A Research report by the students of Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab

The following report describes a research project conducted by the students of 1st semester, Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab in 2008. The aim of the project was to test the social relationship between unemployment and "illegal activities". Why do people still suffer because of unemployment, although they are highly qualified? Was this a great problem in our society in 1975? Is the level of unemployment still a major concern of our current generation of young adults also unique? To test this relationship we measured level of "illegal activities" among hundred students of Punjab University. Each group, general levels of illegal activities concern was compared. Significant difference between group works observes supporting the theory that a membership of a particular generation influences the levels of person's illegal activity concern. The data also lent support to the nation that differences between different age groups is the casual connection between the unemployment and illegal activities concerns.

Statement of the problem

In two of the above studies Jaffar S. A negative association between unemployment and illegal activities concern ' had been recognized in several studies. If the answer is yes' then generational group will be significant players in unemployment policies and debates. Arshad Anyat-1994) for example.Mohammad-1966.. Mohammad-1 966 and Kulsoum Qureshi-1996. the relationship between unemployment and illegal activities concerns has been considered as one involving generational or cohort factors. Successive factors of cohort are thus seen as being socialized into different values and attitudes as the context of the cultural changes. Altitude difference among cohort might be the result of differing historical and economic conditions within which each cohort is born and raised. Review of relevant literature In previous literature 'generation' has been recognized as a factor in determining unemployment altitude to its association with the variables illegal activities . Kulsoum Qurcshi-1997 and Arshad Anyat-1994. Further discussions of unemployment issues will not appropriately be placed in the content of generational interest.. 2 .Are levels of concern about the unemployment product of illegal activities? Can people who have been socialized in the content of the same historical event be expected to have the same altitude towards unemployment? This is an important question. Difference in unemployment concern is attributable to generational differences. Chaudhry LalifAhmed-1963. Gaffer S. people who were of the 'Lahore general ion 1 975' were socialized during the period of' Bhutto' and might he expected to have higher level of unemployment concerns than their parents generation who were socialized in an era of relative conformity.

Alternatively. Statement of hypothesis In terms of abstract concept the hypothesis is as follows: Unemployment Illegal activities Unemployment concern is influenced by illegal activities. When people are young. 'they are more likely to be engaged in illegal activities. Therefore empirically it will he difficult in this study lo definitely separate the effects. who arc unemployed. The decrease in different levels of education will lead to higher chances of unemployment. However analysis will consider whether both of the proposed effects are presented and draw conclusions about whether there is support for either or both. Selection and operationalisation of variables 3 . It must be recognized that these two distinct effects arc not incompatible. It is reasonable to expect generational differences to contain aspects of the sociobiological youth process and vice versa. They recognized that there will be higher career expectation when there is higher education (Chaudhry LatifAhmcd-1963). other studies relate illegal activities and unemployment concern through "the socio-biological youth process" (Kulsoum Qureshi-1997). people accumulate material and social resources and become integrated into the 'dominant illegal activities'. However as they age.

Hence the operational form of the original hypothesis can be stated as: 4 .For the operationalisation the hypothesis will include independent concept unemployment and dependent concept illegal activities and thus they are not replaced by any variable.

Each student approached fifty people from different departments of the University of the Punjab.Unemployment Illegal activities Level of unemployment is negatively influenced by an increase in illegal activities. How data was collected? Data collection followed by a procedure and the self-administered questionnaire contained an attitude scale. 5 . Each obtained cooperation of 50 participants generating a total sample of hundred respondents. Participants read twenty-two statements each a 'value Judgment'' to unemployment issues for example: unemployment causes a person to be involved in illegal activities. Research Design This research design is an experimental study of attitude towards unemployment is a quantitative research design. Simple selection procedure Simple random sampling technique was used to distribute questionnaires. design to measure each 1 participants level of unemployed concern. Before participating respondents were informed about the ethical rights as research participation and the ethical responsibilities of the students. 2 students were involved in this project. females arc more involved in illegal activities.

insufficient is the cause of a person being involved in illegal activities. participant marked their level of agreement and disagreement with each statement on a five point liker scale: Strongly agree 5 Agree Uncertain Disagree Strongly disagree 4 3 2 1 A five point scale was chosen in preference to a six point scale for reason of data management. A person with no living means is unemployed? 3. An extra category would have produced more data to code and analyze and this was considered unnecessary as a student because of the time restriction. Each statement attempted lo measure concern on unemployment issues.. kidnapping of children and gamblers. Questionaire: The statements in our questionnaire were: 1. Male are more involved in illegal activities? 5. unemployment has increased street crimes: theft. A person with no job is unemployed? 2. Unemployment causes a person to be involved in illegal activities? 4. Female are more involved in illegal activities? 6 .

Unemployment leads to theft? 12. Insufficient salary is the cause of a person being involved in illegal activities? 9. Unemployment has increased the victim of drug dealing? 16. Educated people are involved in illegal activities? 7. Unemployed people are mostly gamblers? 17-MaIe are registered of committing voidance on family members due to unemployment? 18. Unemployment has given rise to domestic violence? 22. Old people are more involved in illegal activities due to unemployment? 11. Uneducated people are involved in illegal activities? 8. Child labor has increased because of unemployed parents? 19. Unemployment has given rise in kidnapping of children? 13. Unemployment has introduced suicide bombers in your society? 15. Unemployment has increased street crimes? 14. Young people are more involved in illegal activities? 10. Unomployed people are forced to destroy public property through strikes? 7 .6. Unemployment forces people to sell their children? 21. Unemployment forces people to committee suicide? 20.

Distribution of Illegal Activities Scores for each Likert Scale Issues of illegal Activities Unemployment Male unemployed Female unemployed Involvement of educated people Involvement of uneducated people Insufficient salaries Involvement of young people Involvement of old people Theft Kidnapping of children Increase in street crimes Emergence of suicide bombers Drug dealing victims Gamblers Male: family violence Likert scale Strongly Agree-4 agree-5 21 27 8 29 35 36 34 5 34 27 46 33 31 24 33 24 27 20 24 34 35 25 25 44 48 35 32 39 41 43 Uncertain-3 20 5 31 26 14 13 14 27 15 8 8 13 8 11 9 Disagree-2 Strongly disagree-1 5 2 20 5 5 3 12 20 2 3 1 5 6 11 5 2 2 3 1 8 .

the findings are valid only for the sample. being an accidental sample. which will indicate how the group compares on the basis of overall levels of unemployment concern. Therefore. The groups are assumed lo represent different generational groups. Score were mostly concentrated in the second column (high). is not representative of larger populations (Lahore. 20-48 (high). 9 . scores of 5-46 (extreme). Faisalabad.Parents: child labour Suicide Selling of children Domestic violence Strikes: public property destruction Total Total 40 33 32 38 24 588 588 34 39 46 45 45 705 705 6 6 5 9 9 257 257 4 5 5 3 10 132 132 4 1 1 1 15 15 Data Presented and Summarized in Words The data will be analyzed first by comparing the distribution of total scores between illegal activities. and Karachi). Scores ranged from 0-48. 1-20 (low). a summary of the result is cross tabulated in the table above in which scores from members of each group are placed in five categories. 0-4 (very low). 5-31 (middle). so this analysis will test whether there is an association between unemployment and level of illegal activities. Limitations The sample.

The number of participants in each group with a 'very low' concern of illegal activities increased smoothly as an increase in unemployment. The findings of this study suggest that a relationship exists between levels of illegal activities and unemployment. These two factors. There were no financial data to lest Hornback's theory more thoroughly. but also in the context of social inlet-action within families. corruption. Generally in Pakistan. Conclusion and discussion Within the sample. levels of concerns are influenced by the unique historical experiences of your own generation. The age groups were not only really a 'generation apart'. It also offers qualified support that socio-biological factors are an important link between increase in age and high level of illegal 'activities.Only one variable (illegal activities) outside the hypothesis was controlled. although necessary to distinguish in theory are difficult to disentangle empirically and probably work together to strengthen the association between age unemployment and level of illegal activities. It is possible that other variable such as societal development. the findings of this survey support the hypothesis that levels of unemployment concern arc influenced by membership of illegal activities. References 10 . That is. and inflation which might have introduced biases in the sampling. people are about twenty to thirty years older than their immediate offspring. Further research could consider unemployment differences not just in macro social terms. A more disciplined plan would have recognized more narrowly defined groups whose age differences were consistent with a generational difference.

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