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E!e~entary Lectures on Electric Discharll'ell,

Wave. and Impulses, and other Transients Second edition, 1/\7 p"gIlR, (lXll, 7(lllluHtrntiollR $2.00

ELEMENTAHY LECrrUHES

ON

ELECTRIC DISCHARG.ES, WAVES AND IMPULSES,

o~rH.l~l~

ANn

BY

C1IARLES PROTEUS

Pus; I'rl!Ni(ll.:lIt, American lnHtitlltl! 0/

It~vl~IW ANI>

McGRAW·>HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC. 239 WBS'f 39TH STRBIIT, NEW YORK

6 BOUVERIl~ STRli:I~T, WNDON, E. c.

1914

COPYRIGHT, 1911,

Ill' TIII~

MoGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY

$tanbope ~eH

l1. H.GILSON,COMPAN'r BOSTON, tr.IiI.A.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

HINUl1 the issue of the first edition, in 1911, our knowledge of transients has greatly increased, and many of the phenomena, especially those of double energy transients and compound eircuits, h:1VO been observed and studied on transmission HYHtcmH to a considerable extent, and have corroborated the oscillographic records given in tho previous edition.

Considerable work has been done on momentary short circuits of altemators, and the variable component. of the self-inductive reactance recognized as a trunsient reactance resulting from the mutual induction of the armature with the fidel circuit.

EHpeeially in the field of suatainecl or continual, and of cumulativc OSCillI1UOllH, 11 large amount. of information has been gathered. Tho practical import-an en of tlwHP continual and cumulative oseillation» has been strongly impressed upon operating and designing engineers in recent Y('IUH, usually in the most disagreeable manner hy the destruction of high power, high voltage transformers. A chapter on these phenomena has therefore been added in the second edition.

OHAH.LB~ P. ~TEINMgTZ, A.M,) PH.D.

/i'carunry, WI4-.

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

IN the following I am trying to give a short outline of those phenomena which have become tho most important to the olcctrical engineer, as on their understanding and control depends the further suecossiul advance of electrical engineering. The art has now so far advanced that the phenomena of tho steady flow of power arc well understood, Generators, motors, transforming devices, transmission and distribution conductors call, with relatively little difficulty, he calculated, and the phenomena occurring in them under normal conditions of operation predetermined and controlled. Usually, however, tho Iimitations of apparatus and lines are found not in the normal condition of operation, the steady flow of power, but in tho phenomena occurring under abnormal though by no mNtHS un frequent conditions, in the more or less transient almormal voltages, currents, frequencies, «tc.: awl the study of tlu- laws of i.ll('KP transient phenomena, the ('kd,ri<~ discharges, WIW(,S, and impulses, thus llC'(:otn(,:,; of paramount importance. In It former work, I' Theory and Calculation of Transient Eloctrio Phonomonn and Oscillations," I haw given a systomafie etudy of i,lWKP, phenomena, ItK far HH our present. knowkxlgo 1)('1'mits, which by nccesaity involve's to a eonsklcrable oxtout t.lH' URe of mathomatio», AH many pngirw('rs may not hav« t.ho t.ime or inelination to It mathematical study, I have «ndcavorod to give in th« following It d('seriptiv(' oxposition of t.he phY:-li(:al nature and moaning, th« origin awl l'fT('(:t.K, of thl'K(, phonouu-nu, with t.1l(' use of very littlo and only t.lw simplest, form of mathematics, HO ~lH to afford a gC'lH'ml knowledge of t.IWH(' pIWllOUl('IUL to those engineers who have not. the time to devote to It more extensive study, and also to serve as an introduction to tho study of "Tro.nsiC'nt Phenomena." I JUl.V(', therefore, in tho following developed these phenomena from the physical conception of energy, its storage and readjustment, and extensively used as illustrations oseillograma of such electric discharges, waves, and impulses, taken on industrial eleetric circuits of all kinds, as to give the reader a familiarity

vii

viii

PREFACE TO THE FIRS'l' EDI'l'ION.

with transient phenomena by the inspection of their record on the "photographic film of the oscillograph. I would therefore ret-ommend the reading of the following pages as all iutroduction to the study of "Transient Phenomena," as the knowledge gained thereby of the physical nature materially m;sist.s in th« understanding of their mathematical representation, which latter obviously is necessary for their numerical calculation and predetermination.

The book contains a series of lectures on electric disdllU'!l:Pl'l, waves, and impulses, which was given during th« lu.st, winter to the graduate classes of Union University ILH an ck-mentary introduction to and" translation from mathematics into I':ujl;li:-;h" of th« " Theory and Calculation or Transient Ekc'j,rie Phonoruonu and Oscillations." Hereto has been added a chapter Oil the ('ahtlntioll of capacities and inductances of conductors, aince ('ILIllLl'if,y a III I inductance are the fundamental quantities 011 which th« transivnt« depend.

In the preparation of the work, I have been materiully 1t."'lHi:;tpd by Mr. C. M. Davis, M.K1E., who kindly corrected ami (·dit.pl! the manuscript and illustrations, and to whom I wish to (·xprt·:;;; my thanks.

CHARLIDS PRO'l'lDUS STlDINMgTZ.

October, 1911.

CONTgNTS.

PAon

LW)'l'lIltI" 1. -- Nxrrnus ANI) OItlOIN ()l<' TUANSIl<JNTS....... . . . • . .• • .• 1

1. Elect-rie power and ('IH'!'{J;Y. Permanent and transient phenomena. Inaumco of pornumont. phenomenon; of t.runsient; of comhinut.ion

of both. 'I'runsiuu! UK iutorrnediury condition bot.wt-on ponnuneut.s.

:l. Exwrgy Ht.Ol'aIl:(' in plpet.rill circuit, by ruagnr-t.ic and dioloet.rio field. Other ('llC'rgy H(.oragc~. ('hun!!:c' of stored onorgy !lK origin of t.runsient.,

3. 'I'runaiouta <'xiHt.ing with nil Iorms of C'Il<'I'!l;Y: t.l'lmHic'niH of railwily ear: of fan mot.or; of incandoaccnt lamp. Destructiv« values. lIigh-H!l(>('c! WI\tC'I'-POW('1' govC1l'Hinp;. Fundamental condition of transient. EI('('t ric, t mnHipnt.H HilllpiC'l', t heir theory furt.hor advuncod, of rnor« <iil.·pd, indust rial iurportanc«.

4. Kimplc'Hi, t.rausicnt«: pruport.lonulif.y of emlHO nTH! ef[(:et. Motlt ('led.ric'lli t mnHic'lltH of (.hi" ('IIlll'ltd.('I', DiH<:UHl'Iioll of simple transien] of c'lc'!'lri(' «irruit. ExpOIH'lItial function IlH itt-; ('xprC'HHion. ('c)('fIid('ld. of its ('XPOIl(,IIt.. 01ilC'l' t l'IMIHi('nt.H: dceeleratlon of ship. Ii. Two ('iHj;H('K of tranHiPlli.H: Hingic'·(,IH'I'!l;Y nnd doublc-r-norgy j,I'UnKitoutH. IIIHj,ml()C~ of ('III' 1W('l'i('mtion; of low-voltage circuit: of pondulum ; of ('oll<l('IIHPl' dirwiul.l'l!;(' througl: inductive eireuit. Tmlll'liputH of more thun t.wu forallo! of energy.

(I. I'c'rIllHIH'llt. phononu-nn usuully Him!!i!'l' than t.rmlHiPIlt.H. Heduetiou of ultt-rual.ing-r-urrt-nt phr-numr-nn. t.o PIIl'lIlIUIC'Ilt.H hy C'ITeetiv« values nnd hy symbolic method, Nonperiodic trunsicnts.

10

7. PIIC'IlOlIlC'lltl of I'll'c·t ric' power flow: power rli~ipnti()n in conduotor: eloetri« fi(lld ('olll<il'lt.iuf,( of magnetie field surrounding conductor lind eloetroxtuti« or dielectric flekl issuing Ironr conductor. LilWH of mngtwtk forl'''i IitH'l:( of dir-loctri« force.

8. Tho !!IlIltlwtie flux, Inductance, inductance voltage, and the !'Ill'rp;y of tlw magnetic field,

H. The flit,h'pt,ri(' flux, enpneity, ('!tp!ldty current, and the energy of tll(! dieloetrle field, The conception of quuntity of electrioity, (!lcctroHtlLti<: charge and condenser: the conception of quantity of mugnt't.jl<m.

10, MILjI;lllJt.i(l clrcuit IUIII dh-lect ric circuit .. IlIllgnt·tillinp: foren, magnl't,k field intensity, Permenhillty. Magnetic materiuls.

Magnetornotive force, and ma.gnctic density.

x

CONTENTS.

11. Electromotive force, electrifying force or voltage gradient. Dielectric field intensity and dielectric density. Specific eupaci ty

or permittivity. Velocity of propagation. . .

12. Tabulation of corresponding terms of magnetic and of dit ..... lectrie field. Tabulation of analogous terms of magnetic, dieleotrio, and electric circuit.

LECTURE III. - SINGLE-ENlllRGY TRANAIJ<lNTS IN CONTINUOUH-CUl\-

RENT CIRCUITS.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . • • 1 n

13. Single-energy transient represents increase or dO!1rmLHU of energy. Magnetic transients of low- and medium-voltage circuits. Single-energy and double-energy transients of elLpncit,y. I >iseUHsian of the transients of <1>, i, e, of inductive circuit. gxpoll('tltial equation. Duration of the transient, time oonstnnt. Nurnerical values of transient of intensity 1 and duration 1. The t.Ilf(~' forms of the equation of tho magnetic transient, Hilllplilh'at,ioll by choosing the starting moment itS zero of time.

14. Instance of the magnetic transient of a motor field. (~lll('1l11Ltion of its duration.

15. Effect of tho insertion of resistance OIl voltag« and duration of the magnetic transient. The opening of inductive) cireuit. Th« effect of the opening arc at the switch.

16. The magnetic transient of dosing an inductive oircuit. (1c'IH'1'lL1 method of separation of transient and of pormnnenf term» during the transition period.

LlllCTURE IV. - SINGLJil-lilN'ER(JY TnAN'HIE:NTH orr Alm1ItNA1'INIH'tnt-

RENT CIRCUITS ............•... , •.•.....•....••.•.. , ...•• , 30

17. Separation of current into permanent and trl~m;innt eOIll[lollNlt. Condition of maximum and of zero transient. The HtnrtinlJ: of lUI alternating current; dependence of the transir-nt 011 thn plUUlflj maximum and zero value.

18. The starting transient of tho hallmcwc! three-phnao HYMtl'lt'l. Relation between the transients of tho throe phm'e'l'I. HI.ar! iug transient of three-phase magnetic field, and it,1i coust.ruetiou. The oscillatory start of the rotating field. It.H independenoo of till' IIllIIs!' at the moment of start. Maximum value of rot.ntillgfi{'ld transient, and its industrial bearing.

19. Momentary short-circuit current of synchronoua ultornator, and current rush in its field circuit, Relation ll!!t,\\Imm vo1tltlJ:t1, load, magnetic field flux, armature reaction, soll-indnetlve rtl!wtnnce, and synchronous reactance of alternator. Ratio of mornentnry eo permanent short-cieurit current.

20. The magnetic field transient lit Hhort circuit of alternlLtor. It.t! effect on the armature currents, and on UIC field current, Nurneriealrelation between the transients of magnetic flux, armature (IltrrHUUI, armature reaction, and field current. The Htarting t;ran!lil!ut (If the armature currents. The transient full-frequency pulsation of the

CON 'l'EN rs.

xi

field current caused by it. Effect of inductance in the exciter field. Calculation and construction of the truusicnt phenomena of a polyphuso alternator short circuit.

21. The transients of the single-phase nltemator short eircuit. The permanent doublc-Ircquoncy pulsation of armature reaction lind of field current, The annutnre transient. depending on the phaso of the wave. Combiuation of Iull-Ircqucney transient lind doulilc-Iroqueney permanent. pulsation of fiekl current, and the shape' of the field current resulting t.herolrom. Potontiul difference at field terminal at. shor], circuit. 1\1\(1 it.H indust.riul bonring.

PAGE

LW"I'Olm V. -- HINCIl,I'H~NJ<)l\<lY 'I'ltANHINN'l' 01" ltwNm,AD (~IIWllIT. . . • 52

22. Ahsonco of proportionality between current lind magnetic

flux in ironclud «ircuit, Numerical calculution hy stcp-hy-stcp method, Approxinuuion of mugnr-t.i« dULrlwtc>riHtin by Frohlich'» formula, and it~ rationality.

2:1. (lml<'ml c'Xpr('HHioll of nmp;Il{,t,je flux in ironclad circuit. HH introduction in Uw diiTc'I'('nt.inl oquntion of Ow transiont, Iutc'p;mtion, and «alculat.ion of IL numorieul iuatance. High-current values lind I-It.C'C'PIIe'HH of ironclad mnp;lwtin transient, and its industrial bearing;

LNC'l'trltl>l VI. l)(){IIII,I<;-l'lNI~IWY 'I'HANHn:wI'H,..................... 59

2·1. l4inp;I('-Nl!'rp;y trIIllHi!'Ilt., nftc'I' Hc'plLmt.ioll from pormnnont term,

It!! !I ~te!\(ly d('erel\H(\ of PII!'r!l;Y. Double-energy transient oonsist.ing

of c·!I('f!l:y-diHHipnt.io!l fador and Plwrp;y-t.mllHl'er Iaetor. Tho lut.ter periodi« or unidiroet.ional. Tho Iutu-r rarely of induxtriul importance,

25. l'ulHnt.ioll of ntl!'rgy during transient. Rr-lnt.ion hetweon maxi-

ilium current. awl mnximum voltng«. The natural impedance nnd

th« lllit.lIml urlmittance of tho circuit, Calculut.ion of maximum VOlt,lt!l;<' Irom maximum current, and inversely. IIlHttmC('H of line

Klwrt <'irCluit" ground Oil mthl<', iip;htllinp; stroko. R('httiv(J values of t.mllKit'nt, curronts mid volt.ltj.tnH ill diIT!'r(lllt. eiaHHoH of circuita,

211. Trigonometric Iunotlou« of t,lw pr-riodin fadm' of tile transient, Cal<ntlatioll of Ih(1 Iroquoney. Initial Vah1<'K of eurrent and voltage, 27. 'I'll<' llOw('r-diHHiplltiol1 flu:tm' of till' tTHIIHhmt.. Duration of tho c!ouhh>.(·!It'I'!l:Y traIlHi!'lIt, t.he hurrnonie mean of tlw duration of the IImp;lI('ti<' und of th(\ diolectrio tranaient. The dissipatlcm ox po- 111'111., und it,M lIHUlL1 approximntion. 'I.'lw eompk-to equation of the duuhh'.('lHlrp;y tmllHil'llt" Calculation of numerical instance,

LNGTllIttr. VII. - LIN~J OHCIl.I.ATIONH ..... ,. , . . • .. ..............••. 72

2H. Review of tho ehumeteristic« of the double-energy transient: periodlo and imllHicnt fl1(~t.or; relation between current and voltage;

tIm periodic: component, and tlw frequency: tho transient compo-

I10nt and the duration: tho initia! VaIUf'R of current and volt!l.~l.

XlI

CON TEN rs.

I'AGIJl

Modification for distributed capacity and inductance: Ute distance phase angle and the velocity of propagation; tho time phase angle; the two forms of the equation of the line oscillation.

29. Effective inductance and effective capacity, und the frequency of the line oscillation. The wave length. The oscillnting-lino Hoetion as quarter wave length.

30. Relation between inductance, capaoity, IIwl frequency of propagation. Importance of this relation for calculation of line constants.

31. The different frequencies and wave I<mgUH-I of tho quarterwave oscillation; of the half-wave oscillation.

32. The velocity unit of length. Its importance in compound circuits. Period, frequency, timc, lind distanec angles, and tho general expression of the line oscillation.

LECTURE VIII. - TRAVELING W A VI<JH ......•.............. , . . • . . . • 81-1

33. The power of the stationary oscillation and itH eOrl'C'HpolldNH1(l

with reactive power of alternuting currents. The truvoling WIWIl

and its correspondence with effective power of alt<lrnllt.inp; currents. Occurrence of traveling W1WCS: the lightning stroke. 'l'lw tI'IW('!iug

wave of the compound circuit.

34. The How of transient power and its equation. The powerdissipation constant and the power-transfer eOIlHt.!U1t. lrwl'('IlHinp; and decreasing power flow in the traveling wave, Th« l1;('!wml equation of the traveling wave.

35. Positive and negative power-transfer oonstanta. tTn<iltmI)('d oscillation and cumulative oscillation. Tho are ILH their 1-10111'('1', The alternating-current transmission-line equation ILH speelal (1ILH!' of traveling wave of negative powcr-trunsfnr (lOIlHt.mlt ..

36. Coexistence and combination of traveling WIW(lK and HLat immry oscillations. Difference from cffectiv« and reaetlve nlt<'l'lIIil ing waves. Industrial importance of traveling WIWOH. '!'Iu'ir frn .. quencies. Estimation of their eflcctivo frequency if very high.

37. The impulse as traveling Wave. Its equations, Tho WlLyn front.

LECTURE IX. - OSCILLA1'IONS OF THE COMPOUND CmcUl'r.......... 100 38. The stationary oscillation of the compound clreuit, Tho

time decrement of the total circuit, and the powor-dissiputlon and power-transfer constants of its section. Power supply from I'IIJction

of low-energy dissipation to section of high-energy cliHSiplttitm.

39. Instance of oscillation of a closed compound nircult, Tho two traveling waves and the resultant t.rttnfoliClnt-powcr dittgrnrn.

40. Comparison of the tru.nsicnt-powcr diagram with the pOwer diagram of an alternating-current circuit. Tho cause of POW!)f increase in the line. The stationary oscillation of au open com. pound circuit.

CON1'EN'l'S

xiii

PAGEl

41. Voltage and current relation between the sections of a compound oscillutiug circuit. The voltage and current transformation at the transition points between circuit sections.

42. Chango or phase anglo at tho transition points between H('Ctions of l\, compound oscillating circuit. Partial rofiection at the transition point.

LICCTUlUJ X. - CON'rINUAL AND CUMlJ[,A'rrVI'J OKcrLr,ATIONK. . . . . .. •. 119 43. Coutinual e-nergy supply to t.h« HYHt(~1lI [IH necessary caUAO, involving Iroqueuey t.ransformution. Instance of ar(~illg ground on t.runsmission line. I t(~ellrrnili. and (\()JI t.inuous COli t.inuul oseillat.ions. 'Their dUMlgo and int.ermediato forms. OHcillogmltlH of rlifforPllt, types. Hinging arc.

44. Mechanism of energy supply to tho cont.inual oscillation by uegntivo energy cyelo. IlYHtoroHit; cycle of transiont 111'(\. Mochanism or energy supply und cont.inuous und ouiuulutivo hunting of synchronous rnuehines. Conditions of continual and of cumulativo oseillutions.

411. Frequency of continual oscillat.ion. Dcstruct.ivonoss of oscillat.ion. Cumulat.ivo ('[00\, on insulut.ion. Unlimited energy supply. Indopcndonoe of frequency of continua! oscillation from that of exciting CaUH(~.

LrocTtrltJ<l XI. ._ INllUCTANCl'J AND CAPACITY 01<' ROUND PARAI,['l<Jl, CON-

utr("ro(U, , .. , .. , . , , , , , . . . .. 128

4(1. Definition of induet.anoo and of C!tplwit,y. Tho magnetic and 1,]10 dio!(\(Jtrin field. The IIIw of superposition of fiol(iH, lind it.s USC) for cmimdat,ioll.

47. (:aic:ulltt,ion of inductance of two parallel round conductors. l;;xt.<'l'mti ruagncti« flux and internal nmgn<,t.ie flux.

-tH. Caloulution IIlHl diK('UHHioll of til<' inductance of t.wo parallel oonduetors Ill. smnll diHt.ILlI(·(\H from oueli other. Approximations and t,hc\ir pruet.icul limitatiuns.

411, Cnleulut.ior; of ellpn,dty of PIU'ILih\i couduet.ors by superposition of (1i(ll('(\t.ric~ Iu-kls. Reduction to cleetromugnet.ic units by tho voloeity of light, Relation between inductance, eapucity, lind velocity of prOpltgat,jml.

r){), Conduct.or with grouml return, induotanee, and (~ll.flIWit.y. Tho ill\l4I:(1 conductor. Limitations of its application, Correction for IHmet,rtttioll of return current in ground,

51. Mutual inductunoe between circuits. Cnlculation of oquation, and npproxinmt,ion.

52. Mutual (lapneity between cirouits, Symmetrical circuits and asymmctrieul clrcnits. Grounded circuit,

53. Tho throo-phnso circuit, Inductance and ollpnc:ity of twowire single-phase circuit, ()f single .. wire circuit with wound return, and of three-wire thr(ltl-plulH(1 circuit. Aaymmetrical arrangement of three-phase circuit, Mutual inductance and mutual ca.pacity with threo-pheee circuit,

ELBMENrrARY I .. ECTURES ON BI .. ECTRIC DISCHAHG.mS, WAVES AND IMPULSES, AND OTH~J R rrHANSIl~N~rS.

LECTURE 1.

NATURE AND ORIGIN OF TRANSmNTS.

I. Electrical engineering deals with electric energy and its flow, that is, electric power. Two classoa of phenomena are met: permanent and transient phenomena. To illustrate: Let a in Fig. 1 be a direct-current generator, which over a circuit A connects to a load L, aR a number of lamps, etc. In trw generator G, the line A, and the load L, a current i flows, and voltages e

A

A

I"ig. 1.

exist, which are constant, or permanent, as long as the conditions of the circuit remain the same, If we connect in some more lights, or disconnect some of the load, we get a different current i', and possibly different voltages (:'; but again i' and £!' are permancnt, that is, remain the same a.':l long as the circuit remains unchanged.

Let, however, in Fig. 2, a direct-current generator G be connected to an electrostatic condenser C. Before the switch B is closed, and therefore also ja the moment of closing the switch, no current flows in the line A. Immediately after the switch B is closed, current begins to flow over line A into the condenser C, charging this condenser up to the voltage given by the generator. When the

1

2 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, WAVES AND IMI>UI,,"{f~·S.

condenser C is charged, the current in the line 11 HIH! t.IH' ('olldpll~('r C is zero again. That is, the permanent condition 111'[01'(' ('io:-;inp; the switch S, and also some time after tho closiug of tit!' switch, is zero current in the line. Immediately after t ho ('iOHillp; of the switch, however, current flows for 11 1II0I'P or i('HH Hhort tim«, With the condition of the circuit. unchanged: t.h« same p;PII('mtor voltage, the switch S dOHCd Oil the same circuit, till' ('11 rrou t, nevertheless changes, increasing from zero, at. til!' monu-nt of

. closing the switch B, to a maximum, and then dp('rt'UHinp; uj.l;lLill to zero, while the condenser charges from Z('ro voitnp;l' to UI(' p;('rt('m~ tor voltage. We then here meet It trunsienf pIWIIOIlU'1I0!l, in the charge of the condenser from It soureo of ('OnU1l\1O\1H voltag«,

A

Fig. 2.

Commonly, transient. and permanent phenomena art" HUIJtlrimposed upon each other, For instance, if in the clrouit }I'ig. 1 we close the switch S connecting a fan motor F, at the moment of closing the switch S the current in the fan-motor circuit h~ zero. It rapidly rises to a maximum, the motor start-H, itH Hppl'd ill('rl'lli'lI'H while the current decreases, until finally speed and ('UI'rI'Ilt. hp('ollln constant; that is, the permanent condition iH reached.

The transient, therefore, appears lLS intermediate h('t.WI·l'lI two permanent. conditions: in the above instance, tIl<' fun motor !liMb connected, and the fan motor running at. full HPC'(,(1. Tho qU('l-ition then arises, why the effect of a change in the condition» !If an electric circuit does not appear instantaneously, hut. only !trt.·r It transition period, requiring a finite, though frequently very short, time.

2. Consider the simplest case: an electric power tramlfuh-miou (Fig. 3). In the generator G electric: power iH produced from mechanical power, and supplied to the line A. In Uw line A !'«lfUt' (If this power is dissipated, the rest transmitted into the load I" where the power is used. The consideration of the electric pow~~r

NATURE AND ORIGIN Of!' '1'RANSIEN'I'8.

3

in generator, line, and load docs not represent the entire phenomenon. While electric power flows over the line A, thoro is a magnetic field surrounding the line conductors, and an electrostatic field issuing from the line conductors, The magnetic field and the electrostatic or "diolectrie " field represent stored energy. Thus, during the permanent conditions of the flow of power through the circuit Fig. a, thoro is «loctrio energy stored in Ute space surrounding 1,11<' line conductors. 'I'hero is energy stored also in tho generator and ill t.h« loud; for instance, tho mechanical momentum of the revolving fan in Fig. I, I1tHl tho heat energy or tho incandescent lamp Iilumout», '1'11(\ permanent condition of t.ho circuit Fig. 3 thus r<']>m'4('lltH not only flow of power, but. also storage of energy. When t.ho switch S iH open, and no power flows, no energy if-; storod in tho syatom. If we now close tho switch, before the permanent condition corresponding to the closed switch can occur,

A

A

Fig, 3,

tho stor<><il'lI(lrI!;Y has to he supplied from the source of power; that is. Ior IL short. t imo power, in supplying tho stored energy, flOWH not, only through tho circuit. hilt. also from the circuit into tho spac« HIII'I'O\llHIiIlP; t.h« conductors, ote. This flow of power, which H\1ppli('s t 11(' (\Ill'rgy stored in the ponnaneut condition of the circuit, IIII1Kt ('PuS(' itS soon !LR t.ill' stored ('lwrgy has been supplied, and thus iH a 1 ransiont..

I nvr-rscly, if WI' <IiH('OIllH>(,t. HOIll!' of th« load D in Fig, 3, and t hl'l't'hy 1'<,<111('<' t.itl' flow of power, a smaller amount of stored (>llI'rp;y would ('ol'r!'spond to thaf lesser flow, and before tho <'o!Hlitimll-! of thr circuit can become stationary, or permanent (correspoudiug to t hI' i('Hf{('I1t'<i flow of power), some of the stored ('IWI'f.(Y 1Iu.1'I to hI' roturuod to t 11!' circuit, or dissipated, by a transiont,

'I'hus till' transient iH til(' result of tho change of the amount of stored energy, required by the change of circuit conditions, and

4 ELECTRIC DISCIlARGES, WAr!?,,; ANI> IMl'VLSBS.

is the phenomenon by which tho circuit r('acljuHtH itself to the change of stored energy. It may thu» he I-IItid thnt the pormanent phenomena are the phenomena of electrie power , till' transients the phenomena of electric energy.

3. It iA obvious, then, that transients ero not HIlt'dfi('ally ('It'dl'i~ cal phenomena, but occur with all forma of energy, under nil couditions where energy storsge takes place.

Thus, when we start the motors propelliug an pit·t·t-ri(· ear, It transient period, of acceleration, appears between tllt' prl'ViOI1H permanent condition of standstill and tho final pcrmanont, eondition of constant-speed running; when W(1 shut olT the motors, the permanent condition of standstill is not reached instaut ly, but a transient condition ()f deceleration interveues, Wheu Wt~ open the water gates leading to an empty (!11nt~1, a translent condition" of flow and water level intervenes while tilt' canal h~ filling, until the permanent condition is reached. Thus in the ('11l4(1 of the fan motor in instance Fig. 1, a t,r~msi(mt. period of Sl)l'('d and mechanical energy appeared while the motor wnH speeding up and gathering the mechanical energy of its momentum, When turning on an incandescent lamp, the filament passea 11 tranKitmt of gradually rising temperature.

Just as electrical transients may, under certain conditions, rise to destructive values; so transients of other forms of energy may become destructive, or may require serious eonaideration, 11t-1, for instance, is the case in governing high-head water powers. Tho column of water in the supply pipe represents a conaidcrahl« amount of stored mechanical energy, when flowing ut. velocity, under load. If, then, full load is suddenly thrown off', it. iH not possible to suddenly stop the flow of water, since a rapid st.opping would lead to a pressure transient of destructive value, t.hat. iH, burst the pipe, Hence the use of surge tanks, relief valves, or deflecting nozzle governors, Inversely, if It heavy load comes Oil suddenly, opening the nozzle wide does not. immediately take (~u.r(' of the load, but momentarily drops the water pressure at tilt' nozzle, while gradually the water column acquires velocity, that, is, stores energy.

The fundamental condition of the appearance of It transient, thus is such a disposition of the stored energy in the sy!'!t NIl ltH differs from that required by the existing conditions of the sYHt('m'

. ,

and any change of the condition of a system, which requires a

NATURE AND ORIGIN OF TRANSIENTS.

5

change of the stored energy, of whatever form this energy may be, leads.to a transient.

Electrical transients have been studied more than transients of other forms of energy because:

(a) Electrical transients generally are simpler in nature, and therefore yield more easily to a theoretical and experimental investigation.

(b) The theoretical side of electrical engineering is further advanced than the theoretical side of most other sciences, and especially:

(c) The destructive or harmful effects of transients in electrical systems are far more common and more serious than with other forms of energy, and the engineers have therefore been driven by necessity to their careful and extensive study,

4. The simplest form of transient occurs where the effect is directly proportional to tho cause. This is generally the case in electric circuits, since voltage, current, magnetic flux, otc., arc proportional to each other, and the electrical transients therefore arc usually of tho simplest nature. In those cases, however, where this direct proportionality <lOCH not exist, as for instance in inductive circuits containing iron, or in electrostatic fields exceeding the corona voltage, the transients !tIHO are far more complex, and V('ry little work has been dono, and very little is known, on these more complex electrical transients.

ASHUlllO that in an electric circuit we IULvc !L transient current, as represented by curve 7: in Fig. 4 i that is, Home change of circuit condition requires a readjustment of the stored energy, which occurs by the flow of transient current i. 'Thi« current starts at the value '1:1, and gradually dies down to zero. Assume now that the law of proportionality between cause and effoot applies i that is, if tho transient current started with a different value, '1:2, it would traverse a curve '1:', which is the same aH curve i, except that all values arc changed proportionally, by the ratio

~ h t' " . X 7~

.,..' t a 18 t = 1, -;-.

1.1' , 'It

Starting with current ii, the transient follows the curve i; starting with 1:2, the transient follows the proportional curve i'. At some time, t, however, the current i has dropped to the value i2, with which the curve) i' started. At this moment t, the conditions in the first case, of current i, arc the same as the conditions in

6 ELECTRIC DISCElA.RGBS, Wit VJiJS AND 1M I'UU;;[<;S.

the second case, of current 'if, at the moment tl; that is, from onward, curve i is the same as curve if from time tl on ward. Since

o

Fig. 4. - Curve of Himpltl Transient: Decay ()f Currtmt.

if is proportional to i, from any point t onward curve '1: i~ propertional to the same curve i from tl onward. At time til it iii!

d'i2 dil 7:2

,~~- == .- X "'"

dtl dt1 il

B t' di2 d' t t tl di l' t' .

u since dtl an 7-2 a 1 are io same as dt anc '/, u., t,11lW t, It

follows:

or,

eli di1 i

-=-'"''

dt cit! il

di . di = - Cl.,

hI dil t t d tl ' .

were c = - il dt = cons an ,an .ne mmus sign

di . t'

IIi IS nega ive.

As in Fig, 4:

dil tan cp = - "--, dt

altl = ii,

1 dil tan cp 1

e=---="'--=_·

il dt a;,t~ tl~ ,

NATURE AND ORIGIN OF TRANSIENTS.

7

that is, c is the reciprocal of the projection T = tlt2 on the zero line of the tangent at the starting moment of the transient.

Since

1

c = T'

d1: 1

-;- = -C( t; ~

that is, the percentual change of current is constant, or in other words, in the same time, the current always decreases by the same fraction of its value, no matter what this value is.

Integrated, this equation gives:

loO i = - ct + 0, i = AE-ct,

or,

! i=AE-;P;

that is, tho curve is the exponential.

The exponential curve thus is tho expression of the simplest form of transient. This explains its common occurrence in electrical and other transients. Consider, for instance, the decay of radioactive substances: the radiation, which represents the decay,

. rt' 1 t tt t f li t' tori 1 . . elm

It'! propo aona ,0 10 amoun 0 rat ia .mg materia ; It IS dt = em,

which IC'I1<h, to the same exponential function.

Not 1111 transient», however, are of this simplest form. For instance, the docolcration of It ship cION; not follow the exponential, but at high velocities the dr-orease of speod iH a greater fraction of the speod than (luring tho same time interval at, lower velocities, and the speed-time eUrV('R for different initial speods are not proportional to each other, hut are as shown in Fig. 5. 'The reason iH, that the frictional rcsistanco is not proportional to the speed, hut to the square of the SP{W(l.

s. Two eiltHS(,H of tranaionts may occur:

1. glWl'Il:Y may he stored in one form only, and the only energy change which can occur thus is all increase or a decrease of the stored energy.

2. Energy may he stored in two or more different forms, and the possible' energy changes thus are an increase or decrease of the total stored energy, or a change of the stored energy from one form to another. Usually both occur simultaneously.

An instance of the first case is the acceleration or deceleration

8 ELECTRIC DISCIIAIWES, WAVJiJS AND IMPUU{P;s.

of a train, or a ship, etc.: here energy can he stored only 1tH mochanical momentum, and the tram;ient thus consists of au in('rN~14(, of the stored energy, during aecclcrat.iou, or of ~t <I(·ert·n."!!'," during

Be('ondm

10 20 80 40 !J() 100 110 120

Fig. 5. - Docelerutlon of Ahip,

deceleration. Thus also in a low-voltage electrlc oireuit of negligible capacity, energy can be stored only in the magnetic field, and the transient represents an increase of the stored magnetic cmorgy. during increase of current, or a decrease of the magnetic (ltlt'l'gy. during a decrease of current.

An instance of the second case is the pendulum, Fig. n: with tIl<' weight at rest in maximum elevation, all the fltol'l'd (,1H'l'gy is potential energy of gravitation, This ('lwrgy ('hungi'll t.u kinetic mechanical (,lwrl{V until in the lowest. poait.ion, It, when all the potential gravitational energy 1111.1'1 been ('itlwr <:UI1· verted to kinetic uwdll\llkal energy or diH."!ipnt('(l. T11I'u. during tho rise of th« wl,jgitL that part of th« ('fwrl{Y whieh is not dissipat«! agaln ('hullg!'!'! to potential gravitational onergy, at c, then back Iij(uiu to kinetic energy, at a; and in this manner the total stored ('lwrgy is gradually dissipated, by a series of successive ClH('i1l1l.tiolll'l or changes between potential gravitational and kinetic mechsnleal

a

Fig. 6. - Double-energy Transient of Pendulum.

NATURE AND ORIGIN OF TRANSIENTS.

9

energy. Thus in electric circuits containing energy stored in the magnetic and in the dielectric field, the change of the amount of stored energy - decrease or increase - frequently occurs by a series of successive changes from magnetic to dielectric and back again from dielectric to magnetic stored energy. This for instance is the case in the charge or discharge of a condenser through an inductive circuit.

If energy can be stored in more than two different forms, still more complex phenomena may occur, as for instance in the hunting of synchronous machines at the end of long transmission lines, where energy can be stored as magnetic energy in the line and apparatus, as dielectric energy in the line, and as mechanical energy in the momentum of the motor.

6. The study and calculation of the permanent phenomena in electric circuits are usually far simpler than arc the study and calculation of transient phenomena. However, only the phenomona of t\ continuous-current circuit are really permanent. Tho alternating-current phenomena are transient, as the e.m.f. continuously and periodically changes, and with it the current, tho stored energy, etc. The theory of alternating-current phenomcna, as periodic transients, thus has been more difficult. than that of continuous-current phenomena, until methods were devised to treat. tho periodic transients of the alternating-current circuit HH permanent phenomena, by the conception of the It effective values,' and more completely by tho introduction of the general number or complex quantity, which represents the periodic Iunet.ion of time by a constant numerical value. In this feature li('H the advantage and the power of the symbolic method of dealing with alternating-current phenomena, - the reduction of a periodic translont to u permanent or constant quantity, For this reason, wherever periodic transients occur, as in rectification, commutation, otc., a considerable advantage is frequently gained by their reduction to permanent. phenomena, by the introduction of the symbolic expression of the equivalent sine wave.

Hereby most of tho periodic transients have been eliminated from consideration, and there remain mainly tho nonperiodic transients, as occur at. any change of circuit conditions. Since they arc the phenomena of the readiustment of stored energy, a study of the energy storage of the electric circuit, that is, of its magnetio and dielectric field, is of first importance.

LRCTURE, I I.

THE ELECTRIC FIELD.

7. Let, in Fig. 7, It genorator (J truusmit (·II'I,t ril' PlIWP!' o\ON line A into a receiving circuit ill.

A
G¢ A
Fig. 7. Whilt' POWI'[' 1I0wI'I tit rough the (~()IHI\l<'l(Jr;! A, PO\\"('f is eon<._ HUlII('(i in t IH'~l!' ('lIll1ll1dorH by 9\f eonverxiou i nt.o lwltt, fl'prth

__ ::J sented by i~l', Thi1'l, howevt-r,

L- -==- , h-l not aU. hut ill tilt' l'IJllt<'I'

l:4urrmm<lilljl;, till' ('nmhwt Of ,'(Of· nlu.glwti(· Ilnd "ll'dwl'lt utit· fOr(~l'l'I npp.'!U',

tain phenomena occur:

Fig. 8. -- I<:lcctri(l Field of CUlllilll:tor,

The conductor is surrounded by a tfI.agTUltic field, or a magnetio flux, which is measured by the number of lim1Jn of magrlttic Jurer <I>, With a single conductor, the lines of magMticl Ioree nfl' ('()Iw('nt,riCl circles, as shown in Fig. 8. By the return conductor, the ('ifd{'~

IO

THE ELECTRIC FIELD.

11

are crowded together between the conductors, and the magnetic field consists of eccentric circles surrounding the conductors, as shown by the drawn lines in Fig. 9.

An electrostatic, or, as more properly called, dielectric field, issues from the conductors, that is, a d1:electr{,c flux passes between the conductors, which is measured by the number of lines of dielectric force 'II'. With a single conductor, the lines of dielectric force are radial straight lines, as shown dotted in Fig. 8. By the return conductor, they are crowded together between the conductors, and form ares of circles, passing from conductor to return conductor, as shown dotted in Fig. 9.

Fig. I). El<,etl'i<l Field of ( 'ircuit.

TIl(' magnotic and the diolectric field of the conductors both are included in tho term electric field, and are the two components of the olectrio field of the conductor.

8. Tho magnetic field or mao netic flu» of tho circuit <I), if! proportional to tlw current, 1', with a proportionality factor, L, which is called the inductance of the circuii.

if> "" Li.*

(1 )

The magnotio fiokl represents stored energy w. To produce it, power, 1), must therefore he supplied by the circuit,

Since power is current times voltage:

1) = (3'£,

.. ?('I'>, jf till' flux <t> interlinks UHI circuit. n fold.

(2)

12 ELECTRIC DISClIAlWJ;;S, WA rB.'-I' A.NO turut. .. II.U~.q.

to produce the nu~glwti(' field 'fl of tilt' curn-nt i, a voitnp;(' I:' must be consumed in the circuit, which wit h till' current i Jl;iv('l'I the power p, which supplies t,}l(' Ht.orl'(i I'Ill'rJ1;Y II' of till' IlIIlp;W·t ii' field e. This voltage e' is mtllNI till' lnducumre lloitll!ll', Ill' 1'lIlIaYI' consumed by self-induction.

Since no power is required to maintain till' lit·lel. hut pOW«'!' is required to produce it, the induct nw'!' vo!tnp;I' must b., proportional to the rate of ill('r(ll~p of til!' 1I111.P;IWti(· !il·ltl:

e' tlfl> (:J)
tit'
or by (1), I til:
t/ J <it' (i1 ) eli

If i and thert~forc tfl dNlreltHf,,' mit! tlwN·ful'{· t" nrt' W'!l:U( h'(,; fit

that is, p becomes nogatlve, and pOw!.r il'l t'!'turm>tl into tilt' cireuit, The energy supplied by tho power p il3

'Ul ./,11 cit,

or by (2) and (4),

~I) ./'u di;

hence

'W

(5)

is the energy of the magnetic fi('\(l 1l !,i

of the circuit,

9. Exactly analogous relationa mdst in the dil.lh'(·t.rh· fMIl.

The dielectric field, or dielectric fiux, "', ii'l proport iOlml t I) till! voltage e, with a proporti()nalit,y fad,or, C, whioh hll·nU.·d thl' capacity of the aireu:it:

'l' "'" Ce, (0)

The dielectric field represents stored ('l'wrg,v, w. To IIrutlm'p it, power, p, must, therefore, be supplied by the circuit.

Since power is current time!'! voltfJ,ge:

p - i'll, (7)

to produce the dielectric field '" of the voltap;(\ e, a (mrf't'nt~ i' must be consumed in the circuit, which with the vu!tt\K(! f} givt·)!

THE ELECTRIC FIInD.

13

the power p, which supplies the stored energy tv of the dielectric field 'II'. This current 'i' is called the capacity current, or, wrongly, charging current or condenser current.

Since no power is required to maintain the field, hut power is required to produce it, the capacity current must be proportional to the rate of ineroase of thn diolectric field:

-r li'\f ~ = (If'

(8)

or hy (G),

., (,de

~ = ,._-.

dt

(9)

If e and therefore 'I' decrease, ~i and therefore if 11r(' negative: that is, J! h!'COIlWS negativo, and power is returned into the circuit, The energy supplied by the POW(If 1> is

w =./,pdt,

(10)

or by (7) and (H),

hence

(11)

ill til!' energy of the dielectric field 'it "'" Co

of tho circuit.

AK 1-\(>(111, tho capacity current iK the exact analogy, with regard to tho dic'l!'drie field, of the inductance voltage with regard to the magnotio field; t.he reproscntationa in the electric circuit, of the energy Htorag<' in tho field,

The dlolectric field of the circuit thus iH treated and represented in the same manuel', and with the Harne simplicity and perspicuity, as the magnetic field, hy using the same conception of lines of force.

Unfortunately, to a large extent in dealing with the dielectric fields the prehistoric conception of the electrostatic charge on the conductor still exists, and by its use destroys the analogy between the two components of the electric field, the magnetic and the

14 E1JEC7'IUC [)/8(,1l.WUh'S, 11'.1 rRS .LVI> t urrt.s)».

dielectric, and makes th« eOIll-lidC'rutioIl of elil'h,t,t I'il' fic'ld" unnecessarily complicated.

There obviously is no more' H(,lIl"1l' ill t hinking of till' f'lLpat'it y current as current which ehal'g('i'\ t ht, {'OIHltlt'lor wit h It quant ity of electricity, than thcro iH of HI\('a.kill~ IIf t IH' indu«t lUll'!' volt 1l1(1' as charging tho conductor with It quantity of 1II1l~1Il'! 1:..;111. Hilt while the latter eoueeption, t.OI!;I't.it!'I' wit II till' !lot ion of n !(11II1l tit y of magnetism, de" 11111'1 vanlshed i'iilH'1' 1"llrada:; '" l'I'P!'('~I'11l at ion of the magnetic field by the lilll'K of llI11glll'lil' fOri'!'. till' tvrminology of electrostatics of 1IIIL11~' tvxt hook" i'l ill l'lpl'lIkl" III' "It,!,! rh' charges on the conductor, arul till' ('!II'rp;y ;.:tor(,11 by 111!'1iI. wit hout considering that the dielectri« ('Ilt'r,J;~' il'l !lot 011 till' l'lllri'ltl'l' of. till' conductor, but in the SP!L<l(1 outside of tilt' ('oIllIIlI'lO!', ju!'<1 IM4 till'

magnetic energy. •

10. All the lines of nll~glwtit!, fort'!' art' ('IO!'t,!i 1111011 tlt.'III:-iI·!Vt'l'l, all the lines of dielectric Iore« tenninat« at ('owhll't ol'!'!. Ul'i :-lI'j'U ill Fig. 8, and the magnetic flokl and tll<' «lh'II·(·t rit' li.·ld t hu» ('1111 hI' considered as a rna(lnelic cireuli mul :1, didl'd,.it~ rirruit,

To produce a maOfwUc flux ttl, It IIwunl'fllmtllilt" /01'('(: F i~ ['!'qllil'I'IL Since the magnetic field is duo to til(' ('\lrrl·ut. luul is prllport 100mi to the current, or, in u coiled circuit, to ,Ill' current tillll'N t hi' 1111111- ber of turns, magnetomotlve fore!' ill t'xprt'l'IlIl'il ill rurrrut lurn» or ampere turns:

It' ni,

I:J

If F is the m.m.f., l the length of thtl 1ll1\II;IWti(· eireuit , I'lIl'rll:ill:l'd

by P, F'

f ' (la,l

l

is called the ma{/netilfin(f !orc,{'! or trut(/netit' grwlil'flt, IUIII i111 1')\> pressed in arn1Jere tu.rns pt.rr cm, (or induxt rlally l'ItlUlI't imt'FI ill ampere turns per inch).

In empty SPI1(',O, and therefor!' 1\11'10, with VI'r,\' I'lul'l(' upprmd· mation, in all nonmagnetic matf!riu.l,J UIlIIII'rf' t.urn" Iwr 1'111. 1l'IIKth of magnetic circuit produce 3C 4 '1i' ! 10 I lirtl'1'l of um~llI't it- fUrl'" per square em, section of tho magnetic circuit, (U.·rl' till' (Iu'tnr 10-1 results from the ampere being 1(""1 uf tho athl'ltlluh' nl' ('IQ'l. unit of current.)

:Je - 4'1i'/1(}-1!Ii (HI

. ... ~he fl1ctor 4'11' is 11 sw::vivaJ. of the original dunnlUufI of thi) 1IIq:1I01 It) fMII intensity from the conception of the magnetic mllMl. _fWO !lnit IIIn~!lI'tic. IUIWfI was defined as that quantity of Inll.gIlctillm whloh It!lt~ lin un ('f11Illillulinmy Af,

'l'NE ELEC'l'RIC FIELD.

15

is called tho magneli:c-jicld ·inten8£ty. It is the magnetic density, that is, tho number of lines of magnetic force per cm-, produced by the magnetizing force of f ampere turns per em. in empty space.

The maynctic density, in lines of magnetic force per em>, produced by the field intensity JC in any material if;

<B = jJ.JC,

(15)

whore jJ. iH a constant, of 1.h(l material, a " maguetie conductivity," awl iH culled the 7)('rllleabtlit!l. jJ. = 1 or wry nearly so for most matorinls, with tho exceptiou of very few, th« so-culled magnetic uuuerials : iron, cobalt, nickel, and Home 11110YH and oxides of theso metals and of manganese and chromium.

If then A is the acction of tho magnetic circuit, tho total magnetic flux is

(I' = A <B.

(16)

Obviously, if tho magnotie field iH not uniform, equations (la) I1l1d (W) would ho correspondingly modified; f in (1:3) would be tIlt' avorago llIltgllC't.izillg force, while the aetual magnetizing force would vary, being higher at. the' denser, and lower at the less dense, parte of tho magnetic circuit:

ilfi'

f = -Ill' (17)

In (1H), th« magnetic flux '11 would be' derived hy integrating the dE'llHit.i('s <B over the total section of the magnetic circuit.

rr. I<:nt.irely analogous rolations exis] in the dielectric circuit, To produce It dielectric jlu;c'l', all dlwtrmnot.iuc force e if! required, which if! measured in volts. Tho e.m.f. per unit length of the dioloctrie circuit then is called the l~lectrifyin(1 [orce or the voltage gradient, and iH

e

(

(18)

unit. dilltmw(' with unit. foree. The unit. field int(,I1aity, then, WlIS defined lUI tho field int.tlnHit,y I~t unit distance from unit magnetic mass, and represented by one IiIII' (or mtlwf "tube ") of nmp;noti(l force, Tho rnagnetic flux of unit magnetic IlIILHH (or" unit IIlI~gn(lt pole ") hereby became 'l'1l" linea of force, and this introduood tho factor 4 '11" into many magnetic qUllntitiCR. An attempt to drop this Iuetor -1 'Ir llllJi Iailed, lUI t.ho magnetic units wore already too well estahlished,

The ffu~t()r 10 ..... 1 ILlllO npp!lILfH undesirable, but when tho electrical unite were introduced the nl»loJute unit appeared lUI too largo a value of current ItS praotical unit" and OM-tenth of it WItS ohoeen lUI unit, and called II ampere."

16 ELECTRJO DISOllA.RUBS, WAl'EN AND 1.lfl'UlJSJ.:S.

This gives the average voltage grll<ii<'nt., while HI!' lu't,HILI gr:L!Ii('nt in an ununiform field, nH that hotween t.WO conductcrs, vuries. being higher at the denser, and lower nt Hit' It·l'l.'! <i1'ltH(l, portion of

the field, and is

dt) til

,(HI)

K

then is the (Uelectric-fieul fntcrlllitll, and /) ,,/\

would be the dielectric den8Uy, where I( iH It ('Olll'lt.nllt, of thr IlUtll'l'iul, the electrostatic or dieloC\tri(', (·.olllitwt,ivity. and il'l ,'alh-I! till' ;;Pt'cific capacity or 1)erm'U,tim:ty.

For empty space, and thus with (~lm'lt~ npprOXilllll.tiull fur nil' and

other gases,

where

is the velocity of light"

It is customary, however, and couveuleut, to U"(' till' IIi'fllli!. tivity of empty space as unit,y: I( 1. Thil'i (·11111111;1'" till' unit of

dielectric-field intensity by tlw factor '!:i' and j(i VI'~: dit·I!·(·t l'ic"fh,ld "

intensity,

(~II

dielectric density,

D "'" If.K, (22)

where I( = 1 for empty space, and bt1tW(1('n 2 1U\t1 U fur tunM. l>Iulilil'l and liquids, rarely in(lrClMinll: lxwoml 0, t!X(!t'pt in UUl,h·rinl" of appreciable eleetrie conductivity,

The dielectric flux then is

'l' ... AD. (2:41

I2. As seen, the dielectrlo and the ma.gnetiCl fiflld", liN' Nltir«'i v analogous, and the corresponding vu.hw!4 art.' .,uhulit«'d in tI; •. following Table 1.

* The factor 41r appears hero in the denomitltlotnr aM th" ro:eult uf till' tllntuf 41r in the magnetic-field intoosity 3C. due to tho romtioM bertW(It!fl thlllltl quantities.

17

'l'IIB ELEC'l'UW rteui.

Mugnci.io Ilux:

<I) "" I,,: lOx iill(,H of 1I11lp;uo(,i(\ Iorct-.

Inductance volt.ag«:

d'l) .u

I,f"" 11 tit J() H I, dt volts.

MILP;lwt,i(' ('IINgy:

I '"

". . i

2 juu eM.

Mal!;l1Molll()LivCl Force:

It' ni umpore t.urnx,

Magru·t,il'lillg for('(\:

p

f I ampere (,arm; !J(I!' ern.

MlLglwt,j(,.(j{,ld intenait.y:

,j\, ·hj1n"! iirWH of magnot io fOl'('(1 por (nil!,

l\I'\jI;ru·t k d('llHity:

<B Il.1C 1 irll'~ of mILp;!w(i(. forc',' pI'r ('m~.

Permeuhillt y: I" MttglHl! if' flux:

<I> A<B !inolA of mltp;lwl it. {Mill',

TABLI<: 1.

Diolectrlo 1";01<1.

Dieleet.rie flux:

,It mo el~ lines of dick-ctrio Iorco, or coulombs.

CltPlll'it,y ('IU'T(llIt.:

i' d", (,(Ie

.u tli amperes.

ni('It'!'!,ri(' ('IH'rp;y: {'(,2 .

111 2 J(Hll,\~.

Jo:Ie(ItrolUot.iV(l Iorco:

I' \'0111'1.

i%.('! drying forco or voltage gritdiont :

('

i volta per em.

I )i(lI!'('( ri('-lidtl intonaity:

K "" '" ~,;J. IOU lines of din!(\()t,rio forc(\ per ('111', or eoulombs pt'r ('1112•

Did('('j,l'in donsity:

J) 11K liu!'N of <ii('l!'etri(l Ioroc p!'f (,IU2, OJ' coulombs 1>1:11' mll9,

l'I'rmit,t ivit y or "pc,<'ifie eltpll.eit.y: J(

Dit·IN·trin 1111x:

it AI> lilH'Ii of dielcotrio Ioroe, or coulombs.

I' :l X 1()lO veloclt y (If light ,

'I'll!' pow!'rlol of 10, which npJH'nr in some expressions, UN! reduction flL(!t.OrH l)('tw('('u the Hhl'loiut.(· or (~gR. unit" which are used for ~! X, m, and t1l{' pmdit'lLI ('1('(Mie~~l units, used for other constante.

As ttlE' magnetic fielrl and the dielectric field also can be conaidered lLIol til!' mngnetic circuit and the dielectric circuit, Rome analogy exists between them and the electric circuit, and in Table II the corresponding terms of the magnetic circuit, the dielectric circuit, and the electric circuit are given.

18 ELEC'l'IUC j)fs(,1I.lRUP:8, 11'.1 v s« .ISi) 1.lJ/'['LS!J'::i.

Magnetic Clreult,

Magnet-in flux (mugnet.i« current):

<I> "" lines of magnet it, force.

Magnotomotiv« COrN):

F "" n'i ampere turns, Permeaneo :

M"",.(ll",. .4'11"1"

Inductance:

" n2'1> n<ll

L&a"t[ l()'-I sse In,,a

henry.

Reluctance:

T.\BLI'; II.

I )il' It'd ri(' flux (d 11,1,·(· t d,' current ):

'II I irll';! of ,I it·lt·d rit, fm'('("

EII·,·t romo! IVI' rOI'('(':

/' \,olts.

Pl'flll itt !LIII'I' or ,'apllt· i I y:

U W fllmdrt.

I'

( I<:lIUlt I\t\('{\) :

1 t'

F' R..,_·

<I> U W

Magnetic energy: Dlel CH', !'k NlI'fl(Y:

Li2 /t'cf>, ('"a 1"1' ,

w"",'::r"'-'Z'lO-s J()U}('R., 1/" :! :.! JOIIIt'M,

Magn~tic density: I Dit'llI!'! rho (ININ!!)':

(\\ - ~ ..,.acli", "'''''',1'' ~".K

Magnotizing force: I' DiII(N'1 ril' !(r:ulit'lll:

If' ,r

f ... T ampere tUrlU:! ptlf I (J l volt ~ liN "HI,

ern, I

Magnetic.lield intensity: I

JC ... ,hj, Permeabilit.y:

p. ... ~. ac

Reluctivity:

p=L

<B

Specific magnetic energy: ,47ri4" f(]

Wo =- -f" ... ":r1()-8 ""

~~ 10-7 joules per oml.

Dinilwt rh··fil.ltl Mity:

K a 10',

411fl·3

Permltt.ivlty ur (JI\!lI\!1i t Y : •

f)

IC it

(glafltivity ?):

1 K

I( J)

.. 1",'1 rit' curl'j'lI'

\' ,,111111." ;

e \'011

t' uiuu:4 l

1<11'1'11'11' Imwpr:

I' !II'. I

WII! H,

1,:1,·", ri.· 4'1II'I"'U I 01"11"11,\ ,

I

I"'fl" !lpn'lIIl, 1<1"", fH' ~m'li!'l!1

"

K ,'"II!'i ,"'1' "III,

I

U 111111101'111,

It""iHI iv it v:

I 0

II"')' t"h1ll4111l,

l,wNllr:

LECTUln~ 111.

SINGLE-ENERGY TRANSIENTS IN CONTINUOUSCURRENT CIRCUITS,

13. '1'111' Himpil'Ht PI('('\ ril'al transu-ut» ~(' {hoi'll' ill

which (,llel'ItY can Ill' Hlorp!1 ill one form .nly, ill this

chang« of Hlm'l'd (111I'1'KY can ('olll'liHt, only 0' nil bu t, UO MU!'W' or osr-illat lon hr-t W('I'II J-Il'vl'rnl exist. ~llC'h ('iJ'('uitH al'l' 1II0l'lt of thr- lown

cireuits, 220 volts, non volts.und :.!2()O \'()I~.

ity iH small, (Iilt' to thr- llmlted I'Xt.t'lit of til!' til(' low voltap;<', nut! at til!' low vultliKI' tilt' (

iH n('p;li~dhh', Umt is, till' l'i!'l·uit. Mlo!'I'!'! Ilppn~'ilihl(' ('li4,'l'K)r:lla:1i)

t.lH' 1IlU,p;uC'ti(· li 1'1 d, .... '

A circuit. of ('()!IHid('!'ahl" (,!tp!wity, but· !

(If high r('",h,tlUl('I', would n11'l0 p;ivl' 0111' ' M

ill t h« dit'i(·(·tri(. field. The- Ill-luul that of 11.11 l')('('jro14tati(' muchlno, while

also iH of very Nrnnll r('Ni",ttlw'(', mHl

«urronts may hI' very ('OIIHi<iI'!''' ahk-, HO tblLt. ill Mpit,(· uf t hc' Vl'l'Y "!!lILlI iwlw·tltw'(' I ('oUl!iekmhltl mngrU'ti(">{'!lt'rKY Htor'ngl' may ()('. cur; tlmt hoI, tlw I'IYHtNtl il'l mit' Htoring ('!wrKV ill two forms, and <lIwilllttiol1l'1 ItPtlt'ILr, Ill'! in the dis- --~-~II..-.--··JI..·---jfH+I#V

dmrg(1 of the· Leyden [ar, 1.'1v;. 10. Mu,tl;lwtk Sinp;!(!oCnt'rgy

Let, ttH rt'prl'Ht'ntf'ti in Il'ig, 10, 'i'rmU'Iit!llt.

It continuous vult.age t'!) hI' im-

pressed upon a wire coil of l'('Hi:d,ltnet' r and inductance L (but

('"

, flows through the coil and r

. f' 11 II Lin, I' k 'h tl 'I A .

a maguotie ie ( til., 10-· inter In H with the ('01 • ssummg

11

now that. the voitnJl;l' t'll il'l I'IUddtmly withdrawn, without changing HI

20 ELECTRIC J)[SCllAllOl<JS, WA \'RS AX/) 1M ['(I LSRS.

the constants of the coil eireuit, as for iustane« by HIIOM.circuiting the terminals of the coil, as indicated ILt,:1. With no voltage impressed upon the coil, and thus IlO POW('t" Huppli('(l to it, current i and magnetic flux (I> of til(' eoil must finally 1)(· zero, However, since tho magnetic flux t"l'prr'H('ntl'l Htorl'lt PIH'fI.1;Y, it, cannot instantly vanish, but, t.lH' maglll't ii' flux must. y;mdu!LlIy decrease from its initial value <\)(j, hy tilt' diHKipation of itl'< "tof('d energy in the reaistance of toll!' coil eirruit ILK Pr. Plot till!!:. t lu-rofore, the magnetic flux of the coil ILH Iunet iun of t ht· t.iuu-, ill Fig. llA, the flux is constant and dl'flOt,('d hy '1'<1 up to tlil' llHllllt'lIt of

o

to Fig. 1.1. _- Chnra.ctoril!ti(lli of MUt(lll'titl HlullhH'III'fR)' 'I'rnlllil!'IIL

time where the short. circuit is applied, M indi(~at(·d bv till' duttNI line to. From to on the magnetic flux deer('u,m'li, t~ 14111;WI1 IIv ('lIr\'I' <11. Since the msgnetic flux is proportional to tlw (·ufn:llt. ttl!' la~ter must follow a curve proportional to f{), UJl lIl!own in 1"iV;. 1111. The impressed voltage is shown in l?ig. l l.C lUlU <iutt(>(1 lin«: it il'l eo up to to, and drops to 0 at to. However, since llJtnt" ttl It ourrent i flows, an e.m.f, must exist in the circuit, propcrtionul tu tbe current.

e ... rio

SINGLI!1-ENfiJIWY 'l'IlA NSIEN 7'S.

21

This is the e.m.f. induced by the decrease of magnetic flux <P, and is therefore proportional to the rate of decrease of 'P, that is, to dcJ.)

il{. In the first; moment; of short. circuit, tho magnetic flux <I) still

has full value <11o, lind the ourreut t thus also full value '1:0. Hence, at; the first, moment of shorf circuit, tho induced e.m.I, c must be equal to eo, t.hat is, tho mugnetle flux <I' must lx-gin to decrease at such rate HH 1.0 induce full voltage Co, ltH shown in Fig. 11 C.

Tho thro« curves <I', i, awl c are proportional to each other, and as e iK proport.ionul to tho rate of chang« of <II, 'I) must be propertional to itH own rat« of change and thus also 'I: and c. That is, the trunsionts of magnetic flux, current, and voltage follow tho law of proportionality, IWlH:(~ are simple exponential functions, as s('('n in r ,('ot. U 1'(\ I:

'I) 'l'nt, _. r. (I to), l
i i oe " -« t.) I (1)
e I'of .. t(1 ,- to). I (I', i, and C <!O(:fet\."l(' 1II0H(, rapidly ut. first, and then slower and slower, hut can t.hc'ol'{'t.j(·!dly never become zero, though praotically tll<'y J)('<lOIlH' IlPgligibll' ill !~ finit« time.

Tho voltag« (' iH induced hy 1.11(' rat« of ehange of the magnetism, and ('quldH til!' (jperPILHP of t.l1<' number of lines of magnetic force, divided by till' t.im« (luring which t.hiH <1(,(·I'('I1.,{(\ oceurs, multiplied by the number of t.UI'IlH '11 of t,jl(\ coil. The induced voltage e times t.11I' t.im« <luring which it, it! induced thus ('(IUILlH n times the d(l(Il'('lLHI' of tho IIHtgll<'t i(' flux, and the Lotld induced voltage, t,hnt. ia, t.lw areu of tIl!' indue-d-voltage ('UI'V!', Fig. l1C, t,11l1K equals It tilll!'H till' total c1('('r('tLHI' of rnagneti« flux, t111Lt~ il:l, equals t.Iw initlal current in timl'H t.h!' inductaneo D:

(2)

\Vhatnvl'l', then-Ior«, may he the mtt' of decrease, or the shape of the ('UI'VPH of <I', i, and r, UlI' totnl Itl't'll. of the voltage curve must

he the H!mW, and equal to nt11u LiQ•

If then tilt' current i would continue to dN!reaH(\ at. lts initial rate, ali shown dotted ill I"ig. 1111 (II,H could he caused, for instance, hy a grudual increase of the resistanee of the coil circuit), the induced voltuge would retain its initial value CIl up to the moment of time t m to + T, where the current hae fallen to zero, as

22 ELECTRIC DI8CllAlWlC8, IVA 1'118 AX!> IMI'U[,SP:S.

shown dotted in Fig. 11C. Tho nrea of this new voltago curve would be eoT, and since it iH th« HmlU' ItH thnt of tit!' curve t', ItH seen above, it follows that the 111'('11 of t.il<' v()It.I~g(' curve e iH

:::'ct "" ('~7" }

= rIoT,

and, combining (2) and (a), i« ('ltw'('IH, lwd we g<'t, t.lu- VILltW of 7':

T . L

"" .

r

That is, the initial decrea .. I.1(l of current. and tlwrdorl' of lling" netic flux and of induced voltago, is HUt'h t Imt. if till' d(l('rt'ILHI' continued at tho same rat!', tho current, flux, und voltngt· would

become zero after the time T ~ I •.

r

The total induced voltage, that, is, volt,neg!' tillH'K tinu-, am I therefore also the total current and Itlaglwt it' flux Illll'jug t hn transient, are such that, when maintained ttl, their initiul value,

they would. last for the tim« T "'" L

r

Since the curves of current and voltag« t1wort'tinl.!ly novor become zero, to got, an estimate of tho duration (If till' t tnllsi('ul, we may determine the time in which tilt' trnlll'lil'ut d"('I'I'H1'iI'l-i to half, or to one-tenth, etc., of its initial value, It i!4 llrl·(t·!'abll,. however, to estimate tho duration of t,lw tmul'lil'ut hy tIll' t iuu- 1', which it would last if maintuined at itH inltial vulu«, Tlmt j"" t.

the duration of a transient is (lousicier('(iltS tilt' tillw 7'·

r

This time T has frequently been called th!! .. tiuie mmlltnllt " of the circuit.

The higher the inductance L, t.Iw long!'r tit,· tI'IUlMh·lIt. 111"1,,, obviously, since the stored energy which thn t.rnUl'lil'lIt. !lif!14ipntf'N .is proportional to L.

The higher the resistance T, tho short.('l' i~ the duratiou of tlu' transient, since in the higher resistance tho stored flfH'tft,V il'l lito 1'1 , rapidly dissipated,

Using the time constant T "'" !:. as unit. of length for tlw Ilhl'l<'iI"ll'lI1. r

and the initial value as unit of the ordinatea, ~tll exponential transients have the same shape, and nan tlwl'tlhy be l~un"trud.fl(1

SI NOLB-BN ERGY TRANSIENTS.

by the numerical values of the exponential function, y = e-"', given in Table III.

TABLE III.

Expollential Trunsient, of Initial Value 1 and Duration l.

11 = <.-:r. e =, 2.7IR2R.

1I

0 1,000 1.0 O.:lGR
o Of) 0.1If)1 1.2 (U() 1
0 1 O.!l()f) J..l 0.2·17
0, If) O. H(;() i.o 0.202
02 O. Hili l.H O.lG5
O.21i 0.7711 2.0 0,1:15
(},a (U·II 2,fi O.()R2
().;Iii 0.705 a.n o.ono
O.·t O.!l70 a.1) n.oso
o AI) O.GaH ·1.0 O.OIH
0.1) O.()O7 .1. f) () .011
o.n O. fl·1!) 1i.0 O.OO7J
0.7 O.·W7 <1.0 o. 002
O.H O. ·14!1 7.0 o.nol
O.H 0.407 H.O 0.000
1.0 o. :I{~I{ ' ....... ". , ....
AK H(I(,II ill J,('('Lure' I, t.ho eooffi (.j (lilt of the exponent of the Hin~I(,-(,II('r~y t.ransient., (', iK oqual (oJ" whore 7' iH tile projection of tho t.angont. nt, tlH' Ht.art iug III 011 It' II 1. of tho transient, as shown .[.;

in Fip;. II) and by equation (4) was found equal to r . That is,

I r

('

'fji L'

IUHl t.ht' equations of tho Hinll:i<·oo('lIt'rgy magnetic transient, (1), thua may he written in tilt' forms:

I I, r

, '1',,_ '1' ,h ( •• " I, (I - t.)

'.f' 'I'nt .~. r il '" 1., " to "

t·~ I. • _ r (I-I.,) (5 )
ioe'" , t' (I 1.1 iue T """ loe]' ,
I I. ._ r (I-I.)
(' i'(lt"-" (I "'1.1 ('nt l' "" t'!l~ 1, Usually, tilt' starting moment of tilt' transient if! chosen as the zero of time, to "'" 0, and equations (5) then assume the simpler form:

24 ELEC7'RIC DISCllARORS, WAVES AND III-tl'(!['SNS.

t rt

4> = <l>oE- 0/ == <JlnE - 7' ~'" (flUE - ''.

t rt

i = iOE- ci "" 1'UE - T ..., 'ioE - 1"

t rt

e = eOE-r.I "" ()l1E'- T "'" I'(I~'- I,.

(f))

The same equations may he derived directly by tho integration

of the differential equation:

Ldi +. 0

." n""

tit '

(7)

where L di is the inductance voltage, 1'1: the r('HiHtll,n<~t\ volt,agt\ dt

and their sum equals zero, as the coil is short-olrouited.

Equation (7) transposed gives

di r

i "" - L cit,

hence

logi "'" - 1. t + logC,

_.r t i ... c, L,

and, as for t = 0: i = io, it ill: C ""io; hence

14. Usually single-energy tranaient.s last An appreelable tims, and thereby become of engineering importance, ()niy in highly inductive circuits, as motor fields, magnets, etc.

To get an idea. on the duration of such magnetic tral1l'1ieutM, consider So motor field:

A 4-polar motor has 8 ml, (mega-lines) of magnetl(l flux per pole, produced by 6000 ampere turns m.m.f. per pole, and dlsslpates normally 500 watts in the field Elxcitation.

That is, if io 1:1 field-exciting current, n "'" number of field turnl'l per pole, r = resistance, and L ,.. inductance of the field .. mcciting circuit, it is

io2r .... 500,

hence

SINGLJiJ-ENERGY TRANSIENTS.

25

The magnetic flux is <1>0 = 8 X 106, and with 4 n total turns the total number of magnetic interlink ages thus is

4 nCP() = :32 n X lOr.,

hence the inductance

l 4 r/(I)() 10-8 .a2 n I

J = =.. wnrys.

o

The field excitation iH

71·£0 = 6000 ampere turns,

hence

(1000

n "'" .

'Lo

henee

and

'1' L 1920 384

"'" r -[)O() = .. sec.

That, is, the Ht.Of('d magnetic energy could maintain full field excitation for nearly 4 H('('OIHil'.

It is int(·I't'Rt.ing to note that the duration of the field discharge does not. depend on the voltage, current, or sizo of the machine, hut, merely (lXI, firat, th« magnetic flux and m.m.I., - which determine t,}l(' Ht,oN'(1 magnetie energy, ._-- and, second, on the excitation power, which determinr« the rate of energy dissipation.

IS. AssUllw now 1,hut in the moment where the transient begins tho r(lHist,lm(l(' of th« coil in l~'ig. 1 () i:; increased, that is, the

( 1\
I
t

i (
r L

coil is not ahort-eireuited upon itsell, but it!:! circuit closed by a reaistance r', Hu<:h would, for instance, be the case in l!'ig. 12, when opening the awiteh 8.

26 ELECTRIC DISCIIAROBS, WA FES AND IAll'U/.SE<:S.

The transients of magnetic flux, current, and voltage are shown as A, B, and C in Fig. l:t

The magnetic flux and therewith tho current d('('r('ltH(, from the initial values <I?o and io at tho moment t·o of opening tho switch ."I, on curves which must be steeper than those in Fig. II, sinoo the current passes through a greater rnHh,j,IUW(', r + )'1, and thereby dissipates the stored magnetic energy at, a greater rate.

A

B

I e' _I --------1

o 1 1

__ s., I

I

c

~o

Fig. 13. - Ch!ll'Lt(lt('ri~ticH of Mnglll'tic! HiIlKIt'-!'IU'~Y Trllllr<il'll!.

The impressed voltage Co is withdrawn at till' UlOfllf'ut· 1o• nml n voltage thus induced from t.hiH moment onward, of H\ll'h value ml to produce the current 1: through the rCHiHtlUl('(' r + r. 111 tilt, first moment, to, tho current is still i», und the lndunxl voltsge thus must he

eo' "'" 1'0 (I' + 1"), while the impressed voltage, before to, was

eo "'" ior;

hence the induced voltage 60' is grt'l~tnr than tho illlprt'N.'!oo voltage eo, in the same ratio as the resistance of tilt! dh·whnrgl' eircuit r + r' is greater than the resistance of the coil r through which the impressed voltage sends the current

eo' or r'

- ...

eo r

8INOLB-ENEIWY 'l'RANSIEN'l'S.

27

The duration of the transient now is

T= .. L _, r +r'

that is, shorter in the same proportion as the resistance, and thereby th« induced voltage is higher.

If r' :::-~ 00, t.hat, is, 110 r('Sist,lLllen is ill shunt to tho coil, but. th« circuit h-i simply O{)(,II<'<I, if til!' opening wore instuntaueous, it would lx-: I'll' = 00 ; i.hat, is, nil infini t.(' volt.ag<' would b(' induced. That, is, i.h(' insulution of t.IH' coil would be punctured and the circuit closr-d ill t.hiH IIULfUWl".

'The more rapid, thus, t.ho opening of all inductive circuit, the higher iK th« induced voltag«, 111Hl th« gl'pat('r t.h« clangor of breakdown. IIl'lu'p it iK HOt. Haf!' to have too rapid circuit-opening (l('vi(~(,H on lnduetlvo circuit H.

To HOm(' <,,,t.('lIt, UH' circuit. proj,('<:ts itself by an aro following the hI!1<iPH of t,11<' circult-oponiug switch, nlld t.liPl'l'hy retarding the eir«uit opening. Tlu- !HOr!' mphl Uti' nu-chanical opening of th« switch, th« high('1' t.h« induced voltage, and further, therefore, the lLI'(~ follows tho swit <"II hladt'H and muintains tlt(' «ireuit,

x6. HilllillLl' t.ransiont« UH <1il'l('\I:4H('d ahov« O('('UI' when closing a eir('uit, upon au impl'I':4HP(1 V()ItI~P;(', or changing the voltago, or the ('UI'I'Pllt., or t 11(' 1'(,Hi:4I'I~JI('(' or iuduct.anr-e of til!' cirrult., A diHCUHsion of tilt' influit« Vltril't Y of pOI-Il'libl(' eomlrinut.iuns obviously would hI' imp()K~iihl!'. 110\\'('\'1'1', till')' run nil lIP r!'du('('(] to the HILllH' Himpi<' ('IlHP diH('t1Hl'l(·d lIi1oVI', by ('oll!~id('l'i!lg that HI'V!'ra.1 current l'l, volt ILI1;('i'I, magnl'l i!' fItIX('i'I, I'k., ill t ht, HlUlI(' circuit add a1Il:pilmi('ILlly, without int!'rf!'rillll: wit It ('ILI'h 0111('1' (ILHHuminp;, ILH done ht,I'(', t hat 1IlILKIII'I it' i'llLt urat ion j" lint ILpproltchl'( 1).

If IlII 1'.1II.r. I') prwitl!'('H It eurn-nt i, ill n circuit, aud an ('.111.£. C2 pl'odu('l'l'I ill till' ~allll' circuit n vurn-nt i~, t III'Il t IH' e.m.f, I', + I'.: prWil1<'I'H till' current i, i~. It.'" j" obvious,

If now til!' \,OltlLgt' (', + I'~, lUll! thus alS!1 thl' current i, + it, conMilltK (If It Pl'rtIUUII'IIt tr-rrn, I'! IUlll ill and II, t.rlLlll'li.'llt te-rm, I': and i2• the trltlll-4il'ut. tPl'lnS 1'2. i~ follow til!' I'ILUlI' ('UI'V('l'I, when combined with HII' 1)('I'IIIlLIU'Ut tl'l'lIIl'4 n. i., :1.'< tlw,Y would when alone ill the circuit (til!' ('n!'t' nhov« clil'l(·uHtI('IIl. Thus, the pft'eNlil1g discussion applit'!'I til nil mnglU'til' transient», hy Iwpnrntiug the transient from the permanent u-rm, illv('1'Itigl1t.ing it. Ht'pu.ratt'ly, and then adding it to tilt' permanent, term,

28 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, WAVES AND IMI'ULSBS.

The same reasoning also applies to the transient resulting from several forms of energy storage (provided that. the law of proportionality of i, e, cJ>, etc., applies), and mak<;H. it, pOHH.iblt', in investigating the phenomena during the transition period .of energy readjustment, to separate the permanent. and the transient, term, and discuss them separately.

B

:

A --~~-l---'------~

:

I __ -.- ••••••••••• - •••• ---

<Ii .,,~-'

.,.- .. ~"' ............. "' ...

-wo : ",,,.- ... ,,,,

.----.1"

:

------+._-----_.-_ _ _ '"

io

---

...... ,. :~ - .

.;;;:>---i'

-io ~,.~;"'"

---.--l-

:

eo't------e,~--~==========

c

I .J._.- ... _.-----_._--.-- .. _-----

........ .$ :

I ... "'" t

7_<:L_~::::--------.--_.1 i

Fig. 14. - Single-energy Starting 'frumlilliit of MlloglUltio Cirouit,

For instance, in the coil shown in Fig. 10, lot the l'Ihort (iirmlit, A be opened, that is, the voltage eo be impressed upon the coil, At the moment of time, to, when this is done, current 1:, magnetic flux eli, and voltage e on the coil are zero. In final condition, a.fter the transient has passed, the values io, <1>0. 80 are reached, W(I may then, as discussed above, separate the transient from tlHl permanent term, and consider that at the time to the coil has a permanent current io, permanent flux ~o, permanent voltage 80. and in a.lI(H.

SINGLJiJ-EN }lJIWY 'l'RANSJliJN'l'S.

29

tion thereto a transient current -io, a transient flux -<I>o, and a transiont, voltage - Co. TIH'sP transients are the same as in Pig. 11 (only with reversed direction). Thus the sante curves result, and to them arc a<1<1o(1 the permanent values '£0, (1)0, eo. This is shown in Fig. 14.

A shows the permanent flux 'flo, and the transient flux -'1>0, which ar« assumed, up to the time to, to give the resultant zero flux. The transient flux diPH out by th(' curve <I>', in accordanee with Fig. 11. <,)' added to <1'0 giV<'s th« curve <I>, which is th« transient from zero flux to tho pormanont flux <Po.

In tho Harne manner U Hli()WH tho construction of the ~wt\lat" current chango l' hy the addition of tho pormunout current i« and the transicnf current, i', which st.artH from -- io at. to.

C then Hh()WH the voltag« relation: l'o t,he permanent voltage, (" tho transient voltage whic It l'It.urt.H from -('u at. t (I, and (' the rvsultant or effective voltag« ill tilt' coil, d('riwd by adding 1'0 and c',

LgCTURE IV.

SINGLE-ENERGY TRANSmNTS IN ALTERNATINGCURRENT CIRCUITS.

I7. Whenever the conditions of an electric circuit art' <'lULllP;P<i in such a manner as to require' a change of stored t'llPl'p;'V, II t runxition period appears, during which til(' stored !'1H'l'gy ILdju:-itH jt)o!plf from the condition existing before tI\(' ('liang!' to t.llI' eoudition after the change. The currents in the circuit <luring t I\(' t ruusitiou period can be considered UH eOllHiHting of th« suporpoait ion of the permanent current, corresponding to HI!' eondit ions nft 1'1' the change, and a transient current, which ('onllt'dH t hI' current. valu« before the change with that brought about by HI(' (,I mugI'. Thllt is, if i1 = current existing in th« circuit imlll('(lil1tt'I~' iH'fOl't" mill thus at the moment of the chango of eircuit eoudition, and i~ current which should exist at the moment of ('hang!' ill IL('('oniILlH'(' with the circuit condition after the change, then till' :wt nul vurrvnt i1 can be considered us consiating of 11 part. ()I' ('ompow'lIt i~, und a component il - i2 = ,to. TIl(' formpr,i2, it{ ponuunent, UM rosulting from the established circuit condition. '1'11<' curre-nt «omponent io, however, is not produced by any PO\Wf supply, hut iH n remnant of the previous circuit condition, that. ill, It trlLlIl'lit'ut, and therefore gradually decreases in the manner WI dis('\lHH('d in para-

graph 13, that is, with It duration T "" l.~ .

r

The permanent current 1~ may btl continucus, or nltf'rultting, or may be a changing current all a transient of long duratiou, dc.

The same reasoning applies to the voltage, magnetic flux, (,t(~, Thus, let, in an alternating-current eir(lUit traversed by current ':1, in Fig. 15A, the conditions be changed, at th« 1II011wut t (), so as to produce the current, i2• The inHtILuttU1I'{I\11'1 vnlu« of the mrrent it at the moment t == 0 can he considered Ill'! consisting )f the instantaneous value of the permanent current i,. shown lotted, and the transient io "" it - t·s. The latter gradually CU •. 'N

town, with the duration T == ~, on the usual oxponential t.ran-

Sf N(/f,/t}-8N FJ/W}' 'I'll. LV8/W'v"/'8.

ai

sient, shown dotted ill !l'ig. lfi, Adding 1.11(' trunsion L (~lI1T('ni.lo to tho pcnnanont eurrcut I~ giv(':-: j,}u'('ot:d eurrr-nt, during th« transition period, which is shown ill drawn lint- ill Fig. lfi.

As S('('I\, tho trunsiont. 1:-: due to t.h« diffl'I"(,II('(' hptw(,pl\ til(' instantanoou« value of i,}t<' curront, II which cxist«, and that of the current /2 which shoukl ('xi:-:t, at, t.h« lllOIIH'uL of chango, and

\

B

\

thus ift tl!l' htrw·r, IIII' ~1'I'ati'l' Ill!' 111'1\\"('11 IIII' two

currr-nts, IIII' pr"\'il'U~ lind 1111' illh-!' "lIf'!"!'ut II 111111' ,lit;nPP"lu'!'i

if till' dmll~I' tI('l'llr?'- al I IlIn!ill'!I! \\ IWlI IIII' two l'II!'I'I'ul~ I( and i'l art' 1'lIl1ul. m' .-.l!nwl; ill :lwl I" :1 , it IIII' dIlUI,KI' 01'('111'" lit IIii' 111111111'111 \\111'11 11li' 1\\iI ('111'1'1'111"

!UL\'!' till' dilT"l"I'IW!'. l~f'i Nhll\\ II ill I :It', t at Il

point Iltll"'puirtl'r III' \lU ali,.1,mt lrum till' inh·n<!'c· Hun il mul

32 ELECTRIC DISCIIARGES, lVAVBS AND IMI'ULSBS.

If the current i1 is zero, we get the starting of the alternating current in an inductive circuit, as shown in Figs. W, A, B, 0. The starting transient is zero, if the circuit is closed at til!' moment when the permanent current would J)(' zero (Fig. H)H), and is a maximum when closing the circuit at. tho maximum point of the permanent-current wave (Fig. Hj('). Tilt' permanent current and the transient components are shown dotted in Fig. 10, and the resultant or actual current in drawn lines.

,~, I ,

I ,

I \

I ,

I

I

B

c

Fig. 16. - Single-onergy Starting 'l'rILllilllont. uf AIt.I·rIIlLthlK~mltrllllt. eirc'nit,

IS. Applying the preceding to the !'Itart.iug (If It lmlmw(·d three-phase system, we sec, in Fig. 17 A, that ill gt'lwral the tim'!; transients i10, i,.0, and ian of the three three-phase currents ill i~, in are different" and thus also the shape of the tltrc'!! resultant currents during the transition period. Starting at the IUOUH'nt of zero current of one phase, ii, Fig. 17 H, t.lwft· ill no transient, fOf this current, while the tranaienta or the other two currents, i2 and ia, are equal and opposite, and near their maximum value. Starting, in Fig. 170, at the maximum value of one current ;3. we have the maximum value of transient for this current iall, while the transients of the two other currents, it and is. are equal, have

st NOLE-/<JNliJ/WY TIlANSI ENTS.

33

half the value ofi30, and are opposite in direction thereto, In any case, the three transients must 1)(\ distributed on both sides of the zero line. This is obvious: if 1:1" 'i2', and "is' are the instantaneous values of 1,11<\ permanent throe-phase currents, in Fig. 17, the initial values of their t.mmlients are: -'i/, -1'2', -is'.

A

c

i I i<'il(. 17. - liIillgl(!-("tWfP;Y Htl~rtilll( '1'ru!ll~it~lIt of Three-phase Circuit,

Rince i,he sum of the three three-phase currents at every moment is zm;o, th(l Hum of the initial values of the three transient currents also is zero. Since the three transient curves ':1°, i20, ~'30 are pro-

portional to each other (a.'i exponential curves of the same dura-

tion T ... ~), and the sum of their initial values is zero, it follows

34 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, WAVfiJS AND IMN!LSB8.

that the sum of their instantaneous values must he zero ut any moment, and therefore the sum of tho instantaneous values of the resultant currents (shown in drawn line) must be zero ~tt any moment, not only during the permanent. condition, but. also during the transition period existing before the permanent condition is reached.

It is interesting to apply this to the reaultant magnetic field produced by three equal three-phase magnetizing coils placed under equal angles, that is, to the starting; of the three-phase rotating magnetic field, or in general any polyphase rotating magnetic field.

Fig. 18. - Construction of St.art.inp: TrttnRi(lnt of Rotat.ing Fiold.

As is well known, three equal magnetizing <lOiIR, placed under equal angles and excited by three-phase currents, produce It resultant magnetic field which is constant in intensity, hut, rOVOIV(lH synchronously in space, and thus can be represented by a concentric circle a, Fig. 18.

This, however, applies only to the permanent eondltion, In the moment of start, all the three currents are zero, and their resultant magnetic field thus also zero, as shown above. Since the magnetic field represents stored energy and thua cannot he produced instantly, a transient must appear in the building up of the rotating field. This can be studied by considering separately

,-;/NaUJ-gNI~'lun' 1'RANSINN7'S.

35

the permanent I1mI the transienf components of the three currents, as ii4 dono in tho preceding. Let 'i1',i2', 'i:!' be the instantaneous values of t.hc pormancuf curronts at t.lw moment of dosing the circuit, t "'" O. Combined, thPH(, would give Ute resultant field ()X;; in Fig. 18. TIIP three t,rILllHi!\Il(, currents in t.hi« moment [tn'itO --i/, i~o i/, illo - .. i/, and combined these give a resultant lipId nUll, I'CjtwI and oPPoHit<, t.o OAt) in Fig, 18. The permanent fil'h! t'Otat.(·H synchronously on the concentric circle a; the trausient field (}U remains (!()IlHt.allt. ill Uw diroetion lm(;, sine« all tim'!' t.ransient ('01ll1>0IH'1I11-1 of current. decrease in propertion to I'lLl'h other. It d(,prl'ItHPl'l, however, with the dl'ereu.:-1p of 1.1l<' t.mllHil'ut. current, tliat, iH, HhrillkH tog!'lll<'1' 011 th« line iiuO, The 1'(·HU!t.UIlt. or lL<'t.ulLl fit·ld !.I!lIH i:; the ccmbiuutlon of tho 1><'1'iuanent. fiPitlH, shown ~l:-1 ()..1 I ()A~, ' .. ,awl the trunsient fields, shown aH OBit ()H~, !'tH" and (h'l'ivt'dllH'rl'hy by the parallclogram law, 11.'1 shown ill Fig, lH, It!'! ()('h (}('2, t't.(~, 111 this diagram, IJt(';, U~(':!I pie" H.r!' ('qual to ()A J, ().-h, ('k, that, is, to the radius of tlw pl'l'mmwllt. <"il'<"ie a. That, ii'l, while the rotating flold in permanent ('Oll< lit ion iI', 1'l'pr('l"I('lItt'ti hy the eonecntrie circle a, th« resultant Ik-ld during t h« t.ransiont. or starting period is 1'('PI'£'H('Uj(·<1 \,y It SU('('('sHioll of ltl'l'H (If circles c, the (:('ntl'rH of which move from Un ill tl!l' 1II0UII'nt. of Hlm'l, 011 the line Ji;;(j toward 0, and can btl COllSI.l'lId I'd lw1'('}'y by drawing from tho successive points Bu, BI, U~, which . ('o1'rPK»ond to Hueee:-;. ... dve moments of tim« 0, tt, t2 •• , ! radii Ut( ';, B~('2! otc., under th« anglr«, that. is, in the directiou ('orrf'H!lollliing 1 o tho time 0, tt, t~, pte, 'This is dOHI' in Fig. W, and t.Iwrei>y tho transient of the rotating field it) constructed.

Fig. 10. - Stll.l'ting 'L'm04liollt of Rotating l<'ield: Polar Form.

36 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, lVAVl!JS AND IMPULSES.

From this polar diagram of the rotating field, in Fig. 19, values OC can now be taken, corresponding to sueeossiv« momenta of time, and plotted in rectangular eO()r(lilllt1.Ps, 11$ done in Fig. 20. As seen, the rotating field builds up from zero at t.ho moment of closing the circuit, and roaches the final value by It s('ri('s of o: .. l('illations; that is, it first roaches boyond tll(' pcrmanout value, t hon drops below it, rises again h{IYOIHI it, ('k.

Fig. 20. - Start,ing Ttunsicnt of R()\.ating ic'i('ld: H('('(UllJ1;ullll' 10'01'111.

We have here an oscillatory transient, })l'o<!\!('(,d ill It l"lystl'lIl with only one form of stored energy (magnetic PIlPrg.v), by tho combination of several simple exponential trannients. Ilowever, it must be considered that, while ('IU'rgy ('lUI hI' storpti in one form only, as magnetic energy, it, ('IUl I){' stored ill thr«: electric circuits, and a transfer of stored magnetic PII!'rgy 1 )('t\V('PIl the three electric circuits, and therewith It surge, t hUK can occur.

It is interesting to note that the rotating-field trnnsient iH independent of the point of the wave at. which til!' eiroult itl closed. That is, while the individual trunaicnts of til!' t hn-o three-phase currents vary in shape with the poiut of the WIW(' llt. which they start, as shown ill Fig. 17, f.heir polyphase resultnut. always has the same oscillating approach to a uniform rot Itt i liP;

field, of duration T == £: .

r

The maximum value, which the magnetic field during the transition period can reach, is limited to less than double til!' flual value, as is obvious from the construction of the flokl, Fig. HI. It, iH evident herefrom, however, that in apparatus containing rotti,tiIlP; fields, as induction motors, polyphase synehronous machines, etc., the resultant field may under transient. conditions reach nearly double value, and if then it reaches far above magnetic saturatlon, excessive momentary currents may appear, simllar ~UI in Htitrting transformers of high magnetic density. In polyphase rotary

SINGLE-ENERGY TRANSIENTS.

37

apparatus, however, these momentary starting currents usually are far more limited than in transformers, by the higher stray field (self-inductive reactance), otc., of the apparatus, resulting from the air gap in the magnetic circuit.

19. As instance of the usc of the single-energy transient in engineering calculations may he considered the investigation of the momentary short-circuit phenomena of synchronous alternators. In alternators, especially high-speed high-power machinos as turboulternators, the momentary short-circuit current may he many timos greater than the final or permanent shortcircuit current, and this ('xe<'ss current usually decreases fairly slowly, last.ing for many cycles. At the same time, a hip; current rush occurs in i.lH' flold. This PXGC'ss field current shows curious pulsations, of single and of double frequency, and in the boginning the armature currents also show unsymmetrical shapes. Some oscillograms of three-phase, quarter-phase, and single-phase short circuits of turboalternutors are shown in Figs. 25 to 28.

By considering the traneients of energy storage, these rather complex-appearing pIW11011H'lU1 can be easily understood, and pre(l<'t('rlllill(~<l from the constants of the machine with reasonable ('Xl.wtn('ss.

In an alternator, the voltage under load is affected by armature reaction and armature self-induction. Under permanent eondition, both usually ae( in the same way, reducing the voltage at noninduetivo aIHI still much more at. inductive load, and increasing it at antiuiductivc load; and both !1r(1 usually eombined ill one quantity, the synchronous reactance Xo. In the transients resulting from circuit changes, U,S short circuits, the self-inductive armature reaetanco and the magnetic armature reaction act very differently: * t.11(' former is instantaneous ill it,H {'ffeet, while the latter requires time. Tho self-inductive armature reactance Xl eonsumes ~t voltage ;,1;)'1: by the magnetic flux surrounding the armature conductors, which rC'slIlt.s from the m.m.I, of the armature curn-ut, and therefore requires a component of the magnetic-field flux for its production, As the armature magnetic flux and tho current which produces it; must be simultaneous (the former being an integral part of the phenomenon of current flow, as seen in Lecture II), it thus follows that the armature reactance appears together

'" So nlso ill their effcct on synchronous OP(!l"J.tiOIl, in hunting, etc.

38 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, w.t1 VES AND 11'>ll'(!f,Sli'S.

with the armature current, that is, i~ instantaneous. Tho armature reaction, however, is the m.m.I. of tIl<' armature current ill its reaction on the m.m.f, of the field-exciting current. Thut iK, that part X2 = Xo - Xl of the synchronous roaetunoe which corresponds to the armature reaction is not 11 true reactanco at, all, eOIlKUIllPK no voltage, but represents tho consumption of field amper« turns by the m.m.f. of the armature current, and the (~OIT(,Hl)(lIl(lillg change of field flux. Since, however, th(' Iiokl flux l'Ppr!'KPlltK stored magnetic energy, it cannot chango instantly, and t.h« annature reaction thus docs not appeal' instantaneously with til(' armature current, but shows a transient, which iR d{'j,('rmill<'d !'KKPlltially by the constants of the field circuit, t.hat iK, iK tho counterpart of the field transient of the machine.

If then an alternator iH short-circuited, in til(' firHt; momont only the true self-inductive part Xl of the synchronous roactanee oxist«,

and the armature current thus iK it = ~:n, where t'u iR t h« induced

:l~ 1

e.m.f., that is, the voltage corresponding to t ho nmp:II!'t lc-fiokl excitation flux existing before tho ahort circuit, <im<iually t lIP armature reaction lowers tho field flux, ill tho manner a:.; I't'J )1'(,sented by the synchronous reactance Xo, and the short-circuit cur-

rent decreases to the value '£0 = ~I" •

Xo

The ratio of the momentary short-circuit current to tlH' pI'rllllt-

nent short-circuit current thus ia, approximately, till' rat in 1:1 ;rn,

111 XI

that is, synchronous reactance to self-uuluctlv« 1'('lwt:Ul('P, or armature reaction plus armature self-lnduotion, tn annat unself-induction. In machines of relatively low Hl'lf·inciudioli and high armature reaction, the momentary short-eircuit ('111'" rent thus may be many times the permanent short-circuit current.

The field flux remaining at short circuit is t,hut: giving the voltage consumed by the armature self-induetion, while the deerPIl.Ht' of field flux between open circuit and short, circuit corresponds to the armature reaction. The ratio of the open-circuit field flux to the short-circuit field flux thus is the ratio of armature reaction plus self-induction, to the self-induction: or of tho synchronous

reactance to the self-inductive reactance: ~ .

Xl

SINGLB-ENJiJRGY 7'RANSJI!JNTS.

39

Thus it is:

momentary short-circuit current open-circuit field flux * permall()nti short-cIrcuit current = Silort-circu-lt~-fu~l(niux =

armature reaction plus self-induction synchronous reactance Xo

--------- se[t=U;:(lllctT()ll----- = s~II:ln(fu(;tiv()rca(;tance = ~.

20. Let <Ill = field flux of a three-phase alternator (or, in general, polyphase alternator) at open circuit, and t.his alternator he shortcirouited at th« time t = O. The Iiold flux thou gradually dies down, by tho dissipation of its PIH'rgy in the field circuit, to the short-oircuit field flux <1>0, as indicated by the curve cl' ill Fig. 21A. If ni = rutin

armature reaction plus self-induction Xo

_.<---<.< armature self-induct.ion . = Xl'

it is <1'1 = mer,o, and tho initial value of the field flux consista of the permanent part <jlo, and tho transient part <p' = 4'1 -cllo = (m-l) (1)0' This is a rather slow trausiont, frequently of a duration of a second or more.

The armature currents 'ix, 1'2, 'ia arc' proportional to the field flux ,[, which produces them, and thus gradually decrease, from initial values, which are I1H many times higher thun the final VU.ltWH aH ch is higher than c[)o, or m Limos, and are represented in Fig. 21 B.

The resultant m.m.f, of tho armature currents, or the armature reaction, is proportional to the eurrents, and thus follows the same field trnnsiont; f1H shown by F in Fig. 21 e.

'1'11<\ fk-ld-oxcit.iug current iHin at. open circuit as well as in the permanent oondition of short circuit. In tho permanent condition of short, circuit, t.he field current 'in combines with tho armature reaction Po, which is d!.ma!l:lwt.izing.t.ottl.eHlllt.l1nt m.m.I., which produces Ow short-circuit flux <f'o, During the transition period tho field flux el) iH higher than <flo, and the resultant m.m.f, must therefore 1)(' higher in the same proportion. Sinen it is the diffr-rence between the fleld current and the armature reaction F, and the latter is proportional to <I" the field current. thus must also be

... If the machlno were open-circuited belore the short circuit, otherwise the field flux (lXiHtillp; heforu the short circuit, It horefrom follows thnt the momentary short-oircuit current (!Hl-lentially <1epmHl1l on the field flux, and thereby tho voltage of the machine, beCorcl the short circuit, but il:! practically independent of tho lund OIl the machine before the short circuit and the field excitation eorreaponding to this IO!1d.

40 ELECTRIC DISCIlAIWlCS, WArES AND IMPULSgS.

proportional to cJ? Thus, as it is 'i = 10 at <1'0, during i.lw transition period it is i = :0 1:0. Hence, the field-exciting eurrout traverses the same transient, from an initial value 'io' to tho normal value 10. as the field flux <'[> and the armature currents.

B

o

r- .. --... F

~ .... ~ ..... ~ ........

E I

Fig. 21. - Construction of Momentary Hh()rt Cirnuit CIIILrlwt'('riHti(l or Polyphase Alternator.

Thus, at the moment of short circuit a sudden rhw of fu-ld current must occur, to maintain the field flux ut the initial value 11>1 against the demagnetizing armature reaction. In other words, the field flux II> decreases at; such a rate as to induce in the field circuit the e.m.f. required to raise the field current in the proportion m, from io to io', and maintain it at tho values corresponding to the transient i, Fig. 21D.

As seen, the transients (1); ill i2) ia; Pj i arc proportional to ear-h other, and are a field transient. If the field, excited by current if}

SINGLE-ENERGY TRANSIENTS.

41

at impressed voltage eo, were short-circuited upon itself, in the first moment the current, in the field would still be 1:0, and therefore tho voltage eo would have to be induced by the decrease of magnetic flux; and the duration of the field transient, as discussed

in Lecture III, would be fro = !~~ .

ro

The field current in Fig. 21 f), of tho alternator short-circuit transient, starts with tho v!LIU(~ io' = mi« and if eo is the e.m.f. supplied in tho field-exciting circuit from a source of constant voltage supply, as tho excitor, to produce tho current 1'0', tho voltage co' = ?tWo must ho acting in the field-oxeiting circuit; that, is, in addition to th« constant exciter voltage eo, a voltage (m - 1) eo must 1w induced ill tho field circuit hy the transient of the mag-

netic flux. AH a transient of duration !:~! induces the voltage eo,

ro

to induce the voltage (m -1) eo tho duration of the transient must be

Lo

To = - - .

(m.-l)ro'

where Lo = inductance, re == total resistance of field-exciting cireuit. (inclusive of external r(,Hh,t.I~IW(').

Tho short-circuit trunsiont of an alternator thus usually is of shorter duration than th« short-circuit transient of its field, the more HO, the gl'(·ai.PI' til, that is, til(' larger tho ratio of momentary to permanent short-circuit current.

r n Fip;. 21 1.11(' <ip<:rPILH(' of tlw trunsient ia shown greatly exagger- 11t.(·d compared with th« frequency of 01(' armature currents, and Fig. 22 Hh()WH the ourvos more nearly in their adual proportions,

The preceding would r('preH(mt. t.hn short-circuit phenomena, if there wore 110 armature tranaient, However, the armature dr(mit, contains inductance ItlHO, that is, Ht.or(~H magnetic energy, and

thorobv .. iv('l'! dHI' to It transient, of duration T := I:, where IJ =

. ~ r

inductance, r "'" resistano« of armature circuit, The armature transient usually is very much shorter in duration than the field transient,

The armature currents thus do not instantly assume their symmetrical Itlt('rnn,t.in~ values, hut if in Fig. 21B, 1:1" i2', ia' are th« instantaneous VIL!U(,H of the armature currents in the moment of start, t = 0, thr('(\ transients are superposed upon these, and

42 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, WAVES AND I.MI'ULSgS.

start with the values -i/, -i2', -i/o The resultant. armature currents are derived by the addition of these armature transionta upon the permanent armature currents, in tho manner l1H diacussed in paragraph 18, except that. in the present case (won the permanent armature currents iI, '£2, 1:3 arc slow transients.

In Fig. 22B are shown the three armature shcrt-oircuit currents, in their actual shape as resultant from the armature transient and the field transient. The field transient (or rather its beginning) is shown as Fig. 22A. Fig. 22B gives the three armature

t=

1 .5

<1>1

B

A

Fig. 22. - Momentary Short Circuit ('lmrlwt(lriati(! of Throe-phuao Alternator,

currents for the case where the circuit is dosed at the moment. when i1 should be maximum; i1 then shows the maximum transient, and i2 and ia transients in opposite direction, of half amplitude. TheRE) armature transients rapidly disappear, and the throe currents become symmetrical, and gradually decrease with the field transient to the final value indicated in the figure.

The resultant m.m.f, of three three-phase currents, or the armature reaction, is constant if the currents are ccnstant and U.H the currents decrease with the field transient, the resultant armature reaction decreases in the same proportion as the field, as ls shown

SINGLE-ENERGY TRANS/EN'l'S.

43

in Fig. 210 by F. During the initial part of the short circuit, however, while tho armature transient i" appreciable and the armature currents thus unsymmetrical, as seen in Fig. 22B, their resultant polyphase m.m.I, also "howl' tt transient, the transient of the rotating magnetic field discussed in paragraph 18. That is, it approachos the curve ]I' of Fig. 210 by it series of oscillations, as indicated in Fig. 21 N.

Since tho resultant, m.m.I, of the machine, which produces the flux, is the difference of tho fiold excitation, Fig. 21 D and tho armature reaction, then if tlu- armuturo r('lwtion shows an initial osdilation, in Fig. 21 E, t.he ficld-oxoiting CUlTPut must give th« same oscillation, sinc« i1,H m.m.I. minus Ute armature reaction gives the resultant, field oxcitnt.ion com-sponcling to flux (f>. The starting transient of Ute polyphuse armature reaction thus appears in the field current, as shown in Fig. 220, m: au oscillation of full machine frequency, AH t.lw mutual induction 1>('1.w('('11 armature and field circuit iH not l)('rf!'et, tho transient pulsation of armature reaction appears with rcdncod amplitude in Ow field current, and this reduction is the greater, th« poorer t.11!' mutual inductance, that is, tho moro (liHtUlIt, Ow lipid winding iH from the armature winding, III Fig. 220 It dumping of 20 per cent iH ltHHIUUed, which corrosponds to fairly good mutual iuduetancc between field and armuturo, as met in turboalternators,

I f tIl<' flokl-oxcitlng eireuit contain« inductanc« outside of tho alternator Iiold, as iH always th« eUH(' to It :-;light, extent, the 1>\11- H!LtiollH of tho fiekl current, Fig. 22(;, ar« slightly reduced and delayed in phas«; and with conaiderable inductance intentionally inserted into the Iiold circuit, Ute efTeet of this inductance would require consideration.

From tho C·OllKj,ant.H of the alternator, the momentary shortcircuit (:hnf!Let.!'riHti(~H run now 1)(' constructed.

Assuming t.hat. the duration of the field transient. is

'1, t;

(J "'"

(rn -1) ro

1 see.,

the duration of 1.11(' armature transient. iH T"",!:" "'" .1 Hee. r

And assuming that, the armature reaction is [) times the armature

44 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, WAVE'S AND IAfPULSES.

self-induction, that is, the synchronous reactance is (j times the selfinductive reactance, ~~ = 'In = 6. Tho frequency is 2fi <'y<:iPH.

Xl

If cI>1 is the initial or open-circuit flux of the machine, t.il(, short-

CPt 1 II field t . tl'

circuit flux is (f)o = -- = -; CPl, ant 1, 1(' H' ( .runsu-iu <) 11'1 It tran-

1n b

sient of duration 1 sec" connecting <h and <1'0, Fig. 22A, reprosented by the expression

t c{> = cI)o + «1>1 - <I'o)E- 'f,.

The permanent armature currents 'ill 'i2, 13 1,11<'11 ar« currents starting with the values m ~i!., and decreasing to the final shortXo

circuit current ~, on the field trunsicnt of duration T'«. To UWHO

Xo

currents are added the armature transients, of duration 7', which start with initial values equal hut opposite ill sign to t.11(' initial values of the permanent (or rather slowly transient) armature currents, as discussed in paragraph 18, and thereby give th« usymmetrical resultant currents, Fig. 22B.

The field current 'I: gives tho same slow transient as the flux <I', starting with io' = mio, and tapering to the final value ro. I lpon this is superimposed the initial Iull-Iroqucncy pulsation of the armature reaction. The transient of the rotating field, of durution T = .1 sec., is constructed as in paragraph 18, and for it.H lnstantaneous values the percentage deviation of the rosultnnt, flekl from its permanent value is calculated. AHHlIIlling 20 por (·('ut. damping in the reaction on tho field excitation, tho instantaneou» values of the slow field transient (t.luLt is, of the current (i ._ io), since io is the permanent component) then are increased or !Increased by 80 per cent of the pereentago variation of the t.runsiont field of armature reaction from uniformity, and thereby t.hn Iiold curve, Fig. 22C, is derived. Here the correction for the external field inductance is to be applied, if considerable.

Since the transient of the armature reaction docs not. depend on the point of the wave where the short circuit occurs, it. follows that the phenomena at the short circuit of ~t polyphase ultemator are always the same, that is, independent of tho point. of the wave at which the short circuit occurs, with the exception of t II(' initial wave shape of the armature currents, which individuully depend

SINGLB-BN HIW}' 'J'RANSI HN'l'S.

45

on the point of the wave at which the phenomenon begins, but not so in their resultant dTod,.

21. The conditione with n aingle-phasc short circuit are different, since the siuglo-phase armature reaction is pulsating, varying between zoro anti double its average value, with double the machine Iroqucucy.

The "low field transient and ita dfeet" are the same as shown in :Fig. 2t, A to D.

However, i.lw pulsat.ing armature reaction produces a corrosponding pulsation ill tho field circuit, This pulsation is of double

.1

c

ill

::::::t._ __ , .,.L_._. __ , .L.~ .. _~~_....J .. "' __ . L · .

It'ig. 2a .. ,,- HymllllMic'lIi Monwllt,ltry Kin)l;l<'-piml-m Khor!. Circuit, of Alternator,

Irequency, and iH not tranxionl., hut, equally ('XiHt,H ill tho final shortcircuit current

Furthermore, till' armature transient is not constant in its reaction on Uti' field, hut. variee with the point of the wave at which the short circuit, Ht.UI't.H.

AH!:lUnW that. the l'IhoI't, eircuit Ht.ttI'ts nt, tha' point of the wave where the permanent (or rather slowly transient) armature current, should h<' :wro: then no armature transient exists, and the armature currenf il'l !wmml'trienl from the beginning, and shows till' slow transient of flit' field, M shown in Fig. 23, where A

46 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, WAVBS AND IMPULSBS.

is the field transient cI> (the same as in Fig. 22A) and B the armature current, decreasing from an initial value, which is m times the final value, on the field transient.

Assume then that the mutual induction between field and armature is such that 60 per cent of tho pulsation of armature reaction appears in the field current. Forty per (lent damping for the double-frequency reaction would about corrcapond to tho 20 per cent damping assumed for the transient full-Irequuncy pulsation of the polyphase machine. Tho transient field current thu» pulsates by 60 per cent around the slow Lipid transient, as shown by Fig. 23C; passing a maximum for every maximum of armature

B

t= ~ .3
<I>
(I',
A c

i"

L- -L _..J ...l....___.._~ ... _ • .L«_.~""" \[\ /~

Fig. 24. - Asymmetrical Momentary Binglo-phuso Hhort Circuit, of Alttll1llttol'.

current, and thus maximum of armature reaction, and It minimum for every zero value of armature current, and thus armature 1'('110- tion.

Such single-phase short-circuit translenta have occaslonally been recorded by the oscillograph, as shown in Fig. 27. UsU!\IIy, however, the circuit is closed at a point, of the wave where the permsnent armature current. would not. be zero, and an armature transient. appears, with an initial value equal, but opposite to, the initial value of the permanent armature current. This iH shown in Fig. 24 for the case of closing the circuit at the moment where the

SINGLE-ENERGY TRANSIENTS.

47

armature current should he It maximum, and its transient thus a. maximum. Tho fie-ld truusienf <I' is tho same as before. The armature current shows th« initial asymmetry resulting from the armature transient, and suporunposcd on the slow field transient.

On tho field current which, due 1,0 the single-phase armature rel.wt.ion, shows a ))('I'llUUlPUt. cloulilc-froqucuey pulsation, is now suporhuposod t.h« t,I'lLllSi('ld, full-frequency pulaatiou l'!,: .. .ultant from tho trnusieui unnat.un- rouctiou, aH disellss('(l in paragraph 20. !j;VNY s!'('.olld poak of tit!' permanent double-frequency pulsation thou ('oilwi<lps with It l)('ak of tlt(1 transiouf Iull-Irequeucy pulsation, and is tlt!'!'!'I)y increased, while 1.11(1 iutennr-diute peak of the (lotlhl<,-f!'!'qw'lwy pulsat.ion ('.oindd('s with It minimum of t.h« fullfr(I<j\l(lll<'Y pulsation, awl iH thpl'!'i>y l'('(l\W(I(1. 'I'll!' l'PI .. .ult is t.hat Stw('.('ssiv(' waWK of th« doublo-Irr-qucney pulsation of the field current arc' unequal ill amplitude, and high aud low }lPuks alternate. The dil'fpl'('II('<' lx-t.woou KtI('(~('ssiv(' doulilo-Iroqucncy waves iH H maximum ill l.lu- lx-ginning, und gradually (l('('I'P!Ls(,K, due to tll(1 d('('I'PltHP of til(' i.ransk-nt. full-Iroquoney pulsation, and finally Uw doublc-Iroqut-ncy pulsation 1)(1(~{)III(,s symmetrical, as shown in Fig. 24C.

In th« part.ir-ular instunco of Fig. 2·1, nll' douhlr-frequoney and the full-Iroquency }ll'ltkH ('{)illeicll', and 01<' minima of t.ho fieldcurrent. ('\Il'V{, tlmK HI'! I sY III III ('t rical, If t h« «ircui]. WC'I'P closed Itt. another point, of tIl!' WIWI', thr- douhlp-fl'(lq\lp!wy minima would h(,('{)lIu' unequal, and 1i11' maximu moro twar!y ('(I u al , IUl iK easily SP(lIl.

WhUp nil' fiC'ld-px!'it iug r-urront iK pulsating ill lL manner determilled l,y till' fl111·fl'C'qIlPIWY t mnHil'lIt. and doublr-frequcncy permIUH'IIt; arrnutur« !'1'UC'l iou, t lIP pot.t'lltiltl di ffN(IWOP across the fit,ld winding IIl1ty 1 H 1i:411 it· 11'N8, if lit.tl« Of no external n-sistancc Of inductunco i:; pt'I'H('nt,. or may pulsat« HO ILK to II(' nearly alternating anrl mallY till1t'8 hi/l:1HI!, t han t hI' ('x('it!·!, voltage, if eonsidorabl« extornal l'PHiHt.lulC'(' or indur-tance iH prPHt·nt.; and therefore it iH not dutl'lLl'tl'!'iHt.i(· (If the phenomenon, but. may become important hy it,K disrup! iw' t'ff('('tH, if reaching very high values of voltage.

With II. Hinglp-phn.-«· Hilort. circuit on tt polyphase machine, the double-Irequeney pulsation of tho field resulting from tho singleplU1H() armature roaction induces in Hw machine phase, which is in quadrature to the short-circuited phase, an e.m.f. which contains the frequencies 1(2 ± 1), t,hat is, full frequency and triple

48 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, WAVES AND IMPULSES.

SINU],N-NNwwr '1'K·! !\/sml\"'I'S.

49

frequency, and I1R the result an increase of voltage and a distortion of the quadrature phase occurs, a~ shown in the oscillogram Fig. 2fi.

Various momentary short-circuit phenomena are illustrutocl by t.ho oscillograms Fip;~. 2() to 2H.

Figs. 2()A and 2(W show Ute momentary three-phase short circuit of 11 4-11o\ar 2fi-(·yel<· IfiOO-kw. stoam turbine alternator. Tho

Fip;. 2M? ('IlIl:J!l7, A14ymmt·tri(·al.

l'.loult'ntltry 'I'hrl'l'-pluu,(' Hhm't ('in'lIit of IJ)OO·l\w. 2:mO-Vo!t, Three-phase ,\!tornlLto!' (A'I'1l ·1 moo II-iOO). ()~('ilI()gmmli of Annutur« Current and Field <. 'nrron t ..

lower curve gi VI'!'! t h(, t ransi« lit of t hr- field-exciting current, tho uppvr curve t lIut. of OIH! of the armature currents, ~-- in Fig, 20A t !tat. curreut which shoulrl Ill' near Z('fO, ill Fig. 2GB that which should ht' near itl'! maximum value nt. the moment whore the short circuit sturts,

Fig, 27 ShOWH till' siugle-phase short, circuit, of It pair of machines in which t he short <'ir('uit oecurred ut th« moment in which tho armature short-eireuit curn-nf shuuld h(' zero: the armature cur-

50 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, WAVES AND IJ!1'ULSlCS.

rent wave, therefore, is symmetrical, and the field current shows only the double-frequency pulsation. Only a few half-waves were recorded before the circuit breaker opened the short, circuit.

Fig. 27. - cD5128. - Hymmetrieal. Momentary Singlo-phaso Hhort Circuit of Alternator. Oscillogram of Armature Current, Armat.uro Voltage, and Field Current. (Circuit breaker opons.)

Fig. 28. - cD6565. - Asymmetrical. Momentary Singlo-phll.S(1 Short Circuit of 500Q..Kw. 1l,OOO-Volt 'Three-phase Altornato» (ATIHI-5000,,500). Oscillogram of Armature Current and Fleld Current.

Fig. 28 shows the single-phase short circuit of a 6-polar 5000-kw. 1l,OOO-volt steam turbine alternator, which occurred at. a point of the wave where the armature current should be not far from its maximum. The transient armature current, therefore, starts un-

SINGLE-ENERGY TRANSIENTS.

51

symmetrical, and the double-frequency pulsation of the field current shows during the first few cycles the alternate high and low peaks resulting from the full-frequency transient pulsation of the rotating magnetic field of armature reaction. The irregular initial decrease of the armature current and the sudden change of its wave shape arc due to the transient of the current transformer, through which the armature current was recorded.

Fig. 25 shows it single-phase short circuit of a quarter-phase alternator; the upper wave is the voltage of the phase which is not short-circuited, and shows the increase and distortion resulting from the double-frequency pulsation of tho armature reaction.

While the synchronous reactance Xo can be predetermined with fair accuracy, the self-inductive Xl is not such a definite quantity. It includes a transient, component. The armature magnetic cir<mit is in mutual inductive relation with the field-exciting circuit. At constant alternating current in the armature, the resultant of the armature m.m.f's, and e.m.f's, is constant with regard to the field, and the mutual inductance thus docs not come into play. During a transient, however, the armature conditions change, and tho self-inductance of the exciting circuit is partly transformed into the armature circuit by the ratio of field turns to armature tums, giving rifle to a transient effective component of armature self-induction, which depends on the relative rate of change of the armature and the field, and thereby is a maximum in the beginning, and gradually decreases to zero in stationary conditions. This tends to lower the maximum values of the field transienta and to increase the duration of the armature transients. This effect is materially affected by the amount of resistance and reactance in the exciting circuit outside of the field winding.

There also exists a mutual inductance between the armature circuits of the throe-phase machine, which results in an energy transfer between the phases, during the armature transient.

The instantaneous power of the momentary short-circuit current, and with it the forces acting on driving shaft and prime mover, are proportional to the short-circuit current, being shortcircuit current times magnetic field flux. The forces exerted between the armature conductors - which tend to tear and strip the end windings, etc. - are proportional to the square of the short-circuit current.

LECTURE V.

SINGLE-ENERGY TRANSIENT OF IRONCLAD CIRCUIT.

22. Usually in electric circuits, current, voltage, the magnotie field and the dielectric field are proportional to each other, and the transient thus iK a Kimple exponential, if resulting from 011(' form of stored energy, as discussed in the preccdlng I('('tum.;. This, however, is no longer the ease if the magnetic field contain» iron or other magnetic materials, or if tho dielectric fiek 1 r('adH':-! d('ItHii.iN~ beyond the diolectrio strength of UH' earrier of tho fk-kl, ('1('.; mHI the proportionality between current or voltug« und their r(,HI)('(~t.iv(l fields, the magnetic and the dielectric, thus (~('aS(,H, or, iLS it, may he expressed, the inductance L ii'\ not constant hut. val' ips with tho current, or the capacity is not constant, but varies wi til t.h« vol tag!'.

The most important e!1i'\e iR that of HI(' ironclad mugnof.ic circuit, as it exists in one of the most important clcctrlcal uppurat us, the alternating-current transfonncr. If the iron magnetic «ireuif contains an air gap ot: .. -ufficicnt length, the mag;II(~t,izing Cor('c consumed in the iron) below magnetic suturatlon, iH small compared with t.hat consumed in tho air gap, and tho magnetie flux, t.it!'r!'forp, is proportional to the current up to tlw values whore magnot.ic saturation begins. Below saturation VUhWH of current, th« transient thus is the simple exponential <liKCUHH('d boforo,

If the magnetic circuit is dosed entirely by iron, tho magnotio flux is not proportional to the current, and tho inductance thus not constant, but varies over the entire range of currents, following the permeability curve of the iron. Furthermore, the transient due to a decrease of the stored magnetic energy differs in shape and in value from that due to an increase of magnetic energy, sinco the rising and decreasing magnetization curves differ, as shown by the hysteresis cycle.

Since no satisfactory mathematical expression has yet been found for the cyclic curve of hysteresis, !I, mathematical caleulation is not feasible, but the transient has to be calculated by an 52

SINGLE-ENERGY TRANSIENT OP IRONCLAD CIRCUIT. 53

approximate step-by-step method, as illustrated for the starting transient of an alternating-current transformer in "Transient Electric Phenomena and Oscillations," Section I, Chapter XII. Such methods are very cumbersome and applicable only to numerical instances.

An approximate calculation, giving an idea of the shape of the transient of the ironclad magnetic circuit, can be made by neglecting the difference between tho' rising and decreasing magnetic characteristic, and using the approximation of the rna characteristic given by Frohlich's formula:

::Ie

<B = --- .. a + crX'

(1)

_rti4%i

~~;"~~

('." .. .,:1

:~,;-,~1r :,::,~~::?

that is, the reluotivity is it linear function of the~jfiehh~~ensity. It gives a fair approximation for higher magnetic ~~nslt1ti.i

This formula is 1>a8('(1 on tho fairly rational . that the

permeability of the iron is proportional to its bility. That i;;, the magnetic-flux density nont X, the field intensity, which is tho 1t component <B' = <B - x, which is the

carried by the iron. <B' is frequently density." With increasing oe, <B' reaches which in iron is about

<Boo' = 20,000 lin~per cm2.~ ..

which is usually represented in tho form giv X

P = (B = a + crX;

(2)

L'~~ VI

At any density <B', the remaining magnetisability " then is

<Boo' -<B', and, assuming the (metallic) permeability as proportional hereto, gives

J.L = c(<B",,' - <B'),

and, substituting

<B' J.L=x.i'

gives

... Sec "On the Law of Hysteresis," Part II, A.I.E.E. Transactions, 1892, page 621.

54 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, WAVES AND IMPULSES.

or, substituting

1 1

...",--; = a, ID I = (J',

cWoo Woo

gives equation (1).

For X = 0 in equation (1), ~ = ~; for X = 00, m = !; that is,

.n.. a (J'

in equation (1), ! = initial permeability, ! = saturation value of

a (J'

magnetic density.

If the magnetic circuit contains an air gap, tho reluctance of the iron part is given by equation (2), that of the air part is constant, and the total reluctance thus is

p = {3 + (J'X,

where {3 = a plus the reluctance of the air gap. Equation (1), therefore, remains applicable, except that the value of (.I: iH increased.

In addition to the metallic flux given by equation (I), a greater or smaller part of the flux always paSRClS through the air or through space in general, and then has constant permeance, that is, is given by

ffi = eX.

23. In general, the flux in an ironclad magnetic circuit can, therefore, be represented as function of the current by an expression of the form

where 1 ~ bi = !f?' is that part of the flux which PltSSNi through the iron and whatever air space may be in series with the iron, and ci is the part of the flux passing through nonmagnetic material.

Denoting now

L1 = na 10-8, l L2 = nc 10-8, ~

where n = number of turns of the electric circuit, which is interlinked with the magnetic circuit, L2 is the inductance of the air part of the magnetic circuit, L1 the (virtual) initial inductance, that is, inductance at very small currents, of the iron part of the mag-

(4)

SINGLE-ENERGY TRANSIENT OF IRONCLAD CIRCUIT. 55 netic circuit, and & the saturation value of the flux in the iron. That is, for i = 0, n:' = L1; and for i = 00, il>' = ~.

If r = resistance, the duration of the component of the transient resulting from the air flux would be

L2 nc 10-8

T2 = .·_·o = .,-----,

r r

(5)

and the duration of the transient which would result from the initial inductance of the iron flux would be

, LI na 10-8

TI = -- = o_··_·.·_ •

r r

(6)

The differential equation of the transient is: induced voltage plus resistance drop equal zero; that is,

dil> 10-8 + . _ 0

ndt 'n-.

Substituting (:) and differentiating gives no,10-8 (lI: -8 (h: . - 0 (1 + bi)2 (Ii + nc 10 (it + ri - ,

and, substituting (5) and (G),

~ (fJ1bi)2 + T2 ~ ~H + 'i = 0;

hence, separating the variables,

Tid?: T2di

;.- '";'2 + .; __ o + dt = O.

'1.(1 + in) 1,

(7)

The first term is integrated by resolving into partial fractions:

1 b b

1:(1 + bi)o2 = i -]' +b:i - (Ct-b:~j2'

and the integration of differential equation (7) then gives

'i r,

Tl log r::Fbi + T210g i + Ct'bi + t + C = O. (8)

If then, for the time t =;:: to, the current is 7: = io, these values substituted in (8) give the integration constant C:

Tllog-_.i~_..,.. + T2logio + .. _o};L;. + to + C = 0 (9)

1 + bi« 1 + bto '

56 ELECTRIC ])[SCIIAllOB8, WAVES AND t urut.se«

and, subtracting (8) from (9), giver;

_ _ 1:0 (1 + b'O T. I f~ + T \l _ I, ~

t to - T1log i (1 + bl:o) + J og 1; 1 (1 + bit) 1 + hi ~ .

(10)

This equation is HO complex in 'i t.hut it is BOt. possible to caleulate from the different values of t th« corresponding values of i; but inversely, for different. V!dU('H of i tho oorrospondlng values of t can be calculated, and the eorrosponcling value's of£ and t, derived in this manner, call he plotted as a curve, which gives the single-energy transient of tho ironclad magnetic circuit ..

1: --r--'~-10

Iru ":1,,,1 It ducttvr Clr"ul :

I--- t=z.n-{9.2111,1' ",)_",. + .92111&' i + }-Ii

1+.6i

\ (<lolleu: \,.1.085111' 1-.5117)

H-t--,--t---t--r-~' ,-- --_.-- II

j--:-\+-t---- -- -·~'-'r"'··~··- ,.,~,."'.-"

r.',-,-Tt-\--l---t--- .. ~ ._ ... -., .... " ...... ~ II

"" 1\

'\-+-,_ -+-.+_ .... _- ~-" .' .. '--- 2

""" ..........

1---t--f~~~-'+--1--'""·j.···,+··-- 1

........ ~.-"""

:I

8 4 G

:Fig. 29.

Such is done in Fig. 29, for the values of the oonatunts:

r "'" .~~,

a = 4 X 105, c=4XlO\ b = .6,

n - 300.

SINGLE-ENERGY TRANSIENT OF IRONCLAD CIRCUIT. 57

58 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, WAVES AND IMPULSES.

This gives

Tl = 4, T2 = .4.

Assuming i« = 10 amperes for to = 0, gives from (10) the oquation:

T = 2.92 - ~ 9.211o(]IO r+~·:(ri + .H21log10 ,£ + c+Jr'£ ~ .

Herein, the logarithms have been reduced to the base 10 by division with loglOe = .4343.

For comparison is shown, in dotted line, in Fig. 29, the transient of a circuit containing no iron, and of such eonstant« as to give about the same duration:

t = 1.085 ZogHLi - .507.

As seen, in the ironclad transient the current curve is very much steeper in the range of high currents, where magnetic saturation is reached, but the current change is slower in the range of medium magnetic densities.

Thus, in ironclad transients very high-current values of Hhort duration may occur, and such translonts, as tho He of tho starting current of alternating-current transformers, may therefore 1)(1 of serious importance by their excessive current values.

An oscillogram of the voltage and current waves in an 11 ,OOO-kw. high-voltage 60-cycle three-phase transformer, when switching onto the generating station near the most unfavorable point of the wave, is reproduced in Fig. 30. As seen, an exceasive current rush persists for a number of cycles, causing a distortion of the voltage wave, and the current waves remain unsymmetrical for many cycles.

LECTURE VI.

DOUBLE-ENERGY TRANSIENTS.

24. In a circuit in which energy can be stored in one form only, the change in the stored energy which can take place as the result of a change of tho circuit conditions is an increase or decrease. The transient can be separated from the permanent condition, and then always is the representation of a gradual dccrcaso of energy. Even if tho stored energy after the change of circuit conditions is greater than before, and during the transition period an increase of energy occurs, tho representation still is by a decrease of the transient. This transient then is the difference between the energy storage in tho permanent. condition and the energy storage during tho transition period.

If the law of proportionality between current, voltage, magnetic flux, ete., applies, tho single-energy transient is a simple exponential function:

where

t Y = YOE - '7';,

(1)

Yo = initial value of the transient, and 7'() = duration of the transient,

that is, the time which the transient voltage, current, otc., would last if maintained at its initial value.

The duration To is tho ratio of the energy-storage coefficient to the power-dissipation coefficient. Thus, if energy is stored by the current. 1:, all magnetic field,

(2)

where L = inductance = coefficient of energy storage by the current, r = resistance = coefficient of power dissipation by the current.

If the energy is stored by the voltage e, as dielectric field, the duration of the transient would be

To' = fl.,

g

(3)

60 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, WAVES AND IMPULSES.

where C = capacity = coefficient of energy storage by the voltage, in the dielectric field, and (J = conductance = coefficient of power consumption by the voltage, as leakage conductance by the voltage, corona, dielectric hysteresis, etc.

Thus the transient of tho spontaneous discharge of a condensor would be represented by

(4)

Similar single-energy transients may occur in other SYRt<'lUS.

For instance, tho transient by which !1 water jd, approaches eonstant velocity when falling under gravitation through a resisting medium would have the duration

Vo T=,·o,

g

(5)

where Vo = limiting velocity, g = acceleration of gravity, and would be given by

(n)

In a system in which energy can. be stored in two diflorent forms, as for instance ~18 magnetie anti as diolectrio energy in !t circuit. containing inductance and capacity, in addition to the gradual decrease of stored energy similar to Ult1t, represented by the single-energy transient, a t.ransfer of energy can occur between its two different forms.

Thus, if i = transient current, e "'" transient voltage (that ia, the difference between the respective currents and voltages existing in the circuit as result of tho previous circuit condition, and the values which should exist as result of the change of nitwit conditions), then the total stored energy iH

Li2 C(2)

W = -;f +2' l

= W",+Wtl• ~

(7)

While the total energy W decreases by dissipation, W m may be converted into Wd, or inversely.

Such an energy transfer may be periodic, that is, magnetic energy may change to dielectric and then back again; or unidirectional, that is, magnetic energy may change to dielectric (or inversely, dielectric to magnetic), but never change back again; but the

DOUBLB-ENERGY 7'RANSIENTS.

61

energy is dissipated before this. This latter case occurs when the dissipation of energy is very rapid, the resistance (or conductance) high, and therefore gives transients, which rarely are of industrial importance, as they are of short. duration and of low power. It therefore is sufficient to consider the oscillating double-energy transient, that is, the ease in which t.he energy changes periodically between its two forms, <luring its gradual dissipation.

This may he done by considering separately tho periodic transfor, or pulsation of t.ho energy hctwocn its two forms, and the gradual dissipation of energy.

A. Pulsation. of ctlerg!!.

25. TIl(' mugnoti« PllPrgy is It maximum at the moment when the dioloetrio ('lwrgy is zero, and when all the energy, therefore, is magnetic; and the magneti« energy is then

1.,1.02

-2 '

where' 'i() = maximum value of transient current,

The dielectric energy is a maximum i1t the moment when the magnetic energy is zero, and all the energy therefore dielectric, and is then

where eo = maximum value of transiont volt.age.

As it is the same stored energy which alternately appears as magnetic and as dielectric energy, it obviously is

(8)

This !!;ivN! a relation between the maximum value of transient current and the maximum value of transient voltage:

~ =' ~. (9)

to V ()

V~ therefore is of the nature of all impedance Zo, and is called the natural impedance, or the surge impedance, of the circuit; and

its reciprocal, V jf = Yo, is the natural admittance, or the surge admittance, of the circuit.

62 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, WAllES AND IMPULSES.

The maximum transient voltage Can thus be calculated from the maximum transient current:

.. /L .

eo = 'to V (7 = 'toto,

(10)

and inversely,

. .tc

to = eo V L = CoYo.

(11)

This relation is very important, as frequently in double-energy transients one of the quantities eo or io is given, and it ii:l important to determine the other.

For instance, if a line is short-circuited, and tho short-circuit current 1:0 suddenly broken, tho maximum voltage which can he induced by the dissipation of the stored magnetio energy of the short-circuit current is eo = iozo.

If one conductor of an ungrounded cable system iH grounded, the maximum momentary current which may flow to ground iH io = CoYo, where eo = voltage between ('111>10 conductor and ground,

If lightning strikes a line', and the maximum voltage which it may produce on the line, aa limited hy tho disruptive strength of the line insulation against momentary voltages, iH ('0, the maximum discharge current in the line iH limited to 'iu = CoYu.

If L is high but C low, UH in the high-potential winding of a high-voltage transformer (which winding can b(· eonaidored HH a circuit of distributed capacity, inductance, and reslstancc), Zo iH high and Yo low. That is, a high transient voltage can produce only moderate transient currents, hut ('V(,11 It small transienf current produces high voltages. Thus reactances, and other reactive appar~tus, as transformers, stop the IntHHago of largo oscillating currents, but do so by the production of high mwillating voltages.

Inversely, if L is low and e high, as in an underground cable, Zo is low but Yo high, and even moderate oseillatlng voltages produce large oscillating currents, but even. large oscillatlng currents produce only moderate voltages. Thus underground eubles are little liable to the production of high oscillating voltages. This is fortunate, as the dielectric strength of a cable is necessarily relatively much lower than that of a transmiasion line, due to the close proximity of the conductors in the former. A cable, therefore, when receiving the moderate or small oscillating currents which may originate in a transformer, gives only very low

DOUBLE-ENERGY TRANSIENTS.

63

oscillating voltages, that is, acts as a short circuit for the transformer oscillation, and therefore protects the latter. Inversely, if the large oscillating current of a cable enters a reactive device, as a current transformer, it produces enormous voltages therein. Thus, cable oscillations are more liable to be destructive to the reactive apparatus, transformers, etc., connected with the cable, than to the cable itself.

A transmission line is intermediate in the values of Zo and Yo between the cable and the reactive apparatus, thus acting like a reactive apparatus to the former, like a cable toward the latter. Thus, the transformer is protected by the transmission line in oscillations originating in the transformer, hut endangered by the transmission line in oscillations originating in the transmission line.

The simple consideration of tho relative values of Zo = V~ in the different. parts of an electric system thus gives considerable information on tho relative danger and protective action of the parts on each other, and ShOWH the reason why some elements, as current transformers, are far more liable to destruction than others; but also shows that, disruptive eff('ets of transient voltages, observed in one apparatua, may not and very Iroquently do not originate in the damaged apparatua, hilt. originate in another part of the system, in which they were relatively harmless, and become dangerous only when entering tho former apparatus.

26. If there is !L poriodie transfer between magnetic and dielectric energy, tho trunsicnf curront 7: and the transient. voltage e successively increase, decrease, and become zero.

The current thus may be represented by

i = io eos (</> - 1'),

(12)

where '1:0 iH the maximum value of current, discusaed above, and

(13)

where f = the frequency of thia transfer (which is still undetermined), and l' the phase angle at the starting moment of the transient i that is,

i1 = £0 cos l' = initial transient current. (14)

As the current i is a maximum at the moment when the magnetic energy is a maximum and the dielectric energy zero, the voltage e

64 ELECTRIC DISCliAROES, WA I'ES AND IMPCnSES.

must be zero when the current is a maximum, and inversely; and if the current is represented hy the cosine function, the voltage thus is represented by the sine function, that is,

I~ = coHin (</> - 'Y), (15)

where

e1 = - Co sin 'Y = initial value of transient voltage, (1 G)

Tho frequency f is still unknown, hut from the law of proportionality it follows that then- must hI' Ii frequency, that is, the sueoessive conversions between t,lw two Iorms of energy musf occur in equal time intervals, for t.hiH reason: If magnetic energy converts to dielectric and back again, at. HOUW moment, t.1l(' proportion h<,tween the two Iorms of energy must 1)(' the HIUlW aguin UK Itt. the starting moment, but. both roduced in th« HILlII<' proportion by tho power disaipation. From thi» moment on, the sam« cycle thou must repeat with proportional, hut. proportionately lowered values,

Fig, 31. - (JD10017. - OHnillogrum ()f Htnt,jolllLl'Y OHdllllt.i()!\ of Varying Frequency: Compound Cirouit or Ht'(\l)-UP Transfunncr and 2H Mil<l11 of lOO,OOO-volt TrallluniHllioll Lillll.

If, however, the law of proportionality <lO(,K not. exist, thr- oscillation may not be of constant frequency. Thus in Fig. a 1 iK shown an oscillogram of the voltage oscillation of the compound circuit consisting of 28 miles of lOO,OOO-volt. transmlssion line and the 2500-kw. high-potential Atop-UP transfcrmor winding, caused hy switching transformer and 28-mile line by low-tension switches off a substation at the end of It 153-mile transmission line, at 88 kv. With decreasing voltage, the magnetic: density in the transformer

DOUBLE-liJNBlWY TJ~ANSJBN'1'S.

65

decreases, and as at lower magnetic densities the permeability of the iron is higher, with tho decrease of voltage the permeability of the iron and thereby the inductance of the electric circuit. interlinked with it increases, and, resulting from this increased magnetic energy storage cooffioient L, there follows a slower period of oscillation, that. is, a decrease of Irequoncy, as seen on tho oscillogram, from 55 cycles to 20 eyck« 1)('1' 140(\011<1.

If the energy t,mllsf(~r iH not a simple sine wave, it nan he represented by n series of sino waves, and in this CiLSO the above equations (12) and (Iii) would st.ill apply, hut, the calculation of the Irequonoy j would give 1L number of values which represent the different component sine waves.

The (li('l('ei,ri<: field of it condenser, or itH (I charge," if! capacity times voltage: Ce. It. is, however, the product of the current flowing into Ute condenser, and the time during which this current flows into it, that. is, it, ('(lUaIH i t.

Applying tho law

Co = it

(17)

to tho osoillating energy transfer: 1.11<\ voltage at the condenser changes during a half-cycle from - eo to +eo, and the condenser charge thus is

tho current has It maximum value 'in, thu« an average value ~ £0, 7r

and as it, flows into the condenser during one-half cycle of the

Irequency j, that is, during the time iI' it. is

2 (' 2. 1

eo, = to;-'

7r 2f

which iR tho expression of the condenser equation (17) applied to the oscillating energy transfer.

Transpcsed, this equation gives

(18)

and substituting equation (10) into (18), and canceling with io, gives

(19)

66 ELECTRIC DISCIlARGES, WAVES AND IMPULSES.

as the expression of the frequency of the oscillation, where C1 = vE(;

(20)

is a convenient abbreviation of the square root.

The transfer of energy between magnetic and dielectric thus

occurs with a definite frequency f = 2 ~~, and tho oscillation thus is a sine wave without distortion, as long as the law of proportionality applies. When this fail«, the wave may be distorted, as seen on the oscillogram Fig. :31.

The equations of the periodic part of the tranwient can now be written down by substituting (13), (19), (14), and (16) into (12) and (15):

i = io coa (<1> - 1') = 1'0 cos l' cos <1> + iu sin l' sin <1>

. t /0, t

"'" 11 cos" - ('1 Hill·· ,

a ('n a

and by (11):

. . t . t

t = '11 (~()s ~ - 1JUCI sm~,

(21)

and in the same manner:

t + .. t

e = Cl eos' iZtllt Sill ,

(f (J'

(22)

where el is the initial value of trausient voltage, £, t,J1(' initial value of transient current.

B. Power dissipation.

27. In Fig, :32 are plotted as A the periodic component of the oscillating current i, and as B the voltage e, u .. " C tho stored mag-

. Li2 •• (71)2

netic energy- ~i ' and as D tho stored dielcctri« energy 2

As seen, the stored magnetic energy pulsates, with double frequency, 2 j, between zero and a maximum, equal to the total stored energy. The average value of the stored magnetic energy thus is one-half of the total stored energy, and tho dh.;sipatiou of magnetic energy thus occurs at half the rate Itt which it would occur if all the energy were magnetic energy i that. is, the transient resulting from the power dissipation of the magnetic energy lasts twice as long as it would if all the stored energy were magnetic, or in other words, if the transient, were a single (magnetic) energy

DOUBLE-ENERGY TRANSIEN'l'S.

67

transient. In the latter case, the duration of the transient would be

and with only half the energy magnetic, the duration thus is twice as long, Of

1\ =2 To = ?_&.,

r

and hereby the factor

t

h = E -1';

multiplies with the values of current and voltage (21) and (22).

/1 / I I I

/A I

Fig. 32. - Rela.tion of Magnetic and Dielectric Energy of Transient.

The same applies to the dielectric energy. If all the energy were dielectric, it would be dissipated by a transient of the duration:

T' C.

o =-,

g

68 ELECTRIC DISCIlARGES, WAVES AND IMPULSES.

as only half the energy is dielectric, tho dissipation is half as rapid, that is, the dielectric transient has the duration

(24)

and therefore adds the factor

to the equations (21) and (22),

While these equations (21) and (22) constitute the periodic part of the phenomenon, the part which represents tho dissipation of power is given by the factor

_ ~L _to _ t (_I, + I)

hk = E 'J'! E 7', = ~ '1', T"

(2fi)

and this is the harmonic mean of the duration of the single-energy magnetic and the single-energy dielectric transient ..

It is, by substituting for T() and To',

1 1(r y)

T'" 2 L+G' ee u,

(27)

where u is the abbreviation for tho reciprocal of the duration of the double-energy transient,

Usually, the dissipation exponent of the double-energy transient

u=~(.r..+,e,)

2 L C

is,given as

r

2-1;'

This is correct only if g = 0, that is, tho conductance, which represents the power dissipation resultant from the voltage (by leakage, dielectric induction and dielectric hysteresis, corona, ete.) , is negligible. Such is the case in most power oircuits and transmission lines, except at the highest voltages, where corona appears. It is not always the case in underground cables, high-potential

DOUBLE-BNERGY TRANSIENTS.

69

transformers, etc., and is not the case in telegraph or telephone lines, etc. It is very nearly tho case if the capacity is due to electrostatic condensers, hut not if tho capacity is that of electrolytic condensers, aluminum cells, etc.

Combining now the power-dissipation equation (25) as factor with the equations of periodic energy transfer, (21) and (22), gives the complete equations of the double-energy transient of the circuit containing inductance and capacity:

(28)

where

Zo = J~ = t~, )

u=~ Lr_+g~, 2 l L C ~

(J' = v7l', (30)

and i1 and 61 are the initial values of the transient current and. voltage respectively.

As instance are constructed, in Fig. 83, the transients of current

and of voltage of a circuit having the constants:

Inductance, L = 1.25 mh. = 1.25 X 10-3 henrys;

Capacity, C = 2 mf = 2 X 10-"6 farads;

Resistance, r = 2.5 ohms;

Conductance, g = 0.008 mho,

(29)

in the case, that

The initial transient current, The initial transient voltage,

It is, by the preceding equations:

(J' = vLc = .5 X 10-5,

f = 2'_!_ == :n80 cycles per second, 'If'(]'

i1 = 140 amperes; e1 = 2000 volts.

Zo = V~ == 25 ohms,

. Ie

Yo = V L = 0.04 mho,

70 ELECTRIC DISCIlARGNS, WA VBS AND IMPULSES.

T, = 2 L = 0.001 sec. = 1 millisecond, r

T2 = 2 C = 0.0005 sec. = 0.5 millisecond, 9

'1' = ~( = 0.000333 sec. = O.3:~ millisecond;

Tl + '1'2

])'ig.33. hence, substituted in equation (2R),

i """ e-3t!140 cos 0.2 t - SO ain 0.2 t!, ~ e =: E-3Ij20{)O cos 0.2 t + ar){){) sin 0.2 t !, ~

where the time t is given in milliseconds.

DOUBLE-ENBRGY 'l'RANSIBNTS.

Fig. 33A gives the periodic components of current and volts 1;' = 140 cos 0.2 t - 80 sin 0.2 t,

e', = 2000 cos 0.2 t + 3500 sin 0.2 t.

Fig. 33E gives

The magnetic-energy transient, h = E- t, The dielectric-energy transient, k = €-2l, And the resultant transient, hk = €-~t.

And Fig. :330 gives tho transient current, i = hki', and the tr sient voltage, e = hke',

Lli~CTUH,F; VII.

LINE OSCILLATIONS.

28. In a eircui] ('olltainillg incluctunc« and ('IlI)H('ity, t.lH' 1.1'1111- simi, ('ollsiHtr: of It ]l('riodip ('OIllPOIIl'Ilt., hy which th« stored <'lwrl1:Y

I i~ (t(,~

HUl'g(,H lxtw«:n lllaglll't,i(~ '~ an: I dil'jl'd ri« 2 ' and a trall~i('llt,

component, by which t,h(' t.ot.al Ht,()n~(l (m(,l'gy dl'er('!tH(,H.

COllsid('l'ing only t lu- I)('riodi(' r-omponr-n! t.ll!' muxirnum value of lIutgndie ('lH~I'I!;Y must, l'qual t.lH' maximum valur- of di('ll'l't,rie

energy,

Li,? (f(,,?

2 2'

(\)

where ';0 "'" maximum value of transient current, 1'0 valu« of transien! voitag('.

This giWH the n-lution lx-twrx-n ('n audio)

maximum

('n

in

Zn

!III

(2)

where til iH ('alll'( I t lu- nut II I'll I illlPl'dullI'1' 01' Hlirgl' im{l('<inllc(', Yo t 11<' natural 01' Hlll'gl' H(lmi! t Hill'!' of til!' virruit .

A:-I t 11(' maxinuun (If «urn-nt 111111'11 ('oilll'id(· wi I It tit!' lWI'() of voltug«, and iU\'PI'Hl'ly, if lilt' ow' i:-l rl'prt'st'llt,,'d hy till' cosine Iunetiou, t.II<' 01111'1' iN tit" NiH!' Iunetion ; hl'lIl'l' till' l)('riodin components of til!' trltllNil'lIt, ar«

I, ill ('tlH (1/1 'Y)/
l~1 I'u Kin (1/1 'Y) ~ I
where
¢ '2 ;rft.
and 2lf "I U} iii the frequency of oaeillatlon.

Tho diHHipu.tiv(· or " trILul'!iI'ut " eomponent iii

f

(5)

Ilk ... e-ul, 72

(6)

LINE OSCILLA'l'IONS.

73

where

. u = ~(i +~);

hence the total expression of transient current and voltage is

i = 'ioc .. t cos (¢ - '1') ( e = cocntHin (¢ - '1') ~.

'Y, eo, and io follow from the initial values e' and i' of the transient, at t = 0 or ¢ = 0:

(7)

(8)

i' = i« C08 '1' t . c' =-eosiu'Y ~'

(9)

hence

e' 7:0 e'

tan '1' =- ~f -- =-Yo~';'

'~ eo u

(10)

The preceding equations of the double-energy transient apply to the circuit in which capacity and inductance arc massed, as, for instance, the discharge or charge of a condenser through an inductivo circuit.

Obviously, no material difference can exist, whether the capacity and tho inductance ar« separately massed, or whether they are intermixed, [I, piece of inductance and piece of capacity alternating, or uniformly distributed, UH in th« transmission line, cable, etc.

Thus, the same equations apply to any point of the transmission line.

I I

I I

!--<' --- ---- - ·'1' ------- - - '.- ~

I :

, I ,

A

I ,

I

B

Ii'ig. :~4.

However, if (8) arc the equations of current and voltage at a point A of a line, shown diagrammatically in Fig. 34, at any other point B, at distance l from the point A, the same equations will apply, but the phase angle 'Y, and the maximum values eo and io, may be different,

Thus, if

i = CoE-ut cos (cf> - 'Y) }

C = ZOCoE-ut sin (cf> - 'Y)

(11)

'14 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, WAVES AND IMPULSBS.

are the current and voltage at, the point A, this oscillation will appear at a point B, at distance l from A, at a moment of time later than at A by the time of propagation tl from A to B, if the oscillation is traveling from A to B; that is, in the equation (11), instead of t the time (t - tl) enters.

Or, if the oscillation travels from B to A, it is earlier at B by the time tl; that is, instead of the time t, the value (t + (1) enters the equation (11). In general, the oscillation at A will appear at B, and the oscillation at B will appear at A, after the time tt; that is, both expressions of (11), with (t - t1) and with (t + t1), will occur.

The general form of tho line oscillation thus iH given by substituting (t =F tl) instead of t into the equation» (11), where t1 is the time of propagation over the distance l.

If v = velocity of propagation of tho olectrio flekl, which in air, as with a transmission line, hi approximately

!) = a x 1010, (12)

and in a medium of permeability IJ. and permittivity (spccifi« capacity) K is

:~ X LOIO

lJ=·, ,

VIJ.K

and we denote

1

a"'" -, v

(14)

then

(lIi)

and if we denote

(16)

we get, substituting t ::r= tl for t and cJ> T w for cJ> into the equation (11), the equations of the line oscillation:

i "'" CE"UI cos (cJ> :;: w -- 'Y) Sl .

e = zuccu, sin (cJ> :;: w - 'Y)

In these equations,

(17)

¢ "'" 2TrJt L w "'" 2 TrJal )' is the space angle, and c ... £1,6=1111 is the maximum value of current, zoe the maximum value of voltage at tho point l.

is the time angle, and

OR)

LINE OSCILLATIONS.

75

Resolving the trigonometric expressions of equation (17) into functions of single angles, we get as equations of current and of voltage products of the transient cut, and of a combination of the trigonometric expressions:

cos ¢ cos w } sin ¢ C~)s w:

em, ¢ Sin w, sin ¢ sin w.

(19)

Line oscillations thus can be expressed in two different forms, either as functions of the sum and difference of time angle ¢ and distance angle w: (¢ ± w), as in (17); or as products of functions of ¢ and functions of w, as in (19). The latter expression usually i::; more convenient to introduce the terminal conditions in stationary waves, !tS oscillations and surges; the former is often more eonvonicnt to show the relation to traveling waves.

In Figs. 35 and 36 are shown oscillograme of such line oscillations. Fig. :~5 gives the oscillation produced by switching 28 miles of IOO-kv. line by high-tension switohes onto a 2500-kw. step-up transformer in a substation at the end of a 153-mile threephase line j Fig. ~H) the oscillation of the same system caused by switching on the low-tension Bide of the step-up transformer.

29. As seen, the phase of current i and voltage e changes progrcssivcly along the line 1, so that at some distance 10 current and voltage are af)() degrees displaced from their values at the starting point, t,}utt is, urn again ill the same phase. This distance 10 is called the WILve length, and is the distance which the electric field

travels during one period to = } of the frequency of oscillation.

As current and voltage vary in phase progressively along the line, the effect. of inductance and of capacity, as represented by the [inductance voltage and capacity current, varies progressively, and the resultant effect of inductance and capacity, that is, the effective inductance and the effective capacity of the circuit, thus arc not the sum of the induc:tincC8 and capacities of all the line elements, but the resultant of the inductances and capacities of all the line elements combined in all phases. That is, the effective inductance and capacity are derived by multiplying the total

inductance and total capacity by avg/cos/, that is, by ~.

7r

LINE OSCILLA'l'IONS.

78 RUW7'RlC DlS('UAlW8S, irA rBS AND [MPU[.Sl<JS.

Instead of Land C, thus enter into the equation of the double-

') I 2 ('

energy oscillation of the line the values " " and ..:.,

'If 'If

In the same manner, instond of the total 1'('HiHtI1tH.~e r and the

2r 2{/

total conductance II, the vulue« and uppoar.

'If 'If

The VahH'H of Zn, Yo., II, cP, and w aro not ('lmnf~I'<l 1I(,1'(·l>y.

The frequency I. however, ('lutug<'H from UlI' value correspond-

ing to the circuit of massed (·lljlIU'it.y, I'''' ,l/ I to the value

, 2 'If V i.e

" \i Ii'

Thus the frequency of osrillntiuu of It trausmissiou line is

I

1

I (1

(20)

where

(21)

If II is the length of til(' lim', or of thut. piece of tlu: line over which the oacillation extends, and we denote by

(22)

the [nductence, capacity, r('sishuwl', and eonductunce per unit, length of line, then

u - ~(t + r!!~)i

that is, the ratl' of dE!(lrl~jtMl' of t.ll(' tranaient, is independent of the length of tho line, and merely dt'ptm<iH on the linn oonstauta per unit length,

It. then is

(2:n

(24)

where

(25)

is a constant of the line construction, but independent of the length

of the line, .

The frequency then il:l

(26)

LINE OSCILL.11'IONS.

79

The frequency f depends upon the length II of the section of line in which the oscillation occurs. That is, the oscillations occurring in a transmission line or other circuit of distributed capacity have no definite frequency, hut any frequency may occur, depending on the length of the circuit section which oscillates (provided that this circuit section is short compared with tho entire length of the circuit, that is, the frequency high compared with the frequency which the oscillation would have if the entire line oscillates as a whole).

If II iH the oscillating lint' He'(~l,i()ll, the wave length of this oscillation is four times the length

(27)

This can \)(' S(,(,11 as follows:

At any point I of til(' oscillating line section ll, the effective

power

1)0 = uvg ei = 0

(28)

iH always zero, sinc« voltage and current aro 90 degrees apart.

The instantaneous POW('l·

1) = ei,

(29)

however, is not. zero, but alternately equal amounts of energy flow first one Wt1Y, then the other way.

Acros» the <'ntis of the oscillating section, however, no energy can flow, otherwise the oscillation would not be limited to this R(let.ion. Thus at. tho two ends of the section, the instantaneous power, and thua ('it.iwr e or i, must continuously })(> zero.

Three <laSeH thUH aro possible:

1. e = () at. both (,11<IH of II;

2. 1::= 0 at. both mil:; of 11;

a. e ""." 0 at om' (111<1, i "'" 0 at. the other end of II.

In tho third caso, i "" () at. 011(' end, e := 0 at the other end of the line' section It, th« potential and current distribution in the line section II must 1)(1 as shown in Fig. 87, A, B, C, etc. That is, II must he a quarter-wave or an odd multiple thereof.

If II is it three-quarters wave, in Fig. 37 H, at the two points C and D the power if! also zero, that is, 11 ecnsista of three separate and

independent oscillating sections, each of the length ~; that is, the

80 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, WAVES AND IMPULSES.

. f '11' . 11 I t Th . th

unit a osci ation IS 3' or a so a quar .er-wave. e same IS e

case in Fig. 370, etc.

In the case 2, i = 0 at both ends of the line, the current and voltage distribution are as sketched in Fig. 38, A, B, C, etc.

That is, in A, the section 11 is 1L half-wave, hut the middle, C, of 11 is a node or point of zero POWPf, and the oscillating unit again is a quarter-wave. In the same way, in Fig. 3SB, the section h consists of 4 quarter-wave units, de.

I

1-------_

I e -_

I

Ai

I

I I

I

.... _ I

......... I

.............. I ..... ,

I Fig. a7.

B

I

cj-, BI

-, I

I.......... I

'.... I

..... __ I

--.,

Fig. :IX.

The same applies to case 1, and it thu» follows that the wave length lo is four times tho length of the osoillation II.

30. Substituting lo = 4 11 into (2()) gives 1LS the frequency of oscillation

1

l= .

l(lITo

(30)

However, if f = frequency, and v '"" !" velocity of propagation, a

the wave length lo is the distance traveled during one period:

t 1 . d

0== 1"" peno ,

(31)

LINE OSCILLATIONS.

81

thus is

1

lo = vto = --,

af

and, substituting (:32) into (aI), gives

(32)

a = 0"0,

(33)

or

1 1

t/ = - = -'-"':""0.: •

0"0 y'L(,(:o

This gives a VNy important relation between inductance Lo and capacity Co TH'r unit. length, and tho velocity of propagation.

It allows th« calculation of the capacity from the inductance,

(34)

1

Co "'" • , wLo

(85)

and inversely. AH in complex overhead structures the capacity usually iH diffleult to calculate, while the inductance is easily derived, equation (:~5) is useful in calculating the capacity by means of the inductance.

This equation (a5) also allows the calculation of the mutual capacity, and th<'rpi>y the 14at.i(~ induction between circuits, from the mutual magnetic inductance.

The reverse equation,

(36)

is useful in (·.~Lle\llltt.ing til!' inductance of cables from their measured ('.stpaC'it.y, and the' velocity of propagation equation (Ia).

3X. If II is th« length of It line, and its two ends are of different electrical character, u.'! tho ono (1)('11, the other short-circuited, and thereby i "'" 0 nt. one end, () "'" () at the other end, the oscillation of t.his lim' iH a quarter-wave or an odd multiple thereof.

The longest wave which may exist in this circuit has the wave length lo "" 4 ll) and therefore the period to = O"olo = 4 O"Oll, that

is, the frequency I« "'" 4 Ii" This iH called the fu.ndamental wave

0'0 I

of oscillation. In addition thereto, all its odd multiples can exist

as higher harmonics, of the respective wave lengths 2 k l~ 1 and the frequencies (2 k - 1)]0, where k "" 1,2,3 ...

82 In8(T/m' tnscu sncsn. IVA I'NS sso IJfl'[TLS8S,

If tlu-u <p d('llOt!'H t 11(' t.im« anglo and w t 1)(' <iiHtarl<'p angl« of the Iundamentul wavr- that i:-t, 4' 2 If' rt'prt':-«'nlH It ('Olllp!PI!' eyele awl co 27r It ('Olllpl<·1,(1 W!lVI' l('ngt It of t ht' fun<iarnC'utal Wll.VC, till' t imp and diKt lllW(' 1L1I1!:1l'H of t hI' hi"dwr harmonk-s an'

:11/1, a w~
;11/1. t. w~
i q,. 7 .Il, ('fI', A complvx ()l'I('illat JUII. ('olllpril'liuf!; WII V('1'\ of nil jlOHHibl!' froqlH'lll'il'H, I hUM would 1111\'1' t Iii' Iorru

III ('01'1 ttl> ! 11;) 1'111 /I:! ('IIN:l «/I r W i'a)

I II:. ('ON;I I,~ I W 1'i.1 I (a7)

nud tilt' h'ull1h II III' til!' iiIII' 1111'11 i~ !'('IH'!'i'il'utt,d by tilt' angle w~, nwl till' mll'illn! ion (·ulh·1! II 11'1111'/1'1',/1'/11'1' wwillat ian,

If till' tWIIl'tutH of till' li III' I, IUI\'I' till' HaitII' l'il'dri('lti ('harltC'-

tl'l'il'lt it"l'l. tllltt " I) III !lolbl'lIds. Of i U, till' Illngl'st. 1)l)I'lHihle

WILVI' lUll'< th,' h'llJ.tth I.. 21,. !tw! till' fl'C'q HI'II I')'

til' auy rnultipl« (odd or I'V"II i Ilw!'l'''(,

It' t lu-u .. 0, alld "" Itjl;lIill n,!u'I'''''1I1 till' 111111' lUll I tl)l· ditlt.ltllee ullj.tll')l of IIII' fUlltinllll'II1111 WII\'I', il 1IIII'IIIIIIIiI'~ 1m VI' t III' ,,~:;p('(:ti\'E' Hull' nlill dil'illuU'!' III1j,th'"

~ ,t" ' .
.. ' ~,j~
:1.:" :1
I'il, I pi", mul till' !I'II~lh I, of IIII' IIIII' ni'!{'illllt iuu i~ Till' half ,WIn'I' hllrmlillil''', Illid t IlI'rf'h,\' 11m ~

hnlf wnw' Ilirrl'l"~ III!' 111111'1',

l~llUj,tiun!l lUll! CIK nfl' of

lI'l stnd the

"lIlIllIill" j'\I'1I IV' wi.,11 IV! 0Il<i IL WIl \'1' 141m pi" ill which nile

LINE OSCILLATIONS.

sa

usually are more conveniently resolved into the forro of equation (19).

At extremely high frequencies (2 k -1)1, that is, for very large values of k, the successive harmonies arc so close together that a very small variation of the line' ccnstauts eauses them to overlap, and as the line constants are not perfectly constant, hut may vary slightly with the voltage, current, otc., it follows t.hat at very high frequencies the line responds to any frequency, has no definite frequency of oscillation, but oscillations can exist of any frequency, provided this frequency is sufficiently high. 'Thus in long transmission lines, resonance phenomena can occur only with moderate frequencies, but not with frequencies of hundred thousands or millions of cycles,

32. The line constants ro, {fo, 1.,0, Co are given per unit length, as per cm., mile, 1000 feet, etc,

The most convenient unit of length, when dealing with transients in circuits of distributed capacity, is the velocity unit v.

That is, choosing as unit of length the distance of propagation in unit time', or a x 1010 em. in overhead circuits, this gives tJ = 1, and therefore

or

0"0 = v'LoCo = 1, ~

ua, = 1, ~

1 . 1

Co = .. , .. ; Lo = y'"

1-0 Co

(39)

That is, the capacity per unit of length, in velocity measure, is inversely proportional to the inductance. In this velocity unit of length, distances will be represented by X.

Using this unit of length, 0"0 disappears from the equations of the transient.

This velocity unit of length becomes specially useful if the transient extends over different circuit sections, of different constants and therefore different wave lengths, as for instance an overhead line, the underground cable, in which the wave length is about one-half what it is in the overhead line (K = 4) and coiled windings, as the high-potential winding of a transformer, in which the wave length usually is relatively short. In the velocity measure of length, the wave length becomes the- same throughout all these circuit sections, and the investigation is thereby greatly simplified.

84 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, WAVES AND IMPULSES.

Substituting (fo = 1 in equations (:30) and (:31) gives

(40)

to = A(),

1 J= , Ao

and the natural impedance of the line t.hr-u b('eOIlH'H, in velocity

measure,

('0 io

(41)

where eo = maximum voltage', 'io "'" maximum current.

That is, the natural impedance iH tho inductance and tho natural admittance is the eapadt.y, per velocity unit. of length, and is the main charaotcristio constant of th« IiIH'.

The equations of the eurront and voltage of the line oseillation

then consist, by (19), of trigonometric term»

COH 4> C'OH w,

sin 4> ('OH W,

(:os 4> sin w,

sin 4> Hin w,

multiplied with the transient, E- 1<1, unci would thus, in the most general case, be given by an oxpressiou of tho form

i = c "I f al cos 4> (\()H W + 1>1 sin 4> C:OH W + <'I (~OH 4> sin W 1

+ fi1sin¢Hiu wi, ( )

42

e = cut fat' cos 4> eOH w + b/ sin 4> (\01'1 W + ('I' nos ¢ sin w J

+ d/ sin e sin wI,

and its higher harmonics, that is, terms, with 2¢,2w,

34>, aW,

4 cp, 4 w, etc,

In these equations (42), the coefficients a, b, e, d, a', 1>', e', d' are determined by the terminal conditions of the problem, that is, by the values of i and e at all points of the circuit w, at the

LINE OSCILLATIONS.

85

beginning of time, that is, for 1:J = 0, and by the values of i and e at all times t (or cp respectively) at the ends of the circuit, that is, 7r

for t» = ° and w = 2'

For instance, if:

(a) The circuit is open at one end w = 0, that is, the current is zero at all times at this end. That is,

1: = ° for w = 0;

the equations of i then must not contain the terms with cos ca, cos 2 w, etc., as these would not be zero for w = 0. That is, it must be

al = 0, i. = 0, l a2 = 0, b2 = 0,

aa = 0, ba = 0, etc.

(43)

The equation of i contains only the terms with sin w, sin 2 w, etc. Since, however, the voltage e is a maximum where the current i is zero, and inversely, at the point where the current is zero, the voltage must be a maximum; that is, the equations of the voltage must contain only the terms with cos w, cos 2 w, etc. Thus it must be

cr' = 0, dr' = 0, l

C2' = 0, d2' = 0,

ca' = 0, da' = 0, etc.

(44)

Substituting (43) and (44) into (42) gives

i = E-ut i Cl cos cp + dt sin cp I sin w, e = cut f at' cos cp + bt' sin cp I cos w

(45)

and the higher harmonics hereof.

(b) If in addition to (a), the open circuit at one end w = 0,

the line is short-circuited at the other end w = ~, the voltage e must be zero at this latter end. Cos w, cos 3 w, cos 5 w, etc.,

7r

become zero for w = 2' but cos 2 w, cos 4 w, etc., are not zero for

w = ~, and the latter functions thus cannot appear in the expression of e.

86 ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, WAI'BS AND IMPULSES.

That is, the voltage e can contain no even harmonics. If, however, the voltage contains no even harmonics, the current produced by this voltage also can contain no even harmonics. That is, it must be

C2 = 0, d2 = 0, a.;' = 0, {)a' "" 0, l
C4 = 0, d'l = 0, a/ == 0, b/ = 0, Ci6)
e6 = 0, du = 0, aa' = 0, bu' "'" 0, ('k. The complete expression of the stationary oscillation in a circuit open at the end w = 0 and short-circuited at tho end w ess ~ thus would be

i = E-ut 1 (Cl cos cp + d1 sin cp) sin w + (Ca eOH:~ 4> + cia sin a cp) sin S w + ... L

e = cut j (ai' cos cp + bt' sin cp) cos w + (as' eOH a 4> + 1>3' Hill :~ 4» cos3w+ ... I.

(47)

(c) Assuming now as instance that, in such n statlonary oscillation as given by equation (47), the current in titl' circuit is 7;('1'0 at the starting moment. of the transicnf for cp m O. Then the equation of the current can contain l10 terms with ('OH cp, aH t hose would not be zero for cp == o.

That is, it must he

CI "" 0, l

Ca = 0,

Ca "'" 0, ('t('.

At the moment, however, when the current, iK zero, til<' voltugo of the stationary oscillation must be a maximum. AH i 0 for cp = 0, at this moment the voltage (' mUMI, hI.' It maximum, that is, the voltage wave can contain no term» with sin 4>, Hill a 4>, ('t('. This means

(48)

( 4H)

Substituting (48) and (49) into equation (47) giveH

i = CUI! d1 sin cp sin w + <h sin 3 cp sin 3 w + da sin [) 4> sin [) w )

+ ... I, CO)

e = cut 1 al' cos cp cos w+as' cos 3 cp cos 3 w+al cos [) 4> cos [) w a

+ ... j.

LINE OSCILLATIONS.

87

In these equations (50), d and a' are the maximum values of current and of voltage respectively, of the different harmonic waves. Between the maximum values of current, io, and of voltage, eo, of a stationary oscillation exists, however, the relation

~ = Zo • If,

to V C

where Zo is the natural impedance or surge impedance. That is

a' = dzo, (51)

and substituting (51) into (50) gives

i = E-ut 1 d, sin ct> sin w + da sin 3 ct> sin 3 w + d5 sin 5 ct> sin 5 w

+ ... ;, (~2)

e = Zo E-ut f cil cos ct> cos W + d3 cos 3 ct> cos 3 w + d6 cos 5 ct> cos 5 w Q

+ ... I·

(d) If then the distribution of voltage e along the circuit is given at the moment of start of the transient, for instance, the voltage is constant and equals el throughout the entire circuit at the starting moment ct> = 0 of the transient, this gives the relation, by substituting in (.52),

el = Zo cut 1 dl cos W + ds cos 3 w + do cos 5 t» + ... l, (53) for all values of w.

Hercfrom then calculate the values of <iI, cis, d6, etc., in the manner as discussed in <, Engineering Mathematics," Chapter III.

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