CONTENTS of General Information

TOPICS 1. Introduction 2. The Beginning 3. Bio-data of The Company 4. Management Persons 5. Infrastructure 6. Size of the organization 7. Form of the organization 8. Structure of the organization 9. Quality Assurance 10. Vision 11. Products Onion Products • Red Onion • • • • 12. Export 13. Achievements White Onion Pink Onion Toasted Onion Garlic

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MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION PVT. LTD. (INDIA) is one of the leading manufacturers of Dehydrated. Add spice in your life with delicious and healthy dehydrated onion, garlic in various forms and other dehydrated vegetables... Onions are considered to be essential ingredients of Indian food items. They not only taste good with salad but are also beneficial for our health. Perhaps, this explains the fact that why, the rising price of onions creates such an upheaval for every family. Onions, when dehydrated, are even healthier. Same is the case with garlic. These are known to possess medicinal properties for curing stomach ailments and many other health remedies. Maharaja Dehydration Pvt. Ltd. is a rising company, established with the sole aim of providing health and comfort to its valued customers through these products. We are a trusted manufacturer and exporter of a diverse range of such healthy food products like dehydrated red, white and toasted onions, dehydrated garlic flakes, and other dehydrated vegetables. We are a complete health conscious organization which works with a deep commitment to serve its customers with only healthy food items. Hence, all our products are completely safe and hygienic, being made without exposing them to direct human touch. We are aware of the precious time that our customers value and therefore, strive to deliver all our products on time. They are available at really affordable prices, making them reach across all the masses. Within a few years of establishment, we have carved a niche for ourselves, not just in India but even abroad where our products are liked and trusted by our worthy clients.



THE BEGINNING MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION in many cities. But it is in Bhavnagar district

near MAHUVA. This industry is a private limited company. MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION PVT.LTD.-The manufacturing unit of dehydration onion and garlic-is situated at the onion Company is established in 2003 and is leading manufacturing of dehydration onion production like white and red onion kibbled, chopped, minced, granule and powder. Mr.V.P.KORDIYA is managing director of maharaja dehydration pvt, ltd, who is in this industry since last 10 years having full experience and expertise of this industry. Company is operated by most skilled and experienced person. Company has established most advance machinery specially imported from foreign country. Company has operated in total hygienic environment and producing excellent quality product. Buyer satisfaction is the main aim of the company. Company is growing with very growth rate. Company is exporting its total product. The production capacity of the plant is APPX. 5 MT daily. MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION PVT.

Business Type Export Percentage Primary Competitive Advantages

Exporter , Manufacturer 100% Best quality Completely healthy products Affordable price Prompt delivery

Sales Volume No of Staff Year of Establishment

Rs. 9 corer 300 2003

Export Markets

Germany, Netherlands, Poland, U.S.A, Russia, and 3

2 corer (3) BIO-DATA OF THE COMPANY 4 .many other countries Investment Equipment Monthly Production Capacity 150 metric tones on Manufacturing Rs.


V.KORADIYA is directors of maharaja dehydration pvt. Mr.S. and there is second’s term of the partnership in business in the place Morangi. Kamlesh is cousin of Vitthalbhai they with stated business.The growth of MAHARAJA as an industrial company is attributed to the vision and farsightedness of the management team. Ltd. ltd. technology and processes. Before the personnel business the company name is MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION PVT. Vitthalbhai is first term commotion business.P. who is in this industry since last 10 years having full experience and expertise of this industry. Kamlesh is study H. LTD.K. in the last 4 year experience. 6 . The management strongly believes in the fundamentals of social enlistment through education and employment.KORDIYA is Chairman and managing director of maharaja dehydration pvt. His high principles are successfully inculcated in the management team of his family members and other relatives who have been running the MAHARAJA group of companies and maintaining the tradition and culture created by him.C. The initiative like HACCP Certification ensures that they stay on the cutting edge quality. passes only. He is study only ten pass and diploma in agriculture. K.

meet all kinds of market demands. • • • 7 . has a vast and well developed infrastructure.(5) INFRASRUCTURE In order to produce goods that are comparable to International Standards. fully equipped with the latest facilities to provide uninterrupted flow of production. Ltd. it is imperative for a company to have high quality infrastructure. Maharaja Dehydration Pvt. Some of the highlights of our infrastructure are: • • • • A sound infrastructure armored with advanced and innovative technology Production unit installed with the latest modern technology and facilities Up gradation of machinery with the latest techniques Backed by a qualified team of acumen and pro-active employees having a dedicated and responsible attitude towards their work Team of experts to monitor the manufacturing process Indigenously developed technology with full technical backup and application support Spacious storerooms with full ventilation that enable us to hold huge stocks and thus.


SIZE OF THE ORGANIZATION There are some Government Rules regarding it. How much capital is invested in

an enterprise, according to it, the size will be decided. From the size of the organization, the form of the organization can be decided easily. Basically there are 3 types of business units according to their size. They are 1. 2. 3. table as under: Total Capital Invested Less than 3 Lakes Between 3 to 10 Lakes More than 10 Lakes Type of Organization Small Scale Enterprise Medium Scale Enterprise Large Scale Enterprise Small Scale Enterprise Medium Scale Enterprise Large Scale Enterprise

The types of enterprise according to the capital invested in them are shown in the

The MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION is the Large Scale Enterprise, because the capital invested in it is very much more than the criteria, given for the large scale unit.



Choice of a proper form of organization is crucial for the success of a business enterprise. It determines the risk, responsibility and control of the enterprise as well as the division of profits. It is long term decision because the form of organization can not be changed frequently. The right form of organization can help the enterprise not only through initial success but in later growth, too. Therefore, it should be selected after due care and thought. i. Sole Proprietorship ii. Partnership iii. Joint Stock Company, and iv. Co-operative Enterprise. From the above given choices, it is clear that MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION is a Joint Stock Private Company, which is an integrated and voluntary association of individuals with a distinctive name, perpetual succession, limited liability and common seal.




When a large number of people are working for the accomplishment of an objective, specific understanding and clarity are necessary as to be performed, which will perform which issue orders, who will implement them, ECT, are planned objectives. Organization establishes authority- responsibility relationship. The human body is the best examples of an organization. There are different parts of organization department. Production department, marketing department, Human Resources department, and Finance department. Assignment of authority is the basic of organization. Planning is the brain of a business while organization is its physical structure. “Take away our plants, take away our business, oh! Take away our wealth (finance) but permit us to retain our organization. Within no time we shall be on our feet once again.” There are four types of organization; Staff Organization, Line Organization, Line $Staff Organization and Functional Organization. Maharaja dehydration has Line Organization. The enterprise business is divided heads are appointed for every department. Under the department of production; purchase and production officer, marketing; sales executive and publicity officer, human resources; personnel officer and personnel consultant& finance; controller and treasurer. In their organization, authority flow downward from the top to bottom and responsibility goes upwards from bottom to top. Every person is responsible to his immediate superior.


Marketing dept. Finance dept. HR dept. Purchase Officer Production Officer Regional Manager Controller Treasurer Assistant Worker Branch Manager Data Entry operator Officer HR Sales Executive Publicity Officer Assistant Assistant Worker 11 .Managing Director Board of Director General Manager Productions dept.

(9) Quality Assurance We. The raw onions. (10) VISION ♦ Be one of the largest players in the Onion Industry with total in –electrical& technical production processes. are aware of the responsibility that we have undertaken and remain committed to thrive ahead. ♦ Harness the latest technologies for simplification of processes and rapid expansion. Hence. During processing.. No direct human touch is permissible and to make sure that practice. at Maharaja Dehydration Pvt. 12 . Ltd. we make sure that only the best quality and hygienic products reach our customers. Quality is one aspect that is given paramount importance with stringent quality checking process taking place at our factory. the workers are given special dresses so that the risk of infection can be avoided completely. garlic’s and other vegetables are procured only from highly reliable sources and stored under well ventilated conditions. ♦ Maharaja dehydration will have been new plant in Mahuva. ♦ Become the highest employment provider in Mahuva by providing equal employment opportunities for the enlistment of the needy people. all the raw vegetables are cleaned with absolutely clean and fresh water to ward off all the dirt and later. they undergo optimum dehydration under hygienic conditions. New plant dehydration and chance provider of employee.

White Onion Minces/ Granule. This way company is serving its own country by giving employment to its valuable peoples. Garlic Flakes Size . The production capacity of the company is 2000 MT. size100 to 120 mesh. White Onion Powder. /05 to 2mm. 13 . Size – 100 to 120. LTD. Annually. Red Onion Flakes. Size – 8 to 10mm. Size – 1 to 3mm. Onion.(11) PRODUCTS At present. Red Onion Minces/Granule.8 to 10mm. Red Onion Powder.Galic powder Size – 100 to 120mesh. garlic and other vegetable are just to name a few. Toasted Onion Powder. Above are regular product. other Vegetable are dehydrated on the order basis. Size . The company has multi stage Quality Control from the raw material to the finished products to provide Best Quality Product to the ultimate consumer. Size – 100 to 120 meshes. /05 to 2mm. /05 to 2mm. The wide range of all the products can be differentiated through its graphical representation. Size – 8 to 10mm. Pink Onion Flakes Size – 8 to 10mm. gives employment to more than 250 people daily.1to 3mm. Company’s objective is to provide competitive products and services which fully meet the internal and external customers’ requirements. MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION PVT. MAHARAJA is manufacturing around White Onion Flakes. the company has a wide range of products in different segments. Toasted Onion Minces/ Granule. Size – 1 to 3mm. The categories of each and every product will be cleared by it.


That’s why today maharaja dehydrated onions are very pungent as well aromatic.  No Direct human touch:Direct human touch to products at maharaja dehydration is highly restricted. Top layer of onion bulbs are get off and shifted for the next stage for cleaning. Seed developing & inheritance factor:In span of 10 years maharaja Dehydration has phased expansion as well development of special seeds of onions. Which is specially for growing onions for dehydration purpose.  Raw onion storing:Raw onions are stored under well-ventilated atmosphere and very timely moves for the dehydration. 15 . Depth of seeding has an effect on the bulb shape since the onion stem plate forms at the point where the seed germinates. Onions for dehydration should be planted in 2 inch deep furrows. Maharaja owns acres of land for farming their own onion as well successfully inspired farmers in rural area of their region for growing their own well-developed seeds of onion.  Farming and cultivating:Onions grown for dehydration is different from onions grown for the fresh market. Onions of the size of 2” and above are peeled and tailed. To void direct human touch we have implemented special dress code.  Assorting & cleaning:At this stage onions are physically checked.


Rings. Powder Dehydrated Pink Onion in: Flakes. Kibbled. Rings. Chopped. We are a reliable and committed manufacturer and exporter of the following dehydrated food products: • Dehydrated Red Onion in: Slices. Ltd. Chopped. 17 . • • • • • • Our Products are Applicable in • • • • • • Instant Foods Soups Sauces Gravies Other Processed Foods Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Dishes. Kibbled. Minced. Granules. Minced.PRODUCT RANGE Maharaja Dehydration Pvt. Granules. Chopped. Minced. Granules. Kibbled. Powder White Onion in Acetic Acid/ Vinegar Dehydrated Garlic Flakes Other Dehydrated Vegetables. Powder Dehydrated White Onion in: Slices. Rings. has delved deeper into the cause of providing health related solutions to its valued customers through a diversified range of healthy food products. Kibbled Dehydrated Toasted Onion in: Slices.

 PRODUCT RED ONION Red rings Red kibbled Red Chopped Red minced WHITE ONION Red Granules Red Powder White rings White kibbled White Chopped White minced White Granules White Powder  TOASTED ONION 18 .

Toasted kibbled Toasted Chopped Toasted minced Toasted Granules Toasted Powder Pink Flakes Garlic Flakes Garlic Powder 19 .

(12) EXPORT 20 .Maharaja dehydration changes are possible as per buyer’s requirements.

The company has strong distribution channel in all over the world. MAHARAJA products enjoy a prominent place in more than 6 Countries.MAHARAJA DEHDYRATION PVT. and customer relations. gathering many accolades in the process. “FIVE STAR FOOD EXPORT INDUSTRIES” is the sister concern of “MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION PVT. Today. the company has emerged a clear winner. THE RUSSIA. constant technology up gradation. on export front. UK. This has lead to Maharaja holding the high ground in this region. Some of them are The product in various countries like NETHERLANDS.” 21 . LTD. CANADA. POLAND. it can be said that. FRANCE. LTD. USA. So. GERMANY. They are exporting the products in 100% out of country. The Company trust from the very beginning has been to remain in the front line in its field of activity through innovation. found to complement the Export activities and one of India’s Premier business houses.

Ltd. broken.  Wastage elimination: Wastage encompasses excess raw/ packing material. assurance all manufacturing unit should strive to achieve this status.(13) ACHIEVEMENTS MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION mangling group get many international. safety. dough. enhancement and self development focus on intensive training and development of or people. excess power/ fuel. Ltd. Food management system and quality assurance are must gear up their system whereby each person in their organization is committed to highest quality. water/ compressed air consumption which are heavily precious international resource while good responsible corporate citizens we should be saving by putting in all efforts & hard work – let’s strive not just to minimize these wastage. but change our outlook &attitude towards eliminating these. present To Five star food Pvt. GOALS:  Zero marketing complaints : They have been improving in this area year on year and with utmost care in quality. 22 . 1) Maharaja product Pvt. productivity/ efficiency. biscuits.  Maharaja Quality System : Integration of all our effort in modern quality concept. for achieving standard of the process of manufacturing product during the period 2005 to 2006 2) Exceptional performance recognition award 3) Quality & Quantities improve in manufacturing of confectionary through automation 4) All round best performance in contract manufacturing of confectionary product.

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Employee Records 9. Organizational Structure 3. Employee Services & Benefits 11. Training & Development 6. Performance Appraisal 7. Time Keeping System 5. Collective Bargaining 12. Salary Payment System 8. Industrial Relations PAGE NO.CONTENTS of Human Resource Department TOPICS 1. Introduction 2. Promotion & Transfer 10. Recruitment & Selection &Induction 4. 25 26 27 29 29 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 (1) INTRODUCTION 24 .

the following constitute the core of HRM:  Organizations are not mere bricks. the function and principle are applied to acquisitioning. and introducing programs that ensures success of an enterprise. and training and develop member for an organization. motivating. and maintaining people in an organization. too. They are people. Simply put. motivation. mortar. The company currently provides employment to more than 250 employees daily (50% of which are female employees).Human Resource Management is also a management function consumed with hiring. policies. development and management of the organization’s human resource. and activities to promote the satisfaction of both individual and organizational needs. (2) ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE Effectiveness of an organization must result in betterment of services to customer in the form high- 25 . Specifically. such as education. They are applicable to non-business organizations. It is devoted to sharing an appropriate corporate culture. It is a specialized field that attempts to develop program.  HRM functions are not confined to business establishment only. It is the people who staff and manager organizations. goals.  Decision relating to employees must be integrated. health care. Decision on different aspect of employees must be consistent with other HR decision.  HRM involves the application of management function and principle. maintaining. machineries or inventories. quality products supplied at reasonable costs. Human Resource Management (HRM) is a management function that helps manager recruitment. Obviously. HRM is concerned with the people in organization. developing. recreation. The company MAHARAJA DEHYDRATON has efficient human resources which helps it in accomplishing various objectives and touching new horizons of success. It focuses on people in organization. selection. and remunerating employees in organizations.  Decision made must influence the effectiveness of an organization. and the like. HRM is a strategic approach to the acquisition. and objectives.

Human Resource under types of different department there are first Managing of Directors then the second General of Manager is information given the under department. finance. Managing Director General Manager Manager Marketing Manager Finance Manager Production Manager Research& Development Manager Human Resource Regional Manager Branch Manager Officer HR Assistant 26 .This diagram represents the organization chart of Human Resources Department of MAHARAJA. research& development and human resource manager. marketing. A large-scale unit will have a Manager/Director heading the HR department. officer HR and assistant. branch manager. regional manager. His or her status will be equal to that of any executive. HR manager under. production.

they design the job profile and appoint the candidate who is matching with their job profile. for the post of manager or any other higher designation. From the total employees currently working in the company. SELECTION & INDECTION According to Flipper: “Recruitment it is the process of searching for prospective employee and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. 27 . The selection process is concern with securing relevant information about an applicant.” Recruitment is regarded as the most important function of HRM. experience. The company MAHARAJA follows a standard and typical method of recruitment and selection. It forms the first stage in the process which continues with the placement of candidate. The process of recruitment being with getting applications and same for the selection. skill and knowledge of an applicant with a view to appraising his/her suitability to the job question. The objective of selection procedure is to determine whether an applicant meets the qualification for a specific job and to choose the applicant who is most likely to perform well in that job. This information is secured in a number of steps or stages.” “Selection it is the process of ascertaining qualification. it stats with initial interview. Recruiting makes it possible to acquire the number and types of people necessary to ensure the continued operation of the organization. Basically. it is a ‘linking activity’ bringing together those with jobs and those seeking jobs. In other words.(3) RECRUITMENT. the 50% are the female employees. Selection is a long process. It is the discovery of potential applicants for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies.

Company policies. Social benefit & recreation services. An employee has to operate with fellow employee and his supervisor. 2. o Welcome to the organization o Explain about company o Show location department where the new required will work o Given the annual to the new required 2. The company and its history it is product manufacturing process and major operating involve in the particular job. objectives and regulation. INDUCTION PRORAMME Organization structure & major function of different department. Job instruction & to whom he should refer whenever he have any difficulties. Employees own department & job and how he facts in to the organization. 8. 4. General orientation by the staff. suggestion. practices. 1. skim and job satisfaction. Hence he must know them. their way of working and also the policies and practices of organization. 6. 3. Personnel policy and the sources of information. Induction procedure (oriented) ♦ Formal oriented ♦ Informal oriented There main basic steps of procedure:1. 7. promotion. 28 .INDUCTION This involves introduction of an employee to the job and an organization the primary purpose is to sell the company the new employee. 5. Opportunities. Feedback of oriented. Specific oriented by the job supervisor 3. transfer. Discipline handling. So that he can take pride of his association with the company.

1o’clock night second bancs and 1o’clock break and 1o’clock in the night.Steinmets  DEVEIOPMENT:Definition: “Development is long term educational process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which managerial personnel procedure gets conceptual and theoretical knowledge it refers not technical knowledge or skill in operation but to philosophical and theoretical education concept it involves broader education and its purpose is a long term development” 29 . To come on time regularly and go after completion of working hours and there are three ship of worker. 5o’clock evening first bancs the lunch break is at 1o’clock in the noon and 5o’clock in the evening. 8o’clock morning third bancs the working hours completes at 6o’clock in the evening. In the Maharaja dehydration workers comes at 8o’clock in the morning.L. (5) TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT  TRAINING:Definition: “Training is the act of increasing the knowledge & skill of employee for doing a particular job” FLIPPO “Training is a short term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel lawn technical knowledge & skill for a definite. There is the punching card system for the employees to record the time of their arrival or as the mark of their presence.(4) TIME KEEPING SYSTEM The term time keeping deals with the daily working time schedules of the employees. They have the uniform and I-card and card compulsory to wear while they are in the company premises.” L.

Apart from automation of wrapping machines. skill and ability at the actual work place. Maharaja dehydration Pvt. Ltd.  OFF THE JOB TRAINING:• • • • Lecture Meeting Role play Programmer Instruction  ON THE JOB TRAINING:• Coaching • • • Mentoring Job Rotation Committee Assignment Training method are usually classified instruction on the job training provide when the worker are taught relevant knowledge. • The company awards an exception performance recognition award for overall improvement in hygiene and quality. • DEVELOPMENT : • • Maharaja group had established fully computerize In the company carried out the automation work for modernization in factory. 30 . Off the job training on the other hand require that the training learn at the location other than real work. the industry has a machines installed which handles most of the pumps and motors.• Training Methods There are two types as under. it removes the variation in quantities of batch preparation. of the 8 days training in the new worker.

Individual Performance Appraisal Method • • • • • • • • • • Rating scale method Check list method Forced choice method Field review method Cost accounting method Ranking method Paired Comparison method Forced Distribution method Self Appraisal Appraisal by result or management by objectives [MBO] approach. For this. It may be evaluated on basis of his/ her traits and attributes as well as his work or result and objective achieved by his/ her. he is then appraised for his performance. 1. and motivated.(6) PERFOMANCE APPRAISAL Once the employee has been selected. they consult the employees and ask about the function of their jobs. A “performance appraisal is a process of evaluating an employee’s performance and qualification in terms of the requirements of the for which he is employed. trained. Group Appraisal method 3. 2. Some of the common techniques are below. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL METHOD That is used to evaluate employee’s performance. Performance Appraisal is the step where the management finds out how effective it has been at hiring and placing employees.” Maharaja Dehydration undertakes performance appraisal after a stipulated period of time. Then they analyses the results and from the derived analysis. Other method 31 . the measures are taken and rewards are given to the employee. the problems they are facing and also take their suggestions to correct the problem.

Maharaja payment system is day-to-day. 32 . Salary can be given on the basic of working hours or it can be given unit basic or a fixed salary at every month. The companies follow different systems for different categories of employees. In Maharaja Dehydration. The salary payment systems of the company are developed from the results of performance appraisals. the ability of organization to pay. it is high. According to the levels of employees salaries are given to them. taking into consideration. They designs the whole system. Governmental Rules also plays major role in it.(7) SALARY PAYMENT SYSTEM Different companies follow different types of salary payment systems. And for the executive officers. supply and demand conditions in the market and the wage and salary levels in the other firms. the pay scale for workers (laborers) is about 1500 per month. cost of living.

or sanctioning leave and at the time of termination of service. at the time of making transfers. Maharaja employee records day-to-day. 33 . qualification. if need be . The MAHARAJA DEHYRATION maintains the personal records of each and every employee. is kept with the company. The record of every day’s working is also maintained. Every employee’s personal information like his name. complete and up-to-date information is maintained about employees. family members. giving merit pay.(8) EMPLOYEE RECORDS In employee records. so that these records may be utilized. etc is kept. The other information such as his areas of interest. promotions. any special ability or skill if he has. They keep the data from the day when application of an employee comes. address. aptitudes.

” In MAHARAJA promotion and transfer activities are less. 34 . If any emergency occurs to fill the specific post. which commands better pay. health & safety facility. then only the transfer or promotion is made. salary increase. so that they prefer both the activities in lesser proportion. needed or compensation. challengers. Every employee has its specialized area of work. status. better working environment. and higher opportunities. hours of work and facilities and a higher rank. other stage responsibility. The old employee’s promotion then the other facility bones. responsibilities.(9) PROMOTION & TRANSFER A promotion may be defined as “an upward advancement of an employee in an organization to another job. skill.” MAHARAJADEHYDRATION the employees of promotion. responsibilities and authority. It can be defined as “a lateral shift causing movement of individuals from one position to another usually without involving any market change in duties.

35 . maharaja provides company quarters for employees and daily bus service from quarters to the company and vice versa. as soon as possible. transport and canteen facilities etc. educational. housing. 2000 and 2500 to pay salary. film shows. ♦ Employee Counseling It is the process through which employees are given counsel in solving their work problems and their personal problems.(10) EMPLOYEE SERVICES & BENEFITS The employee services and benefits are concerned with the process of sustaining and maintaining the work force in an organization. sports and games. to its employees. ♦ Welfare Services These services includes entertainment services like. It also provides transportation facilities and pays transport allowances for the employees related to sales and marketing department. The employees are asked about their working problems and the company’s management tries to solve the problem. There are senior employee payment increases. ♦ Salary increase:Maharaja dehydration provides salary. For example. It arranges the exhibitions and seminars for employees. there are increases salary 2500 and 3000 to pay. The maharaja provides the following services and benefits.

lay off. The process of bargaining generally takes time. hours. benefits. The resulting agreement must be ratified by unions. 36 . The contract contains agreements about condition of employment such as wages. as both parties tend to make proposals and counter-proposals. workers and management.(11) COLLECTIVE BARGAINING It is the process of agreeing on a satisfaction labour contract between management and union. vacation. In MAHARAJA there is no such type of activity because there is no existence of employee union. promotion. rest pauses and the grievance procedure. and discipline.

hours or conditions of employment that is used as a complaint against the employer. When the relationship between the parties is not cordial. Hence both labour and management must appreciate the importance of openness. Industrial relations:-  Harmonious industrial relations between labour and management are essential to achieve industrial growth and higher productivity.  Discipline:It is force that prompts an individual or a group to observe the rules. regulation and procedures. Disputes settlement.(12) INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS Industrial Relations aspect. Constructive grievance handling depends first on the manager’s ability to recognize. which are deemed necessary for the attainment of an objective. collective bargaining. diagnose and correct the causes of potential employee dissatisfaction before it converts into a formal grievance. 37 . discontentment develops and conflicts erupt abruptly.  Grievance redressal:A grievance is any facto involving wages. trust and collaboration in their day-to-day dealings. Discipline. created by the government. Grievance handing. It is not always easy to put out the fires with the existing dispute-settlement-machinery. Union-management relations.

CONTENTS of Marketing Department TOPICS 1. 3. Introduction Organizational Structure Research & Development PAGE NO. 40 41 42 38 . 2.

5. Product Planning Pricing Policy Market Segmentation Product Mix Distribution Channels Product Life Cycle Advertisements 43 44 45 47 48 49 50 39 .4. 6. 10. 9. 8. 7.

Companies face competitors from a growing number of countries. The Internet has multiplied the number of ways for consumers buy and companies sell and how company carry on their business. Marketing can be defined as “Marketing is an organizational function and set of process for creating. They have recently stared advertisement of the MAHARJA HOMEAPPLIANCES products. The Internet has increased the customer price sensitivity. creating a demand for the products by covering national and international markets.(1) INTRODUCTION Even if some people question the existence of a new economy.” Marketers are skilled in stimulating demand for company’s products. Cellular phones have enable people to exchange messages and buy and sell on the go. There the need for ‘Marketing ‘emerged. 40 . The MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION has Marketing Department. There is a decline in the effectiveness of mass advertising as a result of the explosion of communication channels. and delivering value to customer relationship in ways that benefit the organization and its stake holder. The company has their own R & D Department who researches for the innovations and modifications in the products. they need to acknowledge the new elements in today’s market place. communication.

who take orders from the other firms or whole seller. The GM passes orders to the Head of the Marketing Department and he leads the sales executives and publicity officer. Even under the Sales Executive Officer.ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE This diagram represents the organization chart of Marketing Department of MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION. manages the publicity and advertising matters. The BOD is at the top in an organizational hierarchy. who works as directed by the BOD. there are salesmen. Board of Directors General Manager Marketing dept Sales Executive Publicity officer Sales Representative Assistant Worker 41 . Under them. who handles the sales affairs of the company. the General Manager of the company. Both of them work as said by the Head of the Department. working under the Head of Department. And the Publicity Officer. there is Sales Representative. At the bottom level.

(3) DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AND As per American marketing association given definition “marketing research refer to the Scientifics gathering. distribution and promotion strategies. prices. recording and to analyzing of data about problem manufacturing research process. It is not so that the work has been left to technically qualified employees only.” Marketing research produces information that consumer and market and their relation to various products. the products are earning more profits because of very low cost of production. marketing and recoveries as a result. Research activity has been given prime importance in MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION. The Research & Development department governs the production planning. 42 . All the essential promoters of the company are actively engaged in the process. finance. Process of research & development has been introduced in the area of inventory management. The department has always provided a base of technological up gradation to MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION’S production planning.

It is also change with the responsibility of reviewing the profitability of current items (existing product) in the product mix. INNOVATION 2. and ♦ The degree of distinctiveness. One could actually say that the need for innovation is created by the dynamic nature of culture. They always keep watch on the market and competitors and then after following certain procedure. Such a huge investment is necessary as the new products are at present the only means of survival for a firm. This department works under the Marketing Department. technological and sociological changes. The MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION has the separate department for product planning. We have also seen that product planning is the activity changed with the responsibility of providing new and profitable product for management to valuate. plan for the product. Steps in New Product Development The following steps are recommended in the planning of product:  Exploration  Screening  Business analysis  Development  Testing 43 . PURPOSE Necessity for innovation is created by political. economic. Product planning deals with changes in ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ The kinds of goods and services offered The number of kinds or product or different lines. that the company offers The width of assortment within each product line offered The quality level or level accepted to various classes of consumer.(4) PRODUCT PLANNING The crores of rupee are being spent on research and development (R $D) is a clear attestation of the fact that new product are the result of planned discovery. The business must have two elements: 1.

(5) PRICING POLICY Throughout most of history. 5. Selecting the pricing objectives 2. The price must be consistent with company pricing policies. Analyzing competitors cost. Garlic per kg. At the same time companies are not averse to establishing pricing penalties under certain circumstances. Toasted Onion per kg. Here. Bank change fees for too many withdrawals in a month or for early withdrawal of a certificate of deposit. prices were set by negotiation between buyer and seller. The aim is ensure that salespeople quote prices that are reasonable to customer profitable to the company. Selecting a pricing method 6. The prices of the products are such that it can be affordable by every class of the society. price and offers. PRICE-RANGE 60-100 60-100 60-100 60-100 50-70 44 . Although these policies are often justifiable they must be used judiciously so as not to unnecessary alienate customer. “Bargaining” is still a sport area. Estimating cost 4. Determining demand 3. A company may consider the following factors in setting pricing policy. the price list of the products is given. Dell computer has developed innovative pricing techniques. Commercialization. Airline change $ 150 to those who change their reservation on discount tickets. Selecting the final price The MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION sets the very economic prices of its products. Pink Onion per kg. 1. Many companies set up a pricing department to develop policies and establish or approve decision. White Onion per kg. PRODUCT Red Onion per kg.

the consumer markets can be segmented.. etc. American. Upper middle. Young. etc. Official. There are different variables based on which. Clerical. etc. “market segmentation consists of taking the total heterogeneous market for a product and dividing it into several sub-market or segments. Female) Income ( Under 10000.Stanton..) Religion ( Hindu. Muslim. Old. 35-49. Lower uppers. each of which tends to be homogeneous in all significant aspects.J.(6) MARKET SEGMENTATION According to Philip kotler. French. needs.12-19. carve organization with similarly needs. 50-64. Catholic.) Nationality ( Indian. etc.” Market segmentation allow a marketer to take a heterogeneous market. Student. “market segmentation is the sub-dividing of market into homogeneous sub-section of customer.. wants and behaviors. Where any sub-section may conceivably be selected as a market target to be reached with a distinct marketing mix. a market consisting of customer with diverse characteristic. Married.. 6-11. McDonald’s and other marketer have found market segmentation to be value able technique for the following reasons: • • • • Efficient use of marketing resources Better understanding of customer needs Better understanding of competitive situation Accurate measurement of goal and performance. working class) 45 . College graduate.) Education ( School. 65+) Family Size (1-2-3-4.) Social Class ( Lower middle. German.etc. 20-34. 15000-20000 and above) Occupation ( Professional. 10000-15000.” According to W. wants and behavioral tendencies.) Gender (Male. They are as under: Demographic Segmentation • • • • • • • • • • Age ( Under 6..5+) Family life cycle ( Child. No Children.

medium user.) Benefits (quality.) ♦ Behavioral Segmentation • • • • • Occasions (regular occasions. rural.. heavy user. services. etc.. etc. 46 . economy.. potential user. indifferent.) Generally.) Usage Rate (light user.) Personality (compulsive. west north center.000.) City Size (under 5. and speed. 5. southern.) User status (nonuser. gregarious.000-20.) ♦ Psychographic Segmentation • • Life style (culture. positive. ex-user.000. 20.) Attitude toward product (enthusiastic.) Climate (northern. etc. They are producing the products in such a wide range that it covers a whole market and all type of segments. outdoor-oriented. special occasions.000-500000 and above) Density (urban. authoritarian. sports. mountain. the company has segmented the market on the entire basis. suburban.♦ Geographic Segmentation • • • • Region (pacific.

Bajaj Electricals manufacture different varieties or models of fans and lamps. and models offered within each product line. For example. mixer. Depth refers to the assortment of sizes. So there is consistency in their products. Bajaj Electrical produces a variety of electrical appliances such as fans. and 3. Depth. Breadth. Bajaj Electrical. Breadth is measure by the number or variety of product manufactured by a single manufacture. In contrast to this. or production requirement or to distribution channel. For example. produces those goods which fall under the category ‘Electrical Appliances’.(7) PRODUCT MIX Product mix is the list of all products sale by a company. Consistency refer to the close relationship of various product lines either or their end-use. 2. etc. lamps. Godrej offers inconsistency in their product line. soaps and locks. The products mix three dimensional: 1. manufacturing process and even in their product mix. The MAHARAJA DEHYDRATIONS’ product mix is as follows. for example. For example. or to other variable. which offers a variety of products having common relationship. It is defined as a composite of products offered for sale by a firm or a business. Product Mix Width Onion Red Minces Powder Ring Kibbled Slices White Minces Powder Rings Kibbled Slices Pink Basic Powder Flakes 47 Garlic Flakes Toasted Minces Powder Kibbled Slices . Consistency. colours.

LTD.A channel represents a manufacture such as company agent to wholesaler purchase goods or producer and selling them to retailer then to directly selling has product to final customer. 1. 2 levels: . 48 . either it can be direct distribution system or indirect means the general distribution system.(8) DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS The distribution channels means the medium through which the product can be reached to the market.A channel represents a manufacture to wholesaler directly selling has product to final customer. 3 level:. The distribution channels of their three types. Exclusive distribution 3. is a represent of channel distribution to the international. Intensive distribution 2. Selective distribution MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION PVT.A channel represents a manufacture such as wholesaler purchase goods or producer and selling them to retailer then to directly selling has product to final customer. 1 level: . The channel can be of any type.A channel represents a manufacture directly selling has product to final customer. Level of channel distribution 0 levels: .

Profits stabilize or decline because of increased competition. Profits are non existent because of the heavy expenses incurred with product introduction. market. a product form. ♦ Decline The period when sales show a downward drift and profits erode. The PLC concept can be used to analyze a product category.(9) PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE A company’s positioning and differentiation strategy must change as the product. The stages of the PLC are:  Introduction  Growth  Maturity  Decline ♦ Introduction A periods of slow sales growth as the product is introduced in the market. The Product Life Cycle of the MAHARAJA DEHYDRATIONS is as per shown in this table. ♦ Maturity A period of slow down in sales growth because the product has achieved acceptance by most potential buyers. and competitors change over time. PRODUCT Red Onion Garlic White Onion Pink Onion Toasted Onion PLC STAGE Growth Growth Introduction Growth Maturity 49 . There are generally 4 stages in the cycle of every product. ♦ Growth A period of rapid market acceptance and substantial profit improvement. a product or a brand. The concept of Product Life Cycle indicates the stage from which the product passes through during its life span.

Information advertising. 1. Reinforcement advertising. brochures. 4. Advertisers include not only business firms. whether to build brand preference for Coca-Cola or people to avoid hard drugs. and internet. television. and government agencies that direct messages to target publics. or services by an identified sponsor. An advertising goal is a specific communications task and achievement level to be accomplished with a specific period of time. 3. Ads are a cost-effective way to disseminate messages. Reminder advertising. direct mail. goods. magazine. advertising agencies are redefining themselves as communication companies that assist clients to improve their overall communication effectiveness by offering strategic and practical advice on many forms of communication. Most companies use an outside agency to help create advertising campaigns and to select and purchase media. outdoor. Persuasive advertising. yellow pages. charitable organization. telephone. newsletters. Advertising profile of major media types: Newspaper. Maharaja dehydration advertising international country for in place food fair stalls in foreign 50 . radio.ADVERTISEMENTS Advertising: Advertising is any paid form of no personal presentation and promotion of ideas. 2. Objectives as under. Today. but also museums.

51 .

7. 8. 6.CONTENTS of Finance Department TOPICS 1. 9. 5. 4. 2. 3. Introduction Organizational Structure Capitalization Ratio Analysis Management of Working Capital Management of Fixed Assets Cash Management Leverage Analysis Fund Flow Analysis PAGE NO. 53 54 55 56 57 60 61 62 63 52 .

It is concerned mainly with raising funds is most economic and suitable manner. The responsibilities of financial management are spread throughout the organization. using these funds profitable as possible. important and challenging. i. Since. Howard and Upton observed financial management involve the application of genera management principle to a particular financial operation. harmonizing individual motives and enterprise goals” (Weston & Brigham) Functions of financial management are those which go beyond the accounts figures. Financial decisions are more critical.(1) INTRODUCTION Financial is the foundation stone of every business in the present day set up. It provides best guide for future resource allocation by a firms. Plans aim at an effective utilization of funds.e. Financial management is associated with designing and implementation and projects. 53 . Board of Directors. The success of every business depends upon adequate source of finance. “Financial management is an area of financial decision making. In the present modern set up generally businesses are raw by big companies whose financial requirements are large volume of finance which can not be contributed by investors. finance function is a major critical functional area. For any business optimum utilization of available funds is a skill of finance manager. No business can be started without adequate finance nor can it be developed. The financing of sold trade and partnership on nit difficult as the main source of finance is their own contribution and requirement are limited. the ultimate responsibility for carrying out financial management functions lies with top management.

(2) ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE In a large sized business unit. In the firms wherein officials like treasurers. Maharaja dehydration finance manger of director. The organization of finance functions may be illustrated as follows. In larger companies the treasurer and controller are accountable to the main or director of finance. Thus. Generally the finance manager is responsible to the managing director or to the board of directors of the company. the top official of the finance department is known by different names. they perform staff duties in addition to their general duties as the main accounting official of the organization. Their staff duties include financial forecasting. Board of Directors Managing of Directors Financial Department Controller Chartered Accountant Treasurer Data Entry Operator Auditor 54 . chartered accountant and controllers are appointed. He is known as chief officer or finance manager or finance administrator or treasurer or controller. however a clear and detailed division of finance functions is made. financial control and performance evaluation.

surplus in whatever form it may appear and the refunded long-term debt. It is also clear that the company is said to be over capitalized if it fails to pay a proper rate of dividend over a long period time. It is the sense that an under-capitalized company pays exceptionally high rates of dividend.(3) CAPITALIZATION “Capitalization of a corporation comprises the ownership capital and the borrowed capital as represented by long term indebtedness. since the fixed capital of a company was its major permanent investment. “The term capitalization or the valuation of the capital includes the capital stock and debt.Capitalization 55 . --Under.Capitalization A corporation or business may be under-capitalization when the rate of profit id exceptionally high in relation to the return enjoyed by similarly situated companies in the same industry or it has too little capital to conduct business.” Capitalization includes capital stocks of share capital and dept.Capitalization “A corporation is over capitalized when its earning are not large enough to yield a fair return on the amount of stock and bonds that have been issue. The state of over capitalization develops after some time.” Grettenberger The analysis of the above definition reveals that a company is not over capitalized from the very beginning.Capitalization ♦ Over. It may also mean the total accounting value of the capital stock.” Lillian Doris The term ‘capitalization’ which is derived from the word ‘capital’ was frequently confusing in the past. In such cases. or when the amount of securities outstanding exceeds the current value of assets. Under-capitalization is a condition where the real value of company is more than the book value. There are two types of capitalization from which company may undergo. ♦ Over. Under. The assets do bring profits but it would appear to be must larger than are warranted by book figures of capital. the dividend will naturally be high and the market value of shares will be much higher than par value.

Net Profit Ratio The ratio measures the relationship between net profits and sales of the firm and is obtained by dividing the net profit by net sales. Will ant and Donaldson. Under this ratio. Gross Profit Ratio The ratio establishes relationship of gross profit with sales to measure the operating efficiency of the firm and to reflect its pricing policy. The rated is calculated by dividing the gross profit by sales. A number of ratios are designed to indicate the profitability of the business and are grouped into the category of profitability ratios.” The use of ratio has become increasing popular during last few years only. “Ratios are simply a means of highlighting in arithmetical terms. it has gained such impotence that anybody connected with the business enterprise uses ratio analyses for measuring the financial strength and earning capacity of the business. the ratio can be computed in ways--Net Profit Ratio = Net Profit X 100 Net Sales X 100 56 . two of them are----1. 2. Depending upon the concept of net profit employed. Profitability Ratio This ratio falls under the category of the functional ratios. return on capital employed is an example of profitability ratio. For example.” Given the definition of Hunt. Today. of relationship between figures drawn from financial statement. Thus--Gross Profit Ratio = Gross Profit Sales This ratio is usually expressed as a percentage.(4) RATIO ANALYSIS In the word of Myres. there are many different ratios. “financial statement analysis largely a study of relationship among the various financial factor in a business as disclosed by a single set of statement and a study of the trends of these factors as shown in a series of statement.

The two types of working capital are---1. Both types of assets are to be managed efficiently so as to earn maximum profit is with minimum possible investment because maximization of profits is the prime object of every business. fixed assets and current assets. Therefore. The operating cycle of a manufacturing unit is as under: RAW MATERIAL PHASE 1 WORK IN PROGRESS PHASE 2 CASH PHASE 5 PHASE 4 ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLES PHASE 3 FINISHED GOODS 57 .e.(5) MANAGEMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL There are two types of assets in each concern i. there is a need for every firm to maintain optimum level of working capital by bringing trade off between risk and profitability. Gross Working capital Net Working Capital Operating Cycle The duration of time required to complete the various stages in the business activity is called the operating cycle. 2. Decisions regarding investment in fixed assets are taken though the capital budgeting process but decision making regarding management of working capital is a continuous process which involves control of everyday ebb and flow of financial resources circulating in the enterprise in one form or the other.

Thus.R Average Debtor’s= 2 Debtor’s Turnover Ratio= Credit Sales Average Debtor’s 360 Debtor Turnover Ratio Debtor’s Velocity Ratio= =Day’s {ANS} The ratio is computed by dividing the amount of debtors and bills receivable by the average daily sales. There is a time gap between these stages.production. It needs cash or capital to purchase raw materials and to meet production and other expenses. Because of the circulating nature of current assets. stocks of finished goods are to be maintained to meet the continuing demand of the customers. Opening debtor + Closing debtor + B.The main stages in the above operating cycle are. the firm needs working capital to finance these stages. an adequate amount of funds has to be invested in current assets for a smooth and uninterrupted production and sales activities. working capital is also called as’ circulating capital. 58 . 1. Debtor’ Ratio This ratio shows numbers of days taken to collect the dues of credit sales. and cash. When the goods are sold on credit the duration between sales and cash is widened and the firm has to maintain same level of debtors. Thus. The average daily sales are obtained by dividing the total annual sales by 365 days. Similarly. It shows the efficiency and collection policy of an enterprise. sales.

in this also the average daily purchases are computed first. Creditor’s Ratio Creditor’s Ratio is reverse of the Debtor’s Ratio. Opening Creditor +Closing Creditor + B. Maharaja dehydration used of working capital management fixed assets and current assets are both managed efficiently. 59 .2.P Average Creditor’= 2 Creditors Purchase Average Creditor’s Creditor’s turnover Ratio = Creditor’s Velocity Ratio = 360 Creditor’s Turnover Ratio Unlike debtor’s ratio. the payments to the creditors for credits purchase is made. The by dividing the amount of creditors and bills payable able by the average daily sales. It gives the number of days within which.

ploughing back of profits and loans from financial institutions. scale of operations.(6) MANAGEMENT OF FIXED CAPITAL Every business unit requires certain amount of fixed or long term capital. it has introduced innovative processes in the areas of Inventory Management. It is required to purchase fixed assets like. It is used to meet the long term requirements of the business. The amount of fixed capital varies from unit to unit as per the requirement. Fixed capital is also required for expansion and development. etc. Marketing and R & D. Being an HACCP Certified Company. The capital is required during the initial stage as manufacturing activities are just impossible without fixed assets. machinery. modernization and diversification of the business unit. building. the Group’s dependency on working capital assistance from Commercial banks is virtually nil. furniture. As a result of which. size. plant. technology used by the unit and form of the unit. nature of the industry. The main source of fixed capital is that they plough back their profits. Such capital is permanently invested in the business. Finance. 60 . Fixed assets are collected through shares. Maharaja has invested crores of fixed capital as it is the very large scale business house.

maximization of profits or wealth of the owners of capital with the minimum of efforts. It is. concern with managing i. Ail the financial management can do in this regard. it may not be in a position to meet the unexpected challenges that may bring down its credit market.. Therefore.e. the aim of the cash management it is to maintain a sound cash position to keep the firm sufficiently liquid and to use the excessive cash if any. It is really not an easy problem to solve. if undertakings maintain excessive cash reserves to meet the challenges the excessive cash will remain idle in the business. in some profitable way. On the other hand. how much cash should be set aside for the unexpected challenges and how much for regular day-to-day working.. the undertaking does not sufficient cash in hand. is to study the past records and take the necessary decision bearing in mind present economy circumstances and the behavior and practice of the sister concern. What is cash management? Every undertaken is desirous of utilizing the variable cash most effectively so as to accomplish the goal of the undertaking i. As because cash is limited in every enterprise and it cannot be raised as and when one likes it. Every activity in an enterprise revolves round the cash. desirable that available cash must be managed properly. ii. But management of cash is not as simple as it appears. no hard and fast rules can be suggested for the problem.e. 61 . It is also the most important current asset for the operation of the business. If heavy amount are blocked for unforeseen contingencies. Cash Management is thus.(7) CASH MANAGEMENT Cash is most important factor in financial management. It is where the real problem of cash management come. In case. contributing nothing towards the wealth of the firm. In fact. the management of cash assumes more importance because of the difficulties arising during predicting cash flow. i. Cash flow into and out of the firm Cash flows within the firm Cash balance held by a firm at a point of time by financing deficit or investing surplus So. iii. the company will not be in a position to carry on its day-to-day working efficiently. therefore.

He has to make a plan for capitol investment and also for and working for the ensuing year.(8) Financial Planning In any field of business planning is a primary function of the management. The financial plan must be in conformity with the scheme of the expansion development of the business prepared by the top management in consolation with the production manager and sales manager of the unit. The cash budget. The control can be effectively exercised only by comparing the actual performance with standards in the plan. To ensure that funds are properly utilized and effective control over their use is essential which also require planning. Any defect of imbalance in the long term of planning will put business into lot of difficult in future. being an integral part of the working capitol of the plan. The financial management has to frame a long term plan of capitol investment also. 62 . has to prepare in detail. An important executive function of the financial management is that of financial planning. Maharaja Dehydration is long term financial planning.

Profit and Loss account or income or revenue statement. The knowledge of preparation of statement of change in financial position is a must. In simple words. (2). the fund flow statement. i.. it means movement of funds.e. money. 63 . It is also called a ‘Statement of Sources and Application of Funds’ or ‘Statement of Change in Financial Position’.(9) FUND FLOW ANALYSIS In a broader sense. Funds also are taken as synonymous to working capital. total resources.e. It also includes cash as well as noncash funds like depreciation. Change in the firm’s working capital. etc. I. The financial statement generally refers to: (1). etc. used in the business whether in the form of men. i. fund means only cash resources of the business. However. which is the excess of current assets over current liabilities. use for different purposes like purchase of assets or repayment of liabilities. Balance sheet.e. incoming of funds from different sources and their outgoing. All receipts of cash from the sources of funds where as all payments in cash from the application of funds. in includes all resources.e. in the narrow sense. In other words. machinery. Maharaja dehydration of the financial statement generally profit and loss account or income and revenue statement and balance sheet. the flow statement explains in brief the change occurred in the item of two balance sheets. The term ‘funds’ is used in different ways. material. method. The fund flow statement reveals the source from which the firms are made available and how they are utilized or applied.. i. It also refers to liquid assets.

P. 2. P. Hitesh Shukla. J. Marketing Management 11/e. Dr. 4.Shah.Shah. Philip Kotler.Gankar. Personnel Management – text & cases.Mamoria & S. 64 . Himalaya Publishing House. Mumbai. S.maharajadehydration. Delhi. Mahajan Publishing House. King Book Nai Sarak. financial Management. 3. Dr. Shah.K.M. Paresh P. Dr.B.V. Pearson Education. C.Priyam. Ahmedabad.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.

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