomy charts, weakness runs to joint and throat disease, congestion , tooth decay, and allergy; organ complaints center on the kidneys and liver. La ck of attention to diet is said to dispose the Taurian to lethal stroke or heart failure. Owing to deficiencies in sodium and calcium, the Taurian should build meals around salads of celery, chard, radish, and spinach and eat plenty of appl es and strawberries. A hearty appetite and slow, deliberate eating habits are th ought to produce numerous Taurian gourmands as well as hearty, good-natured cook s and genial pubkeepers. Critics suggest that Chaucer had the Taurian character in mind when he created Harry Bailly, owner of the Tabard Inn and guide for the Canterbury pilgrims. According to the Prologue to The Canterbury Tales: A semely man Oure Hooste was withalle For to han been a marchal in an halle. A large man he was with eyen stepe— A fairer burgeys is there noon in Chepe— Boold of his spech e, and wys, and wel ytaught, And of manhod hym lakkede right naught. (Our host w as a seemly man To have been manager of an inn. He was large with great eyes— No f airer burgess lived in Cheapside— He was bold of speech, wise, and well educated, And lacked no quality of manhood.) (Chaucer 1961, 24) < previous page page_98 next page >

< previous page page_99 next page > Page 99 Chaucer speaks through Bailly, who organized the mirthful pilgrims with a formal arrangement of storytelling, two per person on the ride to the cathedra l and two on the return ride. Because of his choice of so hearty a person, criti cs assume that Chaucer assigned some of his own personality traits to his spokes man. In business and industry, standard Taurians are hard workers who value the salary they earn and frequently grow wealthy from shrewd saving and investment. Typically loners, Taurians are too selfabsorbed to succeed at team sports and gr oup efforts. However, like determined dray animals broken to the shaft or plow, Taurians are said to work until they drop to solve a puzzle or complete a task. Traditionally, they don’t shun dirty jobs, yet prefer to remain clean and unstaine d. For this reason, the Taurian makes a worthy scholar, scientist, musician, sin ger, philosopher, or director of a project, but never a humble day laborer or re search assistant. Taurian archetypes succeed as coaches, choir singers, priests, or clerics and bask in public glory, uniforms and robes of office, and badges o f honor. They treasure trophies, busts, and statues to their accomplishments. As keepers of sacred rituals, they are pious, faithful, and dependable, but may co ndone unconventional worship styles. SYMBOLISM IN ART AND RELIGION Taurus is a p revalent form in art. The sign represents raw magnetism. Usually depicted in pro file on murals and urn friezes, the bull displays prominent horns, which complem ent a hefty, sometimes oversized phallus, symbol of virility and regeneration. C haracters riding bulls appear in Greek, Cretan, Sumerian, Semitic, and Hindu myt hology and art. Bull sacrifice figures in Iranian, Minoan, and Roman art serve a s emblems of renewal and physical vigor. Buddhists saw the bull as the incarnati on of ego; Celts equated the bull with power and strength. Egyptians and early G reeks drew the gods Apis and Dionysus with bull heads as enhancements of manhood and authority. In prehistoric European cave art, the bull is a creative, resurg ent figure often connected with divine favor and success. From early times, anon ymous artists, possibly shamans or priests, drew twodimensional side views of ho rned bulls in charcoal on cave walls at Lascaux and Font-de-Gaume, France. A cer emonial bas-relief found in Babylonian war loot features the bull on which stand s Teshub, the Hittite sky god. Cretan palace art and sculpture favors the full-c hested bull deity, whose horns loom sharp and lethal. Egyptian and North African art shows the same figure with the disc < previous page page_99 next page >

< previous page page_100 next page > Page 100 or medallion of the sun god suspended between the horns as a sign of be neficence or blessing. Egyptians honored the bull in tomb art by having him bear the ruined body of Osiris. The bronze cult figure of Apis depicts Taurian stren gth and fertility. His appearance on sarcophagi links the bull with protection o f the dead and with the heavens, where he reposed in glory alongside Osiris as c osmic water bearer and life-sustainer. On the slate palette of Narmer of Hierako napolis, which dates to 3100 B.C., bas-relief depicts the king as a bull using h is horns to batter the walls of enemy strongholds. Another view on the slate sho ws the bull goring a victim. His bold, forthright actions earn him the title of ‘‘Ho rus, the Strong Bull, Appearing in Right, Lord of the North and the South.” In the time of Sargon II, the Babylonians used the bull as a national emblem and carve d it in marble as a tyrannic symbol on temple portals and palace entranceways. A n imaginative beast, the heavy-hooved bull stands four meters high on parallel f ront legs. A side view displays three more legs to present the body in motion. B lended with the muscular legs and elongated tail are fantastic variations—graceful wings and the bearded head of a king. Rising above the forehead reposes the cyl indrical crown, flanked by two stylized horns. The impact of the statue, which i s housed in the Louvre Museum in Paris, represents Sargon’s supremacy as administr ator and builder of the palace at Khorsabad. In Greek and Roman mosaic and mural art, the bull is a dramatic icon. Often, these works display the beasts that Ja son yoked and hitched to a plow, bulls that accompanied the processions of Diony sus, or the Roman sacrificial bull wreathed in garlands and decked with herbs an d wildflowers. A temple at Selinus, Sicily, dating to the sixth century B.C., fe atures a bas-relief of Zeus as a lusty bull carrying Europa on his back. The art ist expressed animal appeal in the inward curve of the elongated tail and in the girl’s loving pat on his side and her grasp of his right horn. In the fifth centu ry B.C., artists constructing the temple of Zeus at Olympia added to the metopes a scene in which Hercules challenges a rampant bull. The two figures occupy cro ssed diagonals, with the hero’s uplifted arm forming the left leg and the rearing bull’s head and shoulders forming the right. Now housed in the Louvre Museum in Pa ris, the badly scarred bas-relief still reflects the energy of human against bea st. The use of the snorting bull as a royal symbol presaged defeat in fifth-cent ury B.C. Persia. Pairs of limestone bulls atop the one hundred densely packed co lumns supported the hypostyle Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis in what is now Iran. Exotic fringed tapestries linked the columns and repeated the motif in antimony, lead, and copper oxide pigment on cedar < previous page page_100 next page >

< previous page page_101 next page > Page 101 ceiling and pediments. The period reflects the over-confidence that acc ompanied the spread of Persian authority from the Indus River to the Aegean Sea. Xerxes’s display of semi-divine grandeur and arrogance embodies two Taurian quali ties that brought the king low after he sacked Athens. In 480 B.C., he capitulat ed to the Greek navy at Salamis and was assassinated by one of his officers in 4 65 B.C. At the urging of the courtesan Thaïs, Alexander the Great burned the hall, depriving Xerxes of his architectural bid for immortality. In Rome stands a mor e modest, stately monument, the Ara Pacis , or Altar of Peace, erected in 9 B.C. , an imposing rectangular building honoring Augustus’s safe return from campaigns in Spain and Gaul. Across the scrolled capital in bas-relief marches an entourag e of worshippers to a suovetaurilia, the traditional tripartite sacrifice of a p ig, sheep, and bull. The bull stands in profile with attendants at his rump, fla nk, and head. The front figure appears to draw the animal forward to keep the pr ocession moving. An eastern view of the building displays the earth mother betwe en two adoring females. At her breasts she fondles twins. A bull and sheep repos e at her feet alongside generous supplies of water, grain, and fish. The scene c ombines notable zodiac figures—Aquarius, Taurus, Gemini, and Pisces. A bas-relief on the Arch of Marcus Aurelius dedicated in 178 A.D. characterizes the philosoph eremperor, who ruled from 161 to 180 A.D. He pulls his toga over his head in the standard Roman gesture of reverence as he presides over the sacrifice. The grav ity of the four onlookers, young girl, flutist, axeman, and water bearer, harmon izes with the emperor at left of center and bull to the right. Behind the party of Jupiter-worshippers looms a magnificent temple decked in Corinthian splendor, featuring a carved pediment and a bas-relief of a bull charging a human adversa ry. The control of the complex work reflects Aurelius’s goodness, piety, generosit y, and wisdom. The Vatican Museum houses a simpler procession of Bacchantes flan king a bull. The dramatic drapings of linen on the two figures contrast the cres cent horns, flared nostrils, and wrinkled hide of the bull, which lowers its hea d in a menacing stance. An Anatolian figure from the same era displays a male wo rshipper in triumphant pose. Wearing a tunic and boots, he grasps the thyrsis, a ceremonial staff composed of a pine cone draped in myrtle, as a gesture of feal ty to Bacchus. In his left arm he cradles a cornucopia, symbol of a plentiful ha rvest. His left foot appears to subdue a bull, which collapses on the lower righ t corner of the bas-relief. The inscription in Greek lettering indicates piety: “A gathapous of Kaouala Offers His Prayer to Humankind.” < previous page page_101 next page >

for which they must suffer a penalty that inhibits < previous page page_102 next page > . brotherhood. The transposition of authoritative horns onto Michelangelo’s statue of Moses confers godly power and moral authority on the Hebrew spokesman for the a lmighty. Mithraism wa s a demanding. a motif common to the writings of St. insolent men. an unblemished bull was the sole sacrifice acceptable to Mithras. In primitive Christian art. On land owned by Helios.. Homer’s Odyssey features cattle in one of Odysseus’s escapades. sacrifice. Odysseus’s mariners slaughter sacred cattle. In India n art. thereby putting themselves under Yahweh’s power.< previous page page_102 next page > Page 102 The combination of symbols syncretizes Dionysiac worship with the strin gent military cult of Mithras. 171) Homer links most of the ills that plague Odysseus to Helios’s cattle. w ho demanded soldierly valor and self-control among disciples of Christ. which they adorned. The elevation of Moses seems appropriate for the patriarch who conferre d directly with God and who presented the Ten Commandments to his followers. but if you yourself get clear. self-denial. Suppliants received asylum when the y grasped the horns. the bull balances the cow as the active procreative force that fertilizes the placid ruminant. After butch ering enough beef to last for a six-day feast. the men realize that they have co mmitted sacrilege. Christian symbolists abandoned the lusty bull in favor of the castrated plow animal. secretive belief system that pressed male followers to adhere to a staunch moral conduct. and patience. which entered Rome by way of Persia. the epitome of chastity. Odysseus had re ceived warning of their importance when he visited Teiresias in the underworld. For Roman sold iers. (Homer 1967. in someone else’s ship. the sun god. the horns of the bull point upward as though directing the faith ful to God. then I testify to the destruction of your ship and your companions. you will come home in bad case. who are eating away your livelihood and courting your godlike wife and offering gifts to win her. Dating to the ninth century B. The prophet promised: If you do harm them. and fi nd troubles in your household. Hebrew symbolism reflects the biblical connection between the bull’s hor ns and the sacred altar. The symbolism suggests a stalwart male quelling the bestial side of human nature. Bul l lore is also significant to classic literature. and underground veneration. with the loss of all your companions. C. A recurr ent theme in Mithran temple art is the human figure grasping the bull’s head and p lunging a dagger into its heart. Paul.

the Taurian author i s contemplative and cautious in developing a plot. honest. Falstaff. and Portia. The bull sign is said to disp ose the writer to a fundamental humanism rooted in the commonalities of life. Ernle Bradford. and L. the zodiacal Taurus produces quality artisans. author and artist of Birds of America. In the French epic. and strong. novelists Daphne du Maurier. unassuming dray animal. The con summate example is William Shakespeare. naturalist Farley Mowat. Overall. Chanson de Roland . Frank Baum and Gary Paulsen. Examples of his most durable characters include Hamlet. the Roman epicist.< previous page page_103 next page > Page 103 their return to Ithaca from the Trojan War and denies Odysseus a grand and joyous reception when he arrives at his palace. author of Ulysses Found. a uthor of To Kill a Mockingbird. both young adult class ics. According to the writings of Valens. its horn. Barrie. unembellished structure has become a touchstone of Western drama. The he ro’s blast on the horn symbolizes refuge and safety. dramatist J . T o the left of the herd is an oversized daisy-shaped sun representing Helios’s powe r. A sixth-century vase paintin g depicts Helios’s sacred herd with hefty animals topped by lethal curved horns. success ful authors respectively of The Wizard of Oz and Hatchet. laborers. and construction workers. op ened his Georgics with a nod toward “the white bull that with his golden horns ope ns the year. Similar qualities undergird the works of poet Randall Jarrell. and Harper Lee. Virgil. In the first century. A val ley named Val del Bove (Valley of the Cow) bears out Bradford’s supposition that O dysseus’s wanderings have a basis in fact. which is based on classic Roman themes. author of Rebecca. In the twen tieth century. retraced the voyage an d set the poetic episode on Taormina. In the 1950s. display the bull sign’s meticulous crafting of fic tion. a Sicilian beachhead on the island’s eastern promontory overlooking a dangerous strait opposite the toe of Italy’s boot. dropping manur e on the furrows and laboring to produce a good crop. farmers. 112). < previous page page_103 next page > . His ability to blend comic and tragic ele ments displays the Taurian’s rumination over all elements of human life.” the traditional New Year’s figure (Cavendish 1970. as reflected by John James Audubon. the bull is reduced to a single element. whose solid. the poet Marcus Manilius depicted Taurus as dull. he plods through the fields.M. A n unadorned. Roman poetry reprises the Greek admirat ion for the massive bulk and strength of the bull.

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< previous page Page 105 page_105 next page > 7 GEMINI < previous page page_105 next page > .

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< previous page page_107 next page > Page 107 ASTRONOMICAL FACTS The Latin for twins. the duo has been called Adam and Eve. a Greek term for “sons of god. the outstretched (paw) zeta star Mekbuda. the retracted (paw) eta star Propus I. Of the forty-sev en components in the group there are fourteen major stars: alpha star Castor. The Chinese called < previous page page_107 next page >     . and Orion a nd lies below the bowl of Ursa Major between Cancer and Taurus. Canis Minor. Monoceros.” An uneven pair of lights visible in the Northern Hemisphere each spring. the proud marcher delta star Wasat. an orange star on the sout hern twin’s head. th e beaver beta star Pollux. Lynx. (adjunct to) the forward foot The thirtieth in size. The constellation borders Auriga. the (first) forward foot iota star Propus I. the hind foot mu-two star Tejat Prior. is the third sign of the zodiac. the ( forward) back foot mu-three star Dirah xi star Alzirr. Gemini (jeh’ mih ny). The heavenly twins are known jointly as the Dioscuri (dy’ uh skoo’ ree). the brand gamma-two star Almeisan. the Winter Oc tagon. the button Gemini-one sta r Propus III. the middle of the sky epsilon star Mebsuta. abbreviated Gem. this constell ation showcases its beta star (Pollux or Polydeuces). much wine gamma-one star Alhena. the (second) forwar d foot mu-one star Tejat Posterior. the Kids. and the Winter Oval. they resemble two stick figures holding ha nds. the Heavenly G. Formally known as Alpha and Beta Geminoru m.

Apollo and Hercules. the year’s longest day. Ari zona. stands guard between the twins’ shoulders. a showy spot in the southern twin’s left foot. Gemini rekindles in meteor showers. a self-taught astronomer at the Lowell Observatory of Arizona State College in Flagstaff. caused by his mother’s attempt to singe away her infant s on’s human elements. In similar fashion. Sir Frederick William Herschel of Bath. ASTROLOGICAL HISTORY AND TRAITS Governing th e thirty-one days between May 21 and June 20. the mu star. Gemini lies between Taurus and Can cer. In October and early December. They sent meteors to illuminate the skies < previous page page_108 next page > . is a six-part mass on the head of the northern twin. the duality of Ursa Major and Ursa Minor reflects an uneven sharing of the heavens. In 1781. Herschel. was called the bright foot in antiquity and connects to the story of Achilles’s wounded tendon. named the planet Georgium Sidus (the Geor ges’ Star). Diagonal from Alhena is Wasat. Homer casts them as complements: Castor the horse-tamer and Polydeuces the boxer. a double star glowing purple a nd pale white in the northern twin’s right forearm. with one constellation outdist ancing the other in size and light. in early Greek nomenclature. The brothers became images of light. the forearm. Illinois.< previous page page_108 next page > Page 108 the beta star Tsing. the brothers are uneven in brightness. The constellation contains the summ er solstice. In 1930. the twins were carved on prows of merchant ships becau se it was thought that they helped clear Mediterranean shipping lanes of pirates . Another bright star. Dirah is sometimes identified as the abused one. which occurs on June 22. In Roman sea lore. the well or pit. the dual sun sign was represented in earlier zodiacs by notable pairs. Dirah. found Uranus in Gemini’s boundaries. discovered the planet Pluto in Gemini. Arab astrologers named it Aldhira . In their current identificat ion. Because of its instability. Pollux is a giant li ght of the first magnitude. Castor. another mi nor star. an organist who b ecame royal astronomer for George III. Castor contains three sets of blue-white binary stars that produce light of the second magnitude. one of the hottest and most complex astral c lusters in the sky. beginning with a man and woman in Egyptian lore and two strongmen . Iota Geminum. this six-way combination may betoken a fu ture separation. Gemini’s two claims to momentar y notoriety took place 240 years apart. England. Li ke earthly siblings. is also a doublet formed of a blue and a yellow star that repose on the northern twin’s left foot. brief displays that mimic the sum mer’s celestial brightness. Clyde William Tombaugh from Streator. A feminine symbol. Alhena. and the Hindu identified it as Punarvarsu. the two good again.

On the negative side. exuberant. The two-sidedness of the Gemini personality is easily identifiable in behavior patterns. To escape ennui. and tedious. frivolous. a godly baton. Acquisitive and self-gratifying. At social functions. but theatrical gush fails to convince others of their sincere friendship. Positive and effervescent with the possibilities of co mpromise. The youthful. playful. these appearances suppo sedly preceded fine weather. yet. Geminian bipolarity intrigues the curious. Although capable of feigning merriment. their skill at repartee marks them as indecisive. they genuinely love life. The constellation of Gemini answers to the planet M ercury. pranks. polka dots. the typical Geminian personality eludes the battlefield by working for peace and by applying vigorous intellectual energy to the complexities of diplo macy. the personality annoys others by childishly denying age and a voiding maturity. unpred ictable personality. nonviolent solution. Allegedly. and stripes. and a silly a rgot. Elmo’s fire. expressive people. who may enjoy the v icarious thrill of associating with unstable personalities. a collection of positi vely charged ions that collect on spires and ship’s rigging when storm clouds impo rt a concentration of negative ions. A sweet-natured. practical jokes. Astrologers picture the Geminian archetype as a perennial scoffer at danger who performs shenanigans and foolhardy feats of daring. Erratic and in constant. Gem inians are said to revert to infantilism. even heirlooms and titles.< previous page page_109 next page > Page 109 and to highlight ships by dancing across masts in fiery blue sparkles. the god of Roman mythology who carried the caduceus. Associated with loquacious. and sp orting. they are quick to discard belongings. two-toned shoes and spectator pumps. According to zodiacal stereotypes. Geminians avoid a fray by being logical debaters or ombudsmen w ho remain calm and disinterested while examining both sides of a dispute for a s ane. checks. the su n sign traditionally bears a duality or ambiguity suggesting a two-faced. He w as powered by winged hat and sandals and delivered divine messages from Mount Ol ympus to mortals. Geminians are said to be garrulous. < previous page page_109 next page > . as th ey search for the next treasure or distraction. Geminians who follow the astrological pat tern overspend out of a need for the latest bauble or newest car. popular Geminian is thought to maintain a keen zest for life and to pursue a wide array of hobbies and interests. The designation is a poetic description of St. dualism is so firmly ing rained that the Gemini clothes-buyer is said to prefer twopiece bathing suits an d dresses. like a f litting Peter Pan. but makes a poor career sol dier. An auspicious sign.

or carpentr y. like bartenders. and pineapple. who becomes a c ompanion rather than a mentor to older offspring. The wily Gemini is reputed to circumvent a sensible bedtime with lengthy telephone conver sations. they are said to weary friends with exaggerated tales of woe and displays of h ardship and desolation. agile. and the inability to rest in bed. tuberculosi s. Gemini’s health is projected to impro ve by supplementing the diet with potassium chloride and by drinking goat’s milk a nd consuming compounds of licorice. They typically switch from one t ask to another and.< previous page page_110 next page > Page 110 As described in astrological handbooks. Once established in a home. inn management. but move cautiously toward matrimony. they harmonize with Librans and Aquarians. bronchitis. They expect regular visits from friends. b ut fickle friends who tire easily of others’ woes. take pleas ure in displaying their skills. eczema. They are thought to blame a faulty sense of logic for rationalizing their choices of bad diet. and fine-featured. those born under the sign of the Twin s have themselves to blame for self-medication. Children thrive under the archetypal Gemini parent. and outdoo r recreation to stem persistent infection and delicate respiratory systems. laboratory research. They require regular rest. On the other hand. and late hours. the Twins are said to demand attentive wooing. the archetype should eat watercr ess and sprouts. During difficult times . In a stral medicine. In ma rriage. Geminians redeem their childhood reputation for dalliance by bec oming devoted. for maximum well being. reading. According to tradition. alcohol. gardening. sleep. Despite their failure as compan ions and mates. farm work. often startling the unwary with bur sts of brilliance. alcohol. tansy. constant celebrations of holidays and personal milestones. green beans. As lovers and mates. dark-haired. bipolarity predisposes Geminians to flu. As designated in handb ooks of astral healing. well-s haped. and frequen t vacations. Geminians are devoted. Easily bored and incapable of such drudgery as assembly lines. vervain. and writing notes and personal letters. music. they follow an erratic course to stardom. stereotypical Geminians easily att ract others with their intent gaze. and dependence on tobacco. and marigold. and astronomy. and drugs. long-suffering parents. Physically tall. such as accounting and tax preparation. but drain marriage of joy by perpetually seeking their own good at all costs. light. < previous page page_110 next page > . rejection of medical advice. Geminians are consummate busine ss leaders and pour themselves into meticulous studies that require skill with n umbers and calculation. Geminians wea ry of tedious yard chores and a regular routine. The twins supposedly enjoy teaching. yarrow. m athematics. or restauranteurs. pastry chefs.

The twins’ archetype represen ts a universal strand of iconography that. A standard figure in mythology is the drowning victim. from ancient times. philosophers. often of the twin born second. and prepare for cosmic imbalanc e. SYMBOLISM IN ART AN D RELIGION In Christian parlance. an uneven d uality that forever teeters to and fro. Rachel and Leah. reminding them of the fragility of life. partic ularly on human life. as described in the first chapter of Genesis. bear no resemblance to each other in thought. ei ther through imprudence or ill fate. a kind of in utero incest. The extreme of this model is the pairing of opposi te-sex twins. the Gemini assume two opposing roles. the mirror-image s or stereo-opposites that pair up like the palms of the hands laid together. survivors cope with their loss and accept the unyielding human situation that leaves the living to mourn the d ead. the sun is a constant. the birth of such pairs was consid ered a perversion of nature. Mary and Martha. dominant power. depends on a commitment to understand. which must have both air and water to live. More pointed than sibling rivalry is the patriarchal power of the husband over the wife in marria ge. like Castor and Pollux. or temperament. establishing for themselves separate idiosyncratic patterns of ascendence. one of life’s most poignant. Together. the two elements of the Gemini sign symbolize prototypical partners. like horoscopy. has absorbed thin kers. Like Pollux. The physical struggle between earth and sea during storms and rip tides perme ates the lives of fishers. dismaying dualities. posture. Weather prognostication. attit ude. A diverse pairing exists in same-sex fraternal twins. The solution to this fam ily quandary was infanticide. upon which the incon stant moon depends for its 28–day cycle of reflected light. the two heavenly orbs rule over day and night. human pairs share the give and take of Gemini’s duality. earth and sea. Identical twins possess identical elements. The traditional complements of the sun and moon. but. who may share a birth hour. sailors. Like Gemini. In early China and West Africa. Both the lunar and solar calendars coordinate the motions of the moon and sun and ch allenge scientists and astrologers to balance their influences on nature. a microcosm mirroring the position of God over < previous page page_111 next page > .< previous page page_111 next page > Page 111 In nature as in myth. In sociological terms. Biblical examples include mismatched siblings like Cain a nd Abel. and Jacob and Esau. predict. who loses the struggle of the elements. and air and water reflect the concept of twinning in the un iverse. and astrologers. and coastal dwellers.

Gemini epitomizes the evolving deification of heaven. Isis. The pairing of twin boys produces two sep arate beings. In Indian lore the Vedic horsemen known as the Asvins or Ash wins epitomized complementary twinning. Within this new perception of the universe. Gemini furnishes art with an intriguingly mutable subject. they led the Children of Israel out of bondage in Egypt. just as t he Greeks joined Zeus and Hera. each of whom possesses distinct characteristics. Centuries b efore the Vatican was established in Rome. Babylonians pai red two trees in heaven—the Tree of Life and the Tree of Truth. priests stressed the darkness of the night sky i lluminated by bright stars. Before the emergence of Christianity. the concept of duality juxtaposed wild with tame. Just as the prie stly view of heaven reminded Romans that life on earth bore little resemblance t o the reward of an afterlife. Roman paganism gave way to a new spirituality based on faith in an afterlife. In relig ion and philosophy. and sin with salvation in cosmologies of many cultures. Cicero characterized the godhood of t he sky as summus ipse deus arcens et continens ceteros (itself the highest god e nclosing and containing the other [spheres]) (Cumont 1960. the brothers who grew up in separate homes. a contrast of the mortal soul with the light of the divine. each bride and groom vows to accept the one-sided power structure that dates to early desert nomads. 64). early artisans depicted uneven duos. the tenthce ntury Persian artist Al Sufi depicted the two as rival males. a lifestyle ordained by uncompromising patriarchy and precept al lows no room for individual talents. as did the duality of Atma and Buddhi. a forerunner of the Christian heaven. Teutonic. When portraying twins in the stars. T he Egyptians paired brother/husband Osiris with his sister/mate. Persians paired peacocks on opp osite sides of the tree of life. In Islamic lore. Locked into an uneven dichotomy of the ruler and the ruled . Hebrew. Amerind ian. and Egyp< previous page page_112 next page > . they evolved the con cept of aeternitas (eternity). or personal growth for either partner and dooms itself needlessly to tensions and misery. Together. coordinated individual talents of leadership and orat ory. Irrevocably linked in an intense relationship at the altar. a parallel to the physical and emotional domains. like Castor and Pollux. The tw o. and who will make crucial decisions . the counterpart of earthly existence. The Hebrews li kened the stars to Moses and Aaron. who will train children. As the Roman world internalized these implications. called Jupiter and Juno in Latin. To feminists. one shoving the ot her out of the way. To express dualis m in nature and human life. the two shoulder rigidly sexist allotments of familial duties: who will procur e food and shelter. preferences. Aaron with his birth parents and Moses as a foundling reared in a palace. life with death.< previous page page_112 next page > Page 112 the Church.

which once adorned the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in Rome (the na tion’s < previous page page_113 next page > . Prussian m ilitary insignia display the duality of warfare in the double-headed eagle. Italy. The Romans allied these concepts by relating the first motif to Janus. Because the human world rejected them. takes shape in the anomaly of male and female genitals on a decidedly feminine body.< previous page page_113 next page > Page 113 tian lore pictures the paired star shapes as emblems of the struggle be tween good and evil. the two-faced deity who presided over the end of the old year and the beginning of the new. the black and white of morality tales depicts the extremes of ethical decisions. the artist Psiax posed the celestial twins as cavalrymen in a classic red and black vase motif. and the second to Romulus and Remus. Another pair of twins forms the projecting adornment on the ends of a pediment topping an Ionic temple at Lo cri. The concept of unity appears in the back-to-back fa ces of Janus. the twin horsemen step onto the ba cks of twin Tritons. In a fifth-century B. and jewelry. anot her type of duality. The Greeks identified the twins specifically as Castor and Polydeuces in sixth-centu ry vase art. pottery.D. Common to the Mediterranean world was the depiction of twinning in mosaics. bisexuality. and fleshy lips. now housed in the M useo Civico Romano in Brescia. provides a realistic study of equestrian d ress and links the figures with upper-class riders. Born to a virgin royal princess. Gemini may foster coo peration and unity or represent a contradiction or blood feud. serious eyes. frieze art. they found nurturing in primal nature. In art that reflects Roman mythology. Armlets. The piece.C. talismen. statue of Romulus and Remus. the Chinese antithesis of yin and yang usually pictures paired opposi tes as interlinking forms nested in stark red and black within the confines of a circle. the principle of duality undergirds the myth of Romulus and Remus. their doorkeeper. In a martial example. Persian sketches of the twins link their arms and eyes in a mutual gaze . enhances her breasts to serve twin babes. which groups major participants in the Calydonian boar hunt as they score a kill. From the same era. A crude fresco of a Gallic matron from Toulon sur Allier in the second century A. The harmonious juncture of the two profiles stresses the virtue of unity through tolerance and compromise. they were sired by Mars. coins. In the obverse of Janus. Caught in the act of dismounting. and medallions feature the duplicated faces as a sober. For example. Italy. Color schemes emphasize the contrast between the twins. Egyptian artis ts modeled twins in wall sketches that compare the younger and older Horus. bearded god in alert pose marked by distinct features. In t he statue of the Hermaphrodite. housed in Rome’s Villa Borghese.

honored the Dioscuri. Modeled on Pollux the boxer. and a stone well. a medieva l anthology. or implied temperament. the rui ns soar above the Sacred Way and contain three Corinthian columns. a detailed ma rble lintel. The artist accentuates their differences by arming one with a scythe. who sculpted ‘‘The Boxer. Today. While local folk r ejoiced. Fides Publica. According to Livy. In an ornate full bas-relief housed in the Vatican Museum. the grinning wolf who saved them from starvation after their mother abandoned them. Rome’s lyric historian. They stretch their mouth s upward to suckle the generous paps of Lupa . a natural substitution replaced Castor and Polydeuce s with saintly evangelists Peter and Paul. Liber. A fif th-century temple atop a hill in Agrigento. Because Romulus slew Remus. but his uplifted eyes and complex questi oning expression are typically Roman.< previous page page_114 next page > Page 114 symbol). the god-sized sky twins rode winged horses down to the Forum to proclaim that th e Romans had beaten the Tarquini and Latini at Lake Regillus. the boys turn toward each other. In the Medieval period. and Virtus. the athlete’s smooth beard. In the Book of Hours . In 499 B.. Sicily. Fifteen years la ter. city fathers made good the vow of Aulus Postumius and erected a temple in P arian marble to honor the divine appearance of Romulus and Remus. th eir murderous sibling rivalry negated the bucolic warmth of their rearing in the wild and christened Rome with fratricidal blood. artists contr ast twins such as the biblical Cain and Abel and Jacob and Esau with varied gest ure. A graceful blue sash links the two in felicity and harmony.” a first-century marble displayed in Rome’s National M useum.C. After the area was Christianized. the pose allies hungry twin toddlers. More realistic artistry divorced from duality comes from Apollonius of Athens. but moved away from mythological interpretation to Biblical symbolism. one informally clasps an arm on hi s brother’s shoulder. and s mooth musculature epitomizes Hellenism. Quirinus. Roma. all of which Augustus reconstructed in 6 A. curled hair. the cult of the Dioscuri had an identifiable beginning. Common to the frescoes and oil paintings of Michelan< previous page page_114 next page > . The temple attests to the inclusion of Castor and Pollux among the gods that the Ro mans actively worshipped: Aesculapius. Renaissance art reprises the pose of the classic duo with wings. The processional is a vivid gesture of respect to Rome’s godly beginning. the other with a lyre. the heavenly duo watered their steeds at Lake Juturna. a post-pagan additive. the warring brothers came to blows over the establishment of Rome’s foundations. In adulthood. Mars and Rhea Silvia precede angels who reiterate the rounded baby limbs of Romulus and Remus.D. facial expression. Christian art perpetuated the motif of twi ns.

the number 8. the heavenly saviors appear. two females.. 166). for they never quarreled about power or about anything else. In Greek literature. “For sailors they are fair signs. and Raphael are pairs of male cherubs. So Zeus.C. The three symbols. wishing to make a memorial of their unanimity. riders of swift horses” and designates Mount T aygetos as their birthplace (Homer 1995.< previous page page_115 next page > Page 115 gelo. (Morford and Lenardon 1977. arithmetic. “darting through the air on steadybeating wings.” a winsome oil painting of the Virgin Mary caressi ng the toddler Christ while his cousin and forerunner. According to Eratosthenes’s Catast erisms.. Qu een of Aetolia. Leda bore two periwinkle-blue eggs: one producing the two males and th e other. A second verse in the Homeric Hym ns allies the twins with sailors. 152). Clytemnestra and Helen of Troy. True to their character. Gemini r epresents synthesis or imagination through shared risks or inversion. Because Leda’s husband Tynda reus shared paternity with Zeus. written around 225 B. and at once they check the blasts of harsh winds. 465) < previous page page_115 next page > . In advertising and trademarks. and physics in the letter H.” Homer comments gracefully. the twin deities calm emotional turmoil as well as turbulent seas: [Castor and Polydeuces] exceeded all men in brotherly love.” which names them ‘‘Tyndaridai [sons of Tyndareus]. Giotto. The similarity of the harmonized male figures echoes the Bibl ical account of their tandem ministries. and th e 90° rotation of the 8 into the symbol for infinity. often in mischievo us pose turning laughing mouths upward. called them “the Twins” and placed them togethe r among the stars. Raphael’s enhancement of the paired boys i s captured in “La Belle Jardinière. share a balance of bilateral symmetry. Castor and Polydeuces shared immortality. the twins were sired by Zeus. often symb olized by the doubleedged axe of ironworks and foundries. and seeing them they rejoic e and stop their painful toil” (Homer 1995. an extensive dua lity motif underlies the myth of Castor and Polydeuces. a two-sided loop or double o val that has no beginning or end. John the Baptist. an emblem associated w ith the myth of the Minotaur in the Cretan labyrinth. The dual sign finds counte rparts in writing.C. who took the shape of a swan to se duce her. Homer lauded the twins in “Hymn to the Dioskouri. who sacrifice white lambs to them in hopes of rescue from capsize or falling overboard. and smooth the waves on whitecapped seas. In th e ninth century B. The children of Leda. like the Chinese yin and ya ng. kneels in fealty and awe.

a tragedy in which the brothers are “tw in-throned. The classic canon draws on similar myths based on the duality of strong males. the tender brothers procured Aethra. two warriors of opposing attitudes and nationalities. The duo were also a mong the Spartans who welcomed Paris to Menelaus’s court. in twofold power of kinds from God” (Snodgrass 1994. Horace’s odes laud the Roman version of the twins. an aged servant who served as Helen’s nursemaid. where Romulus’s Rome established its primacy ov er the Latin League. The arrangement forever separated Polydeuces from Castor. Pos t-Hellenic literature perpetuates the image of strength in the twins. and Menelaus and Agamemnon. In honor of their patrons. Roman mythology recast them as the benevolent deities who watched over sail ors and cavalry. the epic struggle of Greece and Troy contain s similar literary foils. Castor taught the infant Hercules to fence. ancient literature also stresses the t wins’ athleticism. the twi ns rescued ten-year-old Helen.< previous page page_116 next page > Page 116 In addition to their equanimity. A second abduction myth placed the twins in the role of captors of yo ung maidens. the two young men were among Jason’s h andpicked crew and took an active part in the Argo’ s voyage east over the Black S ea to Colchis to reclaim the golden fleece. the protracted struggle of twins Jacob and Esau began at bir th. the brothers distinguished themselve s at the Calydonian boar hunt and shone as “illustrious twins” at foot races and wre stling matches. A favorite of Homer. the strong Greek city they protected f rom treachery. On the ship’s departure. the poet Orph eus summoned tongues of flame to crown the twins with grace. Aeschyl us returns to the twin theme in Agamemnon. the sibling rivalry continued with Jacob’s < previous page page_116 next page > .” In Hebrew lore. In a minor myth. In an obsc ure episode. who headed legio ns at the battle of Lake Regillus. twin-sceptered. whom Theseus and his pal Pirithous abducted and p ut under house arrest at Aphidna while they plundered the underworld. Pol ydeuces was so grief-stricken that he implored Zeus to allow him to share immort ality with his fallen brother. In more recent Greek hi story. such as Hector and Achilles. the myth of the Gemini takes on an auspicious role after Helen and her tw in brothers became the patrons of Sparta. when Esau emerged from Rebecca’s womb with Jacob clinging to his brother’s foot. Suitors of the two victims pursued the twins and killed Castor. On the way home. brothers whose roles in the Trojan War cast them as opposites in both behavior and temperament. horsemen swore by the Gemini or ‘‘by jim iny. In Apollonius’s Argonautica. who lived on earth while his brother took a turn in the underworld. In adulthood. 6 56). According to the poet.

Laban relented and gave Jacob his intended. Dante. Hyde . too. Anne Frank. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. displays duality in adolescent sparring with her parents and a soulful longing for an end to Nazism and the return of peace in Europe. Paul. Writers displaying the fractur ed Geminian style include St. A blend of complementary aims—spiritual renewal with materialism—characterizes North America. Anne Frank. but exacted fourteen y ears of work from Jacob—seven for Leah and seven for Rachel. Off-setting an initial rush of energy in combat. complacency. and < previous page page_117 next page > . domes tic. which has lure d European adventurers and fortune-hunters since the time of Christopher Columbu s and the Spanish conquistadores . Whitman vacill ates between the spiritual and physical realms. displays an intriguing combinat ion of nervous energy and self-renewal.< previous page page_117 next page > Page 117 theft of Esau’s birthright. Because detective work enervates him wit h pacing and rumination. Perhaps more than the other examples. t he American romantic whose essays counter his regard for the intellect or genius with his adulation of the spirit’s oneness with the oversoul. which p receded Black Monday and the stock market crash. Thus the Gemini motif epitomizes struggle and persistence. the surge of history may l apse into malaise. which are said to tire easily. Jacob threatened to humiliate the family by abandon ing his wife. Like Gemini personalities. display the Janus temperament. Prohibition. Laban’s daughters . or economic depression. a misalliance of nations. or development. a disaster for financial. as in Charles Dickens’s A Tale of Two Cities. More philosophical is Emerson. After Jacob fled his angry brother and worked for Laban. Sherlock Holmes. Leah and Rachel. The story adds a second pair. Nations. Paul’s letters exemplify a soulful subject m atter frequently interrupted with digressions and interpolations. the deflowered maiden turned out to be Leah. On Jacob’s wedding night. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle exemplif ies a type of sui generis logic. settlement. R alph Waldo Emerson. as well as the power strug gle between segments of an imperfectly allied personality. he embraced a silent form whom he assumed was his bel oved Rachel. Angered by his father-in-law’s switch. and Walt Whitman. The next day. the bud ding diarist of World War II jewry. a psychological pattern that reflects the warring of clans. Hi s appealing Geminian character. Calif ornia Gold Rush. with the elder preceding the younger gir l. and the high-strung flappers of the 1920s. Laban followed the tradition of betrothing daughters by birth order. applicable to his unique style of reasoning. as Shakespeare describes in Romeo and Juliet. which is the focus of Robert Louis Stevenson’s Dr. he relieves the strain by coaxing gentle cadences from his violin. alternating periods of boom and bust typify the Oregon Trail. he f ound himself tricked just as he had deceived Esau. Jekyll and Mr.

the glitter and throb of such neon-lit cities as Atlantic City. < previous page page_118 next page > . and tourists. and New York pe rpetuates the pattern by alternately teasing and wearying gamblers. In modern times. Las Vegas.< previous page page_118 next page > Page 118 governmental stability. New Orleans. Miami. entrepreneur s.

< previous page Page 119 page_119 next page > 8 CANCER < previous page page_119 next page > .

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a doublet formed of white and red stars in the southern claw. and Lynx. It contains two astral spectacles: zeta Cancri. Among constellations . the hazy three-pro nged star grouping. an exhalation of h eaped corpses. then Karkinos. The rough. the flower. Arabs and Greeks first called it the Asses’ crib. the manger or the beehiv e The gamma and delta stars. a revolving quintet of stars. answers to both the element of water and to the moon.< previous page page_121 next page > Page 121 ASTRONOMICAL FACTS The fourth house of the zodiac. In the Northern Hemisphere. Pushya. Cancer is thirty-first in size. the northern donkey delta star Asellus Australis. the claw beta star Altarf. Of its twenty-three visible stars there are six th at stand out: alpha star Acubens. the obscurity of Praesepe has been a reliable rain predicter because wat er vapor dims it. The Hindu called Asellus Australis. the delta star. The Hebrews adapted the animal imagery and called the gamma star Balaam’s ass after the biblical talking beast. Traditi onally. is barely visible in the spring. the Encircler. represent the donkeys that Dionysus and Hephaestus rode during the war between the Titan and Olympian gods. the southern donkey zeta star Tegmen. but was not fully understood until the invention of the telescope. the Chinese called it Tseih She Ke. The Ch inese regrouped Cancer’s phi and eta stars to locate Kwei. Cancer (abbreviated Cnc). Praesepe has been known from ancien t times. cloudy star cluster called Praesepe resembles an amorphous pile of hay that fed the asses. Cancer is also < previous page page_121 next page > . Gali leo first identified its stars in his Sidereus Nuncius (Star Messenger). known jointly as the Aselli. a nd Acubens. Leo. which borders Canis Minor. the spectre. Hydra. the tip gamma star Asellus Borealis. the cover Cancri 44 Praesepe. Gemini. The constellation stands out from its fellows in several ways.

For these reasons. the longest day of the year. traditional Cancerians display a love of fancy and < previous page page_122 next page > . In ancient times. In childhood. Cancer governs gestation. Cancer lies between Leo and Gemini. the Cancer sun sign produces the most nebulous of archetypes. the crab’s perverse movemen ts suggested duplicity. Because of an inability to confront personal differences.C. When troubled or thwarted. Those born under the crab are said to perple x all who hold them dear. both emblems of s truggle. Astrologers describe the crab as a tough. The sign may take its name fr om a crab-like motion. The Cancer archetype allies with Pisceans. Hindu and Ch inese zodiacs pictured Cancer as a crab. high temperature s. ASTROLOGICAL HISTORY AND TRAITS Governing the thirty-two da ys between June 21 and July 22. Following these predictive patterns. seclusion . This sidestep occurs during the change in the sun in mids ummer. Arabs knew it as Alsartan and the Syria ns as Sartano. When describing Cancer as a she-crab. “You ca nnot teach a crab to walk straight” (Bartlett 1992. the Cancerian al legedly presents a crusty exterior epitomized by emotional withdrawal. Sco rpios. carapaced opponent who spo rts a resilient shell that encloses a vulnerable interior and an impressionable. and self-exile. Identified as the scarab by Egyptians. the type is fiercely loyal a nd sympathetic and combats the foes of a friend as though they were personal ene mies. both meaning the Holder. In the height of a relationship. In 421 B. it relates to sympathy and the awakening of the cons cious mind. and Taurians and is thought to enjoy limited periods of imaginative work and pleasant group activity. In similar fashion. the crab is able to creep in more than one direction. Tibetans called it the frog. astrologers saw the figure graspi ng a ball of fertilized eggs in a protective claw.. sensitive spirit. 73). and rebirth.< previous page page_122 next page > Page 122 marked by the summer solstice. Cancerians are said to make excellent parents. who venerated the scarabaeus beetle. A feminine symbol. in psychology. Often lucky and prosperous. and high spirits. the Cancerian is said to vegetate a nd brood over a secret agenda of hurts and betrayals. the figure appe ars to take the shape of the crab or an arm uplifting a sword. comic playwright Aristophanes noted. which occur s on June 22 and links the sun sign with the change of seasons. they are said to suffer unforeseen reversals of fortune and health. when it appears to shift direction. but intolerant or inac cessible friends. baptism. His words capture the exa speration of friends of Cancerians.

Teenage C ancerians may devote themselves to morbid self-castigation and fear family and s ocial gatherings. melodrama. whom they tend with extra caution toward health. surrounded by raffish hangers-on like Hemingway. Physically. or swaggeri ng and delinquent. magic. the retreating crab si nks into remorse. and French philosophe r Henri Bergson. Traditionally. archetypal Cancerians adore babies and take pride in thriving y oung. th ey are said to adopt outrageous poses—suicidal. and an unstable or unfaithful mate. astral healers claim that the sufferer may trigger a lifethreateni ng disease and premature death. the crab is a conscientious labor er. As parents. As a manager or department head. and independence. power. and public opinion. a Nobel prize winner in literature. Cancerian parents are said to spend generously and insist that family an d guests gather around the table for ceremonial meals. Hampered by a wishy-washy character and poor judgment in selecting associates. and psychosomatic ills. emotional. Typified by novelists Ald ous Huxley and Ernest Hemingway and playwright George Bernard Shaw. When swamped by unmanageable emotions. the crab’s stereotyped endowments are striking. leader of the theosophy movement. Cancerians are said to slip into corrupt lifestyles and shift their opinions and loyalties to suit their needs. also. Cancerians u sually do well in writing and journalism because they are fueled by a desire for gossip. psychotic. mystic Madame Helena Blavatsky. Another aspect of Cancerian curio sity and drive are a passion for data and a desire for mystical truths. influence. They relish heroic tales of chivalry and daring and retrea t from reality to fantasies of knights. who believed in the élan vita l or creative impulse. and diet. Whether plunged into bizarre occultism l ike Huxley. warriors. or seated atop a se lf-made throne like the opinionated. As an antidote to foiled relationships. and the occult. the type makes an unreliable business partner. For obvi ous reasons. The res ulting inconsistent self-evaluations and moodiness produce a convoluted personal ity. they are thought to che rish fame. but tends to be bossy. A longing for sentiment and romance is sai d to disrupt stable relationships that display too little elan and too much real ism. two qual ities shared by cultist Mary Baker Eddy. and shopkeeper. If this patt ern persists. Astrologers describe the typical Cancerian as long-limbed with < previous page page_123 next page > . nanny. selfadulating Shaw. hotelier. vitamins. gloom. they force themselves i nto renewed efforts at friend-making. a suspect politician . even handsome. and difficult to please. rebellious. the typical Cancerian is reliable and faithfu l to a task. which dismays family and teachers. or nurse . bitter reflection. Self-conscious and desperate for love. a sensitive teacher.< previous page page_123 next page > Page 123 imagination. sailor. founder of Christian Scientism. On ho lidays.

to circumvent problems and extend periods of well-being. sluggish dige stion. especially in the mid-years. SYMBOLISM IN ART AND RELIGIO N Underplayed in art. The archetype draws admirers to a generous mouth and graceful. Two sets of stars line up pa rallel on the body. and parsley to accompany a core diet consisting of rye bread. Nonthreatening ailments such as heartburn. However sick they appear. In the story. plantain. and absorption in history and genealogy put them at the center of attention. Their powers of concentration. Cancerians are thought to flourish in the spotlight. ex pressive hands. and to sle ep at regular hours. and honeysuckle along with hearty servings of cabbage.C. Hera sent the crab to nip Hercules on the heel as he wrestled with the Lernaean hydra. kale. Associated with the gate through which humanity enters the w orld. Ca ncerians are credited with miraculous powers of recovery. astral physicians advise Cancerians to observe moderation in scheduling appointments. fretful Cancerian includes decoctions of wintergreen. the constellation bears a Roman title—the janua inferni (gate of hell). The medieval anthology Book of Hours features Cancer as a chubby circlet topped by three bright stars and featuring eight legs tipped with smaller stars. Cancer is a minor character in a segment of the twelve labors of Hercules i n Greek myth. and cottage cheese. memory. breast. Cancerians prefer vitamins and drugs to sensible lifestyl es or to preventive maintenance of a weak stomach. they perform well th rough dramatic gesture. the Inca share the sign’s foreboding. pairs the monster Scylla—a fishtailed woman—with a crab. To Buddhists. watercress. to relax from work. a quality that enabled Mary Baker Eddy to draw disciples to her quasi-religious cause. irregular menstrual periods. compelling style. However. a physiognomy found in Hemin gway and Shaw. the crab is often an unassuming addendum linked with decep tion and negative powers. The best diet for the restless. in the late fifth century B. whic h opens from the Milky Way to earth. A coin from Acragas. onions. eggs. As teachers or actors. representing the sea or per haps suggesting the city’s reputation for devious dealings. or uterus or an overa ll sickly constitution. Accordi ng to astral medicine. the icon equates with an ominous sleep o f death. Sicily. Sometimes interpreted as a lobster or crayf ish. Seemingly i nsignificant < previous page page_124 next page > . milk. which enshrouds the waning moon and earth in darkness. a nine-headed serpentine monster. As orators. and biliousness are said to develop into lif e-threatening illness. and winning enthusiasm.< previous page page_124 next page > Page 124 prominent jaw and forehead and small eyes.

these mental coping mechanisms remain her bulwark against adversity in adulthoo d. John 3:16. protagonist of Gustave Flaubert’s Mad ame Bovary . Marvel not that I said unto the e. Excep t a man be born of water and of the spirit. Y oked to a complacent. However.< previous page page_125 next page > Page 125 during the bout. she replaced reality with the mysticism and longings of standard pre-teen escapism. and women’s magazines to relieve her yearning for the exotic. both combatants trampled the crab as they grappled for mastery. exce pt a man be born again. In classic literature. was born to duality. In the third chapter of the book o f John. Unable to focus on mundane matters. wh ich expresses why Christ was martyred and how humankind profited from his earthl y death. the crab keeps a safe distance from the strongman. li ke Gemini. This segment of the gospels launches a pivotal passage. unexciting country physician. she resorts to adultery with Rodolphe and then Leon to provide passion and ecstasy to neutralize the tedium of home. Ye must be born again. However. Cancer. (John 3:3. In the role of wife and mother. displays the stereotypical Cancerian behaviors. Because it sheds its shell. she flits crab-fashion over the miasma in which she has enveloped herself: < previous page page_125 next page > . Verily. I say unto thee. Christ explained salvation to him: Verily. Because Hera disliked the boastful Greek demigod. he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. and be born? Jesus answered. How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother’s womb. he cannot see the kingdom of God. Shamed by enormous debts she owes to an unscrupulous loan shark. when she lived at a convent school. 5–7) Further explanation of baptism and the r egeneration of the spirit reassure Nicodemus that he can avoid going to hell for his sins. I say unto thee. Both of these New Testamen t concepts are significant aspects of Christ’s injunction to the quibbling pharise e Nicodemus. who asked how he could be saved. she rewarded the sma ll crab by transforming it into a constellation to symbolize tenacity and courag e in the face of certain death. Given to daydreams and sentimentality in girlhood. whose constellation lies far from Cancer. verily. verily. In iconography. Emma vacillates between creative effo rts. she forces reality into her ethereal ment al images. Emma combats the collapse of her nebulous dream world by committing sui cide. charity work. Christian apologists used the figure to represent repentance and rebirth. Emma Bovary. Nicodemus saith unto h im. That which is born of the spirit is spirit.

In science. but he failed in the q uest for a fulfilling. perhaps Europe’s ablest queen. was the first to use the metaphor of the crab for < previous page page_126 next page > . the father of modern medicine. Rockefeller overcame dyslexia and ran successfully for the vice presidency o f the United States. A lackluster pupil and athle te. executions. According t o astral historians. Hippocrates. and she continue d to walk rapidly. black vomit spouts from her mouth. spit in their faces. such as the World Trade Center. A kind of warlike emotion was transporting her. two medical terms derive from the ancient words for the crab. In government. Nota ble Cancerians include Henry VIII and politician Nelson Rockefeller. Henry established autonomy and financial control over his own state church. She felt that Providence was determined to hound her. Henry VIII’s personal and political turmoil denied him the jo ys of a stable family by propelling him through six rocky marriages fraught with childlessness.” a penchant for building large. Cancerian Nelson Rockefeller endured a difficult childhood marred by hi s grandfather’s severe religious fundamentalism and his father’s insistence that he stop favoring his left hand and become righthanded. betrayal. he died wi thout realizing the consequences of his monarchy or the strength of his daughter Elizabeth. His bonhomie concealed misgivings about himself and his aim s. His headstrong confrontation wit h the Catholic hierarchy ended medieval ecclesiastical power. Sh e wanted to fight all men. carcinus is the root for c arcinogen and carcinogenic. imposin g buildings. the crab sign is said to have marked the personalities of significant leaders and rulers. scanning the empty horizon with tearfilled eyes and almost relishing the hatred that was stirring her. crush them all. he with drew crab-fashion into cultural and philanthropic interests. and loss. substituting facade s and money for more genuine. and furious. Never had she had so much respect for herself or so much scorn for others. 284) As though recreating the archetype of Cancer.< previous page page_126 next page > Page 126 Disappointment at her lack of success intensified her indignation about her outraged honor. a suggestion of the vileness that poisoned her mind. Similarly wracked by events beyond his control. In Greek. and t he thought strengthened her pride. In bitter self-defeat. companionable marriage. the name and adjective for any substance that precip itates cancer. Flaubert follows Emma Bovary through her rationalizing into the grotesquely protracted scenes of her death from swallowing arsenic. pale. Detractors ridiculed his ‘‘edifice complex. At the end. (Flauber t 1964. personal pleasures. When his public life ended. trembling.

The Latin word cancer entered English in its pure form as the designation of a malignant tumor. The sun sign Cancer sh ares with human tumors the grasping tentacles that victimize organs by shutting off their life forces. and language. For this reason.< previous page page_127 next page > Page 127 cancer. Cancer is one of the least popular sun s igns in iconography. literature. < previous page page_127 next page > . a dread wasting disease. art.

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< previous page Page 129 page_129 next page > 9 LEO < previous page page_129 next page > .

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Coma Berenices. the loinclo th or girdle epsilon-one star Ras Elased Australis. the mane < previous page page_131 next page > .< previous page page_131 next page > Page 131 ASTRONOMICAL FACTS The fifth sign of the zodiac and the twelfth constel lation in size. the lion’s nose lambda star Alterf. A sickle-shaped cluste r with a triangular tail. leo (lee’ oh) is the Latin word for lion. and Virgo. the prince. Sextans. the lion’s head omicron star Alzubra. Of the fifty-two stars in the group there are fifteen that deserve recognition: alpha star Regulus. the curl eta star Aljabhah. Located between Virgo and Cancer. Leo is one of the most clearly defined shapes in the h eavens. The constellation is best viewed in s pring in the Northern Hemisphere. o r lion’s heart beta star Denebola. Hydra. the lion’s tail gamma-one star Algieba. the hip kappa star Al Minliar al Asa d. the (weather) changer delta star Zosma. the constellation touches on Cancer. the lion’s head epsilon-two st ar Algenubi zeta star Adhafera. little king. Ursa Major. the forehead theta-o ne star Chort. the rib theta-two star Coxa. and the Spring Triangle. The star pattern has als o been called the Diamond of Virgo. Crater. Star-gazers find it by looking in the opposite direction from the two st ars of Ursa Major that align with Polaris. the foreh ead gamma-two star Alsarfah. the Scythe. the glance mu star Ras Elased Borealis. Leo Minor.

suggesting firm contact with the earth and suitable preparations for self-defense or attack. Egyptians called the constellation Knem and worshipped it because it coincided with the flooding of the Nile River. and November. Algenubi. consort of Satur n. the earth’s gift of another year of fertile fields and rich harvests. 183 3. < previous page page_132 next page > . As a part of twelve labors that King Eurystheus req uired him to perform. ASTROLOGICAL HISTORY AND TRAITS Governing the thirty-one days between July 23 and August 22. Leo Minor emerges in April at 9:00 P. Ancient stargazers admired Leo. is Le o’s brightest. 1866. The ancient Persians placed R egulus among the four Royal Stars.D. Zosma. In Greek mythology. was spectacular in 1799. Leo Minor. The epsilon-two star. Tutankhamen’s lavish coronation throne displays medallions in the shape of lion heads at the juncture of the seat and front leg s. Regulus marks the figure’s heart and augments its natural glow with light from two companion stars. ruled by the sun and fire and emblematic of the sultry weather that follows the summe r solstice on June 22. Hercules came to the city’s aid and tra cked the lion into its lair. Regulus. blue. g lows yellow at the lion’s mouth. Leo is a hot. The H indu called the beta star Uttara Phalguni (the latter bad one) and the delta sta r Purva Phalguni (the former bad one). it is an ominous figure—the judge or the lord who cometh. wh ich reaches peak activity every thirty-three years. which shines bluish-white. who named it the lion cub. she hurled it to earth near Nemea. was discovered in the 1600s by Johannes Hevelius. Antares. First identi fied by Ptolemy around 150 A. The delta star. Because the lion attacked Cybele’s horses. More than the famous Regulus catches the star-gazer’s eye. All four legs end in clawed feet. which included Aldebaran. which appear in February. a blue star dotting the lion’s tail. hottest star. and Fomalh aut. In Hebrew tradition. The second most po werful star is Denebola. Adhafera. and facing off against the he-man Hercules. the lion p lays a prominent role. the mighty.< previous page page_132 next page > Page 132 The site of this constellation is also the beginning of three Leonid me teors. In the Northern Hemisphere. and yellow.M. and 1966 and will return in 1999. which the Hindu named Mahga. and is accentuated by Praecipua. is a double star. also called A lserpha or the funeral pyre. The Chaldeans honored Leo at the height of warm weather a ctivities. including pulling the chariot of Cybele. summery sign.. The last meteor shower. its principal star. A second constellation. highlights the lion’s back w ith a blend of violet. April.

and ostentatious dress and hairstyles. attention seeking . In religion. Hercules adopted the lion’s skin as a symbol of courage and invincibility. Except in company with the truly great or venerated. A proud. and stalwart conservative. and pragmatism and to delegate authority by sizing up staff and assigning each to a suitable position. high-church religion and evangelism. The stereotypical leonine personality has no skill in c unning or subterfuge and prefers to conduct business honorably and face-to-face. the traditional lion strides to the front in a show of might. haute couture. self-denial. They seem unaware of their intimidating p resence and arrogance and insist on being called by honorifics and titles. the lion is thought to glow with self-im portance and to shower sycophants with favors. In the sky. Regardless of social station. When pressed into military service. and self-confidence are significant aspects of the stereo typed personality. At the moment of conquest. As a captain of industry. These self-aggrandizing qualities allegedly predispose Leo to the arts. but the negative aspects include pomposity. Leo typically shows no mercy and considers captivity or execution the losing warrior’s rightful penalty. The lion appears to steer clear of his old adversar y. Astrologers insist that. the typical lion will follow the status quo and oppose rebels. He rcules resides far from Leo. An ad vantage to the archetype’s awe at greatness is true piety. Leadership. The lion allegedly makes a worthy community leader. The t ype’s conviction and noble posture influence followers to take heart and to raise expectations of victory. perhaps because the lion is the king of be asts. resourcefulness. Staff members are said to adore the sunny . < previous page page_133 next page > . the lion is said to prefer splendor and a “Te Deum” or praise anthem over quiet faith a nd concealed stewardship. Astrologers charge the Leo personality with indolence and insensitivity to we aklings or followers. ebullient lion manager or CEO and to stroke his ego as payment for good treatm ent and reliable leadership. To avoid work and tedium. pride. In conflicts with an adversary. t he invincible Leo is said to become complacent while noncombatants fight the war s. Leos are said to put themselves firs t and to expect to head every project. and respec t for the Almighty. the lion is said to set the example for punctuality. Among flatterers. and theate r. worldliness. the archetypal Leo is likely to demand respe ct. He wore it either over one shoulder or flowing from both shoulders. in times of politica l upheaval. Leo is allied wit h preening. attentiv e host.< previous page page_133 next page > Page 133 Hercules strangled the beast and skinned it in one mighty pull on its p elt. Astrology allies Leo with royalty. lordly figure. In zodiacal tradition. and victimization of the vulnerable. the lion manag er passes hard tasks on to underlings.

< previous page page_134 next page > . the lion moves to the other extreme into collapse. In astrological handbooks. and peas. hig h blood pressure. and trophies and to summon the family to perform. but the lion heals rapidly from a broken heart by asserting a strong trust in the future. dill. enjoys excellent health and exercises to the limits of endurance. and citrus fruit. a nd covered his body in warty. Physically. is said to derive from impaired circulation or heart disease. Their inclination toward sin cerity and dependability makes them prime political candidates. and prominent eyes. the archetype tends toward silken hair. who restores energy and well-being in sunlight. oats. dank rooms and oppressive climates are anathema to th e lion. rosy complexion. and willful and consider themsel ves the most important of the twelve star children. On the down side . As friends.” suffere d scrofula. and lung infection. seizures. England’s freakish “Elephant Man. and fen nel. In astral medicine. the leonine personality is thought to harmonize wi th Sagittarius and Aries. the lion frame is generalized as sturdy with a regal posture and imposing expression. the Leo parent is said to show off handiwork. Catastrophic illness. palpitations. sorrel. particularly in old age.< previous page page_134 next page > Page 134 Leos are outgoing. with whom the lion establishes a reciprocal companions hip. Leo enjoys being looked up to. Leos gather a pack of acquaintances. report cards. parent-child conflict in the teen years less ens the lion’s contentment. wide tr unk. however. To stave off leg cramps. contorted his skull and right hand. Joseph Merrick. Misguided affection may result in fa ulty mate selection. Often haughty an d peevish to adults. the lion caves in to children’s demands and fosters fun and p lay. Dark. In moments of despondency. and narrow flanks. and mint-flavored snacks. but few bosom pals. Leo. When p icking a mate. A full-bodied shape with a commanding cranium. In human relationships. like Taurus. As an example of the ste reotypical Leo at his best. boldness in Leo is an illusion: the lion roars at danger in a vain show of cou rage. a disease that bent his frame. altruistic. back pain. salads of lettuce. Leos are said to pass through numerous affairs and live-in attach ments before selecting lifetime companions. Apart from consistent ro bustness. especially in bright. To guests. lively. cocoa. astral healers advise the health-conscious Leo to take supplements of magnesium phospha te and to consume bran. the lion is said to qu ell doubt by renewing faith in self. Leo is stereotyp ed as a swift-moving target who avoids a chummy domestic scene and keeps the mat e slightly off-base by demanding scrupulous cleaning and order. Content among young children. in rare instances of lameness or disease. sunny cl imates.

and Japanese iconography characterizes the lion as a kingly beast. Phrygian. While recuperating from surgery that removed pendulous flesh from his head. Merrick survived capture by a cruel barker . and heraldry. the lion represents emptiness . Until his death. shields. some of whom he received at his hospital room. creativity. In Buddhism. In medieval jewelry. but other possibilities crop up across world cultures. she shot her victims thro ugh the heart. In contrast. Early He braic art characterized the lion as cruelty. cour age. and Lycian art. After Sir Frederick T reves rescued Merrick from the sideshow. Merrick maintained d ignity and decorum. magnanimity. the lion is the power of the word. Muslims saw the beast as protective. in Taoism. the figure represents splendor. majesty. who displayed his find to gawkers for a penny admission. The lion appears in Egyptian symbolism as Sekhmet. nobles. which replicate the duality of Gemini and of the Chinese figures of yin and yang. warmth. Sumerian. the sun god. a lion-headed female dei ty representing the scirocco. Merrick dressed with care to attend a play and accepted an invitat ion to the country home of Lady Knightley. Roman. and spirituality.< previous page page_135 next page > Page 135 globular mounds of skin. Armed with firetipped arrows. Publicity generated by curious newsmen brought him high-ranking friends. the lion was paired with the virgin as a balance of weak with strong. In Mycenaean. Leo in art tends to symboli ze strength. Spartan. SYMBOLISM IN ART AND RELIGION Like Joseph Merrick in the film. On rare outings. the hot. The Elephant Man. When he grew too awkward to roll cigars at a l ocal factory. Leo symbolized the part of the year in which the waters overflowed their banks and bestowed rich sedimen t on the loose. entrance figurines. seal rings. expressing himself courteously and generously to his many ad mirers and supporters. the lion represents zeal. including royalty. Depicted in a 1980 bl ack-and-white film. he thrived under the sympathetic staff of the Medical School of London Hospital. and vigor. and mi ght. The male equivalent of Sekhmet was Re. the giver of strength to desert nomads and antidote to the death-dealing goddess. The Christian alliance of the lion and lamb creates the same complements. to the Hindu. and actresses. he learned to read and memo rized passages of the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer. Conversely. he took to the streets as a glove peddler. door plaques. < previous page page_135 next page > . Because the Nile River was crucial to Egypt’s agricultural autonomy. murderous desert wind that quickly deplet es the body of moisture.

leaving her to drag st iff hind legs. Golden-brown or reddis h-gold. where paired lions stand atop the lintel. monolith features three composed lions sitting on the fi nial. Following a Hittite political alliance of 1300 B.D . trunklike legs. son and successor of Marcus Aurelius. For this benefit. about his neck are tied the fore paws of the lion skin. In Sarnath. In one hand he raises a club. sculptors carved supp liant lions stretched out submissively beneath the feet of the winged gods of th e sun and moon. As king of be asts. the beast displays the notable characteristics of the sun. Warriors. shakes hands wit h Mithras. Co mmodus. The two wear stylized dress: Antiochus on the left in star-sprinkled tunic and mitre.C. In a typical stylized pose. the male lion raises a scepter over lesser anima ls. King Ashurbanipal of Babylonia commissioned two unusual pose s: a male lion transfixed with an arrow to the heart and vomiting blood and the lion’s mate. a lion fantasy figure in crown and a rudimentary cape dominates tapestries and mosaics. a third-century B. Ibn Bakhtishu. who conceal the net. a minor Persian king. In art. A mosaic from Hippo Regius in the third century A. the Greek lion stands open-mouthed wi th tongue extended. Among real and imaginary beasts. which drapes down his back. he featured a lion and lioness < previous page page_136 next page > . riddled with darts that sever her spinal cord. now housed in Bone. which grovel at his throne.< previous page page_136 next page > Page 136 sandy soil.. Antiochus I. court physician of the Cali ph of Baghdad. Both men r eflect strength in their set expressions. A notable example is still visible in the Lion Gate at Mycenae.. Indi a. rippling pectoral muscles. produced an ornate bestiary. who usually bears a club in one hand a nd stands glowering with the fierce lion skin draped over torso and shoulder. Leo is often pictured rampant with claws e xtended and teeth exposed in a snarl. In the rock-relief in Commage ne near the Euphrates river. In 1295. the Manafi al-Hayawan (The Uses of A nimals). commissioned a statue of himself i n a similar pose. and stocky. Its elongated tail curls up and out to a shaggy tip that mat ches the sun-rayed circular mane in splendor and panache. Mithras on the right dressed in Herculean lion skin. A departure from the lion as head of the animal kingdom recurs in depictions of Hercules. Algeria. which were gradually f alling to Roman imperialism. The allegorical pose stresses the subservience of earthly streng th to cosmic power.C. departs from mythology and depicts the lion real istically as one of the fierce beasts being herded into a circle. A tyrannic ruler. burly arms. intend to capture a male and female lion and three leopards. Egyptians were willing to welcome the sea son. despite its liabilities. Th e shrinking open field suggests the uncivilized environs.

‘‘He is quieted by hearing a sweet musical voice. “Little liberties are great offenses” (Aesop 1986. Both flaunt red tongues and spiked teeth. dates to the fourth century B. and birds. but the commentary assures the reader.” in wh ich he conquers a trio of attackers by separating them and overpowering them one by one. Add itions of the goat’s head and serpentine tail add little to the natural fierceness of the supple. The former was a tri partite monster joining a goat’s head and serpent’s tail to a lion’s body and limbs. When hunters snare the lion and tie him down. Ita ly. United against predators. which grows careless in the presence of the stronger beast. A greater humbling of a lion occurs in “The Lion and the Mouse. the mouse proves t rue to his word by gnawing the ropes and releasing him. the lion and bo ar agree that it’s better to patch up their quarrel than to make dinner for vultur es. In “The Fox and the Lion. “You ridiculed the idea of my ever being able to help you. In “The Li on. the lion scoffs at the mouse for offering to save his life if da nger threatens.C.” In the beginnin g of the fable. n. While battling a boar in “The Lion and the Boar. they discover that v ultures await the loser of the battle.” Leo toler ates a fox. Panting in unison. n. The most opportunistic of Aesop’s literary lions stars in “The Lion and the Three Bulls.). muscular lion.< previous page page_137 next page > Page 137 seated among native grasses. but now you know that it is possible for even a mouse to confer benefits on a lion” (Aesop 1986. flowers.).” the lion joins the boar in a temporary halt to catch their breath. < previous page page_137 next page > . but each was a thoroughbred. the Mouse. two monsters that evolved from the amalgamation of a lion with other beasts. A bronze figure of the beast. The statue poses a stylized lion with mouth open in a roar and its body seated on thin haunches that ripple powerfully. In literature. A perversion of r omance occurred in Greek myths to form the chimera and sphinx. p. not expecting to recei ve from me any repayment of your favor. In singular examples. Aesop featured the animal in female form in “The Lione ss.” Leo emotes before a fox claiming that the mouse has t aken liberties in running over his mane and ears and in disturbing his nap. The moral declares. Leo appears in numerous fables. housed in the Archeological Museum in Florence. and the Fox. The pose contrasts the curling mane of the male with his mate’s feathered mane. Aesop exhibits a change of heart in the redoubtab le Leo. 133). p. The small animal exults.” She ridiculed claimants of the most whelps per birth by claiming that she bor e only three sons. when he bathes himself he becomes so gentle that a child might sit on him and lead him everywhere” (Stewart 1967.

pierces her breast with his sword.” A whole some. In the English Renaissance. In church symbolism drawn from Physiolog us . A born achiever among lion sun signs. its head from a human female. Like Romeo grieving for Juliet. which means “from the bowels of the lion. and two television series. Christian apologi sts concocted this story to parallel Christ’s resurrection: after three days of ly ing supine beside the lioness. popular cook books. Christian mythographers declared that Virgo. a parad ox entered lion lore. which attack s Thisbe. on its back. The resulting fierce flying beast bore Apollo. a secular love plot that serves William Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream is the tale of Pyramus and Thisbe. The synergy of rider and mount is forecast in the derivation of Apollo . the lion’s haste and aggression precip itates a double tragedy. derived its body from the lion ess. the griffin (or gryphon) joined the lion with an eagle. mourning Pyramus. Reinterpreted in Christian lore. but runs away. eagle. the sphinx. she faced the camera with the same confidence she imparted to budding gourmet cooks. unself-conscious display of talent and bravura onstage cooking . The villain of the piece is a lion. could overpower Leo by the strength of her virtue. the Medieval myth as serts the civilizing force of purity over brutality. the su n god. she widened her following through television demonstrations. In the meeting of the lion and the maiden. Endowed with unusual idiosyncrasies. she easily paci fied the beast. always alert for evil. the monster symbo lizes the Greek concept of hubris or overweening arrogance. the deadliest of sin s. Thus.< previous page page_138 next page > Page 138 The second compound monster. “The French Chef” and “Dinner at Julia’s. the lion joined the calf. and wings from the eagle. A bizarre trait is its failure to breathe at birth. During the Middle Ages. which call s it to life as God called Christ from the tomb. in Revelation 4:7. upbeat speaker. After studying French cookery and mastering the art of sauces. His love returns and. and gra nd entrees. an early illustrative text produced in Alexandria in the second century. In a similar visua l conundrum. The union of these unlikely parts symbolizes the complexity and allure of woman. a blend of intelligence and strength. th e allegorical lion possessed the strength required of the Christian in defying t emptation. the unsullied maide n. pastry.” In the legend of Alexander t he Great’s attempt to mount the griffin and fly away from earth. leaving behind her blood-stained scarf. Julia Child demon strates the bold. the Christianized lion is capabl e of sweeping its tracks with its tail and sleeping with eyes open. Pyramus is so g rief-stricken by the upheaval and blood that he assumes that Thisbe is dead and commits suicide. Her step-by-step preparations won audiences nationwid e and gave her the < previous page page_138 next page > . the cub responds to its father’s breath. and man in guarding God’s throne.

< previous page page_139 next page > . Ever the energetic optimist in the kitchen. she has influ enced the American palate for four decades.< previous page page_139 next page > Page 139 confidence to instruct First Lady Rosalyn Carter on methods of updating the White House menu.

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and Serpens. Hydra. the ruler. Corvus. L eo. the train kappa star Algh afr. Of the fifty-eight stars in the group there are sixteen featured heavenly bodies: alpha-one star Spica. the vine-har vester zeta star Heze eta star Zaniah iota star Syrma. the branch beta-one star Alaraph beta-two star Zavijah. the suppliant delta-one star Alawwa. Virgo is the Latin word for maiden or unmarried woman. the barker delta-two star Minelauva epsilon star Almureddin. it lies east of Leo and borders Boötes. Coma Berenices. or Vindemiatrix. the Sprin g Triangle. the spike (of wheat) alpha-two s tar Azimech. the covering lambda star Khambalia mu star Rijl al Awwa < previous page page_143 next page > . Abbreviat ed Vir. Virgo is composed of a cluster of hundreds of galaxies. the corner gamma-one star Arich gamma-two star Porrima. Crater. The second largest constellation. Libra. and the Y.< previous page page_143 next page > Page 143 ASTRONOMICAL FACTS Often mistakenly translated as a strict biological t erm for virgin. the Roman goddess of childbirth gam ma-three star Kaphir. In the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere . it is a complex sidereal pattern sometimes called the Diamond.

Spica is a hot bluew hite binary star. Northwest of gamma Virginis beams the brightest quasi-stellar star. which contains the Sombrero Galaxy. the epsilon star. it < previous page page_144 next page > . the Virgo Clu ster. An earth sign. At Virgo’s center is the strongest astral radio signal. Vindemiatrix. wi th fourteen). Dutch-born Americ an astronomer Maarten Schmidt studied the quasar from the California Institute o f Technology in 1963 to determine variances in wavelengths. appears east of Vindemiatrix near Coma Berenices. Much of the constellation is too dim to be seen wi thout a telescope. In the evening late in May.. a constellation known as the horn or spik e. an eponym o f the grape-gatherer Ampelus. Kaphir. particularly the double star. is a white binary variable star on the maiden’s left forearm. which confirm ed one of Albert Einstein’s theories during a solar eclipse on September 21. commonly known as a quasar. is a minor star that identifies the maiden’s left foot.C. Khambalia. which the Hindu named Citra. the beta-two star. Mentione d by Eratosthenes around 850 B. including seven elliptical and four spiral galaxies. or the bright one. At the base of the head glows a lemony star. The eta star. the fall eq uinox occurs in Virgo. Virgo is the sixth sign of the zodiac and one of the oldest.< previous page page_144 next page > Page 144 An embodiment of justice. He concluded that th e changes in intensity indicate great distance and give credence to the Big Bang theory of creation. the neck. Also. Also called Arista or the grain harvest. They also regrouped the kappa and iota stars to make Kang. Zavijah. was originally masculine—Vindemiator. Spica has served as a significant navigational aid. From ancient times . ASTROLOGICAL HISTORY AND TRAITS Governing the thirty-one da ys between August 23 and September 22. Porrima. is a variable star located on the maiden’s southern wing. which is thought to be a highenerg y gas stream emanating from a huge black hole. Virgo is barely visibl e above the southern horizon. the gamma star . an area called the Realm of the Nebulae. The Chinese gr ouped Spica with Heze to complete Kio. Kaphir’s complement. which French astronomer Charles Messier numbered in 1784. Virgo stands west of Libra. Observers have been fascina ted with Virgo’s spectacular makeup. Zaniah . stands out from the 160 smaller visibl e stars. whom Dionysus honored as a bright maize star on Vi rgo’s northern wing after the boy tripped and broke his neck. Spica. An offshoot. the balance beam on which judgment is weighed. one in late March and two in April. 1922. Virgo hosts th ree spring meteor showers. The constellation contains eleven Messier objects or smal l heavenly bodies too indistinct to be described (second only to Sagittarius.

which outshone the morning star. and trivia . Arabs. daughter of Zeus and Themis. book editors and proofreaders.< previous page page_145 next page > Page 145 is the only astrological entity symbolized entirely by a passive. Ptolemy associated the constellation’s outstretched hand with a sheaf of wheat. and exactitude mak es Virgoans excellent museum curators. regimens. sensible personal ity who gets along well with the elderly and thrives in useful jobs in libraries . newsrooms. a love deity who. fault-finding. pours from a water ewer. or pharmacies. a penchant for snappish criticism. Wise and pruden t. unado rned human figure. good taste. Virgoans are excellent artisans who tolerate meticulous chores such as clerical tasks. the type is said to work diligently and is rarely found wanting. the Roman mess enger of the gods and ruler of the constellation. Later interpretation altered t he figure to the Virgin Mary holding the Christ Child. Christian symbolists exalted this constellation. which is Bethulah in Hebrew. The sider eal phenomenon coincided with the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. and theate r critics. but tends to ward a shrewdness that looks out for self before others. but difficult friends and mates. the earth was shrouded in thick night. Hebrews. and Greeks called Virg o by the same designation. Allegedly. and Pa rthenos in Greek. but Vi rgo has no assigned task. The poet Aratus declared that Virgo was Dike. Virgo may also represent the Greek goddess Demeter and the Roman Ceres. According to astrologers. and impa< previous page page_145 next page > . and factory workers. The star. lower-level management. Orderly and steady. sought her mate Tammuz beyond the seven gates of the underworld. she restored the planet to light and warmth. According to the Zend Ave sta of the prophet Zoroaster. an abstract figure who dispensed justice. When Ishtar returned to earth with her husband. thus merging the maiden with Mercury. they are thought to make excellent soldiers. and minor medical jobs. Because of the personality’s alleged j ealousy. For good reason. Hebrews were awaiting a new star to signify the bi rth of the messiah whom the Old Testament prophet Isaiah had foretold. printshops. like the Egyptian Isis. the astrological archetype of Virgo is a practical. and expectations. discrimination. libra ry maintenance. was sanctified as the Star of Bethlehem. The companion sign. Babylonians and Assyrians pictured Virgo as the goddess Ishtar. Grounded in the comm on sphere. They pictured Virgo with wings. Adarah in Arabic. surgical wards. While she navigated the dark path. but are incapable of leadership or of devi ating from narrow rules. anthropologists. garages. whom the Persian m ember of the magi sought as the Desired of All Nations. irritability. goddesses of grain and bounteous harvests. Negative aspects of Virgoans include a picayune insistence on details. researchers. Aquarius.

often jeopardizing health. often overbearing. Other detractions from th e archetype are pride and insensitivity. Handshakes may be cold and perfunctory. They are said to be charitable to strangers and philanthropic foundations. purchase wisely. prestige. resilient. Although parenthood is well ordered and productive. In place of ostentation. A stable relationship with Virgo requires a generous mate because Virgoans withhold personal funds while spending from a mate’s purse for selfish luxuries. A tendency toward self-righteousnes s makes them puritanic. In matters o f religion. As a food handler. The voice tends to be shrill. and over-cautious about taking vitamins. Smiles often look pasted on as a show of social conf ormity rather than genuine welcome. exercising. the fussy Virgo typically stock s up on clothing that will last a lifetime. The Virg oan typically weakens in the lungs and breathing passages with diseases ranging from rhinitis to pneumonia and pleurisy. As keepers of the purse. sexual entanglements. Virgo is often depicted as an old maid. unpleasant. they excel at accounting and insurance. the Virgoan is muscular. th ey avoid children and family get-togethers and stick to themselves. Likewise. the Virgo marriage is grounded in money. For this reason. parsnips or beets. and apples. Facial expression and gestures tend toward the grave and sober. dressings featuring celery and rosemary. On the rebound from a failed relationship. the Virgo nurse or physical therapist is likel y to be pinch-lipped and disapproving of frail patients or malingerers. usually with a Taurus or Capricorn. but the words witty and well-chosen. the type is said to demand < previous page page_146 next page > . A precautionary measure is a supplement of potassium sulphate and herbal cures compounded from valerian and motherwort. a trait that reduces Virgo’s compassi on for invalids. and public displays of love or praise. Traditionally. but disdain playful affe ction. According to astr al medicine. marriage often founders or proves disappointing because of the type’s rigid demands and expectations. and provide for their own retirement to prevent reliance on others. The maide n’s day-to-day health leans toward the robust. According to tradition. The most rigid Virgoans supposedly pattern their declining years after religious hermits and live celibate in a chaste dormitory with little adornment and only a housecat for company. Virgoans are said to temper their responses and labor to follow prec ise sectarian ritual or to attain sainthood. citrus fruit s. true Virgoans seek soul-numbing work. a Virgo is strikingly handsome and usually neatly dressed but avoids haute couture in favo r of unassuming attire.< previous page page_146 next page > Page 146 tience. the Virgoan profits from a diet of tomato and dandelion salad. Traditionally. Love comes rarely to Vi rgoans. and family ties. and scheduling immunization and annual checkups.

Virgoans arise early and greet the day with energy and enthusiasm.C. towered over the temple’s interi or. the king and queen of heaven. To the original complex Pericles added a huge bronze statue of Athena in a martial pose —the maiden’s alter ego. The Greeks honored the virgin for eight centuries. Suppliants hailed Athena as Pallas Athene Parthenos Gorgo Epekoos (Maiden Athena. Adonis. pictured a stylized smiling maiden dressed in fluted.C. He placed the monument on the Acropolis. Her lustrous gray eyes. A nurturer of divine wisdom an d skill. rather than spend the best hours of the day with others. which demure caryatids (columns shaped like women) guarded along the Maiden’s Porch. The eastern gable grouped the Olympian gods so that Athena stood alo ngside Zeus and Hera. cobblers. weavers. and crested helmet. In the goddess’s own city. Hearkening-to-Prayer). The Parthenon embellishes the myth of Athena by positioning her among honor ed deities. On the positive side. and states men. professors. who wears a tall crested helme t and grasps a spear. and Hephaestus and by her human admirer. who burned his first hill monument. carved from gold and ivory. she sheltered smithies. the s culptor Pygmalion. to comm emorate the overthrow of Persian invaders. whether repetitive jobs or ab sorption in housework. Virgin. calf-length dress and stole. spear. on her breast was a bronze or gold m edallion shaped like the head of Medusa. Side walls expressed Athena’s birth as a full-grown maiden springing from < previous page page_147 next page > . The maiden is ofte n pursued by lovers Ares. drew visitors to an embodim ent of godly wisdom. potters. who prayed that Aphrodite would transform his statue of Galat ea into a real maiden. a nd millers. The artist armed her with a round shield. seamstresses. However. she answered to athene promachos (front-li ne Athena) and guided military strategists. masons. they feel secure in rutted routines. Athens’s citadel. In addition to craftsmen. the snaky-haired gorgon killed by These us. SYMBOLISM IN ART AND RELIGION Virgo supplied classic Medi terranean art with one of its most enduring feminine figures. Her presence turned the hill into the sacred heart of Athe ns. Terrible. in her incarnation as athene ergane (Athena the worker). yet shows little concern for elegance and presentation. philosophers. the focal temple that Pericles bu ilt in 480 B. made of precious stones. A deco ration painted in an Aeginan temple around 480 B. cooks. I n glory. the goddess. Athenians exalted Athena Parthenos (the Maiden) in the design and ornamentation of the Parthenon.< previous page page_147 next page > Page 147 absolute cleanliness and quality. carpenters.

Romans honored Rhea Silvia . the majestic female torso and graceful lim bs served as models to Mediterranean artisans. the curlyhaired trio is usually pictured nude. Her head and shoulders adorned coins of Alexander’s farflung empire and on monies in Macedonia.C. ten beginners s tudied the rituals. which Greece has un successfully tried to reclaim for over a century. often writing letters and interceding w ith the imperial court. The original resides i n the British Museum among the much contested Elgin Marbles. A n emblem of state and imperial power. Thrace. which appears o n the Athenian tetradrachma. she was Saint Sophia or Hagia Sophia . In an early Roman sculpture. Syria. Br itannia. she stands among the other eleven Olympian deities. a quadrennial event honoring the goddess. miniatures preserve its stately pose and magnanimous gesture. the jewel of a shrine in Constantino ple. The cult of the virgin permeates Roman religion. Thalia or abundance. Minerva stood in cl assic drapery ringed about the shoulders with Medusa’s snakes. Virginity was so rigorously enforced that any Vestal caught touching or consorting with a man was buried alive. the center female facing t he background with two flanking sisters looking ahead. and India. A multiple pose of maidens was common in the depiction of a trio of goddesses—sisters Aglaia or splendor. To the Byzantine wo rld. In rotation. T he work of Pheidias. her glance toward a condemned prisoner could set him free. The artist char acterized her tie to intelligence with a common symbol. The frieze that capped the Parthenon contained the Panathen aic Procession. and Euphrosyne or jollity. by appointing thirty Vestal Virgins to tend the sacred flame of their national hearth. worth four drachmas. Their rounded arms with e xtended hands and fingers intertwine in perpetual unity and felicity. Although the Parthenon’s Athena did not survive. the owl. ten performed them.. Vestals advised Roman authorities. Syracusa. Cappadocia. Columbia. known as the Three Graces. The sheen of their bodies and the understated rosiness of their complexions suggest health and the promise of passion. The Christianization of the Parthenon posed little probl em to Church dogmatists: they transformed Athena into the Virgin Mary and honore d her < previous page page_148 next page > . Pergamum . the s tatue blends the magnificence of Greek engineering with elegant craftsmanship. the undefiled mother of Romulus and Remus.< previous page page_148 next page > Page 148 Zeus’s brain. the renowned sculptor who lived from 490 to 430 B. Egypt. Italy. In a fifth-century relief in Tare ntum. and the oldest ten taught the next gener ation of Vestals then retired from service. and Minerva. The Vestal’s power was absolute. Athena also prefigured the Roman images of Roma. Nubile and d emure.

which offsets its passion-rich fragrance by the absence of co lor. spirituality. Recast as the mother of Christ.” a paradox that singles ou t the only human female worthy to produce a deity. in early Christian art. Over her head and shoulders descends the palla. described in Matthew 13:46 as the ‘‘pearl of great price. worshippers honor her constancy and maternity by referring to her as “Mary. water imagery emphasizes sexuality and fecundity. Hera carps about Zeus’s pursuit of Themis: I have brought you up and cherished you beyond all other goddesses who dwell in the sea. and virginity. the ancient goddess of fertility. symbol of purity. and celestial leanings. In song. and iconography. loyalty. the virginal quality of the maiden is reflected by the two-part shell. which may be loosely belted. The conventions of mariology feature her in a shapeless white or red tunic or stola. Persephone before her abduction into the underworld. The p earl hidden inside the clasped shells represents both the untried virginity of t he maiden and the infant Christ. ever virgin. Its horn takes on the mystical quality of a godly phallus. usually a deep blue as a sign of faithfulness. because you were not wanton enough to lie in < previous page page_149 next page > . Virgin Athenian One. she is the untou chable. The virgin’s girlish pose calls for downcast eyes and hands fold ed in her lap or clasping a lily. the garment ties Mary to Demeter and Ceres. An accompanying unicorn sy mbolizes the uniqueness of the virgin.< previous page page_149 next page > Page 149 in Greek as Mater Theou Parthenos Athenaia Gorgo Epekoos (Mother of God . In Greek mythology. When pictured with scall ops. Mary equates with the queen of flowers. Symbolized by the white rose. Hearkening-to-Prayer). a vulvar image. Achilles’s mother. and other bivalves in Pompeian frescoes and in Sandro Botticelli’s T he Birth of Venus. oysters. chant. When augmented with ears of grain. and prayer. perhaps an a llusion to scientific beliefs that all life sprang spontaneously and asexually f rom the sea. murals. elevated in liturgy to the thornles s rose or spotless rose. one of the treasures of Florence’s Uffizi Gallery. abstinence. mother of Just ice. she concentrates on him to the exclusion of al l other distractions and seems to anchor him between her arms to protect him fro m the secular world. he characterizes Hera as the long-suffering wife of Zeus. but generally gives n o definite outline of breasts or hips. pain tings. A union of the divine with the earthly. the philandering Olympian whose taste runs to nubile maidens.” On balance. In Apollonius’s Argonautica. virginity is a defining quality in commentary on three female figures—the huntress Artemis. and Themis. the figure of the unstained maiden took on a central significance in statuary. W hen Mary holds the infant Christ. Terrible. untouched female chosen to mother and suckle the son of God. In a len gthy speech to Thetis.

An aggressive anomaly in a male-centered culture that devalue d women and denied them autonomy and citizenship. 1 17) Apollonius’s verse preserves a centuries-old pattern of power and lust. who wrote operas about it. The only stipulation was a command that Orpheus not look b ack on his bride’s shade until she was restored to flesh. parti cularly while recovering from loss or failed love. the Amazons rose above patriar chy and lived like men. Gaea. (Apollonius 1995. According to the zodiacal archetype. and to Pieter Brueghel. and Jacopo Tintoretto. Orpheus wandered the wild calling her name and weeping. Josef Haydn. The myth appealed to composers Christoph Gluck. he left you alone out of fear that some rival would rule over the immortals and so that he could preserve his power for ever.< previous page page_150 next page > Page 150 Zeus’ bed though he desired you—his mind is always on such things. Charles Dickens exemplified t he driven Virgoan writer by publishing at a < previous page page_150 next page > . Forever afterward. The chastity m otif also dominates accounts of the Amazons and their bellicose leader. Counter to the Amazons was the disdainful Daphne. Penthesi lea. Upon his marriage to the chaste Eurydice. he b reathed fresh air at the entrance to Hades and turned to embrace his wife. she slipped from his grasp and evaporated i n his embrace. Giovanni Tiepolo. though he w as still keen. Diod orus Siculus. she fled through the f orest. On the return trip. the singe r and poet. Peter Pau l Rubens. With her foot still on the infernal path. whether it be immortals or mortals he wants to sleep with! … [T]he revered Themis told him in detail how you were fated to bear a son greater than his father. the lovesick Apollo wreathed his head with one of her bo ughs. in general. he walked with her in the fields. typified male-femal e relationships until the advent of democracy and women’s suffrage. an anti-male nymph whose ability to love Cupid froze with a single lead-tipped a rrow loosed from his bow. the literary Virgo echoes Orpheus’s frenzy for work. the earth mother. Overcome by mo urning. He journeyed to the underworld and sang so plaintively before Pluto that the god allowed Eurydic e to return to earth. To elude the embrace of Apollo. even sending troops to fight during the Trojan War. Their matriarchy stood aloof from the heterosexual world and used men brief ly as procreators. where a serpent struck her heel and instantly killed her. a Greek historian. the mo tivating factors that caused the Trojan War and. who painted it. and Claudio Monteverdi. describes their conquests in Egypt and the east ern end of the Mediterranean. heard her cry and transformed her into a laurel t ree. A wistful strand of virgin lore comes from the story of Orpheus.

Ebenezer Scrooge’s miserliness. His cameos of Victorians pr ovide a glimpse of his age and its virtues and shortcomings. whic h frequently offered useful tips on improving his novels. His most striking p ersonae are figures drawn to excess. A workaholic farm wife turned creative genius.” “Taking in Laundry. and homemade pastimes occupied rur al folk.” “The First Skating. His marriage failed fr om his intense faultfinding against his wife. and attention to detail.000 canvases are “Applebutter Making. she advanced New England folk craft into the art world’s treasure. canvas. who resembled his mother in lifest yle and weaknesses. Moses turned hardship to good advanta ge after her hands became too gnarled with arthritis to hold an embroidery needl e. Alt hough a skilled social critic himself.” The sobriquet “Grandma ses” fit her engaging personality and memorable recreations of a simpler time in A merican history when responsibilities.< previous page page_151 next page > Page 151 killing pace and by creating a mirror image of his Virgoan nature in Da vid Copperfield. and Mr. < previous page page_151 next page > .” ‘‘The Night Before Christmas. She continued creating primitive scenes from her girlhood in the country by p ainting them on glass. Dickens resented literary criticism. who lives with his aunt and works as a clerk to finance both hi s aunt’s failed household and his own doomed marriage. Miss Havisham’s consuming hatred of men. A model of the sun sign’s traits of perseve rance. Dickens’s failure to create normal. realistic characters is typical of a Virgoan. Best known of her 1. Micawber’s unfailing generosity in spite of penury.” “The Qu ilting Bee. A worthy Virgoan from American art. Anna Mary Robertson Mose s inadvertently created a niche for herself in the field of abstract painting wh ile adapting to physical signs of age.” and “Bringing in the Maple Sugar. and Masonite board at the rate of one or two a da y. tasks. for example. Dora’s inability to keep house.” “Williamstown in Winter. hard work.” “Over the River to Gr ma’s House. Uriah Heep’s oily subservience.

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< previous page page_155 next page > Page 155 ASTRONOMICAL FACTS Named in Latin for the scales used for weighing dry or solid substances, Libra (abbreviated Lib), is the seventh sign and the only i nanimate object in the zodiac. Bordering Hydra, Lupus, Opiuchus, Scorpius, Serpe ns, and Virgo, Libra is an unassuming constellation composed of frail lights sca rcely visible to the unaided eye. Its shape begins with an irregular triangle at the top and trails two uneven lines below. Of the thirty-five stars in the grou p, there are eight that stand out: alpha-one star Kiffa Australis, the scale’s sou thern tray alpha-two star Zuben Elgenubi, the southern claw beta-one star Kiffa Borealis, the scale’s northern tray beta-two star Zuben Elschemali, the northern c law gamma star Zuben Elakrab, the war price delta star Zuben Elakribi lambda sta r Zuben Hakrabi sigma star Brachium, the arm The twenty-ninth constellation in s ize, Libra hosts a meteor shower in early June. It sports two stars that the Ara bs called Aljubana, the claws. The Chinese named them Ti or the bottom; the Hind u saw them as Visakha or branched. The only celestial cluster containing a green star, Libra features a faint duo in its alpha star, a greenish duo in its beta star, and a third binary in the delta star. A pale emerald star on the northern pan, the beta-two star, is also known as the full price. Its balance, Zuben Elge nubi, is a double star blending light gray with pale yellow, the colors visible in the southern pan. This pairing was once called the insufficient price. ASTROL OGICAL HISTORY AND TRAITS Governing the thirty-one days from September 23 to Oct ober 23, Libra is modeled on a mundane market measuring device, but serves as a mystic < previous page page_155 next page >

< previous page page_156 next page > Page 156 symbol of equity. The Hebrews called it Mozanaim or the weighing scales . The Arabs knew it as Alzubena, the purchase, a figure lifting scales in one ha nd and a lamb in the other. Coptic lore referred to Libra as Lambadia, the graci ous branch. Unlike these beneficent images, the Greek designation pictured the c onstellation as Chelae, the Claws. In Roman times, Libra took its current name f rom the balance beam scale, a bilateral device that suspends two pans from a cen tral pivot. The amount to be measured sat on one pan while the user added weight s to the opposite pan until the two sides hung equidistant from the base. By cou nting up the weights required to achieve a balance, the user computed the weight of the other substance. The English abbreviation for pound, lb ., evolved from libra but applied to a unit of weight rather than the device itself. The English word pound springs from pondus , the name of the weight piled into the empty pa n. Overall, the concept of balance refers to the separation of daylight and dark ness at the autumnal equinox, which in ancient times passed through Libra. Becau se Libra is adjacent to Virgo, the designation may allude to the powers of Astra ea, goddess of justice. Mythology connects her to the myth of the ages of man. A fter the demise of the blissful gold and silver ages, she removed justice from t he earth, leaving humankind to bestial, violent humanity. The zodiacal sign is r uled by the air and by Venus, Roman divinity of love and beauty. Lacking the str ength of the Sun in its domain, Libra, the consummate diplomat and statesman, is said to avoid taking the initiative and to opt for harmony rather than confront ation. According to astrologers, Librans follow rules and statutes and have an i nborn distaste for quarreling or fighting. The key to the sign’s appeal is an inhe rent trustworthiness and an absence of prejudice or bias. An affable, sociable g roup, Librans abhor unfairness and encourage broad-mindedness, forgiveness, and logical settlements of disputes. Traditionally, they make excellent harbor tende rs, postal and customs officials, and minor government assistants. Gracious, cha rming, and hospitable, the archetype has become a favored sun sign. The typical Libran is said to adore homey touches and to invest in art for art’s sake. Safe an d companionable, Librans are stereotyped as fuddy-duddies who lack Leo’s drama, Vi rgo’s grace, and Aries’s verve. Because Librans are incapable of hard-heartedness an d dogmatism, they earn scorn for being pliant or malleable. In the military, the ir fluidity allows them to negotiate for the sake of the common good. Many outst anding Librans are poets, fiction writers, composers, couturiers, art collectors and appraisers, agents, buyers, and portrait artists. < previous page page_156 next page >

or cults. and the ey es entrancing. Under Saturn’s gloomy rule. even a so-so lover of questionable fidelity and suspect character. In family discussions. and entrepreneurs. schisms. investment. the stereoty pe is said to yearn for music and beauty and fares well in research. and appealing in appearance and deportment. Libra is said to depend on consensus and to forestall a hasty judgment. n o matter how out of place or ill-founded. or rabbis. but yields to any who have a comment. or arcane philosophie s. Strong Libran marriages are typically long-lived and their re lationships tender. they choose stou t. astral symbolism points to Libra’s g ift for fairness and compromise in politics and administration. the type serves a congregation well by refraining from hurtful critic isms and by stressing the value of all lifestyles. It is rare that the Libran rips out a st itch or retypes a letter. the archetype becomes stodgy. while rejecting a regular schedule of studies or a steady ou tput of work. The Libran housekeeper allegedly pursues a sensible schedu le and oversees even the smallest task. In the clas sroom or in the workplace. missionaries. In the arts and sciences. As priests. restraint. Librans bear a reputation for naivete and sincerity. According to astral medicine. In worship. the archetype squelches sharp retorts and muffle s complaints to keep a modicum of peace. in the extreme. According to zodiacal tradition. Bereft when alone. the voice mellifluous and memorable. The typical Libran prospers as householder and parent. merry. toward martyrdom. dull. or. the self-righteous planet it obeys. The Libran parent is said to adore an at tractive child and tends to parade bright or talented offspring like prize show animals. and serenity over sectarian wrangling.< previous page page_157 next page > Page 157 As lovers. A predictable qu ality in Libra is colorlessness. Except for a tendency toward bladder and back problems. The down side of Libra comes from stern Satu rn. the Libran allegedly chooses humility. refrains from < previous page page_157 next page > . As the hallmark of succ essful attorneys. Never a risk taker. Libra tempers progressivism with conventio nality and humdrum bourgeois aims. As speakers. orators. or decision. health is secure in balanced Libra. even thoug h some incline toward self-sacrifice in serving the needs and wishes of children . such as Zen or orthodox Judaism. which comes from taking refuge on the safe side out of harm’s way. for “do it right the first time” is ingrained in the Libra n personality. they combine well with Gemi ni or Aquarius personalities and go out of their way to please mates. and bureaucratic. who instinctively eats well. lengthy tirades. they demand a mate. dependable maxims over picky doctrine. both domes tically and sexually. The standardized bo dy type is generous and rounded. the Libran is w holesome. the Libran impresses teachers and co-workers with fla shes of brilliance.

displays Annona. Nicole Simpson. and cultivates a rational attitude. the archetype samples varied hobbies without developing any beyond t he rudiments. goody-goody pose is a standard figure in politic al cartoons. Libra holds in equal measure body and soul. In the aftermath of O. In her right hand is the figure of justice holding a scale. aging is not a burden. Ronald Gold man. SYMBOLISM IN ART AND RELIGION In ancient art. The symbol evolved from a concept of reciprocity or equity: f or every crime a corresponding punishment.< previous page page_158 next page > Page 158 wearisome worries. and fennel plus supplements of sodium phosphate offset minor ills. a dispenser of retribution and righteous anger symbolized by scales. Her rather prissy. Salads of lettuce. T he Book of Hours . A coin from the reign of Titus around 80 A. Because the typical Libran prefers the present over the past or fu ture. halls of justice to embody constitutional jurisprudence duplicates the Roman version. The statue tha t stands before the U. the archetype is res igned to illness and demands attention. For this reason. and her friend.S. a gift from Egypt. yardsti ck. Libr a simulated such symmetric icons as the Tree of Life. an emblem of even distribution of produce. citrus fruits. Drawn to numerou s pastimes. she is the decisive judge who doles out pe nalties and rewards without regard to prestige. The pose derives from Libra’s conjunction with Virgo. adding a blindfold to assure that justice plays n o favorites. or power.D. and sword. truth and order. reveals Libra as a delicate female hold ing a balanced scale in her fingertips. sorrel. J. As a bala nce. Librans make devout inv alids and relish constant nursing and a monitored diet. especially in old age. the only female associated with the traditional twelve z odiac signs. Simpson’s criminal trial for the murder of his ex-wife. dill. the maiden. a medieval anthology. The cornucopia in her left hand dominates the pose. As Astraea or Fortuna. the statue appeared on editorial pages holding her nose. for every virtue. a nd plums. the country from which Rome bought gra in. Mythology allies her with the Greek concept of Nemesis or comeuppan ce. the twins. peas. a harv est deity standing before the prow of an Egyptian ship and alongside a grain bas ket topped with lotus. wealth. and Gemini. a reward. < previous page page_158 next page > . especially those lampooning public figures who suffer less prison t ime than common working-class thugs. nor is loss of youthful grace and suppleness. Astral healers advise th at the best diet for this sign consists of cereal grains. When troubled with a faulty renal system. humanity and bestiality. Pisces’s paired fishes.

civil rights. The symmetry of Mercury’s raised sword with serpents entwined establishes an equilibrium betwee n self-governance and strength. 143) The tem pering of the farmer’s life with the calendar attests to Virgil’s belief that Roman city life required a corresponding number of days in the country. she ignored political cartoons that skewered her shortcomings < previous page page_159 next page > . the poet urges: Nor must the ploughman less observe the skies. and humanitarianism. She idolized her hus band. An ungainly woman who looked awkward in fo rmal dress. Tar ot cards picture justice as a symmetrical female face and form dressed in red an d blue. and setting an e xample of tact to contentious groups. Eleanor Roos evelt. The symbol simul ates the Caduceus. Because o f her husband’s paralysis. In a passage of advice on plowing and sowing. especially racist agitators. and Arcturus rise. Dragon. The maiden’s hands clutch the characteri stic emblems—a balance-beam scale to weigh right against wrong and a sword to disp ense justice. (Godolphin 1949. stereotypical Librans have served as models of high-mind edness and grace. Be twixt the nights and days divides the sky. But. When the Kids. displayed most of the archetype’s admirable qualities. Mrs. Libra receives beneficent treatment. and attempted to earn his affection by perfo rming home chores punctiliously and by seeing to their children’s needs. President Franklin Roosevelt. and oyster-breeding sea. she ennobled the title of First Lady by promoting gentilit y. where bucolic simplicity eased the spirit and neutralized the ravages brought on by metropolit an hurry. Till cold December comes with driving rain. when Astraea’s balance. Genuinely at home among strangers. Than sailors homeward bent. Roosevelt served as his legs by visiting slums. sow your winter grain. me eting with mining authorities. In Roman verse. Virgil states the importance of heavenly star clusters as adjuncts to the farmer’s calendar. the twin-snaked icon of the medical profession. making speeches to labor unions.< previous page page_159 next page > Page 159 In heraldry. the concept of balance attests to a type of justice that i s neither too harsh to felons nor too light to court favorites. In Book I of the Georgics. a balance of hot and cool colors. hung on high. Then yoke your oxen. Historically. One of the beloved Librans from American history. which carries over to health and well being. who cut their way Through Helle’s stor my straits.

Elie Wiesel. survived a Na zi death camp and educated himself in philosophy at the Sorbonne. The only woman among the first delegates to the Un ited Nations. functioning effec tively in both French and English. in the dignity and worth of the human person. Like Eleanor Roosevelt. and displaced persons. Eleanor Roosevelt. In private. Esther Hautzig returned f rom years of hard labor on the Russian Steppes and published The Endless Steppe. b ehaved amenably and civilly by avoiding rancor. He has built a n impressive career as a professor of the humanities at Boston University and as a multilingual journalist and humanitarian. vengeance. orphans. Roosevelt accepted a significant p ost among world peacekeepers. she chaired the initial human rights commission. she brooded ove r the cruelty of these public jests. After the president’s death in 1945. and Esther Hautzig have become icons of diplomac y to school children who read their words and profit from their selflessness. Wiesel. After two years of debate on issues concernin g the wounded. following valiant service as a wartime president. (United Nations. Roosevelt crusaded for a peaceful world where the weak and the strong. the conqueror and the conquered. prisoners of war. he made pea ce his life’s work and earned a Nobel Peace Prize for involving himself in interna tional issues in which human misery and blatant victimization of the weak or vul nerable were focal issues.< previous page page_160 next page > Page 160 as a public figure and White House hostess. < previous page page_160 next page > . an d to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights. in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and sma ll. In sim ilar Libran mode. Mrs. both Elie Wiesel and Esther Hautzig represent humanitarian int erests. she h eld out for every statute and saw them codified in the United Nations Charter. the author of Night and All Rivers Run to the Sea. A survivor of the same war. especially when they implied that her husba nd had reason for being unfaithful. an autobiographical account of her youth and education in wretched work camps. XXVII. Mrs. and brutality. refugees. 456) Until her death. T he opening lines of its preamble convey her regard for human rights: We the peop les of the United Nations determined to save succeeding generations from the sco urge of war which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind.

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Libra. Scorpio. and rho stars and named the cluster Fang (the chamber or house). thirteen stand out: alpha-one star Antares. the group borders Ara.< previous page page_163 next page > Page 163 ASTRONOMICAL FACTS A bright. Of the sixtytwo stars in the c luster. Cor ona Australis. and Opiuchus. the seizer or smiter lambda star Alshaula. the constellation ranks thirtythird in size. Lupus. The term also names a lethal dart catapulted by R oman siege engineers during assaults on walled cities. the crab sigma star Alniyat. the forehead delta-two star Isidis. the raised tail xi star Grafias. the heart delta-one star Dschubba. The H indu rated Dschubba a lucky sign and named it Anuradha (propitious). and sigma and named the cluster Sin (the heart). The Chinese combined the pi. de lta. the eighth sign of the zodiac. Alshaula. the forehead’s crown upsilo n-two star Allas’ah or Lesath. the (heart’s) support upsilon-one star Iklil Jabbah. they named Mula (the root). beta. tau. Abbreviated Sco and calle d Scorpius or the Fish Hook by astronomers. derives from th e Latin word for the scorpion. A stream of < previous page page_163 next page > . Situated west of Sagittarius near Centaurus. sprawling summer constellation visible in the Northern Hemisphere. Norma. t he gamma star. They also grouped alpha. the (heart’s) support tau star Alniy at. the bat beta-one star Graffias. the stinger Scorpio makes a spectacular show. the oppresso r theta star Sargas. the anti-Aries alpha-two sta r Vespertilio. the crab beta-two star Acrab.

< previous page page_164 next page > Page 164 stars—mu, epsilon, zeta, eta, theta, iota, kappa, and lambda—they saw as We i (the tail). Scorpio draws attention for several unusual members. Two meteor sh owers highlight Scorpio in early May and early June. The constellation also feat ures the Butterfly cluster, Ptolemy’s cluster, Acumen and Aculeus, and two globula r clusters. An ominous star, Isidis, lies in the scorpion’s right claw. The tip of the stinger is Lesath, the upsilon-two star, a minor heavenly body ennobled by its position in a significant spot. Beside one of Libra’s pans, Scorpio and its me nace balance the promise of Virgo, which flanks the opposite pan. Appearing in m id-July, Scorpio lies south and low on the horizon. Its shape includes a long, s inuous trail of stars that concludes in a jutting tip. The constellation contain s the strongest X-ray in the sky, which looks like a twinkly blue star from the emission of synchrotron radiation. Another attraction, Graffias, which the Roman s identified as Frons Scorpii (the scorpion’s forehead), is a triple star shining lilac and pale white. The head branches into a pair of projected arms that curve inward. Other clusters, nebulae, star systems, and individual companion stars a re observable without a telescope. In the Coal Sack, the densest part of the Mil ky Way, lies Scorpio’s Antares—the heart of the Scorpion. A red supergiant of the fi rst magnitude, it fascinated Ptolemy around 150 A.D. The Arabs called the star A lkalb (heart) and the Hindu named it Jyestha (oldest). Other names are Shiloh, t he biblical town in which the Ark of the Covenant was stored, and cor scorpionis , Latin for the scorpion’s heart. Antares is a binary that burns red, the color of the coolest stars. Its lambda star, a part of the raised tail, is the twenty-fi rst brightest star in the sky. Its diameter is over 450 times the width of the s un. Antares was also called Alpha Scorpii, or Anti-Mars, because of its nearness to the planet Mars, which it rivals. A tiny green companion star flanks Antares and serves as the scorpion’s body. Antares joins Aldebaran, Regulus, and Fomulhau t to form the four Royal Stars, the watchers of the heavens. In 3000 B.C., the P ersians named Antares the watcher of the west, a sign of the autumnal equinox. A STROLOGICAL HISTORY AND TRAITS Governing the thirty days between October 23 and November 21, Scorpio is an ancient star shape that once included Libra. As a sun sign ruled by water, Scorpio is a dark unknown, a menacing factor that astrolog ers consider both devious and deadly. From early times, watchers have associ< previous page page_164 next page >

< previous page page_165 next page > Page 165 ated the constellation with evil. Arab astronomers called the figure El akrab, the scorpion or war. Copts named it Isidis, the oppressor; Sumerians refe rred to it as the outlaw. Hebrews knew it as Lesath, the equivalent of Lesha, th e perverse. Mayas also sensed danger in the constellation, which they called the death god’s sign. In Egypt, star gazers associated Scorpio with Selek or Selket, the patron of herbal healing. As keeper of burial vaults and canopic jars, Selek received frequent mention in The Book of the Dead , a ritual manual in ancient Egypt. In Greek mythology, the goddess Artemis sent Scorpius, a giant scorpion, to sting Orion’s foot to halt his joy in killing. To honor the great hunter, the g ods set Orion in the sky along with his hounds. Artemis rewarded Scorpio with a separate constellation on the opposite side of the heavens from Orion. According to Pherecydes of Athens, a fifth century B.C. folklorist, the myth accounts for the setting of Orion’s familiar shape as Scorpio rises. Roman astrologers altered the story by parting the two clusters at the claws, thus forming the separate c onstellation of Libra. Like Aries, Scorpio answers to Mars, the despotic war god and maker of disasters. According to astral handbooks, their alliance incites f orceful, violent moods in Scorpios and predisposes them to conflict and treacher y. Mercurial and unpredictable, Scorpios resemble serpents in their ability to r echannel ominous brooding from ire to a poised calm. Traditionally, they are cap able of courtesy and pleasant deportment, but strike out in unexpected bouts of rudeness, sardonic retort, and confrontation. The influence of Pluto injects a n ote of secrecy into this complex archetype. The blend allegedly produces a fasci nating, charismatic analyst or a leader who maintains control by keeping followe rs slightly off-balance, never knowing from moment to moment what to expect. Bur sts of optimism, wit, and humor may conceal the lurking passions that drive the Scorpio. For these reasons, Scorpio is said to make a superb detective, artisan, or artist. Scorpios allegedly perform well in most arenas, particularly enginee ring and business. In finance, Scorpio is the consummate investor who manages mo ney more effectively for others than for self. In the military, Scorpio the powe rmonger volunteers for dirty work or dangerous missions if it enhances ego or el evates rank. In the professions, the Scorpio type is thorough and uncompromising , frequently completing a task just to savor the satisfaction of closure. Unsymp athetic and impatient with weakness or timidity, the archetype tramples on under lings if they stand in the way. A popular Scorpio stereotype is the prima donna surgeon, who makes an incisive diagnosis, then dispatches the operating room tea m with sharp, authoritative barks. The doctor claims glory from a notable succes s, but blames failure or < previous page page_165 next page >

< previous page page_166 next page > Page 166 mediocre performance on the patient’s weakness or an assistant’s ineptitude . In body, the Scorpio is said to display an enviable physique and to discount t he importance of health until exhaustion or illness precedes collapse. In treatm ent, the type is apt to agree to extremes of regimen rather than to accept relax ation and adequate sleep as suitable remedies. The morbid Scorpio quickly begins obsessing on his illness and nursing secret fears that medical people are bungl ers because they reject the patient’s self-diagnosis. As age withers the body, the Scorpio type denies the accompanying compromise to former strengths and tends n ot to survive long after losing sense perception and mobility. Although tough in frame and mind, Scorpio traditionally suffers ailments of the genitals, bladder , and rectum. In tight control of excreta, the type engulfs the body with toxins . In place of professional health care, Scorpio may self-medicate with painkille rs, laxatives, and other palliatives or may choose harsh alternative treatments over sugar-coated nostrums. Only the worst ills force the stereotypical Scorpio to seek traditional medical advice. To stave off liver, genital, and kidney prob lems and the annoyance of ulcers, boils, and abscesses, astral healers advise Sc orpios to eat cabbage, kale, and watercress and to center the diet on rye bread, onions, cottage cheese, eggs, and prunes. In addition, supplements of calcium s ulphate protect Scorpio from a tendency toward genital and anal distress. In zod iacal lore, the emotive Scorpio harmonizes with Cancer and Pisces to create last ing friendships or passionate love matches. It is not out of character for the a rdent Scorpio to declare an intention to marry on a first meeting. In wooing, th e Scorpio writes a memorable letter spiced with wit, details, and bold declarati ons of love. As mates, however, the typical Scorpio discloses little of feelings or misgivings. Day-to-day relations are said to require frequent realignment an d allowance for Scorpio’s obduracy, tantrums, and tactlessness. Tyranny cankers at Scorpio’s domestic contentment. Forgiveness and understanding are doled out in pi nches and dabs, for compassion in Scorpio’s heart is limited. As a parent, the Sco rpio archetype takes pride in family but fails to discipline children or to heal family rifts. In matters of faith, the Scorpio typically clings to tenets adopt ed in youth and may develop a satisfying profession in church hierarchy. Neither pious nor irreligious, the type maintains conservatism in doctrine and prefers sensible statements of philosophy with no saccharine overlayer. The archetype re jects liberal precepts and refuses to evangelize nonbelievers. The most comforti ng ritual to Scorpio is predictable, allencompassing, and easy to follow. < previous page page_166 next page >

< previous page page_167 next page > Page 167 SYMBOLISM IN ART AND RELIGION In art, the scorpion appears among the mo st lethal of beings and may represent an imminent and painful death such as pois oning. As a representation of regeneration, the sign shares the symbolism of the eagle, snake, and phoenix. Emblematic of female treachery, the scorpion was som etimes depicted on sarcophagi or murals with a woman’s face contorted into a sarca stic leer or enticing smile. A Babylonian field stone marking a property line ab out 1120 B.C. displays a clear inscription in cuneiform. Currently on display at the British Museum in London, the stone links the crescent moon with stars, a t urtle, and the scorpion. Nearly twelve centuries later, a vivid bath mosaic from Pompeii pictures a pair of fish facing in opposite directions and tops the circ ular seascape with a tentacled scorpion. The archetype colors the Greek myth of Phaëton, Apollo’s young son who insisted on driving the chariot of the sun. On the b oy’s first arc into the heavens, the scorpion stung one of the horses, causing the m to bolt. Phaëton was too inexperienced to manage the rampaging beasts and plunge d from the car to his death. An interpretation of Scorpio’s influence is the pierc ing sting of truth. For Phaëton, the vaunting hubris that encouraged him to suppla nt his father led to the reality of a quick, violent death. To incredulous human s below, his demise was an appropriate end to a wayward, willful youth. In bibli cal literature, Scorpio’s cruelty places the creature among the other inhabitants of hell named in Revelation. In II Kings 12:11, the profligate Rehoboam merits p unishment with whips and scorpions. A reprise of the wording appears in II Chron icles 10:11. When Ezekiel is commissioned as a prophet, the Lord places a fearfu l charge on him: And thou, son of man, be not afraid of them, neither be afraid of their words, though briers and thorns be with thee, and thou dost dwell among scorpions: be not afraid of their words, nor be dismayed at their looks though they be a rebellious house. (Ezekiel 2:6) In the New Testament, Luke quotes Chri st in a charge to seventy appointees: ‘‘Behold, I give unto you power to tread on se rpents and scorpions and over all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall by a ny means hurt you” (Luke 10:19). In acts of torture, application of the scorpion r efers to whipping or flogging with a scourge tipped with nails, spikes, or raw m etal. This punishment, which Christ endured before his crucifixion, was erratic, often ripping out an eye or lacerating enough flesh to cause the victim to blee d to < previous page page_167 next page >

< previous page page_168 next page > Page 168 death. In sea history, the same punitive device was known as a cat-o’-nin etails. In literature, Scorpio authors, such as Robert Louis Stevenson, Victor H ugo, and Martin Luther, are known for vigor. Both Stevenson and Hugo wrote of tu rbulent times when their principled heroes must specify personal beliefs and hol d to them. Examples are abundant in Stevenson’s Treasure Island, where pirates lur e the young protagonist, Jim Hawkins. He maintains his honor in match-ups agains t Long John Silver, the notorious bender of morals. In a telling face-off betwee n Jim and the pirates, he states his faith in right: I’ve seen too many die since I fell in with you. But there’s a thing or two I have to tell you…. [H]ere you are, in a bad way: ship lost, treasure lost, men lost; your whole business gone to wr eck; and if you want to know who did it—it was I! (Stevenson 1962, 184) Certain of his values, Jim returns home aboard the Hispaniola , a mature sailor who has pr ofited from his brush with the sea’s dark underside. Just as Stevenson exalts his hero, Victor Hugo celebrates Jean Valjean, the burly convict of Les Miserables, who resides in the depths of the Orion , a prison galley, almost completely aban doned. In the somber, punitive atmosphere, he develops into a humanistic mayor a nd industrialist known as Monsieur Madeleine. A shadowy idealist, he later aband ons his mask when an innocent man is accused of the notorious Valjean’s crimes. Be fore a disbelieving prosecuting attorney, Valjean admits the reprehensible side of his past life: “The galley changed me. I was stupid, I became wicked; I was a l og, I became a firebrand. Later, I was saved by indulgence and kindness, as I ha d been lost by severity” (Hugo 1961, 80). At the end of Valjean’s long and eventful life, Hugo bestows on him a well-deserved sainthood, yet resigns him to a scorpi on’s lair—Potters’ field, far from the elegant Père Lachaise cemetery, beneath a yew cho ked with bindweed. He lies eternally under an unmarked tombstone, blackened by t he elements. SCORPIO AND NATURE In nature, Scorpio lurks in a similarly dismayin g atmosphere. The sun sign closely identifies with a stinging arachnid of the sa me name. The scorpion flourishes in warm climates, both dry and wet. Resembling the crab, crayfish, and lobster with its carapaced thorax, two front pincers, ei ght jointed legs, and caudal sting, the scorpion bears a reputation for aggressi on. < previous page page_168 next page >

some times striking its own body. The scorpion thrives on meals of insects and spiders. The scorpion eats like a vampire: after paralyzing a victim. Potential mates hoist their tails and dance around each other. like with like. Treatment of a bite involves binding the scorpion to the wound or feeding the victim a roasted scorpion. Reproduction showcases the scorpion in its most stylized ritual. the scorpion b ears an antidote in its body. However. When fertilization is complete. the female may de vour the male. medical lore named basil as an ant idote. This recipe also yields bait to rid the premises of scorpions. Tattoos of the scorpion supposedly deflected the insect’s stinger. She bears living young. such as the suicidal dance of de ath which concludes in self-stinging. and sucks out fluids. it may sting at random. curved tail to inject a harmful. alternately twin ing and releasing their holds.< previous page page_169 next page > Page 169 Although small and lightweight. < previous page page_169 next page > . the claim that the scorpion grows frantic when intimidated is true. it wields an elongated. According to Pliny’s Natural History . rips it apart. it grasp s the body in prehensile claws. In a frenzy to elude a captor. The standard recipe calls for a handful of basil leaves ground or beaten with ten sea crabs. either unsauced or blende d in a cup of wine. its noctu rnal prey. Also false is the belief that the young fe ed on the mother’s flesh. which cling to her segmented back for a w eek after birth. an outgrowth of the belief that the sea crab resembles the s corpion and may counter its poison. In the sixteenth century. sometimes fatal neurotoxin from the parallel glands that flank the appendage. Numerous mi sconceptions attach to the scorpion’s aggression.

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and Scutum. the northern bow mu star Polis. the back hamstring gamma-one star Nash gamma-two star Al Nasl. the knee beta-one star Arkab Prior. Scorpius. t he armpit lambda star Kaus Borealis. Spiculum and Facies. dust. and nineteen standouts: alpha-one star Alrami alp ha-two star Rukbat. Microscop ium. it contains sixty-five stars. There are two minor members. The bowman is observable in mid-August from the mid-northern latitudes in the southern portion of the sky.< previous page page_173 next page > Page 173 ASTRONOMICAL FACTS Sagittarius [saj’ ih ta’ ree uhs]. the front hamstring beta -two star Arkab Posterior. the brigh t one < previous page page_173 next page >     . the constellation is 75 percent larger than its neighbor. the handle pi star Albaldah. Sagitta. lies some distance away as though it has gone astray. is the ninth sign of the zodiac. the arrowhead gamma-three star Nushaba delta star Kaus Meridionalis. The fifteenth in size. the Latin term for bo wman. A showy cluster of th e second and third magnitudes. Sagittarius appears at the cen ter of earth’s galaxy and borders Aquila. Serpens. Ophiuchus. The archer’s arrow. the southern bow zeta star Ascella. Capricornus. the foal nu star Ain al Rami omicron star Manubrium. Sagittariu s is a complex shape posed in the midst of heavy gas. the bowman’s shield. Telescopium. t he middle bow epsilon star Kaus Australis. Corona Australis. and stars in the bri ghtest sector of the Milky Way.

The glyph < previous page page_174 next page > . the omicron star is part of a facial cluster. The alig nment of gamma. as the chief star of the four-sided asterism in the tail. the region hosts the sun at the winter solstice on December 22. the Milky Way patch. Terebellum. the dart. called the milk dipper. and eleven spherical clust ers that include Kaus Australis and Nunki. called Louis XV’s “comet ferret. sigma. which adorns the bowman’s arrowhead. dense star clouds. they identified as Purva Ashadha (the former unconquered). Facies. P elagus.< previous page page_174 next page > Page 174 sigma-one star Nunki. Sagittarius governs the thirty-day period b etween November 22 and December 21. The constellation of the archer has a long history. The Hindu aligned the stars in another configuration: Ascella. T rifid Nebula. It contains fifteen Messier objects. The combination of 8 M. the face The sig n also features star masses—the Lagoon Nebula. the first nebula compendium. the ostr iches. a Sumerian water deity sigma-two star Pe lagus. the largest nu mber that French astronomer Charles Messier. 20 M. the tripartite mu star. Ascella. and epsilon they named Ki (the sieve). in a similar confi guration of phi. and mu they saw Tow (the ladle or measure). the zeta s tar. ASTROLOGICAL HISTORY AND TRAITS Ruled by the pla net Jupiter and the element of fire. lies on the arrow’s upper shaft. Past astronomers called a nother portion the teapot. published in 178 4. lambda. tau. The cluster’s co mplex shape resembles a ladle. delta. A fortuitous star. they called Uttara Ashadha (the latter unconquered). or Enki. Polis. A welcoming constellation. A minor star. the open sea omega star Terebellum Sagittarii 42 Facies. and phi stars Alna’am. is a bina ry in the bowman’s underarm. Sagittarius features more variabl e stars than the total number of stars visible in the entire sky. Sagittarius hosts a meteor s hower in early June. Overall. The Ara bs called the convergence of the zeta.” identif ied in his New General Catalogue . which is topped by steam and flanked by a sugar spoon and slice of lemon. sits on the feathered butt of the bowman’s arrow. Omega (Swan or Horseshoe) Nebula. and 21 M produces Spiculum. numbered 42 M (its Messier number). the delta star. Kaus Meriodonali s. Ptolemy identified the omega star. twinkles in the archer’s face. Sagittarius is unusual in several ways.

C. C hiron violates his peaceful myth by adopting the pose of the archer with bow fle xed and arrow aimed toward Scorpius to protect his student Hercules from the sco rpion’s sting. Prince of the Earth. In zodiacal tradition. Zeus struck him with a thunderbolt. forward-looking type. the archer. the arrow. a Thessalian princess. Apollo killed Zeus’ sons. the type excels at < previous page page_175 next page > . and team sports. and Hercules and treated Achil les’s burned foot by grafting flesh from a corpse onto his instep. idealistic. Arabs labeled it Alkaus. Because Asclepius violated the law against hubris by bring ing a corpse to life. The ancient A kkadians called the shape Nunki. Hebrews named it Kesith. the figure represented the centaur Chiron. with arrows. In the lab or at the workbench. and sporting competition. To the Greeks. medicine. Because C oronis committed sacrilege by coupling with her lover Ischys while she was carry ing Apollo’s child. the archetype loves air trave l. Sagitta. In l anguage classes.< previous page page_175 next page > Page 175 that symbolizes Sagittarius is a double-fletched arrow. are warm. One of the olde st identified astral shapes. it dates to the Babylonian zodiac of the eleventh c entury B. In the stars. an erudit e herbalist and teacher who trained Jason. The child was na med Asclepius. connects the archer with Apollo in a revenge my th that begins with the deflowering of Coronis. At home in any climate. like Chiron the centaur. impulsive people fond of spending extravagantly and of sh aring ideas. Sagittarians. the centaur who taught young boys. the type is free to satisfy intellectual questio ns about nature and history. the Cyclopes. The cult of Asclepius elevated him to a god late in the fifth century B. the archer quickly deduces cause and effect and understands laws that govern motion and speed. As the sweetly f eminine body of Coronis reposed on a funeral pyre. The domesticated archer prefers fre quent changes in dwelling.. For these reasons. The arrow. The type’s enthusiasm draws others into projects and re stricts a group to its focus.C. theater. Sagittarius accom plishes difficult tasks by envisioning the whole picture and applying vigorous t hought to problem-solving. the goddess Artemis killed her with an arrow. the Greek doctor who studied under Chiron and mirrored Apollo’s div ine gift for healing. They are said to squander their earnings rather than to invest them in real estate or stocks. new activities. A thoughtful. which depicted the constellation as a mounted bowman. Actaëon. In an open classroom. teaching. Sagittarius traditionally thriv es in exploration. which were immortalized in t he sky as Sagitta. the conqueror. The Egyptians knew it as K nem. To wreak vengeance on Zeus. As students in traditional educational systems. Apollo extracted her unborn f etus and gave him to Chiron. Sagittarians are said to seek attention inappro priately.

to the extent of the difference is no democracy” (Bartlett 1992. both of whom led their nations during threatening day s by relying on practicality and an intuitive feel for the right action at the r ight moment. As soldier. At family ga therings. the typical Sagittarian rejects desk jobs in favor of work in the open air. and other Sagittarians. Sagittarians may or may not enjoy relatives. They typically foster doo med love matches. geologist. And the tigers are getting hungry” (Bar tlett 1992. Whatever differs from this. An example of Lincoln’s even-handed vision occurs in his commentary o n the lives of slaves and masters: ‘‘As I would not be a slave. wrote in While England Slept : “Dictators ride to and fro upon tigers which they dare not dismount. Late into adulthood. and philosophy. pilot. energy. Sagittarians a re said to avoid matrimony or to forge a lasting life partnership with a friend. the type readily makes friends and welcomes activities requiring skill. Churchill. they become cynical flirts. the archer bucks the status quo and presses for excellence. Typical Sagittarians change jobs frequently. Overal l. which they helped their nations to quell by applying wisdom to thorny issues. < previous page page_176 next page > . impulsively seeking greener pasture s in a new field or a work community more sympathetic to the type’s willful. unshakeable self-direction. and steady aim. the archer chooses amusement over intense work sessions or staff meetings and trusts instinct and luck over grueling labor. the untempere d Sagittarian is characterized as a gambler. The archetype chafes under petty rules and supervision and dislikes tedium and details. 619). astro logers cite the Sagittarian’s resolute. the aphorists reflect on threats to freedom . Sagittarius is a successful student mentor to younger brothers and sisters. or self-deprecating curmudgeons. they rebel in ingenious ways. creative rhythms. In matters of morality and ethics . Examples of strong Sagittarian leadership abound in the political acumen of Abraham Linc oln and Winston Churchill. in a po etic comment on tyranny. Sagittarius allegedly rises to a position of authority. so I would not be a master. the type tends toward fanaticism.< previous page page_176 next page > Page 176 discussion and debate concerning literature. Afte r hours. The archetype posses ses a pragmatic field knowledge that undergirds thorough book training. Once soured on romance. The Sagittarian’s inability to express affection robs these brother-sister allian ces of affection. Astrologers c laim that Sagittarians harmonize with Aries. This expresses my idea of democracy. In both instances. if constrained by overp rotective parents or tyrannic bosses. 448). transparen t bounders. religion. If the y maintain independence. Leo. In adulthood. At the extreme of the sign’s influence. in business. workaholic. Sagittarians thrive and profit. In explanation of their short-term career loyalties. or miser. or animal train er. zealo us.

the warmth of homefires eludes the archetype. Against the ornate fabric of their tunics. they grasp tall spears and carry bows slung on their left shoulders. Sagittarian Ludwig von Beethoven re fused to rein in his emotional symphonies. and riveting eyes incapable of hiding opinions and attit udes. and spiritual balance. Steady of eye and posed in readiness. The sign runs to weakness in the liver and pelvis. the winter palace of Darius. Sagittarius is stereotyped with a broad cou ntenance. Into old age and progressive deafness . Zenobia Frome. Glazed in enamel o n tile. the standard Sagittarian is described as a p oor patient. blunted nose. the act of shooting an arrow also symbolizes an irrevocable act. which may enhance or h arm human fate. Restless and undisciplined. At Susa. showcases bearded bowmen in profile. Freighting his chronicle with the preci pitate torrent of feeling that forced the French aristocracy to the guillotine. A symbol of duality and strife. demanding Sagittarius. the Sagittarian rejects bed rest and confinement and becom es a bitter. power. he demanded that the world listen and be moved by his compelling “Eroica” and “Appas sionata. the type thickens in middle age. control. historian Thomas Carlyle imitated on paper the vortex of emot ion that produced the French Revolution. as demonstrated by the inten se arias sung by Maria Callas or the fervent canvases painted by Swiss symbolist Paul Klee. A literary example of the archer’s skill at mani pulative whining is found in Edith Wharton’s Ethan Frome. At the end of the classical era. the ailin g wife of Ethan. The bowman is an equally striking figure in myth. Even then. the centaur appears in Greek mythology as a male torso attached < previous page page_177 next page > . Both music and histor y owe much to the exuberant. a symbol of wholeness. Dismal and negative. SYMBOLISM IN ART AND RELIGION In art. Li ke the self-centered Zenobia Frome.” Similarly. which prefers a loose schedule fre e of boring commitments. this procession of archers is one of the few specimens of Elamite art. the archer. A segment of the wall stands in the Louvre Museum in Paris. he imbued his text with a candid recreation of passion gone awry. Physically. a Persian King. the archer destroys the grace of winsome featu res by gesturing frantically to make a point. mi litant appearance in ancient temple and palace architecture. thwarts a budding affair between her cousin and her husband. complaining invalid. On balance.< previous page page_177 next page > Page 177 only steadfast mates survive shell marriages to the archer. but an enthusiastic healer or visitor to the sick who uplifts other s by disseminating good will. tall quivers bristle with ceremonial arrows. makes a strong. Generally stocky in childhood.

The centaur. a per verse being. part of whom resemble s a horse and part a god. A comic version of man against monster enlivens Lewis Carroll’s witty “Jabberwocky. In the Argonautica. In a minor episode. (Ap ollonius 1995. Ca me whiffling through the tulgey wood. and myth. Chiron earned fa me for his wisdom and compassion. is a frequent theme in folklore. Dejanira fo llowed his advice and reserved some of the centaur’s poisoned blood. the centaur who abducted Dejanira. the Aetolian princess. for example. he gave up immortality to benefit Prometheus. the son of Ouranos. with eyes of flame.” w hich pits the two figures in mortal combat: And. because Kronos was transformed as he left her bed. as in uffish thought he stood. and Kronos s prang up from the bed and rushed off in the form of a long-maned horse. two! And through and through The vorpal blad e went snicker-snack! < previous page page_178 next page > . Hercules became the bo wman by shooting a deadly arrow into Nessus. two! One. Beowulf and Grendel. After hearing Nes sus’s prediction that Hercules would eventually stray to another mate. In shame the Oceanid Philyra left that place and territory behind and went to the sweepi ng Pelasgian mountains. scripture. For this selfless act.< previous page page_178 next page > Page 178 to the lower body of the ox. Hercules and numerous beasts. 64) Unlike the more violent. David and Goliath. Duality exten ds the figure to include heroic warriors who achieved greatness by subduing anim als and monsters or anomalies. Kronos thus deceived Rheia . She later dau bed it on her mate’s shirt. which clung to his torso and burned him lethally. George and Siegfried and their respe ctive dragons. Apollonius accounts fo r the unusual juxtaposition of features in a reflection on the myth: [The Argona uts] sailed past the island of Philyra. when he ruled over the Titans on Olympos…. The story ends tragically for Hercules. The gods took pity and transformed Hercules into a constellation. Theseus and the Minotaur. Perseu s and Medusa. where she bore the mighty Cheiron. the gods placed Chiron in the heav ens as the constellation Sagittarius. In the mode of martyr. St. and Samson and the lion. lecherous centaurs. where Philyra slept with Kronos. The Jabberwock. And burbled as it came! One. but the goddess came upon them in the midst of their love-making.

An austere. allegory. tongue-in-cheek study of the American frontier. striking the Greek superhero in the heel. It was Odysseus’s offer of a bo w and arrows that unmasked Achilles. In an expansive mood.” Twain wrote in the style and form that suited his thought s. whose mother had hid him among women and re named him Pyrrha to save him from induction into Agamemnon’s army. where they t ook their solitary way into an ungentle world. autobiography. whose exuberant writings display the Sagittar ian at its peak of intellectual curiosity. Milton w as no more pliant than he was as poet and pamphleteer. Through a secretary. Ironically. historical fiction. he produced Roughing It . His stringent expectation s for his daughters riled the Milton household. In Paradise Lost . 192) Carroll extols his jabberwock hunter with delight: ‘‘Come to my arms. A necessary ite m in the Greek destruction of Troy was the bow of Philoctetes. travelogue. Milton dictated lines and edited aloud from repeated readings. epigra m. From the laidback insouciance of Life on the Mississippi to the dark satire of “The Man Wh o Corrupted Hadleyburg. costing him all but one child wh o could approach his high standards of conduct and scholarship. Concerning his stagecoach journey across the plains. an optimistic. Virgil perpetuated the harmful role of the archer with Eros’s dart. T o the harsher side of the Sagittarius personality stands the English epicist Joh n Milton. he put his personable tinker. Callay!” Such homage to gallant figures acknowledges th e human preference for civility over animalism and the baser instincts. back eight centuries into the Middle Ages and installed him at Camelot in A Connecticut Yankee in King < previous page page_179 next page > . (Carroll 1958. he battled his dismay at progressive b lindness while mastering his misgivings about the handicap. my beamish boy ! O frabjous day! Callooh. a centra l theme of myth and psychology. He redirected his talents from frivolous. the archer dispensed suffering and de ath and served as Zeus’s wake-up call to the unwary. and with its head He went galumphing back. On the positive side. forcing her to pursue a doomed passion for Aeneas. Paris’s poor shooting of a bow killed Achilles. For Homer. As a husband and father. which penetrated the breast of Q ueen Dido. worldly subjects to a pious contemplat ion of Eden and the fall of Adam and Eve. unwavering Puritan. the only vulnerable part of his body. Unyielding to sympath y or compromise.< previous page Page 179 page_179 next page > He left it dead. and after-dinner speeches. Milton presented th e Old Testament precepts with sobriety and sonorous grace. He wrote humor. founder of Rome. astrologers list Mark Twain. he followed the exiled couple to the edge of Eden. Andrew Marvell. The arrow went awry. Hank Morgan.

inner turmoil. candy sellers. On a nobler plane. In history. expresses Sagittarian aggression and enhanc es images of assertiveness and impulse. Commercialized in the 1840s. By the end of an eventful career. In his paradigm. For example. forcing the id to lessen its shrill i nsistence and the superego to stifle its self-righteous prating and moralizing. both the Spanish and Eng lish excel at vigorous sport. the archer’s projectile takes on the positive qualities of intuition. steps between the two. like Sagittariu s. focus. hysteria. religious. the arrow can also re flect the sun god’s beneficence in pouring rays on the earth. the psychic arbitrator. According to astral psychology. when the id unleashes its energy by demanding se xual gratification or aggression. Sigmund Freud interpret ed Sagittarius as the synergy epitomized by the ego’s pacification of a warring id and superego. including cricket. The ego. England is said to reflect the influe nce of Sagittarius. the ego. rugby. < previous page page_180 next page > . A whimsical example of the resolute arrow appears each February 14 in the stylized valentine.” as demon strated by the island nation’s hope and persistence during the Blitz of World War II. The energy finds a worthy. the ego may halt a rampant sexual urge and s tifle the superego’s flood of guilt and shame by allowing an ardent lover to partn er in an energetic dance. the valentine has become t he message-of-the-day for the ardent wooer and a stock sales item for American g reeting card manufacturers. and ethical principles forbidding excess. soccer. satisfying physical outlet and engages in a socially acceptable prelude to mating. a third-century prelate martyred in Rome and buried north of the city beside the Via Flaminia. In sports. or psychosomatic ills. an emblem of phallic sadism. Twain had earned the t itle of most original American novelist and had achieved a high place among the world’s most quotable aphorists. Spain is also Sagittarian in nature: buoyant and self-seeking among nations and proud and vain at the negotiating table. the superego blunts the id’s ardor with a remind er of social. and florists. horseback riding . particularly the type’s penchant for “cockeyed optimism. V alentine. and bullfighting. a modern version of the billet doux launched by St. By directing energies toward a nonthreatening activity. dispatch. auto and bicycle racing. the arrow. As such.< previous page page_180 next page > Page 180 Arthur’s Court . soothes the combined drives and avoids frustration. and de termination.

< previous page Page 181 page_181 next page > 14 CAPRICORN < previous page page_181 next page > .

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the eye rho star Bos. the shoulder blade theta star Dorsum. Capricorn. the back nu star Alshat. Hebrews named it the slai n kid. is the smallest in the zo diac. The Arabs identified as the goat’s southern horn the alpha star. the sheep pi star Oculus. but one of the oldest. It dates to 2449 B. the cow This modest constellation. Capricorn makes no spectacular display but has been called the s mile in the sky. the goat’s tail epsi lon star Castra. Microscop ium. Capricorn lies between Sagittarius and Aquarius and borders Aquila. Gieda. is called Capricornus in astronomy. Of the thirty-one stars in the group there are twelve major stars: alpha-one star Prima Gieda. and Piscis Austrinus. the first goat alpha-two star Secunda Gieda. a reference to the blood of the lamb sacrificed to salvage firstborns fro m slaughter during the last of Egypt’s plagues that preceded the Exodus. Capricorn’s name derives from the Latin capricornus or goat’s horn.. Easily spotted in autumn from the Northern Hemispher e. ash. the fortunate one delta star Deneb Algeti. It takes as its emblem the horned. abbreviate d Cap. fish-tailed goat o r sea goat climbing a peak. the second goat alpha-three star Gredi beta star Dabih. the slaughterer g amma star Nashira. which is fortieth in size. when Chinese astronomers fir st observed it. < previous page page_183 next page > .< previous page page_183 next page > Page 183 ASTRONOMICAL FACTS The tenth house of the zodiac. a multiple star colored lilac. the camp eta star Armus. and yellow.C.

Just as Pan leaped into the Nile River. the two-faced Roman god. the southernmost arc where the sun stood overhead at midday. during a war with giants. which form the goat’s left eye. is a minor spot on the goat’s abdomen. two emotions that assist self-assessment and the making of New Year’s resolutions. the epsilon sta r. who filled it with an inexhaustible abundance of fruits and vegetables. o micron. Theogenes proposed that Augustus adopt the horned goat as an emblem. For this reason. the horn of Amaltheia overflowing with fruit. Capricorn’s beta star. Capricorn’s position two centuries ago len t its name to the Tropic of Capricorn. his upper half chang ed into a goat. An earth sign. According to Hyginus’s Poetic Astronomy. Deneb Algeti. In Roman times. nu. the rho star. the lucky slaughterer. the ox. Capricorn appeared on t he banners and standards of his personal legions. a male Arcadian god named for the Greek for all. Capricorn was also Amaltheia. which converge f rom a mutual gravitational pull. god of the underworld. The minor delta star. is a double star composed of two aste risms. pi. ASTROLOGICAL HISTORY AND TRAITS Governing the t wenty-nine days between December 22 and January 19. Castra. Add itional horn myths include a tale of Hercules’s twelfth labor. To th e Greeks. To the latter. The goat’s upturned head stresses its prog ressive. The constellation also features two Ju ly meteor showers. Capricorn begins the < previous page page_184 next page > . The story of Pan. A fanciful Greek myth depicts Capricorn with a fishtail . a faint spherical cluster. Representing his role as commander-in-chief. he surv eyed the end of one year and the beginning of another. one caerulean and one orangy-yellow. the goat that nourished Zeus. god of subterranean waters.< previous page page_184 next page > Page 184 Arabs lumped the beta star with the alpha cluster. the constellation represented Ea. Dorsum is a minor figure on the goat’s spine. Like Janus. Capricorn dates to the Chald ean and Babylonian zodiacs. and Australia. his lower half became a fish and swam out of Typhon’s reach. the goat sign represents gravity and sobriety. he repeatedly changed into animal shapes to elude the monster Typhon. and binary stars. On a globe. describes h ow. The Romans considered Armus the goat’s h eart. during which he pre sented to Plutus. Nashira. and th e gamma star. Chinese astrologers coordinated alpha. South Africa. the arc passes through Argentina. they pictured on the goat’s face. Amaltheia received a horn from the sacred goat of Z eus. dot the goat’s tail. Dabih. Bos. and rho to make Nieu. hard-charging nature. which assures that its feet continue to move up t he rubbled path. which they called Al sa’d Aldhabih. Capricorn became a transitiona l figure on the Gregorian calendar.

where they apply what they have learned about human tendencies and accomplishments. In this capacity. the last letter of the Greek alphabet and a symbol of doom. Capricorns traditionally thrive in the past. Capricorns are thought to take pains in selecting friends. Martyrs b y nature. As is true of zodiacal stereotypes. As students. Their keen interest in genealogy. such as city planning. Traditionally. A devoted researcher and scholar. The type’s negative traits include a tendency t oward pleasing superiors. As companion s and colleagues. By f ocusing on a goal. or abettor of illegal or ignoble activities. The sign’s broad amalgam of personality traits coordinates humility and thrift with earnest dedication to task. settlin g quarrels. unraveling a mystery. the type works well in large amorphous or bureaucratic operations. the type epitomizes self-discipline and embodies the stodgy. Altruistic from childhood. goading a slacker. they are accused of mean-spiritedness and inhibition. They allegedly enjoy influencing a nd directing their inferiors by giving advice on love. the hardedged. or che ering an elderly or sick relative. The sun sign a nswers to Saturn. and lovers. pessimist whose divinity is represented by omeg a. and anniversa ries. they detest tedious details that detract from the larger purpose. this conclusion is obviously overgeneralized. they establish a useful spot as mediator or broker. Capricorn becomes a sycophant. According to astr ologers. On the affective side. business partn ers. Because Capricorn is a water sign associated with fresh and sa lt water. Virgoans. or conducting legal inquiries. birthdays. Caprico rns dominate their neighborhoods. a pejorative referring to th e expendable person sacrificed for the good of the group. and marriages. th e archetype enjoys a challenge and excels at harmonizing seemingly inconsistent details and accommodating obscure philosophies. it profits from a conciliatory connection that tempers Saturn’s harshnes s. the archetype never hesitates to cozy up < previous page page_185 next page > . perennially anticipa ting disaster. careers. and past events and hero es gives them a toehold in the present. snob.< previous page page_185 next page > Page 185 process of decay or dissolution. the g oat sign hones promising talents and prepares for a life of service. tradition. Ambitious and a daptable. guiding tours. Because of ominous traits. An inborn sense of propriety is said to make them knowledgeable parliament arians and advisers on protocol or procedure. Thus. humorles s grind characterized in English slang as the goat. goat archetypes flourish at holidays. At the worst. usually from among Taurians. which Pisces completes. On the nega tive side. or Librans. professions. Capricornians tend to be drudges and crepehangers. they relish a hard task.

onions. cinchona. Once allied with a suitable mate. Males are thin-bearded. watercress. Capricorns are thought to lack a single unifying q uality. However. Physically. They tend to be dark of skin and hair. elder. To avoid losing out at work. p runes. Elevated to the status of patriarch. reverent. and slender. parsley. and cottage cheese plus mineral supplements < previous page page_186 next page > . Given a trick knee. To g entle a forward woman. goats fall into a decline that precipitates bodily ailments and despair. Astral healing maintains that herbal su pplements of knapweed. rheumatism. The best diet makes the most of leafy plants. Ast ral medicine advises palliatives suited to a herd animal —fresh air. In these embarr assing situations. and deafness. or impressive genealogy over lov e and happiness. confounded by a deeper level of social or religious interpretation than precepts can explain. narrow-chested. the archet ype may choose social status. If inhibited or cut off from their chief j oy. thus muddling relationships by becoming bossy. Overall. Capricorn is inept. the goat sign exults in teaching children through advice and g ood example. sometimes peaking after contemporaries and re maining vigorous into their nineties. sexist. the stereotype is devout. Another side of Capricorn’s upward mobility is an intensification of the war of the sexes. As a parent. the goat grows sententious and postures for the sake of self-aggrandize ment. eggs. yet may starve a thriving relati onship by withholding love or money or by ignoring a mate’s emotional or sexual ne eds. broad-based d iet. the dependable goat prefers to balance a briefcase on a lapb oard rather than rest and follow orders. but even slower to divorce or abandon a lover. Unhurried in romance. wealth. Capricorn’s weak spot is skeletal and may twinge from overwork. Traditionally. or gout. and consistent in observing ritual. The astrologer’s key to understanding Capricorn is to analyze the strength of religion and tradition in the personality. lifting. Capricorn confronts a shallowness in self that is likely to d ismay or depress. When spiritual drift th reatens. and black hellebore prevent th e typical goat-weakeners: anemia. cough.< previous page page_186 next page > Page 186 to the brass. rye bread. arthritis. Capricorn remains true to the commitment. or a chill. and engaging in casual conversation. Faced with true paradox. appealing in expression and gestu re. and social interaction. the type lapses into invalidism and coughs or groans piteously. the standard Capricorn is described as late to ma rry. he f launts supremacy. plantain. and jud gmental. Capricorns age well. when setting up goals for the offsprings’ future. thus earning a reputation for boot-licking. prestige. the male Capricorn attempts to reduce a female colleague or family member to a needy suppliant.

Also. when families gather to share the earth’s bounty and to pray for health. in her left. At a Roman settl ement at Smyrna. divinity. Jews also saw the goat as a lewd figure. In her right hand.. Its myths provide a concrete shap e on which artists invent imaginative patterns. a panoply of gods groups Poseidon. Sumerians. In the crook of her left arm is the vertical horn of plenty. she clutched a rudder. A fulllength statue of Fortuna. Enthroned in classic style. t he goat was the obverse of deity: it embodied lechery and venality. including d ried fruit. and sea serpent. fantasy turns the seagoat into a crocodile. Hindus. a sardonyx came o carved in Greek style about 15 A.D. the Greek goddess of fortune.. Another statue in Achaia represents Tyche holding a co rnucopia. The symbol appears on a wide variety of common items. A strongly feminine symbol. On arras. A parallel figure in bronze found near Capua displays a pensive Vesta. or pu b sign. dolphin. Capricorn was the sun sign of Augustus Caesar. the goat represented goodness and peace. the Roman goddess of grain. and power. heraldic shield. The trio. maternity.D. goddess of the hearth. Italian bread. symbol of th e festival of Vesta held each June to celebrate a full harvest. and strength. < previous page page_187 next page > . stoo d at the port of Ostia. and fertility. To the Romans of the first century A. shows he r holding Amaltheia’s horn.< previous page page_187 next page > Page 187 of calcium phosphate. To the Chinese. the warehouse city west of Rome on the artificial harbor built by the Emperor Claudius. and Apollo. Animated advertiseme nts for briefs and T-shirts feature brightly colored fruits dancing out of a cor nucopia to upbeat music. Demete r. Bupalus’s statue of Tyche. the horn of plenty. SYMBOLISM IN ART AND RELIGION Art depicts Capricorn as a curved arc of bright stars. The graceful upright horn was etched with acanthus le aves and featured grapes and fruit. Roman art developed the goat’s horn into the cornucopia o verflowing with fruit and vegetables. To Christians. both damnabl e sins. and Fruit of the Loom underwear. goddess of luck. and Te utons concurred that it symbolized energy. with her head inclined to the right. by their attendance. In the Gemma Augustea. the emblem of Ceres. the sacred token of the moon goddess called Cybel e or Selene and a promising sign to wayfarers. happiness. milk is far better for the type than wine o r other forms of alcohol. The abundance that tumbles out of the hollow serves as the symbol of Than ksgiving. the empire’s first ruler. appears to countenace the Emperor’s deification. the horn in advertising and iconography has come to represent nurturing.

sing to me. In verse. Pan grew up on the pastures of Arcady with his co mpanion Zeus. (Homer 1995. he said. M. the alliance of Pan with Capricorn fleshes out meager goat lore with vivid details. the shepherd god. a psychological state aris ing from sudden irrational fear and loss of composure. and when their affairs were once more in a prosperous state. They chose a her ald named Pheidippides. With splendid hair. From his name derives panic . They tread down the peaks of sheer rock Calling on P an. Forster’s Story of a Panic . Herodotus injects his Histories with a late-bloo ming myth that can be dated to the Battle of Marathon in 490 B. an emotion described in E . from which he cut panpipes to enhanc e his flirtation. th e city’s patron goddess. above Tegea: Pan. and would be so again in the future. Fortuna. who roams. The Athenians believed Pheidippides’ story. Athenian generals needed to send a message to Sparta. Pan’s father. two-horned lover of noise. the embodiment of luck. who has as his lot every sno wy hill-crest And the peaks of mountains and rocky paths. 153) Ovid’s Metamorphoses follows Homer’s description with added information about Pan’s pursui t of the maiden Syrinx into a bed of reeds.C. A cave-dweller and patron of herders. Through tree-filled meadows in the company of dancing nymphs. who reported that he met the god Pan on Mount Parhenium. who played upon the syrinx or panpipes while he pursued an ever-cha nging slate of females. Pan appears with his mother Dryope in Homer’s Hymn to Pan : About the dear son of Hermes. holds a festal wreath ov er his head. The odes of Pindar describe Pan as a goat-footed sybarite. Hermes.< previous page page_188 next page > Page 188 the emperor represents Zeus-Jupiter and shares a dais with Dea Roma. unwashed. The goatfooted. they < previous page page_188 next page > . lig ht of heart. Above the grouping floats a circular planet containing the fish-tai led Capricornus. called him by name and told him to ask the Athenians why they paid him no attention. in spite of his friendliness towards them and t he fact that he had often been useful to them in the past. Muse. According to h is story. delighted in the boy’s boisterousness and sweet smile.

The Sea Wolf. miners.” a short story about a failed attempt to survive extreme cold. in modern lore. Two other notable Capricorns are writers Gertr ude Stein and James Joyce. (Herodotus 1961. to court his protection. 397–398) This remarkable event coinc ides with one of Greek history’s memorable folk heroes. In the same vein. The former wrote engaging melodies based on folk tunes. In legend. and from the time his messag e was received they have held an annual ceremony. and “To Build a Fire. Stein is irrevocably linked to her sardonic pronounce ment. he is called the Runn er of Marathon.< previous page page_189 next page > Page 189 built a shrine to Pan under the Acropolis. refined his reflectio ns on growing up Irish in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Le e. which had already lo st Eretria to the Persians. After Pheidippides arrived in Sparta the next day. particularly The Call of the Wild. The story appears alongsid e adventure tales detailing the straightforward actions of sailors. Literature has profited from similar styles. particularly strife with natu re and the differences between animals and humans in their ability to survive ha rdship or disaster. like Mozart’s compositions. London builds heavily philosophic themes. The rigors of living in the wild. Lee mourned his passing and regretted that he could no lon ger rely on < previous page page_189 next page > .” Joyce. The honor list of Capricornians includes two composers—Franz Schuber t and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. who succeed by extremes of self-control. eighteenth-century statesman Alexander Ha milton and presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson honed public orations to reveal an economy of words and a sharp focus on substance. and elegant. ‘‘A rose is a rose is a rose. a classic aut obiographical novel. majestic prosody. the most influential being Fra ncis Bacon. his name has been corrupted to a more euphonious Philippides. Jackson and Lee formed a strong camaraderie that carried the m through the first part of the Civil War. he summoned his hearers to Athens. the Capricorn writer is said to excel at metaphor and to frame a theme through sonorous. pioneer of the essay. and mushers. fell dead from exertion. By nature given to weighty. are spare. after delivering it. or taming wild creatures generated London’s larger-than-life chara cters. with a torch-race and sacrific es. Robert E. Military leaders displaying the best of Capricorn’s influence include three generals—Stonewall Jackson. Pheidippides raced back from Sparta with a reply and . His collected works. muscular prose. After Jackson was accidentally shot b y Confederate forces. a master of fiction. the latter produced an unadorned style of music that makes use of every n ote. and Joan of Arc. concise. A worthy example is Jack London’s ficti on. wresting a living from the earth and sea.

Cheering soldiers venerated her as the Maid of Orléans. Catherine. A quarter century aft er the execution. and Jean Anouilh’s The L ark . she assisted in crowning Charles VII at Rheims. an ecclesiastical court found her innocent. Joan of Arc responded to a divine call and led France to military victor y. France. < previous page page_190 next page > . an early fifteenth-century visionary who claimed to have received messages from St. In 1430. She underwent interrogation and torture. George Bernard Shaw’s Saint Joan. Margaret. Myth claims that white butterflies surrounded her staff and that a white dove ascended from her pyre into heaven.< previous page page_190 next page > Page 190 Jackson’s loyalty and genius for battlefield strategy. St. but refused to reply to charges that she was a sorcer ess dressed in men’s armor to lure their souls to perdition. and the archangel Michael. Burgundian troops captured her and ransomed her to the English. One of the most un usual Capricorn leaders is the French maiden general. Joan’s luck changed . She was canonized in 1920. she was burned at the stake. The story of the charismatic virgin was the inspiration for Heinrich Sc hiller’s The Maid of Orléans. At age nineteen. Born in 1412 in Domrémy. During the Hundred Years’ war. Jeanne d’Arc or Joan of Arc.

< previous page Page 191 page_191 next page > 15 AQUARIUS < previous page page_191 next page > .

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A sign of rain.M. Of fifty-six stars in the constellation there are seven highlig hts: alpha star Sadalmelik. A notable part of Aquarius is the lemony twinkle of the al pha star. The Chinese saw Alsa’d Alsu’ud as Heu. the good fortune of the swallower.< previous page page_193 next page > Page 193 ASTRONOMICAL FACTS The eleventh sign of the zodiac is the water-bearer. the southern fish. the luc ky star of hiding places. The Hindu identified the lambda star as Catabhishaj. A focus of the autumn sky in the Northern H emisphere and the spring sky in the Southern Hemisphere. also pale yellow. the woman. the symbol derives from the Latin for water carrier. Abbreviated Aqr. which adorns the waterman’s right shoulder. Sadalmelik. The astral shape appears to pour water into Fo malhaut. one of the sky’s most important navigational stars. alpha. Pegasus. and pi stars they named Alsa’d Alahbiyah. and blended the epsilon star with mu and nu to get Mo. Aquarius borders Aquila . Equuleus. eta. the steep. Cetus. Alsa’d Alsu’ud. It dots the mouth of Piscis Austrinus. the void. especially during October around 9:00 P. the swallower theta star Ancha. appears on Aquarius’s left shoulder. Usually pictured as a man bearing a tall amphora or urn. The < previous page page_193 next page >     . zeta. Capricornus. A fanciful twist allied Sa dalmelik with the epsilon and theta stars of Pegasus for the Chinese constellati on of Gui. luckiest o f the lucky gamma star Sadalachbia. lucky star of the tents delta star Skat. t he hundred physicians. The grouping of the gamma. and Sculptor. the king’s lucky star beta star Alsa’d Alsu’ud. the shin bone epsilon star Albali. Delphinus. it is the tenth largest constellati on. the bucket The Arabs viewed two of Aquarius’s stars in one cluster . the hip bone kap pa star Situla. It con tains an identifiable cluster of stars easily viewed. Pisces. Aquarius [uh kway’ ree uhs]. which they called Alsa’d Albula.

and inefficiency. aims. It is governed by Uranus. In Babylonian lor e. and Cetus. Skat. the Aquarian see ks an unconventional way. A hyper< previous page page_194 next page > . Aquarius is an air sign. Despite the obvious connect ion to water. the ty pe appears to dilly-dally. labor organization. illumination. but an impetus to genius when it combines with a balanced n ature. the Aquaria n traditionally pours a generous stream of emotion and is capable of loving a va riety of people. Because he was a royal child. At Zeus’s direction. a gorgeous pr inceling. the stereotypical Aquarian accepts and sympathizes with outsiders. religion. A more permanent connection was established with Ganymede. Eridanus. mildmannered. Aquarius features two nebulae—Saturn and Helix. The latte r is the closest nebula to earth and is visible through binoculars. pa rticularly people of different social classes. The true ar chetype avoids ostentation in favor of down-to-earth honesty. the water bearer f irst reflected the myth of Deucalion. Aquari us dates to Babylonian astrology and is connected with water because the sun ent ers the constellation at the beginning of winter’s rainy season. theater. According to astrologers.< previous page page_194 next page > Page 194 delta star. which contained four water sig ns—Capricornus. and media tion. an unpromising omen for the unwary. The constell ation coincides with six meteor showers. and hopes and denotes a gentle. is a minor star on the waterman’s right leg. In Greek mythology. the Noah figure who survived a cataclysmic flood. which. ASTROLOGICAL HISTORY AND TRAITS Governing the thirty days between January 20 and February 18. An individualist. Sometimes emotional and given to gestures rather t han words. Because Aquarians are allegedly inclined toward acquiescence. the son of Laomedon of Troy. an eagle abducted Gany mede. a long with ambrosia. Aquarius ruled a part of the sky known as Sea. races. animals. and social causes. Deficient in concentration and slow at reading. and religions. which appear in the house of Aquarius o nce in May and July and twice each in August and September. In additio n to these single stars. they earn a reputation for slowwittedness. In keeping with its emblem. yet absorbs ideas from a wide range of sources to app ly to problems and ambitions. made up the divine diet. impracticality. Zeus compensated Ganymede’s father with magnificent horses. who became cupbearer of the Olympian gods and served them nectar. Astrologers see in Aquarius the intellectual spark and idealism of the scientist or charity organi zer and predict success in law. and clear judgment. Aquarius influences friendship. undem onstrative personality that avoids criticism. Hydra.

the < previous page page_195 next page > . often to a best pal. Aquarians ar e said to bide their time to study an issue or to consult experts. A late bloomer. scrappers. The Aquarian makes t actless comments and shares intimacy and affection without fear of provoking jea lousy in others. yet is characteristically uncomfortable in drafty rooms on rainy days. the Aquarian prefers a long enga gement and marries late. the type speaks softl y and conceals laughter. parenting comes easily to the Aquarian. the parent prefers progressive education that te aches children to think for themselves rather than to parrot memory work. they overstate small crises as calamities and boldly c hampion the poor. At parties and frie ndly gatherings. These traits produce a personality type that irritates others because they seem to waste time and lack initiative. a nd fighters. The unconventional water bearer dismays rigid authoritarians by placing mild dem ands on offspring and by establishing a nondirective style of correction. like Homer’s Achilles or the desperadoes of western movies and television. As a wooer. In armed conflict. In ant icipation of a lasting dynasty. At hom e. Inclined toward fragile skin. hungry. particularly when they pursue the greater good or ponder an abstract elemen t of warfare. such as the sufferings of the noncombatant. As described by Paul in I Corinthians 13:4. the archetype stands aloof from frivolity. the archetype deflates the beloved by forgetting to display affection and loyalty. and Arieans. Emotionally serene and tranquil. th e Aquarian is nonetheless deft of movement and quick to perceive abstract logic. According to astral health lore. they allegedly are eager to learn from others rather than to set trends. This non-confrontational attitude earns Aquarians the label of cowa rds. b lue or gray eyes. even-tempered com panion who blends well with Librans. the Aquarian enjoys a sound constitu tion. as demons trated by actors John Barrymore and Clark Gable. but enjoys rearing children. who dislikes infant care. Characterized as large in body and girth. the Aquarian parent rules the domain and expects to be catered to by mate and children. the Aquarian style of love is “n ot puffed up” and seeks the partner’s true happiness. In matters of taste. and disenfranchised. Usually mannerly. In making decisions. rosy cheeks. and understated mannerisms. The Aquarian’s profile and proportioned physique tends toward the dramatic. Geminians. who reaps the benefits of genuine love. the water bearer avoids boasters. Traditionally. the y are unfocused fighters who lack pugilistic skill or the blind fury that motiva tes a true killer.< previous page page_195 next page > Page 195 sensitive group. Zodiacal typing pictures the Aquarian as a steady.

Overall. the water bearer traditionally allied with both death and renewal a nd attached to cycles of death and regeneration. astral symboli sm creates a smooth transition from one house to another. edema. The Chinese paired water with fire or sunshine. Aquarius’s flow represents dissolution. wells. bas-relief. Capricorn. connected lakes. the Lady of the Lake and maiden s who attend the fallen king on his barge in Arthurian lore and the pensive figu re in Alfred Tennyson’s “The Lady of Shalott. the Hermetica of Egypt advises the ailing Aquarian to try simple herbal compounds of valerian. an e lemental example of yin circumventing yang. discourtesy. and fountains with spontaneous magic an d the source of supernatural power. tansy. or other signs of ill-breeding. A mystical link to the supernatural. dissolving. Taurus. flu. unlike the pa ired fish. In Greco-Roman mosaic. Medieval. chard. and celery and fruit treats rich in apples and strawberries. or goiter. Celts.< previous page page_196 next page > Page 196 Aquarian may astonish others by boldly defending the vulnerable or defy ing crudeness. and Amer indians and in the classic. including the Maori. SYMBOLISM IN ART AND RELIG ION Although the sign of Aquarius is less common in art than its zodiacal comrad es—particularly Virgo. An amb iguous sign. To the Inca and Maya. set ting free. and ladies’ slipper to r elieve leg cramps. Aquarians are thought to have powe rs of communicating with the mind’s unconscious forces. particularly in agriculture and the tending of vine-yards and orchards. The zodiacal flow f rom Aquarius ties directly into Pisces. the dual fish sign. Thus.” causing weary reapers to proclaim her a fairy (Tennyson 194 9. flatulence and diarrhea. The best diet for the Aquarian avoids alcohol and stresses salads of radish. and Pisces—gushing water became a standard unifying horizontal in the art of the Chinese. 12). who are joined by a tether. the robust Aquarian is said to live a vigorous life until overwork or accident compromises wellbeing. Although the headstrong water bearer is likely to seek unconventional treatment or selfmedication. and Renaissance periods. for example. Christian. Cultists. or decomposing. water symbolized primeval chaos. Celts . and sculpture. spinach.” The mystical song of the latter drifts “d own to tower’d Camelot. the flow concretized the historical and emotional flux that besets humankind. a correspondence similar to < previous page page_196 next page > . Gemini. Semites. However. balm. water imagery prefigur es another type of emergence —the birth of Aphrodite from the sea and the power of Poseidon over the Mediterranean. to Buddhists. a sign of liberation from the body to the spirit. and Sumerians.

which permeates heraldr y with implications of a long and successful line issuing from a mythic union wi th a sea creature. To early Jews. the magic healing herb. Christianity continues to stress the living water of baptism. The focus of Roman water art tends toward such fantasy figures as naiads. who bears him inexorably to a love-nest on Mount Olympu s. In ver se. servile Aquarius. His head bears a grac eful fillet of flowers or a corona woven of myrtle.200 fountains in Rome date from the Renaissance and ex press the city’s delight in free-spurting plumes of water and relaxing baths. one of many foreign deities in polytheistic Rome. the source of mercy and divine revelation. Vishnu. processionals place the water be arer alongside musicians. priests. the Roman poet Marcus Manilius claimed that “the good. Egyptians associated Aquarius with the god Hapi. The gar ment he wears is often the Greek chiton or a simple drape. an illustrated constellation in Theodorus Graminaeus’s Arati Solensis Phaenome na et Prognostica (Aratus’s Solar Phenomena and Prognostications). His composure seems appropriate to languid. recumbent gods and goddesses at the heav enly table or to the Christian vision of heaven as a serene escape from earth’s up heavals. the direction of Pisces. In Islam. sanctifying. When Roman ceiling art casts Ganymede in the role of urn bearer. all water powers. published in 15 69. It also cha racterized Exodus and the leader Moses. the slim-limbed boy struggles against Zeus. the Koran declares that Allah’s throne resides on water. in which the spirit of Yahweh moved across the deep. In bas-relief. The traditional water beare r recurs in a complex drawing of the contorted figure juggling towel and water j ar. a propitious event that carried fertile r iver sludge to the parched land. From ancient times.< previous page page_197 next page > Page 197 the Hindu myths of Agni. a cleansing. symbol of Isis and fecund ity. epic progenitor of a ceaseless flow of l aw and justice from the Torah. the rainy season. Some 1. a nd mermaids rather than the staid. the pious. a calmer. and the yearly flooding of the Nile River. the male servant representing Aquarius typically pours water from h is jug to the east. Aquarius has been labeled the perfect natal sign. and the just are born when first Aquarius pours out his urn’’ (Cavendish < previous page page_197 next page > . and refreshing gift of God—a token of grace and salvation. In medieval times. more imaginative Aquarian symbolism appeared in the form of a sea maiden. This set piece recurs in Roman art and attests to the widespread cult of Is is. Interpreted by Christian apologists as the soul rising to heaven. c herubic Ganymede reflects the human expectation of joy in the afterlife. Tritons. and Varuna. water repre sented Genesis. and the sacred asp. In ritua l scenarios. the last figure in the zodiac.

But she perforce withhold s the loved boy. such as nere ids. 111). Very soon he lost these as well and went off empty-handed an d distraught. as her attendant. however. who seems unaware of the precarious role of boy favorite of Zeu s. Ganymede. (Apollonius 1995. a p opular stage fantasy that pits Oberon and Titania. stolen from an Indian king— She never had so sweet a changeling— And jealous Oberon would have the child Knight of his train. The complexion of his cheeks bloomed with a sweet flush. and deposited him at the throne. the poet introduces Ganymede as a victimized water bearer. snatched up the boy. the king and queen of fairies . to trace the forests wild. and he constantly threw one after another without achieving anything in his fury at Ero s’ crackling mockery. as young friends will. Because that she. Literary dep ictions of Ganymede stress the shift of the shepherd boy’s life from the Trojan pl ains to Olympus. 69) Athena scolds her son Eros for taking advant age of Ganymede. The two of t hem were playing with golden knucklebones. The rapid transfer to heaven occurred while Ganymede was playin g with Argos. Ganymede asked one favor—to return to his people a de pendable water supply. the chief philanderer among the Olympian divinities. < previous page page_198 next page > . A pastoral setting places his lord in the orchard: with Ganymede. Greedy Eros’ lef t hand was already full and he held the palm against his chest as he stood uprig ht. this emphasis on freedom and breaking of bonds tak es the form of love relationships between humans and water sprites. In myth. in a domestic tiff over Titania’s lovely changeling: For Oberon is passing fell and wrath. hath A lovely boy. squatted nearby.< previous page page_198 next page > Page 198 1970. Zeus’s eagle Aquila swooped down. and the Rhine sirens called Lorelei. silent and downcast. to even out the flow and spare humanity the misery of floods and droughts. the wavy-haired mermaids. Zeus agreed and made rain. In Apollonius’s Argonautica. he only had two knucklebones left. his dog. The theme of the snatche d boy serving at court animates William Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream. whom Zeus had established in heaven to dwel l with the immortals because the boy’s beauty filled him with desire.

and the life source. She explains. i. As from a voyage. 20–2 7) Titania claims to treasure the child because he is the offspring of her forme r handmaiden: His mother was a vot’ress of my order. (Shakespeare 1958. And in the spiced Indian air. 290). II. vitality. The duality inherent in the symbol coincides with the double wavy line. Full often hath she gossiped by my side. a fairy transfers the boy to Oberon’s fairyland bo wer. Obdurate against the pleas of her covetous husband. “for her sake do I rear up her boy. The sole reminder of her joyous embrace of life is the portrait that the D uke selfishly keeps covered until he has occasion to show her off to a guest.< previous page Page 199 page_199 next page > Crowns him with flowers. And sat with me on Neptune’s y ellow sands. Which she. then all smiles stopped together” (Browning 1949. In Egypt. a preface to murder. by night. the ideogra ph by which astrologers abbreviate the house of Aquarius. i. 125–36) Upon t he servant’s death.” a powerful verse drama in which a brutal egotist explains why he killed his wife. The Duchess’s generosity and openness to all levels of society bo th astound and dismay her proud husband. II. Marking the embarked traders on the flood. who considers her a valuable possession not to be squandered on underlings. bore two water jars. i. and makes him all her joy. (Shakespeare 1958. During t he magical night in the forest. rich with merchandise. and return again. Water symbolizes fluid ity. And for her sake I will not part with him” (Shakespeare II. wit h pretty and with swimming gait Following (her womb then rich with my young squi re) Would imitate. As the D uke phrases it. When we have laughed to see the sails conceive And grow big-bellied with the wanton wind. Titania. who broke with Obe ron over the child’s abduction. Aquarius. and sail upon the land To fetch me trifles. “I gave commands. An example of Aquarian altruism lies at the center of poet Robert Browning’s “M y Last Duchess. 137–139). one on each shoulder. postures with an overstated maternal air. a water spirit. The Duchess’s misunderstanding of her worth t o a noble genealogy precipitates her husband’s rage. particularly to desert < previous page page_199 next page > . Titania fostered the boy.

which predicts: that peace will guide the universe when the moon in the seventh house and Jupiter and Mars. the flow represents the emersion of repressed thoughts from the unconscious to the conscious mind. Psychologically. harmo ny. His foretelling of “the dawning of the age of Aquarius’’ looks ahead to the alliance of Aquarius with the sun in 22 00 A. coincide.< previous page page_200 next page > Page 200 peoples.D. a popular stage play. < previous page page_200 next page > . New Age folklore connects this heavenly pattern with tranquillity. Gerome Ragni popu larized the astrological significance of Aquarius in a song from Hair. In 1966. and peace on earth.

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< previous page page_203 next page > Page 203 ASTRONOMICAL FACTS Pure Latin term for fish. depending on the dispersal of an extra day to fles h out a leap year every four years. als o called the Circlet. The fourteenth in siz e. contained the vernal equinox . a focus in Pisces. There are five major stars: alpha-one star Alrisha. which lies between Aries and Aquarius south of Andromeda and near Pegasus. Cetus. northern wine press The constellation. is the last of the zodiac’s twelve signs. Pisces (pih’ seez or py’ seez) . the fish’s mouth eta star Alpherg omeg a star Torcularis Septentrionalis. The Greeks saw Alpherg as the head of the monster Typhon. Pisces contains meteor showers in September and Oc tober and reaches the night sky’s zenith in November. resembles a V with a triangle on the end of the shorter leg and a ring on the opposite leg. Aries.. < previous page page_203 next page > . Established in the first cen tury B. Pisces.C. It balances the beginning of destruction in Aquarius with a waning of power. The dual sign of two fish is influenced by J upiter and Neptune and attuned to the primordial waters from which creation spra ng. to a flood or tide. which lies near the northern fish’s tail. the cord alpha-two st ar Okda. which provides closure and finality. ASTROLOGICAL HISTORY A ND TRAITS Governing the period between February 19 and March 20. for example. called the First Point of Aries. is a dim cluster of fifty stars that reach the fourth magn itude. Alpherg. the rich. The Hindu identified its zeta star as Revati. the constellation borders Aquarius. abbreviated Psc. is a double star accenting the tether that joins th e two fish. and Triangulum. the knot beta star Fum al Samakah. Pisces may cove r twenty-nine or thirty days. Pisces.

Obstructions in < previous page page_204 next page > . co n artists. The archetype hates the military. sports. the joined fish relates to the escape of Aphrodite and Eros from Typhon. A talented. which floats believers atop roiling waters. In both Indian and Greek lore. In Greek mythology. a para llel to the Judaic myth of Noah and the ark. the result of an inability to accept reality. and other forms of regimentation beca use Piscean makeup excludes competition and restriction. which unsympathetic outsiders may interpret as wishy-washiness. but fail in the busin ess end of careers. Their lack of focus precipitates drift from the task at hand to any tr iviality that relieves them of making decisions. Pisceans are stereo typed as pleasure-lovers who follow lofty ideals and attempt to draw others into their carefree attitude. the two transformed themselves into f ish and swam out of the monster’s reach. By jumping into a river. The fish sign predisposes the t ype to overacting and histrionics. education. the fish sign originated in ancient time s in the Egyptian zodiac. from insurance to mortgage payments. the liquid evil that covers the earth. Outsiders are often amazed at a sudden burst of resilience or creative excellence. they are emotive folk who refuse to answer to reason. weak-willed lot. Pisceans are said to mak e good-natured. In Matthew 4:19. they respond to imagination and mental s timulus and succeed in the arts. w ho came from a fishing community.< previous page page_204 next page > Page 204 According to Ptolemy’s Almagest. whose life is imperiled by a cataclysmic flood. the fish i s the savior of humanity. veterinarians. the fish’s dual ism creates a streak of versatility. The same duality precipitates untenable sympathy for pariahs and unfounde d revulsion at harmless neighbors. or the church. Because they pursue wis hful thinking and easily part with money. the unforeseen success of Santiago. Incapable of balancing their checkbooks or squaring tax retu rns. fish folk may escape inner turmoil to reside in a have n of the imagination. they are prime targets of shysters. which named the figure the Pi-Cot Orion or Prolonged F ish. a symbol of Church doctrine. Typically. librarians. Chr istian astronomers attached the fish imagery to Christ’s selection of disciples. As a group. By nature attuned to others’ needs. Powered by vivid fantasies and vague periods of woolgathering. teachers. or to let chaotic elements se ek their own level and resolve themselves. Christ designates them as his first ministers. an d nurses. the standard Piscean is said to call on a consultant for advice in the simp lest matters. Ernest Hemingway’s luckless fisherman in The Old Man and the Sea or the escape of the dou bt-wracked protagonists in Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale or Lois Lowry’s The G iver . for example. sympathetic journalists. and unscrupulous relatives. whom he called fishers of men. In zodiacal interpretation.

ye t skimps on regular chores that keep a love nest clean. astrologers maintain that Pisces applies intuition a nd natural psychic powers. or whence. the Piscean is said to withdraw from str ife by retreating to the shore for fishing and contemplation. joining a monaster y. St. particularly of hungry sparrows. a r eligious drudge. A popular winner of hearts. eerily. During < previous page page_205 next page > . In ma tters of love and survival. and neglected urchins. To enhance a lackluster romance. At odd moments. a power exhibited by the protagonist of Charlot te Brontë’s Jane Eyre when she realizes that Edward Rochester. for ever impossible to know! And it was t he voice of a human being—a known loved. (Brontë 1981. Her otherworldly powers enable her to restore his failed vision and to pr oduce a male heir. the stereotypical Piscean adapts well to home and works willingly in the kitchen. True to her Piscean nature. In such storybook marriages as Jane’s to Edward Rochester. John Rivers. needs her: It did not come out of the air. Two l iterary masterpieces that draw on Pisces’s penchant for escapism are Zora Neale Hu rston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God and Toni Morrison’s Beloved . Though un assuming in dress and behavior. the near-tragic s tory of a plantation slave who flees her role as a breeder of more slaves. When others accuse the fish’s child of wrongdoing . erecting a house on a hill. As a pare nt. and musical performances. 401) The call redeems Jane Eyre from a loveless marriage to St. the fish dotes on its young. urgently. nor from under the earth. stray cats. and inviting. devoted fish such as Jane Eyre yearn for a dashi ng. overpowering suitor. the archetype never lacks for friends. I had heard it—where. but often lose s supporters. Valentine may have had this sign in mind when designing the first love messages. The astral personality is strong in nur turance. nor from ov erhead. or traveling to an undisclosed destination. she flees Rivers and searches out E dward.< previous page page_205 next page > Page 205 the path of the Piscean’s career include indiscretion and slovenliness. which counter self-destructive romanticism. the type is capable of selecting the perfect sweetmeat or nosegay and composing a poetic billet doux t o accompany it. the archetype receives strong extra-sensory signals from a potential lover. but is equally endowed with anxiety and misgivings about self and family. wildly. orderly. there is hell to pay for the accuser. wellremembered voice—that of Edward Fairfax Rochester. meditati on. H ousework centers the Piscean in domesticity punctuated by deep reading. and it spoke in pain and woe. If life becomes too grim. her former employer. gardening.

C. bearing a fish in each hand. natural companions for a water sign. jewelry. and smooth complexion of the stereotypical Piscean betoken basic strength and health compromised by inherent fragility of frame.< previous page page_206 next page > Page 206 private difficulties. the fish move in opposite direct ions to depict past and future. figs. and pottery with fish shapes. Romans decorated homes. Seabirds flutter aloft as though linking the scene to a heavenly blessing. colitis. the curse of Jane Eyre’s nemesis. inflammations. the Piscean affinity for wide-eyed incr edulity and wonder drops years from the personality. ulcers. Into old age. even a sip of wine. spinach and lettuce salad. edema. The soft hair. flat feet. as well as seaweed and algae. and madness. Over all. Astral healers do not advise alcoho l. children profit from having a Piscean parent and grow up rich in security a nd trust. yet acknowledges a wide range of theological possibiliti es. weakness. According to the Egyptian Hermetica. Friends of all ages feel at home with the Piscean. gentle eyes. the fantailed god. the fish embraces a respect for God and belief in an afterlife. simple Etruscan designs featur e lotus blossoms twining on the neck. and the beginning and end of cycles. On a clay amphora found at Rome’s Villa Julia. and fallen arches may n ot crop up until mid-life. whose soulfulness and candor welcome confessions and sol icitations of advice. and scoliosis or lo rdosis. Problems with corns. and moss. and frequent snacks of nuts. widow’s hump. bunions. arrival and departure. especially the solar calendar. and fresh fruit may relieve menstrual distress. which grow near springs and rivulets. then pour out affection to neutralize rancor. rai sins. From the same era comes a red-l ined cup depicting an ebullient myth in which Dionysus turned his ship into a vi ne-crowned fantasy barque. The weakest of the type is notorious for psychosomatic ills and tends to ward melancholia. Pisces rules mosses and ferns. and hemorrhage. the Piscean may lash out at a mate with harsh wor ds or may slap a sassy child. A diet rich in dried beans. SYMBOLISM IN ART AND RELIGION In art. wall murals. beneficial herbal co ncoctions for the ailing Piscean should contain peppermint. They prec ede the prow of a ship in gladsome leaps at the surf. saxifrage. schizophrenia. A Tarquinian burial vault built in the sixth century B. g out. ready smile. vervain. displayed in a forward head. The motif develops into a seascape with Tr iton. Deeply religious. dates. floor mosaics. They counted laps at the C ircus Maximus with a clever line of bronze fish that the referee upended one by one. Be rtha Rochester. depicts a propitious pair of dolphins. After < previous page page_206 next page > .

Fundamentalist Christian s favor the fish emblem as a bumper sticker or on jewelry and T-shirts. Son of God. To keep together. Turkey. Savior). decorates the Baths of the Seven Sages in black and white. When the sailors hoist him to the gunw ales.D. trinkets. a luckless passenger on a Mediterranea n vessel crewed by thieves and assassins. Becaus e the equinox moved to the west into the sign of Pisces. escapes eas ily. pediments.D. They swim under him and ferry him to shore. a fire dragon. Pisc es governs occult rituals and secrets. The sign represents m ystic fusion or epiphany. and crustaceans harmonizes w ith the tastes of a sophisticated clientele. the love goddess born of sea form. Waylaid by Typhon. the crew meets retribution in the form of Arion and the authorities. who execute the sail ors for attempted murder. Winged Cupids harness and drive two dolphins. She and Cupid are changed into fish and slip under the dark Mediterranean w aters. Rome’s warehouse district. and chrismons. the Christian used the Greek ichthous or fish as an anagram for Christ. he changed them into dolphins. the sudden < previous page page_207 next page > . he sings a piteous melody that strikes the hearts of nearby dolphins. According to Al-Sufi. the fish harmonize with columns. which feature fish-shaped chocolates. Fanciful sea creatures and human swimmers cavort on the periphery. and arches. The motif of frolicking dolphins de rives from the story of the singer Arion. which they derived from the phr ase: Iesous Christos Theou Uios Soter (Jesus Christ. pastrie s. One mosaic presents fish shapes dashing alongside Neptune’s chariot. Like the Orphic mysteries that grew out of the dismemberment of the singer Orpheus. An ima ge of everlasting life in Christian symbolism. which ba lanced the bounty of vine and sea. The fish emblem remains strong i n European religious celebrations. When the ship arrives in port. As an unassuming marker for a safe house. they flee to water. The imaginative juxtaposition of horses with seahorses. good luck talismen. the eleme nt that Typhon must avoid. w hich is pulled by four horses. the fish summed up the spiritual goal of Christianity. t he Persian astronomer. Venus. Other paired fish occur in a Roman myth about Venus an d her son Cupid. fish. Ostia.< previous page page_207 next page > Page 207 seven crewmen leaped overboard. Prominently arranged on a third-century A. An energized seascape from first-century A. eels. the yoked pair were mirrored in the sky by Pisces. cask found in Konia. The Christian concept of earthly death fo llowed by spiritual resurrection links the fish with hope. the symbol welcomed fo llowers of the new religion to fellow converts. all clas sical elements. she tethers herself to her son. breads.

assembles the elect of Christ. the end as a prologue to a new beginning. These spreaders of the gospel.< previous page page_208 next page > Page 208 realization of a concept or image. < previous page page_208 next page > .” uplifted the downtrod den with promises of everlasting life and salvation for followers of Christ’s teac hings. skeletons i n Good Friday processions. Compounding the concept of the fish as a symbol of regeneration is Christ’s promise to make his disciples fishers of men. skulls. in which the nave. a sacrament c onferring hope of redemption and resurrection. often symbolized by the suffocating airlessness of the tomb at Maundy Thursday services. derived fr om the Latin for ship. crows. in particular. The imagery extends to church architecture. The new life results from a burial in water or baptism. For Christians. The converse of fish imagery is a funereal association with putrefaction and disintegration. the end is penitence and a rejection of the old life. and vultures. or “good news.

C. 2750 B. 1350 Sumerians worship the sun.C.< previous page page_209 next page > Page 209 Appendix I A TIME LINE OF DEVELOPMENTS IN ZODIACAL STUDY 25. B.C. Sargon of Agade charts solar eclipses and oversees the composition of The Day of Bel . refers to the constellations. Celtic astrologers construct Stonehenge. Chinese astronomers iden tify the constellation Capricornus. ca.C. moon . ca. the sufferer in the Old Testam ent.C. 2449 B.C. B. 1800 B. 2073 B. 17 50 Babylonians divide the year into twelve lunar months. an astrological handbook. Nebo. 1000 Babylonians learn cast horosco pes based on five planets—Ishtar. whom they call Ishtar.C. B. 700 Babylonians begin to shape their zodiac. B. China’s first emperor sacrifices to the seven planets. Nergal. ca. and B. Marduk. ca. 1375 B.C.C. ca. and Venus. B.C. B. ca.000 Early h umans note phases of the moon by notching mammoth tusks and reindeer antlers. 900 Gr eeks acquire Mesopotamian calculations of equinoxes and phases of the moon. 2150 Job. Pharaoh Ikhnaton commissions a hymn to the sun. < previous page page_209 next page > .C. Ninib.C.

C. 539 B.C. B. 250 B. 409 Babylonians produce the first horoscope. Heracleides hypothesizes that the earth rotates. ca. B.C. 300 Euclid applies geometric axioms to astronomy. ca. Cancer. author of Phaenomen a .C. ca.< previous page Page ca. Mediterranean rulers seek guidance from astrologers.C. writes Babyl oniaca. introduces Phoenician astrology. composes a verse description of constellations. planets move about the sun. ca. ca. Capricornus.C. and stars remain 310 fixed. ca. Praesepe. 350 B. Berosus. B. 475 B. and Spica . a compendium applying star knowledge to healing. 331 Alexander the G reat conquers Chaldea. C.C. Aquarius. ca. 400 Egyptians interpret mathematical calculations of the positions of constellations. Oenopides discovers the ecliptic. Also. and Pisces plus Pleiades. Leo. Eustemon of Athens writes a weather almanac that l inks forecasts with Aquarius and other constellations Folklorist Pherecydes of A thens uses mythology to account for the setting of the constellation Orion as Sc orpio rises. B.C.C. Babylonians identify the constellations as Aries. ca.C. 500 B. page_210 next page > 210 King Ashurbanipal expands the royal library at Nineveh to include the Creati on Legend documenting astral positions. which were later changed to Taurus. Pythagoras theorizes that heavenly bodies move in concentric circles and produce a celestial harmony. ca.C.C.C. ca. Babylonian astronomer Kiddinu explains equinoxes. 600 B. < previous page page_210 next page > . priest of Marduk. Gemini. 450 B. Scorpio. Anaximander describes the universe geometrically.C. Anaximene depicts t he stars as nailed to a crystal overlayer that rotates about the earth. 650 B. The table of Cambyse s contains a codified zodiac. Chaldean s use asterism to predict human fate. S agittarius. Eudoxus of Cnidus. 280 B. a Greek astronomer.C. 550 B. Eratosthenes calculates the earth’s circumference. 275 B. 530 B. ca. 419 B. Libra. Thales of Miletus. B. ca. and Virgo.C.C.

C.< previous page page_211 next page > Page 211 ca. 100 The Farnese G lobe positions constellations. a collection of fortyfour zodiacal myths. 70 B. B. which links the zodiac and human character. 33 B.C. Augustus Caesar temporarily bans horoscopy. ca.Hipparchus compiles a catalogue of 800 stars. which explains how star groups are named. 150 Hypsicles composes On Rising Times. ca. ca.C. 50 Strabo writes a geogra phy text that proclaims the accuracy of the Chaldean zodiac. 400 Catholic doctrine rejects zodiac study as heretical. 15 Manilius publishes Astronomicon . which lampoons women for dependence on astrology. < previous page page_211 next page > . ca. which calculates the appe arance of zodiacal figures. ca.D. ca. 127 J uvenal publishes Satire VI . 220 B.Rome’s college of auguries ousts the Chal dei. B. 150 The Planisphe re of Geruvigus maps constellations as seen from Earth. Greeks cast natal horoscopes. 45 Cicero composes On Divination . 225 Eratosthenes composes Catasterisms. B. ca. a scientific description of the heavens. 1 40 Ptolemy completes Tetrabiblos . which defends the casting of horoscopes. which argues that astrology is ignorant superstition. 120 B. which formalizes Ptolemy’s astral interpretations.C. B.C. ca. ca.C. 190 Galen publishes the Prognostication of Disease by Astrology. T hrasyllus interprets Augustus’s horoscope.C. Geminu s publishes Introduction to Astronomy . 100 The Maya evolve cyclic star interpretation. 397 Augustine’s Confessions claim that astrology violates Christian doctrine. B. and Almagest.C. which links disease and healing wit h the zodiac. 700 Islam ic astrologers practice astral prognostication.Carneades warns that astrology violat es reason.C. 52 Claudius evicts soothsayers from Rome. 30 B. A. ca.C. 139 B.C. 250 The Greek poet Aratus writes Phenomena.

Printed astrology textbooks.< previous page Page ca.000 stars. and decapitation of Charles I. a modern astronomy text. Nicolas L. the feath ered serpent representing the planet Venus. Chinese astrologer s advise Kublai Khan on matters of state. Nostradamus’s prophe cies are published. plague . de Lacaille l ocates fourteen constellations. Robert Hooke discovers Mesarthim. Joha nn Bayer publishes Uranometria . disproving the heliocentric universe. Alessandro Piccolomini publishes De l e Stelle Fisse. 1200 ca. The French Academy of Sciences bans Colbert’s astrology. Astrology separates into specia lized fields. Johannes Campanus systematizes zodiacal houses. 1450 1536 1540 1543 1555 1595 1603 1619 1647 1664 1666 1687 1690 1729 1763 page_212 next page > 212 Arabic documents record astral calculations. Hevelius identifies nine new constellations. 950 ca. Ulush Beg duplicates Ptolemy’s star st udies. a compendium of star charts. Copernicus publishes De Revolutioni bus Orbium Caelestium . John Flamsteed catalogues 3. Pieter Dircksz Keyser adds twelve star clusters to the south ern constellations. Peter Bienewitz carve s forty-eight constellations in a woodcut. Isaac Newton publish es Principia Mathematica . Aries’s gamma s tar. Aztecs worship Quetzalcoatl. 1250 1275 1400 1437 ca. almanacs. < previous page page_212 next page > . Johannes Kepler reconciles planetary motion with modern astrology in Ast ronomia Nova and Harmonice Mundi. Johan n Müller translates Ptolemy’s Almagest for use in ephemerides. Johann Hondius places Keyser’s constellations on a globe. which charts the thirteen new southern constell ations. and tables become available. William Lilly predicts the London Fire.

1930sHoroscopes reach the public through magazines. Goethe studies astrology. an d annual handbooks. 1814 Piazzi publishes a star catalog. 1820 1824 Robert Cross Smith introduces popular horoscopy. 1948 Frank Brown establishes the theory of biorhythms. 1850 1863 F. ca. L. which catalogs 324. the first asteroid. newspapers. 1950 Giorgio Pic cardi studies the effects of the cosmos on chemical analysis. ca. and the lunar cycle.W . 1828 Rapha el of England writes The Manual of Astrology. The International Astronomical Union completes a definitive list of stars .< previous page page_213 next page > Page 213 1781 William Herschel finds Uranus in Gemini’s boundaries. 1960 Research correlates heredity and the planets. 1875 1898 Svante Arrhenius links human life. a compendium of nebulae. Tombaugh spots Pluto in Gemini. 1930 Clyde W. Alan Leo issues a medieval astrology text and pamphlets on a stral predictions. Tchijevs ky links sunspots and human life. 1963 Maarten Schmidt defines quasars. William Parsons Rosse locates the Crab Nebula. 1941 Maki Takata connects a solar ray and bloo d serum. ca. 1800 Johann Elert Bo de maps the monthly shift of constellations. 1835 ca. Argelander publishes Atlas des nordlichen ges-timten Himmels. weather. 1957 Satellites di sclose interactions between solar bodies. 1801 Giuseppe Piazzi discovers Cere s. 1930 Eugène Delp orte’s Délimitation Scientifique des Constellations standardizes constellation bound aries. 1940 A. 1784 French as tronomer Charles Messier numbers fifteen objects in Sagittarius and eleven in Vi rgo in his New General Catalogue .198 stars.A. 1939 Nazis apply Nostradamus’s predictions to a master race. The Romantic movement revives astrology. < previous page page_213 next page > .

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148 3rd 513.85 ranking in area 2nd number of stars 56 numb er of major stars 6 directly overhead (month/day) highest altitude (month/day) Leo 3/1 8/31 5.87 11th 12th 9th 28 31 23 4 7 5 Lib Psc Sco Sgr 1 1/8 3/29 12/4 1/6 5/9 9/27 6/3 7/7 next page > ZODIAC Gem 1/5 7/8 9.545 7th 5th 11th 441.715 brightness ranking 8th area in sq.< previous page page_215 CONSTELLATIONS OF THE Ari Cap Cnc 10/30 8/8 1/30 4/31 2/5 8/1 6.344 7.491 10th 946.489 4.76 8th 47 13 Tau 6/2 11/30 Page 215 Appendix II A COMPARATIVE CHART OF ELEMENTS OF THE Aqr directly overhea d (month/day) 8/25 highest altitude (month/day) 2/24 brightness 5.96 3rd 52 12 Vir 10/12 4/11 < previous page page_215 next page > .95 505. 979.39 413. deg.

622 9th 889. deg.480 1st 496. ranking in area number o f stars number of major stars Lib 6.493 4th 867 .78 10th 62 12 Sgr 7.42 4th 50 4 Sco 12.43 1st 58 13 < previous page page_216 next page > .505 6th 538.< previous page Page 216 brightness brightness ranking area in sq.05 7th 35 5 page_216 Psc 5.25 6th 98 15 next page > Vir 4.43 5th 65 13 Tau 12.292 2nd 797.481 12th 1294.

Continents Islands. Mountains Cities Aquarius Afghanistan Bremen Russia Hamburg Aries England Florence Denmark Marseilles Germ any Verona Syria Cancer Africa Algiers Holland Amsterdam Scotland Cadiz Genoa Mi lan Venice Capricorn Albania Orkney Islands Oxford Bulgaria < previous page page_217 next page > .< previous page page_217 next page > Page 217 Appendix III GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS LINKED WITH SUN SIGNS Astrologers who a pply zodiacal care to history find patterns in the topography and rule of geogra phical locations. Sign Countries.

Continents East India Greece Mexico Belgium United Stat es page_218 Islands.< previous page Page 218 Sign Countries. Mountains next page > Cities Gemini Leo Libra Chaldea France Italy China Japan West India Portugal Arabia Hungary Spain Yugosl avia Morocco Norway Mideast Russia Switzerland Turkey Alps Pisces Sagittarius Scorpio Taurus Virgo Cyprus Samos West Indies Cordoba London Nuremberg New York Versailles Philadelphia Prague Rome Antwerp Fr ankfurt Lisbon Vienna Alexandria Seville Avignon Cologne Narbonne Toledo Ghent L iverpool Dublin Leipzig Parma Babylon Jerusalem Paris Toulouse < previous page page_218 next page > .

< previous page Page 219 Appendix IV PLANETARY CORRESPONDENCES Planet Jewels Metals Sun diamond gold ruby carbuncle Moon pearl opal moonstone quicksilver silver page_219 next page > Mercury quicksilver Herbs almond celandine juniper rue saffron chickweed hyssop purslain moonwort ca lamint endive horehound marjoram pellitory valerian Governance business executives authority figures workers public figures intelligentsia business leaders < previous page page_219 next page > .

< previous page Page 220 Planet Venus Jewels emerald Metals copper page_220 Herbs artichoke foxglove fern sorrel spearmint aloe caper coriander crowfoot gen tian ginger honeysuckle pepper anise balm myrrh lime linden nutmeg jessamine aco nite fumitory ivy medlar moss aloe senna next page > Governance good will ambassadors social leaders Mars bloodstone flint iron military leaders weapon makers Jupiter amethyst turquoise tin judiciary investors and financiers Saturn garnet black stones lead executives of state the poor Uranus Neptune Pluto chalcedony lapis lazuli coral ivory beryl jade radium lithium platinum tungsten plutonium transportation workers social workers demagogues organized labor idealists < previous page page_220 next page > .

heart.< previous page Page 221 Planet Color Sun orange gold yellow Moon white pearl opal iridescence M ercury slate-gray Venus cerulean mint Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto c armine purple deep blue Flavor/Smell sweet pungent odorless tasteless astringent warm sweet astringent pungent fragrant cold sour cold astringent seductive arom atic page_221 Form/Shape circle curve arc skewed lines Sense next page > Pathology fever disease of the spleen. spine inflamed mucosa endocrine im balance nerve ailments blood impurity straight lines infection indigestion melan cholia rheumatism skin disease swelling glandular ailments arthritis acidosis short lines curves angles curves short lines broken lines curves straight lines sharp angles sight touch taste smell hearing streaks mixtures lavender luminous shades < previous page page_221 next page > .

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dry skin. buffets nervousness. simple brooding. loves intractibility. tends to gain weight vengefulness. consumpt ion. pneumonia. goiter. stroke potatoes l uxury Geminismall meals. fainting Taurusoverea ter. anger. laryngitis. inflammation inflamed eyes and gums. vertigo. asthma. sleep disturbances. suspicion. blood and pulmonary disease. fever. love of glands. gastritis. dark tuberculosis. scalp disease. hot. sclerosis. neurit is moods Cancerhigh water content. alcoholism. throat polyps. fla tulence. swollen palate. Sign Eating Habits Symptoms Afflictions Aries hurried. bronchitis.< previous page page_223 next page > Page 223 Appendix V ZODIACAL PATHOLOGY One of the lesser regions of sun sign app lication stereotypes human tendencies toward physical disturbance and illness or dysfunction. indigestion. torpor. finicky exc essive force. hiccups over eating < previous page page_223 next page > . anemia. brain irregularities. likes restlessness. tonsillitis.

spinal weakness. knee degene ration. hesitancy. low sensitivity. hyp ochondria next page > Afflictions heart irregularity. casseroles secretivenes s. bowel complaints. colic. selfabsorption. melancholia. dominance. rhinitis. varicose veins. tumors spice. natur al foods anxiety disease. addictive behavior < previous page page_224 next page > . likes nettlesomeness. weakn ess. leg cramps. edema. uremia. hernia d’oeuvres Sagittariusred meat accidents. fistula. fever. appendicitis. flab. hypersensitivity. lack sciatica. gout. constipation . peritonitis. obsession. neuralgia Pisces bubbly drinks. settings jealo usy renal dysfunction Scorpio Spicy. eats dry mucosa. rheumatism. venereal d isease. dislocated joints. skin cuisine. angina.< previous page Page 224 Sign Eating Habits Leo needs pampering page_224 Symptoms arrogance. condiments and hors destructiveness urethritis . parasites Libra prefers ornate place hyperse nsitivity. restlessn ess. nephritis. uterine disease. of focus motor dysfunction Cap ricorn controls diet. tics. lumbar pain. diabetes. deformed toes and arches. ataxia. spleen d ysfunction Virgo picky. prostatitis. impulsiveness hypercriticism. multicultural suicidal . hip degeneration. dyspeptic poor nutrition. health food crystallization eczema Aquarius salt.

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< previous page page_234 next page > Page 234 INDEX Page numbers in boldface type refer to the chapters on the Zodiac signs. Aaron, 112 Abraham, 18, 63–64, 87 Achilles, 108 Acropolis, 147, 189 Acuben s, 121 Adam, 18, 40 Addison, Joseph, 4–5 advertising, 61 Aeneas, 41 Aeschylus, 116 Aesculapius, 41, 43 Aesop, 20, 137 Against Apion, 30 Agrippa, Henry Cornelius, 51 Akkadia, 11 Albertus Magnus, 45–46 alchemy, 45, 47 Aldebaran, 48, 94 Alexander of Aphrodisias, 42 Alexander the Great, 27, 100, 138 Alexandria, 28 Allah, 69 Al l Rivers Run to the Sea, 160 Almagest, 42, 47, 204 almanac, 21, 25, 67 alphabet, 14–15 Alpha Crucis, xiii Al-Rashid, Caliph Harun, 42 Al-Sufi, 42, 407 Amaltheia, 184 Amazons, 150 Amerindian, 112 Amphiareus, 70 Anasazi, xiii Anaximander, 24, 4 3 Anaximenes of Miletus, 24, 43 Anne, Queen (of England), 50 Annona, 158 Anouilh , Jean, 190 Antares, 164 Antigonus Gonatas, 27 Antiquities of the Jews , 18, 20 < previous page page_234 next page >

< previous page page_235 next page > Page 235 Antony, Mark, 36 Anu-Ea-Enlil, 12 Anubis, 64 Aphrodite, 196–97 Apis, 99, 100 Apollo, 62, 138 Apollonius, 65, 84, 96, 114, 116, 149–50, 178, 198 “Appassionata ,” 177 Aquarius, 9, 60, 65, 68, 74–80, 191– 200 Aquinas, Thomas, 46 Arabs, 13, 21, 42 Ara Pacis , 101 Arati Solensis Phaenomena et Prognostica, 197 Aratus, 27, 145 ar chaeoastronomy, 11 Arcturus, 23, 64 Arellius Fuscus, 35 Argonautica, 65, 84, 96, 116, 149–50, 178, 198 Aries, 3–4, 8, 60, 65, 68, 74–80, 81– 90 Arion, 207 Aristocrates, 22 Aristophanes, 122 Aristotle, 24, 74 armillary sphere, 14 Ascella, 174 Asclep ius, 175 Asdente, 71 Aselli, 121 Ashton, Frederick, 54 Ashurbanipal, 17, 136 Ass yrians, 11, 18–19, 29–30 Astraea, 158, 187 astro-archeology, 11 astrolabe, 4 Astrolo gical Magazine , 53 Astrological Predictions, 52 astrology, 3, 11–33, 48, 49, 51; electional, 45; horary or genethliacal, 45, 53; judicial, 45; medical, 45; meteo rological, 44; mundane, 44; natural, 44; physiognomical, 45 Astronomia Nova, 49 Astronomicon , 39, 67 astronomy, 24, 26, 44, 47, 48, 49 Atlas Athena, 147–48 Athen a Parthenos (the Maiden), 147 Athens, 147–48 Atlantis, 62 Atlas, 58, 62 Atlas Coel estis Seu Harmonia Macrocosmica, 52 Aton, 16 Atwood, Margaret, 204 augury, 30–31, 36, 67

Augustine of Hippo, 43–44 Augustus, 35–36, 58, 100, 114, 187–188. See also Octavius Au rora, 62 Aurelius, Marcus, 41, 100, 136 Auriga, 20 Autobiography , 53 Avicenna, 44 Aztec, 13 Babyloniaca, 29 Babylonians, xii, 11, 12, 16–17, 18, 62–63 Bacchantes, 101 Bacon, Fr ancis, 48, 189 Bacon, Roger, 45 Bailly, Harry, 98–99 Balbillus, 37 Bayer, Johann, 48 Becket, Thomas à, 88 Beethoven, Ludwig von, 177 “Belle Jardinière, La,’’ 115 Belleropho n, 90 Beloved , 205 Belshazzar, 20 Bel-u, 17 Ben Hur , 61 < previous page page_235 next page >

The. 73 Calvin. 8. Chinese. 21 Butler. 33 Carroll. 26. Peter. Thomas. 33. 29. 32. Robert. 180 Bode. 47 Carlyle. 88. 23 Botticelli. 144 Blavatsky. The. 196 Campanus. 104 Brahe. 23. 68. 73 Castillo . 125–26 “Boxer. 113 black hole. 53–54 Caduceus. 23 Cambys es. 198 Buddh ism. 111 calendar. Ernle. 46. 49 Brown. 45 Cancer. 12–13. 65. 116 Calypso. 177 Carne ades of Cyrene. 61. 59 Call of the Wild. Guido. 60. Samuel. Babylo nian. Helena Petrovna. George. 149 Bovary. xiii Castor. xiii Cain and Abel. The. 13. 59 Berosus. 67. 74–80. 60. 14–15 Caligula . 53. 78. Sandro. 179–80 Camelot. 73 Cahokia Mounds. 123 Bernini. 144 biorhythm. 72. 71. Lewis. Johann Elert. 123 B litz. 25.< previous page Page 236 Bergson. 61 Cardano. John. xiii Cassius. 68. 98–99 Capricorn. 53 Bienewitz. 36 Besant. 149 bisexuality. 46 Calydonian boar hunt. 51–52 Byron. Lorenzo. 181–90 Capricorn One. The. 54 Browning. The. 213 Birth of Venus. Julius. 158 Boötes. 159 Caesar. 71 Book of Hours. 124. Tycho. 48 Big Bang theory. 8. 74–80. Emma. Frank A. Annie. 178 Casa Rinconada. 54. 14.” 114 Bradford. 20 Camelot. 65. Geronimo. 108 page_236 next page > . 189 Calpurnia. 52 Bonatti. 61 calligraphy.. Johannes. 181–190 Canterbury Tales. Henri.

208 Christian Astrology. 11. 64 Chaldeans. 76. 47 Ceres. 176 Cicero. 138–39 Child e Harold’s Pilgrimage . 16. xii.catalog. 145. 204. 31 Cellarius. 11. 12 Centaur. 53–54 Chinese. 112 < previous page page_236 next page > . 14 Child. 103 Chaucer. Julia. 175. 28 Catholicism. 13–14 Chiron. Andreas. 5 2 Celtic Britain. 42 Centuries . 98–99 Chichen Itza. 20. Le-chieh. 207 Churchi ll. 52 Christianity. Geoffrey. 178 Christ. 86. 125 . 17 Challenger. 61. 95 Cetus . 71–72. 174 Catasterisms. 149. 31–33. 62 Chanson de Roland . Winston. 78. 44 Cato. 167–68. xiii Ch’ien. 28. 62 Centrilocus .

43 Columbia. 29 Commodus. 32 Deorum Diologi . 62 dissection. Hernán. 179–80 constellations. 206–207 Dioscuri. 73 Cleopatra . 49–50 Copperfield. 150 D iologo sopra i due massimi sistemi del monto . 50–51 Dionysus. 61 Com binations of Stellar Influences. 40 De Natura Deorum . A. 8 0 Cortéz. The. 13 Crab Nebula. 31 . 25–26 De Mundi Opificio . 117. 37 Dickens. 20 Dante Alighieri. 40 De Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestiu m . 41. 32 Democritus. 4 Cuzco. 54 Commentary on the Phenomena of Eudoxus and A ratus. 49 De Vita Caesarum . 84. 207 cusp. 121. 42 Dejanir a. 61 City of God. 46 De Fata .< previous page page_237 next page > Page 237 cinema. 71 Confessions . liver. 32 Dee. Christopher . 44. 43 Conne cticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court. 50 Cleopatra. 177 David. 117 Darius. 114 Discovery. patterns of. 1 Cybele. A. 69–70. 45 De Divinatione 16. 79 Crys tal Cave. 46 De Legibus. 178 De le Stelle Fisse. 187 Clavius. xiii. The. 37. Nicholas. ix. 52 Collectanea Rerum Memorablium . 99. 74–77. The. 136 Complaint of Mars. 43–44 Claudius. 95 “Creation Legend. The. Charles. 87 Day of Bel. 151 correspondence. 62 Columbus . David.” 17 Crinas of Marseilles. 12 De Coelis et Mundi. John. 24–25 Coelum Australe St elliferum . 132–33 Daedalus. 52 Coper nicus. 41 Da niel. 61 Cleostratus of Tenedos. 16. 74 Cupid. 150–51 Diodorus Siculus. 64.

R alph Waldo. 58 Ebertin. Albrecht. 12. 124 Edmund ( King Lear). xiii. 165 Einstein. 19 Dr. See Merrick. 160 Enos. 117 Durer. The. 17 Eddy. Jekyll and Mr. 53–54 eclipse. 69–70 Doyle. Joseph Elizabeth I. 6 Equatorie of the Planetis . 123. 71 < previous page page_237 next page > . Hyd e . 144 elements . 47 ephemeris. Mary Baker. 15–16. Sir Arthur Conan. 3 Elephant Man. Reinhold. 18 enneakaidekaëteris . 26 Ephemeri des 1475–1506. 61 Emerson. 117 Draco. 54.Divine Comedy. 29. 135–36. Albert. 117 Endless Steppe. 73 Egyptians. 47 Elizabeth I.

Gustave. 188 Fortuna. 205–6 page_238 next page > Fables (of Aesop). 103. 204 Harmonice Mundi. 112 Ethan Frome. xiii Fall of th e Roman Empire. autumnal. 41 Galileo Galilei. Esther. 112 . 116–17 eternity.. 22–27 griffin . 18. 208 Gothic. 40. 31 Euc lid. 51 food. 144. 183. 79–80 Forster. 197 Geb. 65. 197 Greeks. 94 Eratosthenes. 197 Genitarum Exempla. 15 G emini. 194. 52 Flaubert. 63–64. 61 Farnese Globe. 8. M. 125–26 Fludd. Three. 53 Good Friday. 137 Fables (of Hyginus). 27 Euphrates River.< previous page Page 238 equinox. 160 h ealing (astral). 177 Etruscans. 1 Eurydice. 66–67. John. 77–80 heaven. 9. 115 The Giver . 6. See Astraea Galatea. 121 Ganymede. 47 Georgics. 74–80. 138 The Handmaid’s Tale. 150 Eustemon. 49 haruspices.” 177 Esau. 96 Fajada Butte. 197 Eyre. 105–18 Gemini (spacecraft). 147 Galen. 31 Genesis. 28 Eudoxus. 204 Goethe. 28. 60. 144 “Eroica. 3. 50. 148 Graminaeus. Johann Wolfgang von. The. 156 equinox. Robert. 68. 25 Eve. 11 5. 62–63 Giotto. 40 Exo dus. 20. 24. 159 Gilgamesh . 62 Geminus. 11. 87. 31 Flamsteed. E. Jane. vernal. 43. 58 Graces. Theodorus. 31 Hautzig.

William. 43 Hindu. 43. 124–25. 47. 117 Holst. Sherlock.Hebrews. 84 Hemingway. 2 8. 60–61 Hercules. 124–25. 132 Hieroglyphics. 126 Hephaestus. 29. 188 Herschel. 206 Herodotus. 44 Hipparchus 28–29 Hippocra tes. 64–65. Adolf. Johannes. 126–27 Hippolitus. Ernest. xii. 196. 204 Henry IV. Part I. 90 Holmes. 78–79 Hermetica. 121 Hera. 19. 88–89 Henry VIII. 23–24 Hevelius. 183 Helen of Troy. Gust av. 123. 37 Histories. 132–33. 108 Hesiod. 30. 115–16 Helle. 13. 27 heraldry. 63–64. 178 Hermes. 17–18. 149–50 Heraclei des Ponticus. 52 Historia Naturali s. 43 Historia Coelestis Britannica. 188 Hitler. 54 < previous page page_238 next page > .

24–25. 45. 16. 64 John (gospel). 76 . 96. 88–89 House of Fame. 53 horoscope. 96. 43. 145 Isis. 187–90 Job. 23. 87 Isaiah. 54 Horus. 96. Aldous. 96. Thomas. Victor. 20. 43 horary or genethliacal astrology. 113. 16. 28–29 Ibn Bakhtishu. 83 Horace. 10 2 imum coeli. 179. 184 Hymn to Pan . 188 “Hymn to the Dioskouri. 21. 15 Inquisition. 116 Horapollo. xi Hooke. 17–18. Stonewall. 51 Interpretation of Nature and the Psyche.” 178 Jackson. 51–52 Hugo. 76 Homer.< previous page page_239 next page > Page 239 Holy Grail. 205 Huxley. 20. 64 Isis Unve iled . xiii. 31 Isaac. Harry. 136 Ibn Sina. 189 Judaism. 22–27. 117 Japanese. 115. 71. 61 ‘‘Jabberwocky. 18 Ivanhoe . 188 Homeric Hym ns . James. 65. 18–19 Ishtar. 54 Introduction to Ast ronomy . 13. Robert. Johann. See Hebrews Joan of Arc. 24 Hyginus. 53 Islam. 87. 13 Hudibras . 48 Hood. 189–90 Jaco b. 50 Integrum Morbor um Mysterium. 123 Hyades. 115 Hondius. 84–85 Jews. 23. 168 Hurston. 30 Joyce. 102. 116. 116–117 Janus. Zora Neale. 27–30. 35 Ho roscope. 125 Josephus. 13 Indo-European. 86–87. 16. 78 Hsien. 41 Iliad. 35 Jason. 6 Inca. 44 Icarus. 96. The. 64 Hotspur.” 115 Hypsicles.

xiii Koran. 52 Lactantius. 74–80. 14 Kepler. 54 Jupiter. 72–73 Jung. 68. Robert E. 190 Lee. 48 Khitab-a sh-Shifa.. 21 Kidenas. 14 Lacaille.” 196 La rk. 50 Juvenal. Johannes. 129–39 Leo. 38–39 Kabbala. 5 3 Leonid meteors. 7. Nicolas Louis de. Alan. 8. 68–69 Kublai Khan. 43 “The Lady of Shalott.. 45.Juliet. 132 < previous page page_239 next page > . 53 Kan Te . 189–90 Leo. Pieter Dircksz. 65. 28 King Lear. 49 Keyser. The. 44 Kiddinu. 60. 13 Keng Shou-Ch’ang. 73 kiva. Carl G. 61.

136–37 Manilius. 33 Luke. 36 Livy. 168 Liber Astronomicus. 188 Metaphysica Naturalia . 79. Joseph. Martin. Jack. 62. 33 Mark (gospel). 53 Marathon.” 179 Manafi al-Hayawan. 149 Maundy Thu rsday. 41 Maternus. 14 Marduk. Julius F irmicus. xiii Madame Bovary 125. 47 Lowry. 144. 63 Marie A ntoinette. 114 London. 74 Merlinus Angelicus Junior. Ferdinand. 8. St. 62 Luther. Charles. 174 Metamorphoses. 6 Mercury. 46 Libra. 46 Life on the Mississippi . 6 0. 74–80. 6. 66. 25–26 . Caliph. 52 Merrick. 7. 51. 67. 13 Mazzaroth. 62 Maid of Orlean s. 204 Matthew. 68. 28 Les Miserables. 16. 39–40. 33. 174 Louis XVI. 179 L illy. Abraham. 189 Lorelei.< previous page Page 240 Leonidas. 108 Merl in. Johannes. The. 21 “The Man Who Corrupted Hadleyb urg. 43 Matthew (gospel). Moses. 151 Ma’mun. 28. 134–35 Messier. 188 Marco Polo. 126 Magellan. 47 Marius. The. 42. 48. xiii. 25. 21. 1 98 Louis XV. 45 Meton. 77 Mars. 167 Luna. 174 Messier object. 46. 17 medium coeli. 65. Lois. 168 page_240 next page > Machu Picchu. 208 Maya. See star lore Lives of the Noble Romans . 96. 6. 190 Maimonides. 153–60 Lichtenberger.. 21. 103. 61 literature. 4 Lucretius. 43 Mathesis . 87. 176 Lion in Winter. Marcus. 204 Lucian. 28. 51–52 Lincoln. 197–98 Manual of Astrology. 8. William.

xi Moore. 28. 135 Moh ammed. 198–99 Milky Way. Henry. 73 MulAlpin.” 198 < previous page page_240 next page > . 42. Johann. 44 “My Last Duchess. 96. 50 Mil ler. 90 Monty Python and the Holy Grail . 68. 4 7–48 Muslims. 19 Müller. 61 Moon. 102. 74.Metonic cycle. 138. 45. 138. A. 114–15 Middle Ages. 189 Much Ado About Nothing . 50 Mozart . 10 Milton. 197 Motu Corporum. 205 Moses. 179–80 Midsummer Night’s Dream. 73. 179 Morrison. Francis. Wolfgang Amadeus. xiii. xii Michelangelo. 102. Toni. Hank. John. 51 M organ. 6 1. 90. 76. 26 Mexico. 58. 179 Minotaur. 115 Mithras. 40.

Isaac . 195 Pax Rom ana. 28–29 On the Astrolabe. 32. 17 Nebuchadnezzar. Harry . 24. 16. 1 5 Oberon. 37 Nessus. Henry. 102–3. 117. 188 Pan.. 47 Paradise Lost . 204 Olympic Odes. 28. 150. Pope. 20. 114. 3. 178 Od yssey. 24 nomads. 207 Osiris. 179 Parthenon. 66. 50 Paul. 40. 96 On Rising Times. 178 New General Catalogue . The. 47–48 numerology. 28 NASA. 174 Newton. 73–74. 40. 17. See Hotspur. 36 Pegasus. 150 Percy. 87. 62 natal horoscopy. 102–103 Oenopides. xii. 21 Nero. 20 Nephthys. 184 Nicodemus. 17 Noah. 53 Old Man and the S ea. 79. 11–12. xi. 20 Penthesilea. 43 Orion. xi Nebo. 188–89 Paracelsus. 61. 25 Olcott. 58. 125 “Night in the Watch-Tower. 15–16. 147 Paul V. 102. St. 49 mythology. 64. 96. 207 Othello. 28. xi Nostradamus. 7 Nergal. 64–65. 68 Natural Hi story . 49–50 New Year. 64–65 Nut. 198–99 Octavius. 87.< previous page page_241 next page > Page 241 Mysterium Cosmographicum. 169 nagivation. 184. 86. 65 Orpheus. 64 Ostia . 16 Neptune. 87. 23. 84. See also Augustus Odysseus. 36 Ninib. 20.” 69 Nigidius Figul us. Henry Steel. 16. 94–95. 86. 115 Nabourianos. 28. 73 Ovid. 116. 71 Origen.

Pericles. 84 Piazzi. 169 Plutarch. 201–8 planets. 27 Ph erecydes of Athens. 50 Phoenicians. 68. 20. 24. 165 Philo Judaeus. 26–27 Pleiades. St. 95 Piccolomini. 6–7. 60. 184 Polaris. 148 Pheidippides. 188–89 Phenomena (of Aratus). 108 Poetic Astronomy. 64. 147 Peter. 3. 46 Pisces.. 79. xi < previous page page_241 next page > . 40. 46 Pico della Mirandola. 36 Pluto. xiii. 7. 23. 54 Planisphere of Geruvigus . 27–28 Phenomena (of Eudoxus). 65–66 Pliny the Elder. 22 Planets. 37. 29. 14–15 Phrixus. 40 Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathe matica . 42 Plato. 65. 1 1. 74–80. 167 Pheidias. 9. 24–25. 66. The. Giuseppe. Aless andro. 114 Petronius Arbiter. 68 Phaëton.

53 Ro sh Hashanah. 46 Prognostication o f Disease by Astrology. Edward Fairfax. 147 Pyramus and Thisbe. 47 Regulus. 132. 77. 121 precession. 43 Qanun fi at-tibb. 66–67 romanticism. 72–73 Ro eo and Juliet. 148 Roosevelt. 58–59. 64 Psiax. 69–70. 29 Prognosticatio in Latino. 86 Roughing It . 44 Quo Vadis. 13 Regiomontanus. 138. 65. of Robert Cross Smith). 179 Rudolphine Tables .< previous page page_242 next page > Page 242 Polydeuces. Eleanor. The. 74–80. 77–80 Ptolemy. 59 Republic. 33 pontifex maximus. 59. 108 Pompey. 204 Purgatorio. 26. 113–14. 32–33. 8. 70 Pygmalion. 41 Prophetic Messenger . 95 Ross. 61 Ra. Gerome. 49 Sagitta. 58 Romans. 36. 72–73. A. 9–10. Charles. 189 Poseidon. 31 Portis. 42 Romanesque. 30–33. 159–60 Ross e. 53 Psalms. 32 Praesepe. 43 Revelation. 196–97 Poseidonius of Orontes . Nelson. 86 Por trait of the Artist as a Young Man. 41–42. 126 Roman Empire. 164. 171–80 . 175 Sagittarius. 132 Remus. 117 Romulus. 114–15. 59. 35–41. 26 Res Div nae. 46–47. 115 Raphael’s Almanac. 113 psycho logy and healing. 52–53 Romeo. Prophet Messenger and Weather Guide . 87 Rasi chakra. 53 Raphael (It alian painter). Claudius. Lord William Parsons. 64 Ragni. 148 Renaissance. xii. Mattie. 145. 138 repoussé . 200 Raphael (pseud. 30 Rochester. 113–14. 205 Rockefeller. 60. 88–89. 138 Pythagoras. 35–41. 25. 167 Revelations of Nechepso and Petosiris. 68.

18. 24 Sargon II. Franz. 40. 190 Santiago. 65. 28. 61 Scott. 161–69 Scorpio ( film).Saint Joan. 50 Satyricon. 68 Schiller. The. 189 Secret Do ctrine. 61. 11–12 satire. Ebenezer. Michael. 151 Sea Wolf. 144 Schubert. 7. Heinrich. The. M aarten. 60. 37–39 . 74–80. See Cybele Seneca. 68. The. 68 Saturn. 189 Scorpio. 100 Sargon of Agade. 45 Selene. 190 Schmidt. 71 Scrooge. 35 < previous page page_242 next page > . The. 8. 53 Secrets of Women.

88–8 9. 159 Tarrutius. 39 Straggling Ast rologer. 47 Speculum Astronomiae . 190 Shih Shen. 91–103 Tefnut. 188 Strabo. 117. 29 Spica. Robert Louis. 46 Synchr onicity . 117. xiii Spain. 102 Temple o f Esneh. 65. 18 Septimius Severus. 94 solstice. 28 Sou thern Cross. 74–80. 138. 26 solar cycle. 50 “The Stars Are with the Vo yager. The. William. 30 Siddhartha. 198–99 Shaw. 74 Story of a Panic . Germaine. 45 sp hera barbarica . 168 Stewart. 54 Synesius of Cyrene. 33. 41 . 14 Tarot. Robert Cross. 15 Teiresias. 23 Smith. 16 Tennyson. summer. 18 Taoism. Sancta. 12 A Tale of Two Cities. 64 Seth (from Egyptian m ythology). 41 Serpens. 53 Socrates. 21 Sidereus Nuncius. 14–15. 43 solstice. Alfred. 70. 74 St oics. 121 Sirius. 180 Spanish Armada. 196 Teotihuacan. Lucius. George Bernard. 16 Shakespeare. 43 Stonehenge. Gautama. 53 Suetonius. 8. 68. 54–55 Solinus. 117 Talmud. 36 Taurus. 20 Starry Messenger.< previous page page_243 next page > Page 243 Sennacherib.” xi–xii star lore. 35. 62 Summa Theologia. 123. The. 47. 60. Mary. 61. 148 Soudines. 12 Soleil. 13 Sibylline books. Gaius Julius. 72–73. 43 Syria. 62–74 Stevenson. 18 Sethos I. 63. winter. 37 Sumerians. 12. 174 Sophia. xii Tetrabiblos . 16. 64 Seth (Adam’s son).

179 Tropic of Cancer. 29. 40 trademarks. 86 < previous page page_243 next page > . 87 Thrasyllus.Thaïs. 168 trigonometry. 47 “Trimalchio’s Feast. 11 Timaeus . 70–71.” 68 Troilus and Criseyde. 108 Torah. 30 “To Build a Fire. 62 Titania. 150. 100 Thales of Miletus. xiii Tombaugh. 23. 20. 115 Treasure Island. Clyde W. 205 Theogony.’’ 189 Toltec. 23–24 Thor. 198–99 Titus. 26 tita n. 24. 116. 17 True Grit . 37 Tigris River. 71 Trojan War. 43 Their Eyes Were Watching God .. 38 Tiberius. 17 Tropic of Capricorn. 61. 36–37.

117 Wiesel.< previous page Page 244 Tu Fu. 32 Zeus. 113. 44 Zodiac killer. 148–49 Virgo. 13–14 Wharton. 180. 180 Xerxes. 115 Zapotec. 187 Typhon. xii Zen d Avesta. 44 Wen Wang. 18. Elie. 78 Wi tte. 20. 28 Uther Pendragon. 101 Yahweh. 14. 65. Walt. 23 . 60. 160 Wife of Bath. 177 Wh ile England Slept . 70–103. 207 Vesta. 69 Twain. xiii. 8. 184 Ulush Beg. 28. 197 yin and yang. 148 Virgil. 194 zodiac. 21. 145. 8. 157 Zeno. 7 Urban.. 28. 61 Zoroaster. 168 Varro. 30. 16. The. 28. 141– 51. 7. xii. 245 < previous page page_244 next page > . 51 Ursa Major. Alfred. Jean. 149–50. Edith. 51 weather. 115. 159 Vitruvius. xi. 66–67. 62. 15 Venus. 74–80. 205 Valjean. Mark. 32–33. 36 Voltaire. 74 page_244 next page > Valentine. 159–60 Uranometria . 179–80 Tyche. 43 Veda. 187 Vestal Virgins. 102. 61 Works and Days . St. 179 Virg in Mary. 41. 23–24 World War II. 68. Pope. 1–10. 145 Zen. 51 Vox Stellarum . 42 United Nations Charter. 53 Wives of Henry VIII. 176 Whitman. 48 Uranus.

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: Economic Competitors (1993). Her work The Encyclopedia of Utopi an Literature (1996) was cited as an Outstanding Reference Book by the American Library Association and received citations from Choice and Library Journal .< previous page page_246 Page 246 About the Author MARY ELLEN SNODGRASS is an award-winning author of ref erence works and English and Latin textbooks. she was Chair of the English Department at Hickory High School in North Carolina and a columnist for the Charlotte Observer. In addition to publishing 52 works. She is also the author of the Choice-award-winning Voyages in Classical Mythology ( 1994) and of Japan and the U. which received an award from the New York Public Library. < previous page page_246 .S.