CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

This chapter presents the background of the study, the statement of the problems, the assumptions of the study, the scope and delimitation, the research design and methodology, the significance of the study, and the definition of important terminologies used.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

³Rice is the staple food of the vast majority of humans in the planet.´ More than half of the world's population depends on rice as their source of food. Rice is a cereal crop most commonly used as human food. Two species of rice are considered important to humans: Oryza sativa, grown worldwide and O. glaberrima, grown in parts of West Africa. (http://irri.org/about-rice/rice-facts/ricebasics - November 20, 2010)

Rice is unique because it can grow in environments that would not be suitable for other crops. Rice is also the most important food crop of the developing world and the staple food of more than 3 billion people or more than half of the world¶s population. In addition, in 2009, 640 million undernourished people living in Asia are dependent on rice.

One fifth of the world¶s population²more than a billion people²depend on rice cultivation for livelihoods. Asia, where about 90% of rice is grown, has more than 200 million rice farms, most of which are smaller than 1 hectare. Ricebased farming is the main economic activity for hundreds of millions of rural poor in this region. In Africa, rice is the fastest growing staple. This increase in the demand for rice is also true for Latin America and Caribbean countries.

In addition. . is to produce more rice with less land. as well as healthier food for consumers. as medicine. they produce low quality paddy and don¶t have the facilities for safe storage. Reducing postharvest losses contributes to global food security by increasing the quality of rice leading to higher income for producers and processors. less water. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) has verified large-scale and developed small-scale storage systems. (http://irri. in more efficient. In most rice producing countries. For thousands of years different parts of the rice plant have been used in religious and ceremonial occasions. Also. The challenge. in the farming and commercial sectors in the Philippines. as well as piloted laser leveling systems in Vietnam. Indonesia.Rice plays an important role in many cultures.org/about-rice/rice-facts/rice-basics November 20. Vietnam. IRRI has also facilitated the transfer of locally adapted drying systems from Vietnam to Cambodia. and less labor. above anything else. and initiated the dissemination of this technology in Vietnam. and Laos. Myanmar and Laos. environmentally-friendly production systems that are more resilient to climate change. between 15-25% of harvest is lost due to inefficient and outdated postharvest operations. with traditional sun drying. Laos and Myanmar. and as inspiration and medium for a great number of artwork. Myanmar. farmers lose potential income because they often sell wet paddy immediately after harvest and therefore do not participate and benefit much from the rice value chain. among other factors. Cambodia. 2010) The work for quality rice does not end with harvesting robust rice grains.

By increasing market knowledge and information available to farmers. Drying and storage are related processes. Storage of incompletely dried grain with a higher than acceptable moisture content will lead to failure regardless of what storage facility is used. By facilitating multi stakeholder platforms. Drying is the process that reduces grain moisture content to a safe level for storage. It should be dried to at least 14% as soon as possible to prevent deterioration. By helping farmers become small farming entrepreneurs. they will have greater flexibility in seeking markets for their harvest and greater bargaining power. incomplete drying or ineffective drying will reduce grain quality and result in losses. (http://irri. the value (quality and quantity) of the crop will be improved.5 to 13%. In addition. we are helping these stakeholders work together towards out-scaling improved postharvest technologies for the common goal of reducing postharvest losses. The postharvest value chain is comprised of many stakeholders from the public and private sectors. For longer storage it should be dried to at least 12. Paddy coming from the field usually has a moisture content of between 20 to 24%. . 2010) Drying is the most critical operation after harvesting a rice crop.By increasing farmers' knowledge on good postharvest practices like rice milling processes.org/our-science/postharvest-November 20. the lower the required grain moisture content must be. Delays in drying. as well as improving rice millers` knowledge for better milling yields of higher quality. we work towards improving livelihoods in rice farming communities. the longer the grain is to be stored.

The rice farmers are not usually patient enough to wait for the rice to dry to the optimum moisture content. It was conducted during the dry season harvest of April 2003. Philippines in drying their rice (palay) after harvest. The optimum moisture content for rice is 13% and in order to dry rice to the optimum moisture content of 13% it takes more time and days of drying.irri. PSB Rc-10 (A2).knowledgebank. Alicia.org/rkb/index. T3 (Drying over a netted plastic fabric on concrete pavement). Echague. Isabela and at Alicia-San Mateo Road. and PSB Rc-82 (A3) and the different drying methods used were T1 (Drying in the highway). Besides. Isabela. it is inexpensive. (http://www2. The treatments were arranged in a modified split-plot designed designating variety as the main plot and drying methods as the subplot. T5 (Flash dryer) and T6 (Mechanical Flatbed Dryer). drying rice on the highways significantly increased the physical losses during drying by as much as nine percent.org/volunteer/assignment. T4 (Drying in a netted plastic fabric over soil surface. Results showed that no varietals difference were noted in the physical losses of grain during drying as well as on milling quality.winrock.People dry palay on the road to utilize the energy coming from the sun to dry their rice because of the cost of mechanical drying and its availability. flash and mechanical drying studies were conducted at Isabela State University. Isabela and the drying on highways were conducted in San Isidro. 2010) A study was conducted to determine the effect of different drying methods usually practice by farmers in Northern Luzon.php/drying November 20. 2010) The rice farmers dry their rice under the sun. On the other hand.asp?BU=False&id=4985 November 20. T2 (Undisturbed pavement). . except in eating quality where IR-64 and PSB Rc-82 had exhibited superiority in sensory traits with the PSB Rc-10. (http://www. The sub drying studies. Therefore the rice paddy has a high moisture content and consequently poor quality. Three varieties used as test crop for drying were: IR64(A1).

Seedling root-shoot ration was reduced by highway drying but not in the rice dried in netted plastic fabric over the soil. mechanical flatbed and flash dryer with excellent milling and brown rice recovery. mechanical flatbed and flash dryer. seedling and eating quality of rice. Higher seedling survival rate was shown by the rice dried on netted plastic fabric.fao.PH2008000435-November 20.do?f=2008/PH/PH0807. soil surface. Highway drying produced a significantly greater number of cracked kernels as a consequence of rapid moisture reduction and impact of the vehicles passing over the grains during drying with poor milling recovery. seed. Minimal or lesser cracked kernels or broken rice in rice dried in plastic fabric over concrete.The objective of this research is to design an alternative . (http://agris.xml. PAKI-EXPAND PO ITO.Inversely. Germination is very low in rice dried in the highways while rice dried in the other methods exhibited greater percentage germination. mechanical flatbed and flash dryer to maintain if not to improved the milling. Moisture reduction and drying rates were significantly faster in highway drying than those grains dried in other methods of drying. mechanical flatbed dryer and flash dryer and the amylose-amylopectin ration reduced in rice dried in mechanical flash and netted plastic fabric.org/agrissearch/search/display. faster germination rate and faster seedling establishment. Hence. greater head rice and higher milling degree. and over soil surface as well those dried in mechanical flatbed and flash dryer. minimal grain losses with no significant differences were incurred in drying rice using the other methods such as drying on a netted plastic fiber over pavement. it is recommended to use netted plastic fabric over the soil. DITO UNG INSERTION PO NG MGA SENTENCES NA IDADAGDAG. 2010 ) The need to increase grain quality and to reduce physical losses due to inefficient drying operation prompted the researchers to design and construct a palay dryer .

and dust from palay is hazardous to a person¶s health. . existing paddy drying machines contribute to pollution.palay dryer that could solve the existing problems on paddy drying which include: drying the rice paddy on the optimum moisture content under the sun takes a lot of time.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer: Get 4 months of Scribd and The New York Times for just $1.87 per week!

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times