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# MODELS OF OUR PLANET

## Standard 4 Core Concepts Suggested Activity

1.1i. Approximately 70% of Earth's surface is Study globes and maps to identify the major features
covered by a relatively thin layer of water. of our planet. Examine various types of electronic
images (ex., weather maps and satellite images) at
www.ametsoc.org/dstereme,
www.ametsoc.org/amsedu/WES, or other web sites.

1.1c. Earth's coordinate system of latitude and Use maps to identify locations by latitude and
longitude, with the equator and prime meridian are longitude. USGS lesson plans for K - 4, 5 - 8, 9 - 12
reference lines, is based upon Earth's rotation and http://interactive2.usgs.gov/learningweb/teachers/less
our observation of the Sun and stars. on_plans.htm

1.1d. Earth rotates on an imaginary axis at a rate Determine differences in time between major world
of 15 degrees per hour. To people on Earth, this cities based on the differences in gtheir longitudes
turn of the planet makes it seem as though the (example, NYC and Tokyo.)
Sun, Moon, and stars are moving around Earth
once a day. Rotation provides a basis for our
system of local time; meridians of longitude are the
basis for time zones.

2.1q. Topographic maps represent landforms Use maps. Design a 3-D model from a contour map.
through use of contour lines (isolines connecting Construct and interpret a profile based on an isoline
points of equal elevation.) Gradients and profiles map.
can be determined from changes in elevation over http://interactive2.usgs.gov/learningweb/explorer/topic
a given distance. _map.htm

## Standard 6 Key Ideas

2. Models are simplified representations of objects, Mapping labs from the STANYS Web Share-a-Thon
structures, or systems used in analysis, http://www.wilson.wnyric.org/t/drobison/webshare/ind
explanation, interpretation, or design. ex.php?id=page6

3. Grouping of magnitudes of size or other units of "Powers of 10" adding machine tape demonstration.
measurement into a series of relative order Use "Terra-Server" or other computer-based resource
provides a useful way to deal with the immense to study how changing the scale can influence
range and changes in scale that affect the behavior understanding and interpretation.
and design of systems.
MATTER, MINERALS, and ROCKS
Note: Other general concepts about elements, compounds, mixtures are addressed in the Chemistry Core
Curriculum, but may be included as appropriate here.
Core Concepts Suggested Activity
3.1a. Minerals have physical properties determined Mineral Identification PowerPoint
by their chemical composition and crystal structure. http://www.earth2class.org/er/students/Minerals.ppt;
Activity
http://www.earth2class.org/er/teachers/resources/min
erals.php
> Minerals can be identified by well-defined physical Use samples and ESRT to identify representative
and chemical properties, such as cleavage, fracture, minerals.
color, density, hardness, streak, luster, crystal shape,
and reaction with acid.

3.1b. Minerals are formed inorganically by the Use some of the activities suggested in the web
process of crystallization as a result of specific pages of the Mineral Information Institute
environmental conditions. These include: cooling and http://www.mii.org/ or Volcano World
solidification of magma; precipitation from water http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Mi
caused by such processes as evaporation, chemical nerals/Minerals1.html
reactions, and temperature changes; rearrangement
of atoms in existing minerals subjected to conditions
of high temperature and pressure.

3.1c. Rocks are usually composed of one or more Mineral and Rock activities from the STANYS Web
minerals. Share-a-Thon
http://www.wilson.wnyric.org/t/drobison/webshare/ind
ex.php?id=page5
> Rocks are classified by their origin, mineral content, Use the ESRT and samples to identify representative
and texture. rocks.
> Conditions that existed when a rock formed can be Mineral and rock activities created by Charles
inferred from the rock's mineral content and texture. Burrows, East Ramapo HS
http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/components/do
cmgr/default.php?
sectiondetailid=17500&sc_timestamp=1104528165
> The properties of rocks determine how they are "Rocks" Powerpoint
used and also influence land usage by humans. http://www.earth2class.org/er/students/Rocks.ppt;
activity
http://www.earth2class.org/er/teachers/resources/roc
ks.php. Use computer-based and other resources to
resources.

2.1m. Many processes of the rock cycle are See some of the "Rock Cycle" activities in the
consequences of plate dynamics. These include: STANYS Web Share-a-Thon and Charles Burrows'
production of magma (and subsequent igneous rock web sites.
formation and contact metamorphism) at both
subduction and rifting regions; regional
metamorphism within subduction zones; and the
creation of major depositional basins through down-
warping of the crust.

Related concepts:
> origin of matter in stars (1.2b) NASA's Genesis Mission was designed to bring back
samples from the Sun in an effort to understand more
about the origin of matter in stars. The parachute
intended to slow down its descent failed to open.
However, some materials have been recovered. Here
are some good education activities that you can still
do.
http://genesismission.jpl.nasa.gov/educate/scimodule/
moduleoverview.html

> weathering of rocks and soil formation (2.1s) See Shaping Earth's Surface"
EARTHQUAKES, VOLCANOES, and PLATE TECTONICS

## Core Concepts Suggested Activity

2.1a. Earth systems have internal and external http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/how_volcanoes_work/H
sources of energy, both of which create heat. eat.html
2.1b. The transfer of heat energy within Earth's Make a model of convection. One example is
interior results in the formation of regions of presengted at
different densities. These density differences result http://www.wilson.wnyric.org/t/drobison/labshare/jame
in motion. sebert/twocellconvectionmodel.pdf
2.1j. Properties of Earth's internal structure (crust, Use ESRT "Inferred Properties of Earth's Interior"
mantle, outer core, inner core) can be inferred from charts. Make a model or drawing representing the
the analysis of the behavior of seismic waves layers.
(including velocity and refraction.)
> Analysis of seismic waves allows the Use ESRT to calculate P- and S-wave arrival times
determination of the location of earthquake and determine epicenter locations. Study Mercalli
epicenters and the measurement of earthquake scale damage in regional maps. Here are other
intensity. This analysis leads to the inference that activities you may wish to examine:
Earth's interior is composed of layers that differ in http://www.earth2class.org/k12/w4_f2004/clresources
composition and states of matter. .php

2.1k. The outward transfer of Earth's internal heat Examine some of the Plate Tectonics Labs on the
drives convective circulation in the mantle that STANYS Web Share-a-Thon
moves the lithospheric plates comprising Earth's http://www.wilson.wnyric.org/t/drobison/webshare/ind
surface. ex.php?id=page8
2.1l. The lithosphere consists of separate plates Use models to represent different types of plate
that ride on the more fluid asthenosphere and boundaries. Study map in ESRT.
move slowly in relationship to one another, creating
convergent, divergent, and transform plate
boundaries. These motions indicate Earth is a
dynamic geologic system.

> These plate boundaries are the sites of most Plot earthquake and volcano locations on a world
earthquakes, volcanoes, and young mountain map.
ranges.
> Compared to continental crust, ocean crust is Study maps to see ocean floor features.
thinner and denser. New ocean crust continues to
form at mid-ocean ridges.
> Earthquakes and volcanoes present geologic Use computer-based resources to study geologic
hazards to humans. Loss of property, personal hazards and make a class presentation.
injury, and loss of life can be reduced by effective
emergency procedures.
2.1m. Many processes of the rock cycle are Make a DLESE search about various aspects of Plate
consequences of plate dynamics. These include: Tectonics www.dlese.org
production of magma (and subsequent igneous
rock formation and contact metamorphism) at both
subduction and rifting regions; regional
metamorphism within subduction zones; and the
creation of major depositional basins through
down-warping of the crust.
2.1n. Many of Earth's surface features are the Identify examples of these features on world maps.
consequence of forces associated with plate
motion and interaction. These include: mid-ocean
ridges/rifts; subduction zones trenches/island arcs;
mountain ranges (folded, faulted, and volcanic); hot
spots; and the magnetic and age patterns in
surface bedrock.

## 2.1o. Plate motions have resulted in global

changes in geography, climate, and the patterns of
organic evolution.
2.1p. Landforms are the result of the interaction of Connect with activities from "Shaping Earth's
tectonic forces and the processes of weathering, Surface"
erosion, and deposition.
SHAPING EARTH'S SURFACE

## Core Concepts Suggested Activity

2.1p. Landforms are the result of the interaction of Examine some of the Weathering-Erosion-Depsoition
tectonic forces and the processes of weathering, activiies on the STANYS Web Share-a-Thon
erosion, and deposition. http://www.wilson.wnyric.org/t/drobison/webshare/ind
ex.php?id=page7

2.1q. Topographic maps represent landforms Study topographic maps of the local area and other
through use of contour lines (isolines connecting landscape regions. Calculate gradients. Examine
points of equal elevation.) Gradients and profiles some of Charles Burrows' computer-based lab
can be determined from changes in elevation over activities.
a given distance.
2.1r. Climate variations, structure, and Use models or computer-based resources (ex.,
characteristics of bedrock influence the TerraServer) to study typical features of different
development of landscape features including landscape regions.
mountains, plateaus, plains, valleys, ridges,
escarpments, and stream drainage patterns.
2.1s. Weathering is the physical and chemical Conduct simple investigations about physical or
breakdown of rocks at or near Earth's surface. chemical weathering. (ex., "Rates of Chemical
Soils are the result of weathering and biological Weathering"
activity over long periods of time. http://www.earth2class.org/er/teachers/resources/che
mwthrg.php)
2.1t. Natural agents of erosion, generally driven Develop plans to handle possible local erosional or
by gravity, remove, transport, and deposit depositional problems.
weathered rock particles. Each agent of erosion
produces distinctive changes in the material that it
transports, and creates characteristic surface
features and landscapes. In certain erosional
situations, loss of property, personal injury, and
loss of life can be reduced by effective emergency
preparedness.

## 2.1u. The natural agents of erosion include:

> Streams (running water): Gradient, discharge, For this and the following agents of erosion, try a
and channel shape influence a stream's velocity search through www.dlese.org. For example, one
and the erosion and deposition of sediments. search produced:
Sediments transported by streams tend to become http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/curr/science/sciber00/8th/e
rounded as a result of abrasion. Stream features arth/sciber/weather.htm
include V-shaped valleys, deltas, flood plains,
and meanders. A watershed is the area drained
by a stream and its tributaries.

## > Glaciers (moving ice): Glacial erosional

processes include the formation of U-shaped
valleys, parallel scratches, and grooves in
bedrock. Glacial features include moraines,
drumlins, kettle lakes, finger lakes, and outwash
plains.
>Wave Action: Erosion and deposition cause
changes in shoreline features, including beaches,
sandbars, and barrier islands. Wave action
rounds sediments as a result of abrasion. Waves
approaching a shoreline move sand parallel to the
shore within the zone of breaking waves.

## > Wind: Erosion of sediments by wind is most

common in arid climates and along shorelines.
Wind-generated features include dunes and sand-
blasted bedrock.
> Mass Movement: Earth materials move
downslope under the influence of gravity.
2.1v. Patterns of deposition result from a loss of "Activities about Sediments"
energy within the transporting system, and are http://www.earth2class.org/er/teachers/resources/sedi
influenced by the size, shape, and density of the ments.php.
transported particles. Sediment deposits may be
sorted or unsorted.
2.1w. Sediments of inorganic and organic origin Examine samples of sediments collected in various
often accumulate in depositional environments. locations and environments, along with various clastic
Sedimentary rocks form when sediments are sedimentary rocks.
compacted and/or cemented after burial, or as the
result of chemical precipitation from seawater.
WEATHER AND CLIMATE

## Core Concepts Suggested Activity

1.2e. Earth's early atmosphere formed as a result Compare with composition of modern atmosphere.
of the outgassing of water vapor, carbon
dioxide, nitrogen, and lesser amounts of other
gases from its interior.
1.2f. Earth's oceans formed as a result of
precipitation over millions of years.
1.2h. The evolution of life caused dramatic
changes in the composition of Earth's atmosphere.
Free oxygen did not form in the atmosphere until
photosynthetic plants evolved.
1.2g. Earth has continuously been recycling water Make a drawing of the water cycle. Make a small-
since the outgassing of water early in its history. scale physical model of the water cycle.
This constant recirculation of water at and near
Earth's surface is described by the hydrological
(water) cycle.
> Water is returned from the atmosphere to Earth's
surface by precipitation. Water returns to the
atmosphere by evaporation or transpiration from
plants. A portion of the precipitation becomes
runoff over the land or infiltrates into the ground to
become stored in the soil or ground water below
the water table.

> The amount of precipitation that seeps into the Use physical and mathematical models to investigate
ground or runs off is influenced by climate, slope of porosity, permeability, and capillarity.
the land, soil, rock type, vegetation, land use, and
degree of saturation.
> Porosity, permeability and water retention affect
runoff and infiltration. Soil capillarity influences this
process.
2.1a. Earth systems have internal and external
sources of energy, both of which create heat.
1.1a. Most objects in the solar system are in
regular and predictable motion. These motions
explain such phenomena as the day, year, and
seasons.
2.2a. Insolation (incoming solar radiation) heats Use lamps, thermometers, cups, and materials
Earth's surface and atmosphere unequally due to (water, dark soil, light sand, and air) to investigate
variations in: intensity (caused by variations in variation in heating and cooling patterns
atmospheric transparency and angle of incidence
which vary with time of day, latitude, and season);
characteristics of the materials absorbing the
energy (such as color, texture, transparency,
states of matter, and specific heat); and
duration, with varies with seasons and latitude.
2.1b. The transfer of energy within the
atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and Earth's interior
results in the formation of regions of different
densities. These density differences result in
motion.
2.2b. The transfer of heat energy within the Investigate examples of radiation, conduction, and
atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and Earth's surface convection.
and interior occurs as a result of radiation,
convection, and conduction. Heating of Earth's
surface and atmosphere by the Sun drives
convection within the atmosphere and oceans,
producing winds and ocean currents. Density
differences are the basis of many Earth
phenomena including cloud formation and the
formation of atmospheric storms.

## 2.1c. Weather patterns become evident when

weather variables are observed, measured, and
recorded. These variables include air
temperature; air pressure; moisture (relative
humidity and dewpoint); precipitation (rain,
snow, hail, sleet, etc.); wind speed and
direction; and cloud cover.

2.1d. Weather variables are measured using Observe weather using instruments and/or computer-
instruments such as thermometers, barometers, based resources.
psychrometers, precipitation gauges,
anemometers, and wind vanes.
2.1e. Weather variables are interrelated. For Use computer-based resources to make simple
example: temperature and humidity affect air mathematical analyses of such relationships.
pressure and probability of precipitation; air
2.1f. Air temperature, dewpoint, cloud formation, Conduct simple investigations involving expansion
and precipitation are affected by the expansion and contraction (such as using a balloon.)
and contraction of air due to vertical atmospheric
movements.
2.1g. Weather variables can be represented in a Use computer-based resources to study weather
variety of formats including: radar and satellite satellite and radar images. Study various types of
images; weather maps (including station models, weather maps available over the Internet.
isobars, and fronts); atmospheric cross-sections;
and computer models.
WEATHER AND CLIMATE (6) cont'd
2.1h. Atmospheric moisture, temperature and Make classroom presentations about various severe
pressure distributions; jet streams, wind; air weather conditions and appropriate emergency
masses and frontal boundaries; and the preparedness strategies.
movement of cyclonic systems and associated
occur in observable patterns.. Loss of property,
personal injury, and loss of life can be reduced by
effective emergency procedures.
1.1f. Earth's changing position with regard to the Make drawings to represent Earth/Sun relationships
Sun has noticeable effects. Earth revolves around ate the solstices, equinoxes, perihelion, and aphelion.
the Sun with its rotational axis tilted at 23.5 degrees
to a line perpendicular to the plane of its orbit.
During Earth's one-year period of revolution, the tilt
of its axis results in changes in the angle of
incidence of the Sun's rays at a given latitude.
These changes cause variation in the heating of
the surface. This produces seasonal variation in
climate.

2.1i. Seasonal changes can be explained using Use computer-based resources to study such large-
concepts of density and heat energy. These scale conditions and make class presentations.
changes include: the shifting of global temperature
zones, the shifting of planetary wind and ocean
current patterns, the occurrence of hurricanes,
monsoons, rainy and dry seasons, flooding,
severe weather, and ozone depletion.

2.2c. A location's climate (long-term pattern of Use computer-based resources to compare climates
weather) is influenced by latitude, proximity to large of different localities, and make classroom
bodies of water, ocean currents, prevailing winds, presentations.
vegetation, elevation, and topography.
2.2d. Temperature and precipitation patterns are Use computer-based resources to investigate various
altered by natural events (such as El Nino and examples of climate change, and make class
volcanic eruptions), and by human influences presentations.
including deforestation, urbanization, and the
production of greenhouse gases, such as carbon
dioxide and methane.
ASTRONOMY

## Core Concepts Suggested Activities

2.1a Earth systems have internal and external
sources of energy, both of which create heat.
1.1a Most objects in the solar system are in
regular and predictable motion
> These motions explain such phenomena as the http://www.usno.navy.mil
day, year, seasons, phases of the Moon,
eclipses, and tides.
> Gravity influences the motions of celestial
objects. The force of gravity between two objects
in the Universe depends on their masses and the
distance between them.
1.1b Nine planets move around the Sun in nearly www.jpl.nasa.gov
circular orbits.
>The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the
Sun located at one of the foci.
> Earth is orbited by one Moon and many artificial
satellites.
1.1c Earth's coordinate system of latitude and
longitude, with the equator and the prime
meridian as reference lines, is based upon Earth's
rotation and our observation of the Sun and stars.

## 1.1d Earth rotates on an imaginary axis at a rate

of 15 degrees per hour. To people on Earth, this
turning of the planet makes it seem as though the
Sun, Moon, and stars are moving around Earth
once a day. Rotation provides a basis for our
system of local time. Meridians of longitude are
the basis for time zones.

1.1e The Foucault pendulum and the Coriolis Make models of a Foucault pendulum and the
effect provide evidence of Earth's rotation. Coriolis effect
1.1f Earth's changing position with regard to the
Sun and Moon has noticeable effects.
>Earth revolves around the Sun with its rotational
axis tilted at 23.5 degrees to a line perpendicular to
the plane of its orbit, with the North Pole aligned
with Polaris.
>During Earth's one-year period of revolution, the
tilt of its axis results in changes in the angle of
incidence of the Sun's rays at a given latitude.
These changes cause variations in the heating of
the surface. This produces seasonal variation in
weather.

2.2b The transfer of heat energy within the Use simple demonstrations of conduction
atmosphere, hydrosphere, and surface occurs as a ("conductometer"), convection ('convection box"), and
> Heating of Earth's surface and atmosphere by the
Sun drives convection within the atmosphere and
oceans.
1.1g Seasonal changes in the apparent positions
of constellations provide evidence of Earth's
revolution.
1.1h The Sun's apparent path through the sky Make measurements of the length of shadow at the
varies with latitude and season. same time on different days.
1.1i Approximately 70% of Earth's surface is "Tides on the Web"
covered by a relatively thin layer of water which
responds to the gravitational attraction of the Moon
and Sun with a daily cycle of high and low tides.

## 1.2a The Universe is vast and estimated to be over

10 billion years old. The current theory is that the
Universe was created from an explosion called the
Big Bang. Evidence for this theory includes:

> a red-shift (Doppler effect) in light from very
distant galaxies
1.2b Stars form when gravity causes clouds of
molecules to contract until nuclear fusion of light
elements into heavier elements occurs. Fusion
releases great amounts of energy over millions of
years.
> The stars differ from each other in size, H - R diagram activities
temperature, and age.
> Our Sun is a medium-sized star within a spiral
galaxy known as the Milky Way. Our galaxy
contains billions of stars, and the Universe contains
billions of galaxies.
1.2c Our solar system formed about 5 billion years
ago from a giant cloud of gas and debris. Gravity
caused Earth and the other planets to become
layered according to density differences in their
materials.
> The characteristics of the planets of the solar www.jpl.nasa.gov
system are affected by each planet's location in
relationships to the Sun.
> The terrestrial planets are small, rocky, and www.jpl.nasa.gov
dense. The Jovian planets are large, gaseous,
and of low density.
1.2d Asteroids, comets, and meteors are www.jpl.nasa.gov
components of our solar system.
> Impact events have been correlated with mass
extinction and global climate change.
> Impact craters can be identified in Earth's crust. See Dallas Abbott's E2C presentations
1.2e Earth's early atmosphere formed as a result
of the outgassing of water vapor, carbon dioxide,
nitrogen, and lesser amounts of other gases from
its interior.
1.2f Earth's oceans formed as a result of
precipitation over millions of years. The presence
of an early ocean is indicated by sedimentary rocks
of marine origin dating back about 4 billion years.

## 1.2g Earth has continuously been recycling water

since the outgassing of water early in its history.
This constant recirculation of water at and near
Earth's surface is described as the hydrologic
(water) cycle.
1.2h The evolution of life caused dramatic changes
in the composition of earth's atmosphere. Free
oxygen did not form in the atmosphere until
oxygen-producing organisms evolved.
EARTH HISTORY

## Core Concepts Suggested Activity

1.2a. The Universe is vast and estimated to be
over 10 billions years old. The current theory is
that the Universe was created from an explosion
called the Big Bang. Evidence for this theory
includes cosmic background radiation and a red-
shift (Doppler effect) in the light from very distant
galaxies.

## 1.2c. Our solar system formed about 5 billion years

ago from a giant cloud of gas and debris.
1.2e. Earth's early atmosphere formed as a result
of the outgassing of water vapor, carbon dioxide,
nitrogen, and lesser amounts of other gases from
the interior.
1.2f. Earth's oceans formed as a result of
precipitation over millions of years. The presence
of an early ocean is indicated by sedimentary rocks
of marine origin dating back about 4 billion years.

1.2h. The evolution of life caused dramatic Use the Geologic History chart (ESRT pp. 8 - 9.)
changes in the composition of Earth's atmosphere.
Free oxygen did not form in the atmosphere until
photosynthetic plants evolved.
1.2j. The pattern of evolution of life-forms on Study representative fossils and identify samples by
Earth is at least partially preserved in the rock phylum &/or class. Use the Geologic History chart
record. Fossil evidence indicates that a wide (ESRT pp. 8 - 9.)
variety of life-forms have existed in the past and
that most of these forms have become extinct.
Human existence has been very brief compared to
the expanse of geologic time.

## 1.2j. Geologic history can be reconstructed by Interpret geologic cross-sections.

observing sequences of rock types and fossils to
correlate bedrock at various locations.
> Geologists have divided Earth history into time Make an "adding-machine tape" model of the
units based upon the fossil record. geologic time scale.
> Fossils preserved in rocks provide information Use the Geologic History chart (ESRT pp. 8 - 9.)
> Age relationships among bodies of rocks can be Interpret geologic cross-sections.
determined using principles of original
horizontality, superposition, inclusions, cross-
cutting relationships, contact metamorphism,
and unconformities. The presence of volcanic
ash layers, index fossils and meteoritic debris

## Core Concepts Suggested Activity

> The regular rate of nuclear decay (half-life time Use a simple model ("The Penny Lab" with 100
period) of radioactive isotopes allows geologists pennies in a box) to investigate the radioactive decay
to determine the absolute age of minerals in some process.
rocks.
2.1o. Plate motions have resulted in global
changes in geography, climate, and the patterns of
organic evolution.
OCEANOGRAPHY

## Core Concepts Suggested Activity

1.2e. Earth's early atmosphere formed as a result
of the outgassing of water vapor, carbon dioxide,
nitrogen, and lesser amounts of other gases from
its interior.
1.2f. Earth's oceans formed as a result of
precipitation over millions of years. The presence
of an early ocean is indicated by sedimentary rocks
of marine origin, dating back about four billion
years.
1.1i. Approximately 70% of Earth's surface is Study maps of the oceans (surface and sea floor.)
covered by a relatively thin layer of water, which
responds to the gravitational attractive of the Moon
and the Sun with a daily cycle of high and low tides.

1.1a. Regular and predictable motion of Earth Use computer-based and other resources to observe
explains such phenomena as tides. and predict tide patterns.
2.1b. The transfer of heat energy within the
atmosphere and the hydrosphere results in the
formation of regions of different densities. These
density differences result in motion.
2.2b. The transfer of heat energy within the Use ESRT to study ocean currents. Make models of
hydrosphere occurs as a result of radiation, surface (wind-driven) and deep-sea (density-driven)
conduction, and convection. Heating of Earth drives circulation patterns.
convection within the oceans, producing ocean
currents.
2.1i. Seasonal changes can be explained using Use computer-based and other resources to observe
concepts of density and heat energy. These seasonal patterns of sea surface temperature and
changes include shifting of global temperature other variables.
zones, the shifting of planetary wind and ocean
patterns, the occurrence of monsoons, hurricanes,
flooding, and other severe weather.

2.1n. Many of Earth's surface features such as Study maps of the sea floors. Use computer-based
mid-ocean ridges/rifts, trenches/subduction zones, and other resources to investigate these features and
hot spots, and magnetic and age patterns in processes.
bedrock are a consequence of forces associated
with plate motion and interaction.
2.1o. Plate motions have resulted in global Example paleogeographic maps in the ESRT or other
changes in geography, climate, and patterns of sources.
organic evolution.
2.1w. Sediments of inorganic and organic origin Conduct simple experiments to demonstrate chemical
often accumulate in depositional environments. precipitation. (ex., KNO3 and PbI)
Sedimentary rocks form when sediments are
compacted and/or cemented after burial or as a
result of chemical precipitation from seawater.
2.1u. Wave Action: Erosion and deposition cause Use screen sieves to study differences in sediments
changes in shoreline features, including beaches, from different parts of a beach. Use models to study
sandbars, and barrier islands. Wave action rounds wave motions.
sediments as a result of abrasion. Waves
approaching a shoreline move parallel to the shore
within the zone of breaking waves.

## 2.1u. Wind: Erosion of sediments by wind is most

common in arid climates and along shorelines.
Wind generated features include dunes.

2.2c. A location's climate is influenced by proximity Use computer-based or other resources to compare
to large bodies of water, ocean currents, and climates from representative locations.
prevailing winds.
2.2d. Temperature and precipitation patterns are Use computer-based or other resources to study El
altered by natural events such as El Nino. Nino, La Nina, and the North Atlantic Oscillation, and
make presentations.