Masters in Business Administration-MBA Semester IV OM0009 – Technology Management – 2 Credits Book ID: B0893 Assignment Set-1 (30 Marks
Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions. 11. Discuss various Technology Acquisition alternatives. List the important points to be kept in mind while managing an acquisition of technology.
12. What are the ten tenets? Discuss. With the help of examples, show how we have become /are becoming servants of technology.
13. Explain the five stages of innovation process which is based on the pioneering work of Edward B. Roberts. What are the steps involved in measuring innovative performance? Fall 2010
PERSPECTIVES ON INNOVATION The process of innovation takes into account ali steps leading to the generation and initial utilization of a new or improved invention. In the biomedical area an "invention" might relate to a product, a manufacutring process, or a clinical practice. Innovation requires invention plus exploitation, which comprises such activities as the evaluation of the technology; the focusing of technological development efforts toward particular objectives; the transfer of research results; and the eventual broadbased utilization, dissemination, and diffusion of research outcomes. All of these activities are potential areas of managerial or policy concern for enhancing the rate of outcomes derived from technological innovation. This chapter summarizes the existing empirical literature on the factors influencing successful innovation and extrapolates where possible to the biomedical field. Innovations can be classified into the following overlapping set of typologies: Products vs. processes vs. practices Radical developments vs. incremental changes New items vs. modifications of existing items Industrial goods vs. consumer goods Services
Studies of technological developments in nonbiomedical areas indicate that incremental changes rather than radical innovations dominate. thereby lacking objective outcomes. (The TRACES study (IITRI. But unfortunately. but consists of a biased self-serving sample.1il)l). embodying major and substantive empirical work on biomedical development processes. different factors must affect product innovation--such as in clinical devices or drug entities--than innovation in clinical practice-for example. other than the Comroe-Dripps study. Unfortunately. Historical investigator bias has led to little research being carried out on the processes that affect the development of biomedical tech2-
no I og i . lldy in the r: t )' c lr(li ()l ogy :nd ptiIl -monary advances is a welcome exception to this pattern. Such a practice contributes to an erroneous impression that productive biomedical innovation needs to be the same as making a major breakthrough or winning a Nobel prize. 1968. For example. 1968) contains some relevant cases as well. 1973). on technologies that have been developed in other fields. ( 1977) . Again. the few innovation studies in the biomedical area have generally taken anecdotal evidence from radical developments and have attempted to draw broad-based policy conclusions about the handling of technology development overall(IITRI.) Consequently . Studies of technological developments in nonbiomedical areas indicate that incremental rather than radical innovations dominate research and developmental outcomes.The typologies are a potentially useful approach for analyzing the influences on innovation. Battelle. I. surgical technique or diagnostic approach or therapeutic regimen. this lack of systematic empirical understanding restricts the basis on which either biomedical research programs or policy formation relating to biomedical research and technology can be advanced. most empirical work on innovation is outside the biomedical arena. Nevertheless. Research has also been carried out on technological
-3efforts resulting in new items or new practices versus modifications and improvements of old practices. Yet the latter area has not received even cursory attention from empirical researchers. to focus on successful biomedical innovation demands the combination of empiricism largely from nonbiomedical fields with speculation on the transferability of ideas across to the biomedical area. T'he (Comro . modification and upgrading activities seem to dominate most fields of endeavor in contrast with the creation of
as in Information technology (IT)) is a particular generation of an organization's overall objective(s). Such strategies primarily focus on the technologies themselves and in some cases the people who directly manage those technologies.new entities. Thus. Medical devices and prescription drugs fall into the general category of being called "industrial goods"--products that are turned over to professionals for further use rather than being sold over-the-counter directly to the consumer.
11. and may be written down in a document. Differences in innovation patterns also have been found between industrial and consumer goods. generally. an attempt to understand what influences the development of technology-based innovation. What is Technology Strategy and what is its importance at the corporate level? What are the steps involved in planning Technology Strategies? A Technology strategy (e. Finally.g. and none specifically of medical services. Potts in FruITion (novel) conveys through the book's characters that an IT strategy needs to be focused on creating and measuring business
Masters in Business Administration-MBA Semester IV OM0009 – Technology Management – 2 Credits Book ID: B0893 Assignment Set-2 (30 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. with empirical evidence as the basis. The strategy can be implied from the organization's behaviors towards technology decisions. Answer all the questions. few meaningful empirical studies of innovation activities have been conducted in the area of service delivery. especially in regard to biomedical technology. suffers great weaknesses from lack of data. principles and tactics relating to the technologies that the organization uses.
The five steps are:
1. In this critical first step. ensuring compatibility with existing technology. Other generations of technology-related strategies primarily focus on: the efficiency of the company's spending on technology.value from the business investment in IT. A technology strategy has traditionally been expressed in a document that explains how technology should be utilized as part of an organization's overall corporate strategy and each business strategy. and accurately addressing your organization's unique situation and needs. This step might also include purchasing accessible technology and assistive technology products and identifying internal technology systems that need to be updated to increase accessibility.
. This next step involves the
design and development of technology based on the requirements outlined in Step 2. for example the organization's customers and employees. (Conway. In this step.
2. such that no separate technology strategy exists other than the de facto strategic principle that the organization does not need or have a discreet 'technology strategy'. Often the Information Technology Strategy is led by an organization's Chief Technology Officer (CTO) or equivalent. the strategy is usually formulated by a group of representatives from both the business and from IT. and purchase technology. Sligar 2002). Although many companies write an overall business plan each year.
3. how people. common steps are involved in developing a good accessible technology plan. Accountability varies for an organization's strategies for other classes of technology. develop.
Design. on the full integration of technology-related decisions with the company's strategies and operating plans. Many of the themes described here are based on the steps in Susan Conway's and Char Sligar's book Unlocking Knowledge Assets. In the case of IT. exploit technologies in ways that create value for the organization. Following is a proven five-step plan used in many technology development plans that has simply been applied to accessible technology. and not as traditionally done which is starting with IT and figuring out how to deliver business value. a technology strategy may cover developments somewhere between three and 5 years into the future.
Define the accessible technology strategy.
Developing an Accessible Technology Plan
Although each organization is unique and has unique requirements. you
define how accessible technology fits into your business by identifying a vision and objectives that set the groundwork for the next steps. Thinking through your strategy and requirements will reduce costs and increase efficiency —reducing false-starts. you develop a comprehensive set of
requirements by describing the scope of the accessibility needs of your organization and evaluating the current technology being used.
support employees in their use of technology. What is Technology Forecasting? Explain its role at national and enterprise level. In the last step. you increase
awareness of the accessible technology vision in your organization. Technology Forecasting is one of several ways of "customer validation". identify competing new technologies still in their infancy. but when used in conjunction with other tools.4. focus groups.
13. a greater understanding of the market can be realized.
12. interviews. internet polls and many other tools can be used in conjunction with Technology Forecasting to gain confidence in the market.
Implement and Train.
5. How does technology affect business plan of an organization? Explain with examples. The tools can be used to see how close an existing technology may be to the end of its life. including new
technology. This page identifies a few sources that can be used to learn more about technology forecasting tools and processes. The more blades you use. What purpose does a technology forecast serve? Technological Forecasting can be used to decide if the market is really ready for an innovative new product (technology). Do you agree that technology and technology management are part of the total business activity or business plan of an enterprise?
. and for many other purposes. prototypes. This step also involves increasing awareness among employees about the availability of accessible technology and training employees on how to use the accessibility features. Prospective customer identification. field testing. the higher your probability of reaching a correct decision. and evaluate success and opportunities for improvement. it is rolled out to the organization.determining if customers will really buy an innovative new product or not. Technology Forecasting should not be used alone to "prove the market". provide insights into possible adoption rates of the new technology (forecast sales).
Maintain technology and continue learning. Technological Forecasting is just another blade of the market research pocket knife. Once the accessible technology is in place. test marketing.