Green computing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search Green computing or green IT, refers to environmentally sustainable computing or IT. In the article Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices, San Murugesan defines the field of green computing as "the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems—efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment."[1] The goals of green computing are similar to green chemistry; reduce the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote the recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste. Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

• •

1 Origins 2 Regulations and industry initiatives o 2.1 Government o 2.2 Industry 3 Approaches to green computing o 3.1 Product longevity o 3.2 Software and deployment optimization  3.2.1 Algorithmic efficiency  3.2.2 Resource allocation  3.2.3 Virtualization  3.2.4 Terminal servers o 3.3 Power management  3.3.1 Data Center Power  3.3.2 Operating system support  3.3.3 Power supply  3.3.4 Storage  3.3.5 Video card  3.3.6 Display o 3.4 Materials recycling o 3.5 Telecommuting 4 Education and Certification o 4.1 Green Computing Degree Programs o 4.2 Green computing certifications

and 2002/96/EC (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive) on waste electrical and electronic . only 20% of initiatives have measurable targets.e. this program was later expanded to include criteria on energy consumption. The European Union's directives 2002/95/EC (Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive). The term "green computing" was probably coined shortly after the Energy Star program began. The Energy Star program was revised in October 2006 to include stricter efficiency requirements for computer equipment. In general.[5][6] Some efforts place responsibility on the manufacturer to dispose of the equipment themselves after it is no longer needed. the environment and climate change. and the use of hazardous materials in construction. along with a tiered ranking system for approved products. there are several USENET posts dating back to 1992 which use the term in this manner. this is called the extended producer responsibility model. This resulted in the widespread adoption of sleep mode among consumer electronics. i. the Swedish organization TCO Development launched the TCO Certification program to promote low magnetic and electrical emissions from CRT-based computer displays. climate control equipment. ergonomics. with government programs tending to include targets more frequently than business associations.[4] [edit] Government Many governmental agencies have continued to implement standards and regulations that encourage green computing.[3] [edit] Regulations and industry initiatives The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has published a survey of over 90 government and industry initiatives on "Green ICTs".S. Environmental Protection Agency launched Energy Star.• • 5 See also 6 References [edit] Origins In 1992. information and communication technologies. The report concludes that initiatives tend to concentrate on the greening ICTs themselves rather than on their actual implementation to tackle global warming and environmental degradation. a voluntary labeling program which is designed to promote and recognize energy-efficiency in monitors.[2] Concurrently. on the reduction of hazardous substances. and other technologies. the U.

which requires all United States Federal agencies to use EPEAT when purchasing computer systems. or require the manufacturers to reclaim the equipment at disposal. The Green Grid has since grown to hundreds of members. APC. Green Comm Challenge is an organization that promotes the development of energy conservation technology and practices in the field of Information and Communications Technology (ICT). The directives placed responsibility on manufacturers for the gathering and recycling of old equipment. and information for reducing PC power consumption. HP. all focused on improving data center efficiency. improve power supply chain.S.23 required and 28 optional . optimize data center hardware and software. President George W. encouraging a focus on efficiency rather than absolute performance. and data center cooling technologies.[8] The statutes either impose an "advance recovery fee" for each unit sold at retail. etc…) In January 2010 the U. Silver or Bronze depending on how many optional criteria they required the substitution of heavy metals and flame retardants like Polybrominated biphenyl and Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in all electronic equipment put on the market starting on July 1.[10] The CSCI provides a catalog of green products from its member organizations. The projects will provide research on the following three areas. The name stems from the World Wildlife Fund's Climate Savers program. Rackable Systems. Microsoft. On 2007-01-24.[9] [edit] Industry • • • • • Climate Savers Computing Initiative (CSCI) is an effort to reduce the electric power consumption of PCs in active and inactive states. The Bill allocated over $70 billion to be invested in green initiatives (renewable energy. when it enlisted as one of the challengers in the 33rd edition of . Green Comm Challenge achieved worldwide notoriety in 2007. The Green500 list rates supercomputers by energy efficiency (megaflops/watt. In 2009 the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (AARA) was signed into legislation by President Obama.[12][13] The Green Grid is a global consortium dedicated to advancing energy efficiency in data centers and business computing ecosystems. SprayCool. It was started on 2007-06-12. It was founded in February 2007 by several key companies in the industry – AMD.[11] The WWF is also a member of the Computing Initiative. Energy Department granted $47 million dollars of the AARA money towards projects that aim to improve the energy efficiency of data centers. Sun Microsystems and VMware.[7] There are currently 26 US States that have established state-wide recycling programs for obsolete computers and consumer electronics equipment. including end users and government organizations. which was launched in 1999. smart grids. IBM.[10] The Green Electronics Council offers the Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) to assist in the purchase of "greener" computing systems. Dell.that measure a product's efficiency and sustainability attributes. Products are rated Gold. energy efficiency. The Council evaluates computing equipment on 51 criteria . 2006. Intel. Bush issued Executive Order 13423.

A solution may also need to address end user satisfaction."[1] Murugesan lays out four paths along which he believes the environmental effects of computing should be addressed:[1] Green use. green design. and networking and communications systems—efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment.[16] Therefore. technologists and entrepreneurs from around the world can be brought together by an exciting vision: building the ultimate renewable energy machine. and return on investment (ROI). "of the power management tools available. regulatory compliance. the biggest contribution to green computing usually is to prolong the equipment's lifetime. and green manufacturing. one of the most powerful may still be simple. manufacturing a new PC makes a far bigger ecological footprint than manufacturing a new RAM module to upgrade an existing one. [14] The SPEC Power is the first industry standard benchmark that measures power consumption in relation to performance for server-class computers. printers. including upgradability and modularity. a green computing initiative must cover all of these areas as well. as such. • [edit] Approaches to green computing In the article Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices."[15] [edit] Product longevity Gartner maintains that the PC manufacturing process accounts for 70 % of the natural resources used in the life cycle of a PC. There are also considerable fiscal motivations for companies to take control of their own power consumption. an effort meant to show how researchers. and associated subsystems—such as monitors.[citation needed] [edit] Software and deployment optimization [edit] Algorithmic efficiency Main article: Algorithmic efficiency . servers. Modern IT systems rely upon a complicated mix of people. common sense. San Murugesan defines the field of green computing as "the study and practice of designing. plain. using. storage devices. a competitive America’s Cup boat. Another report from Gartner recommends to "Look for product longevity. The Transaction Processing Performance Council(TPC) Energy specification augments the existing TPC benchmarks by allowing for optional publications of energy metrics alongside their performance results. green disposal. and disposing of computers. management restructuring. networks and hardware. manufacturing.• the America's Cup. a common upgrade that saves the user having to purchase a new computer." [17] For instance.

it only reduces the cost to the company using it. However. estimated that the average Google search released 7 grams of carbon dioxide (CO₂).[19] [edit] Resource allocation Main article: Resource allocation Algorithms can also be used to route data to data centers where electricity is less expensive. Strictly speaking. the energy efficiency and environmental impact of computing systems and programs has received increased attention. Local availability of renewable energy. As computers have become more numerous and the cost of hardware has declined relative to the cost of energy. or locating them where the heat they produce may be used for other purposes could be factors in green siting decisions. and Akamai have tested an energy allocation algorithm that successfully routes traffic to the location with the cheapest energy costs. A similar approach has also been used to cut energy usage by routing traffic away from data centers experiencing warm weather. a system administrator could combine several physical systems into virtual machines on one single. but was commercialized for x86-compatible computers only in the 1990s. powerful system. arguing instead that a typical search produces only 0. Researchers from MIT. or put in a low power sleep state.[18] However. this allows computers to be shut down to avoid using air conditioning. Google disputes this figure. such as the process of running two or more logical computer systems on one set of physical hardware.The efficiency of algorithms has an impact on the amount of computer resources required for any given computing function and there are many efficiency trade-offs in writing programs. a physicist at Harvard. [edit] Virtualization Main article: Platform virtualization See also: Comparison of platform virtual machines Computer virtualization refers to the abstraction of computer resources. The concept originated with the IBM mainframe operating systems of the 1960s.[20] Larger server centers are sometimes located where energy and land are inexpensive and readily available. in order to facilitate virtualized computing. Intel Corporation and AMD have also built proprietary virtualization enhancements to the x86 instruction set into each of their CPU product lines. this approach does not actually reduce the amount of energy being used. With virtualization. climate that allows outside air to be used for cooling. Several commercial companies and open-source projects now offer software packages to enable a transition to virtual computing. The researchers project up to a 40 percent savings on energy costs if their proposed algorithm were to be deployed. . a similar strategy could be used to direct traffic to rely on energy that is produced in a more environmentally friendly or efficient way. A study by Alex Wissner-Gross. thereby unplugging the original hardware and reducing power and cooling consumption.2 grams of CO₂. Carnegie Mellon University. Virtualization can assist in distributing work so that servers are either busy.

all of the actual computing is done on the server. LongHaul on VIA CPUs. where most components (including the CPU and the system RAM) are turned off. Microsoft Windows.[edit] Terminal servers Main article: Terminal server Terminal servers have also been used in green computing.[citation needed] Some programs allow the user to manually adjust the voltages supplied to the CPU. is a primary focus for proponents of green computing. In addition.[24] These initially provided for stand-by (suspend-to-RAM) and a monitor low power state.[citation needed] There has been an increase in using terminal services with thin clients to create virtual labs. has included limited PC power management features since Windows 95. [edit] Power management Main article: Power management The Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI).[22]. users at a terminal connect to a central server. a system may hibernate. This allows a system to automatically turn off components such as monitors and hard drives after set periods of inactivity. Some CPUs can automatically undervolt the processor depending on the workload. which use up to 1/8 the amount of energy of a normal workstation. allows an operating system to directly control the power-saving aspects of its underlying hardware. which allows a computer's BIOS to control power management functions. When using the system. "PowerNow!"/"Cool'n'Quiet" on AMD chips.[23]. an open industry standard. With the aid of a self-styled ultra efficient evaporative cooling technology.[21]. but the end user experiences the operating system on the terminal. which reduces both the amount of heat produced and electricity consumed. and LongRun with Transmeta processors. Examples of terminal server software include Terminal Services for Windows and the Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP) for the Linux operating system. These can be combined with thin clients. [edit] Operating system support The dominant desktop operating system. this technology is called "SpeedStep" on Intel processors. Windows 2000 was the . Google Inc. which has been criticized for its extra ordinary high energy demand. ACPI is a successor to an earlier Intel-Microsoft standard called Advanced Power Management. Further iterations of Windows added hibernate (suspend-to-disk) and support for the ACPI standard. [edit] Data Center Power Data Center. resulting in a decrease of energy costs and consumption. has been able to reduce its energy consumption to 50% of that of the industry average. This process is called undervolting. The federal government has set a minimum 10% reduction target for data center energy usage by 2011.

power management was not one of those features.[38][39] In response. [edit] Power supply Desktop computer power supplies (PSUs) are generally 70–75% efficient. Fusion-io. was repeated in Windows XP. This required major changes to the underlying operating system architecture and a new hardware driver model.[36][37] In a recent case study. anti-insomnia features and enterprise power usage reporting. The prominence of the default High Performance power plan has been reduced with the aim of encouraging users to save power. This approach. MySpace was able to . scheduled power plans. This is probably because the power management settings design relied upon a connected set of per-user and per-machine binary registry values.[28][29] and display panel brightness. 2.[32] As of July 20.[34][35] Unlike hard disk drives.[33] [edit] Storage Smaller form factor (e. less efficient PSUs of the same form factor. managed to reduce the carbon footprint and operating costs of MySpace data centers by 80% while increasing performance speeds beyond that which had been attainable via multiple hard disk drives in Raid 0. The support offered is limited to a single per-computer policy. However. The most significant change in Windows 7 is in the user experience. Windows 2000 also introduced Group Policy. With no moving parts. a technology which allowed administrators to centrally configure most Windows features.g. typically these models are drop-in replacements for older.0certified desktop PSUs must be at least 80% efficient. power consumption may be reduced somewhat for low capacity flash based devices.[25] effectively leaving it up to each user to configure their own power management settings. manufacturers of the world's fastest Solid State Storage devices.first NT based operating system to include power management. processor power management. Most products offer Active Directory integration and per-user/per-machine settings with the more advanced offering multiple power plans. There is a significant market in third-party PC power management software offering features beyond those present in the Windows operating system[30]. The reasons for this design decision by Microsoft are not known.5 inch) hard disk drives often consume less power per gigabyte than physically larger drives. An industry initiative called 80 PLUS certifies PSUs that are at least 80% efficient. which is not compatible with Windows Group Policy. all new Energy Star 4. 2007. and it has resulted in heavy criticism[26] Microsoft significantly improved this in Windows Vista[27] by redesigning the power management system to allow basic configuration by Group Policy.[31] dissipating the remaining energy as heat. Windows 7 retains these limitations but does include refinements for more efficient user of operating system timers. solid-state drives store data in flash memory or DRAM. The most recent release.

and batteries may be recycled as well. Computing supplies. Use motherboard video output .typically low 3D performance and low power. further reducing their carbon footprint. while still providing the benefits of online storage. storage farms have tended to increase in capacity to make more data available online.use a shared terminal.[40] [edit] Video card A fast GPU may be the largest power consumer in a computer. [edit] Materials recycling Main articles: Electronic waste and computer recycling Recycling computing equipment can keep harmful materials such as lead. which reduces the amount of electricity used by the display. Reducing the power consumed by large storage arrays. average wattage or performance per watt. including all their heavy-load servers. and can also replace equipment that otherwise would need to be manufactured.[47] A drawback to many of these schemes is that computers gathered through recycling drives are often shipped to developing countries where environmental standards are less strict than in North America and Europe. such as printer cartridges. Select a GPU based on low idle power. This includes archival and backup data that would formerly have been saved on tape or other offline storage.[42] Fluorescent back-lights also contain mercury. many charities have recently imposed minimum system requirements for donated equipment. The increase in online storage has increased power consumption. mercury. and hexavalent chromium out of landfills.[41] Energy efficient display options include: • • • No video card . is a subject of ongoing research. shared thin client. LCD monitors typically use a cold-cathode fluorescent bulb to provide light for the display.permanently retire several of their servers. whereas LED back-lights do not. [edit] Display CRT monitors typically use more power than LCD monitors. paper. As hard drive prices have fallen. Computer systems that have outlived their particular function can be re-purposed. Some newer displays use an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in place of the fluorescent bulb. They also contain significant amounts of lead.[43] However.[44] Additionally. or desktop sharing software if display required.[48] The Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition . parts from outdated systems may be salvaged and recycled through certain retail outlets[45][46] and municipal or private recycling centers. saving further energy and emissions. or donated to various charities and non-profit organizations.

S. such as emails. or hard drives if there is more than one. [edit] Education and Certification There are a number of colleges that have individual green computing courses and institutions that offer certifications which indirectly encourage green computing techniques. Full fledged green computing degree programs and certifications are currently in their infancy but should grow over time as their definition and importance mature. increased worker satisfaction. reduce the square footage per employee as workers reserve space only when they need it. [edit] Green Computing Degree Programs Degree programs that provide training in a range of information technology concentrations along with sustainable strategies in an effort to educate students how to build and maintain systems while reducing it's negative impact on the environment.estimates that 80% of the post-consumer e-waste collected for recycling is shipped abroad to countries such as China and Pakistan. The savings are significant. such as sales. which can be recovered simply by someone using software that is available freely on the Internet.[51] Other related initiatives. passwords and credit card numbers. reduction of greenhouse gas emissions related to travel. The old storage devices still hold private information.[52] Many types of jobs. VoIP and phone extension mobility also made hot desking more practical. The advantages are many. etc. lighting. consulting. integrate well with this technique. and field service. heat. .[50] [edit] Telecommuting Main article: Telecommuting Teleconferencing and telepresence technologies are often implemented in green computing initiatives.[49] The recycling of old computers raises an important privacy issue. with heat. such as hotelling. and increased profit margins as a result of lower overhead costs for office space. Voice over IP (VoIP) reduces the telephony wiring infrastructure by sharing the existing Ethernet copper. the average annual energy consumption for U. • Metropolitan Community College (Omaha) has an associates degree available in managing green data centers. and physically destroy it or store it somewhere safe. office buildings is over 23 kilowatt hours per square foot. Deletion of a file does not actually remove the file from the hard drive. users should remove the hard drive. Before recycling a computer. and they typically sign a non-disclosure agreement. air conditioning and lighting accounting for 70% of all energy consumed. There are some authorized hardware recycling companies to whom the computer may be given for recycling.

Information Systems Examination Board (ISEB) Foundation Certificate in Green IT is appropriate for showing an overall understanding and awareness of green computing and where its implementation can be beneficial. an electronic waste collection day in New Zealand E-Cycling Electronic waste Electronic Waste Recycling Act Challenging the Chip. including: • • CompTIA Strata Green IT is designed for IT managers to show that they have good knowledge of green IT practices and methods and why it is important to incorporate them into an organization. a book about labor rights and environmental justice in the global electronics industry RoHS Green energy Minimalism (computing) Performance per watt Standby power Hibernation feature (within computer operating systems) Thin client Trashware Data migration Time-sharing Desktop Virtualization Virtual Application IT energy management Power usage effectiveness (PUE) Data center infrastructure efficiency (DCIE) Plug computer Active Power Factor Correction (Active PFC) Energy consumption of computers in the USA Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool Energy Efficient Ethernet Optical interconnect . [edit] Green computing certifications Some certifications demonstrate that an individual has specific green computing knowledge. [edit] See also • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Camara (charity) (Ireland) Digger gold eDay.• Leeds Metropolitan University in the United Kingdom offers a year long graduate course in Green Computing.

EDS. http://yosemite. http://www. "leaving it on?". 2008-03-20.europa. PC Magazine. Retrieved 2010-10-30. ^ Full report: OECD Working Party on the Information Economy. Retrieved EPA. Electronics Take Back Coalition. ^ a b Business Wire (2007-06-12).org/program/press.pdf. http://www. PG&E.” IEEE IT Professional. http://www. January–February 2008. Press release. http://www. Retrieved 2007-09-18. "EPA Announces New Computer Efficiency Requirements". Retrieved 2008-05-03. ^ "TCO takes the initiative in comparative product testing".S.htm.oecd.nsf/a8f952395381d3968525701c005e65b5/113b0c 0647fee41585257210006474f1! 3. pp 24-33. Department of Energy (2010-01-06). Lenovo. 4.00. ^ ^ Jones. Retrieved 2008-05-03. 2. ^ (1992-11-20). World Wildlife Fund and Others to Launch Climate Savers Computing Initiative". 10. 8. 9. ^ "DIRECTIVE 2002/96/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL". http://www. Retrieved on 2007-11-11. EPA. “Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices. 2003-01-27. 5.oecd. ^ a b c San Murugesan. Microsoft. (Web link). U. HP.S.2097558.pcmag. http://www. http://eurlex. Official Journal of the European Union. "Intel and Google Join with Dell.boivie. "Secretary Chu Announces $47 Million to Improve Efficiency in Information Technology and Communications Sectors". . Summary: OECD Working Party on the Information Economy. "How Important Will New Energy Star Be for PC Makers?".org/docs%20open/Toolkit_Legislators/state %20legislation/ "Towards Green ICT strategies: Assessing Policies and Programmes on ICTs and the Environment".1759.e-takeback. comp. Ernesta (2006-10-23). IBM. Bryan (2007-02-22).energy.epa. ^ U. "Executive summary of OECD report".htm. ^ "State Legislation on E-Waste". 7. Retrieved 2008-03-08. Press release. Retrieved 2007-09-18.• • • • • • Light Peak Interconnect bottleneck Optical fiber cable Optical communication Parallel optical interface Sustainable Electronics Initiative (SEI) Sustainable development portal Energy portal Environment portal [edit] References 1.pdf.misc.php?page=2&lang=eng.

deloitte. Deloitte Technology Predictions.".acm. bizarrely."Green Computing. Marguerite (August 18.00. 19. ^ "Windows 7 Processor Power Management". Kushagra Vaid. John M. ^ "Power Management Software for Windows Workstations". http://georgewbush-whitehouse. ^ InfoWorld July 06.1791336.onsitelasermedic. 2009-01-12." Communications of the ACM51(10):11. ^ "Research reveals environmental impact of Google searches." Communications of the ACM51(10):11.ppt. Retrieved 2005-11-21. http://www. 22. ^ "Windows 7 Timer Coalescing". 2009. 30. Google. www.html. 26. Retrieved Retrieved 2007-12-11.pdf. 18. ^ Kurp."Green Computing. Energy. ISBN: 978-1-45030042-1. ^ "Windows Vista Power Management Changes". Retrieved August http://www. ^ ^ "Windows power-saving options are. 29. ^ "The common sense of lean and green IT". Retrieved ^ Green Electronics Council (2007-01-24).liv. Press release." Communications of the ACM51(10):11. http://www. ^ Simon Mingay."Green Computing. ^ Kurp. Patrick. 15. Gartner: 10 Key Elements of a 'Green IT' Strategy. Meikel Poess. http://www. ^ "Powering a Google search".uk/TMTPredictions/technology/Green-and-lean-it-data-centreefficiency. Fox News. http://www. ^ Kurp. .pdf.php. Climate Savers Computing Initiative. 21. 13. "President Bush Requires Federal Agencies to Buy EPEAT Registered Green Electronic Products" (PDF). http://googleblog.windowsitpro. Retrieved 200910-01. 27. ^ "How Windows XP Wasted $25 Billion of Energy". "Executive Order: Strengthening Federal Environmental.climatesaverscomputing.html.treehugger.cfm. http://www. 2009) Stephens. stored in HKEY_CURRENT_USER". Press release.msp x. ^ The White House: Office of the Press Secretary (2007-01-24). Retrieved 2009-01-15. http://portal. 2007. 2009. 16.blogspot. Official Google Blog.html. Evan Haines. ^ "Windows 95 Power Management". ACM. Raghunath Nambiar. http://news.html. ^ "What exactly is the Climate Savers Computing Initiative?". Karl Huppler. ^ "Energy benchmarks: a detailed analysis (e-Energy 2006)". 20. 2006-11-21. 12. and Transportation Management".2933. "Energy-aware Internet routing coming soon".aspx.infoworld.html. http://download. Jr.

html X-bit labs: Faster.pcmag. Staples.silentpcreview. ISBN 0-316-73826-3.2170255.TechTarget 41.31.html. 34.5" IDE Flash hard drive .gov/cleanenergy/documents/sector-meeting/4bi_officebuilding. ^ "Computer Key Product Criteria". 45. "15 Ways to Reinvent Your PC". Lower: Power Consumption and Noise Level of Contemporary Graphics Cards 42. ^ http://www. Retrieved 2007-09-17. Quieter.html. ^ [1][dead link] 40. That's It".com/article145-page1.asp.pdf 39. ^ Mike Chin (2002-09-18).thomasnet. ^ "What Is Green IT?".gov/index. ^ Power Consumption .com/phoenix. ^ Mike Chin (8 March 2004). PC Magazine 26 (17). "Green Tech: Reduce.00. ^ "Cree LED Backlight Solution Lowers Power Consumption of LCD Displays". 169–170. Retrieved 2007-09-17. 47. ^ Super Talent's 2. 35. ^ 80 PLUS 33. ^ Segan. PC Magazine 26 (19): 56.html. http://news. ^ "EPA Office Building Energy Use Profile" (PDF).energystar. battery recycling 48. http://energypriorities. Retrieved 200709-17. ^ IBM chief engineer talks green storage.silentpcreview.5-inches wide?". 2007-07-20. EPA.pcmag. pp. John (2007-09-04). http://www. Retrieved 2007-11-07.asp. http://www. ^ MySecureCyberspace » Green Computing and Privacy Issues 51. ^ http://www.The Tech Report .Page 13 37. "IS the Silent PC Future 2. Energy Star. 50. Back Bay Books. Retrieved 2008-08-02. http://www. Elizabeth (2006).epa.fusionio.pdf. 32. Retrieved 2008-03-17. Daniel (2005-02-28). ^ Delaney. Reuse. http://www.Tom's Hardware: Conventional Hard Drive Obsoletism? Samsung's 32 GB Flash Drive Previewed 38. Inc. ^ "Staples Launches Nationwide Computer and Office Technology Recycling Program". ^ Reuse your electronics through donation » Earth 911 44. http://www. ^ "Goodwill Teams with Electronic Recyclers to Recycle eWaste". "Recommended Hard Drives". paper recycling. ^ Royte. ^ Refilled ink cartridges. 200505-23. "Strong Showing: High-Performance Power Supply Units". . http://earth911. SearchStorage ..1895. Garbage Land: On the Secret Trail of Trash.[dead link] 52. Tom's Hardware. ^ Schuhmann. Sascha (2007-10-02). 2007-0815. http://www. 49.cfm?c=computers.xbitlabs. Retrieved Earth 911. Retrieved 2008-08-02. 2007-05-21.00. Retrieved 2007-09-17.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful