Die spiitr6mische Kais erze und friihe die Vlilkerwanderu inMittel- ()steur und



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Hunnen und Awarcn. Schdlze ..


.rl:grutnn PPrlod.Anliquity 65. \:

Eszter Istvdnoyits, Val\ria Kulcsdr
. . L;t,tot'.\kim Jane. Archea[o8.:'r )':::a.86-87.

ln the research of the Sarmatian Barbaricum of the Carpathian basin :.:ral scholars have been dealing with the question of the Germanic :-.:ence, the objectsof Germanicorigin (panoucz 1941,70; 1950,25g 260; :rv 1980, 94 96; 1987, 76_79; DrNnvEs 1991, 162, 167; MnsrrnnAzv -:5. 150-153; Gonrowsrl 1993, 76; IsrvANovlri,{I(r,rcsAn1993, 33 -:! 34). inteJestcan be easily understood,if we take'into consideration,that . neighbourhoodobviously played an important role in the life of the _r ---:atrans, closed between the Roman Empire and Germanic and _ at the ::,-.:nlg -. Dacian tribes (Gonr,owsK 1993, Fig. 2; IsrvAnovrrs/KL,LCSAR 't, 1) This long lasting neighbourhood was manifested in strong .lt*, : -.:al influence,which was reflected,for example, in Ammianus Marcellinus,s o ,,', talking about frequent allied Barbarian attacks against pannonia lho: r : \.{oesia, stressedthe similarity of customs und *"uporri ; i;;r"* Quadians(Amm. Marc. XVII 1). Of course, it is questionaUle this if -:: was real and how it was formed. --: the time of the occupation of the Great Hungarian plain by -: rtians, -..:"", (euadians) have already been the ;rit uUltunt. (vuauralsJ nav€ alreaoy been lnhabitants of tn" the .Suebians --:rthran basin. Actually, the first mentioning of immigrating Jazygians . rst connected with the information that euadian ki-ng Vannius kept ltian. equestdan escort (facit. Ann. XII 29). : :ginning from this time, the 1,, century AD, a close relationship -::n the Iranian and Germanic population of the Carpathian basin can :served both in written and archaeological sources. Neglecting the ::::ous data of the written sources, us let have a look at the Germanic : :: objects of the Sarmatian Barbaricum. Of course, in thrs case, tnc -rn anses whether these objects got to the Sermaiians as preces of . or as a result of trade. It is not easy to determine this, but in both is real, despite of tle opinion of AoAr"u VuOuyt - I ":\y6e. e/) who, on the basis "::t"^",:,io: of the sprea<i these finds, doubted of


Mt (Pollth Easlern Cat;::


Anliqua 16, 175 196 Silesia

. .:-ii'q. 0n) Vichodoslovenski Pra'

: .:--botanica 22, 11-23. ^-.:.:zo w MaloPolscelvschodniej L;--

' ' ;ttschaft auf den gebirgiSenGeL: -..,tiitkaiserzeillichen Besledlung.'

' ::--ik Przemyski 9, 193 229.


:hat the tracks oi th rls (flvers.VADAY 1987. 15-16).roev 1980. 7) (JAszber6ny-Csegelapos V"r: -' 1980.DINNYEs1991.1992.Jarpathian basin. 2. H6vizgyork .Tiszafiired -::king about the rela .rYEs 1991. Nyiregyhriza. .238 Vai6riaKuicsir EszterIstvdnovits. 1991' 11'' Hortobigy-Poroshet .One of these territories is the Upper T:':region. l'viri. Fig i . Szarvas-L5mer 1989. other Germanic elementsin the neighbc-: hood of the Sarmatians/Alans The other region is the Danube-bendand its surroundings'This reg::: is of a key impbrtance from the point of view of the Sarmatian-Sueb:': (Quadian) relationship.DINNYES . . 6) (Gyulat:--.DINNYES 3. we can see that the) '-: concentrated on the northern border of the Samatian territory and a-. Szatm6r . .: water routes. .IsrvANovlrs/KuLCSAR --:: on both sidesof the track of the future Csrirsz-earthwork Piecesfound off whereas those from the in:= track belonged to Vandaiian find assemblages. S-.Fig 2. I We thank Claus von Camap-Bornheim for kindly Permitting Ds to use his work in p:: 20 50 1 0 0k m . the presence of Van:lians/Victovalians.buckles with double (gabelfdrmigen) tongues (Fig 2. 1-2) (B6k6s-Vizesbin::' T hbulas (type 151 by Almgren Birdnd . 3 I .^--l^t) s NGt0 -L. and secondly..IirvAnovlrs 1990. . Tiszafoldvir . side come fiom Sarmatian milieu (see IsrvANovlrs[(L'l-csAn 1992. rve .2' 3) (fisza":'1991. 17 .braceiets with snakc shaped terminals (Schildkopfarmringe) (Fig 4-5) (Gelej.probably spherical. If we put -:. if they are not of eastern or:. According to her. Geszter6d. marshes :i lrom one historic .relatively well outlined regions. 96-97). Kiszombor . 162): . Sz5diiget-Csorog. i4. ihe objects oI Germar -::Ll6rijfalu-Herpdly.probably bits with big rings .8 Hortobigt: ::ombor. trn our work we would like to focus on these connections in t. H6vizgyrirk .r: halom. these finds are mis: exactly from the Sannatian-Germanic frontier territory..probably fire-irons with a hook shaped end (Debrecen-Hortobigyi-: Tiszavasviri-Paptelekhit. l). Veresegyhiz .. 2. 89-90.96). l3 NyiregiL :Jdldvfr. 2)'fttbvizgy ork. where we have to assume.96).-: .d 3'd centuries we have to mention the following one' .Endr6d-Szuj6kereszt t'':'1 IA1l2 by Kokowski or type 1A by Jonakowski) recently collected b) -v.Tiszafiired. probably arrow-heads with sockets from H6vizgy6rk (Fig 3' (DrM. 8) (I6i<ikszennnikl6s-Surjiin.V.like spike (Hortobrigy. Among the finds that reached the Sarmatian Barbaricuri the end oi the 2. framed pendants.V. Carnap-Bornheimt. Kiskros-Csukrist6-Reckft 1980. Szolnok-Szanda.vA: ' ' (Fig.MrsrsnnAzv 1986): io-called Einsprossenltbeln(type 129 by Almgren .76 80. : :ons.shield bosseswith antenna .if they are not Roman products (F . 68 71).S-shaped necklace hook (Fig. rzgydrk.e are able to reco . In the present paper we try to examine the -i chaeological evidence for Germanic-Iranian contacts..Fig. objecti of Germanic character on a map (Fig.aoian-Germanic contact -: if there was any trade at all. firstly. Fig. This type of shield ens"bolcs county . Kenderes.namely the mea lhe spread of certar .1-\-i i 0 ACVMINCM (^.

er6ny-CsegelaPos VA: ::3! are not of easternor':.' s-ii) recentlYcollectedbt : .VA:'' : :ok-Szanda.mountains etc.If we Put t:: ' we can seethat they a': :::::atian territorYand alc:: :: Barbaricum ::: Sarmatian ones: :-::r:ionthe following .-: not Roman Productsr: 1 : : s : A t ..: :i'rritories is the UPPer I l Le objects of Germanic character in the Sarmatian Barbaricum.hwork. 2.::riLting us to use his work:: .Fl6vizgyork (Fig' l' ::..z . NYiregYhAza..rr-\- . -..utavdri. ioldver. irom one historical period or age to another.DrnrYEs 1991. ihesefinds are mtss::'-::: :erritorY. I . ::r these connections ln : .Fig. 18 .I r. -Csukist6-Rickut . 6) (GYulava'-' .i . .B6k€s-Vizesbrinom.the roads.' 1-2) (B6k6s-VizesbAncBirard .at the tracks of the roacis were formed according to the geograptuc _i (rlvers.Nyiregyheza..iotk . ...D I N N Y E s 9 9 1 . TSKULCSAR 1992'.. that is why the routes were . Endr5d-Szuj6kereszt :..g)6.::..MrsrennAzv1986). and judging fiom ihe anaiogieswith later : are able io reconstruct the line oi some of them.Tiszafiired.19 Trjr<jkszentmikl6sj 20 Veresegyhiiz :: -:s surroundings This :: . lO . 3 . we musi nor forget about a very important rorgel aDour tmportant aspect of o{ : -rns" namely ihe means of transpoftation and trarie .162).IianiaD Germanic contacts in thc Salmatian Barbaricum of the Carpalhian Basin 239 :. :. 'r.16-: : l-.i of the Sarmatlan-sL: ::: n e try to examlne r:' :: n'!acts..kj 8 Hortobdgyj 9 Jlszber6ny-Csegelaposj _ Kenderes.DINNYES 1991. 2. ' (Fic S-'rildkopfarmrinCe) '. : r.-". . On the :re spread of cenain finds.). 3) (Tiszar':'... marshes. _ Gelej.Frg ' '. 14 Szarvas_L6mer halom. 17 . ll _ Kisk6ids..iing about the relationsbetweenthe Sarmatian and Germantctnbes :rpathian basin.mbor.tsdrandj :-::1)'6ijlalu-Herpily.''=*to . Piecesfound ofi : :. 6 _ c). This tYPeof shielder-=: -::r. l3 . l5 _ Szolnok_Szanda.--::es(Fig. I-t is generally ' '-. _ 4 5 Geszter6J.VA: 5: il lrrtobigy.:r : :rC (Debrecen-Hortobdtg": . .hereas those from the i' . :.Tiszavasvdri. -.

:anian-Gerrnanic contacts in l -a 6 i .framed pendantsfrom Tdrokszenlrnikl6s (after VADAY 1989. Pl :: bjt \^.i) at the latest. 7 l 0 rr _--I 5 crr Fig.so-called Einsprosselfibel (type 129 b] Almgren) from Tiszavasviiri (after lsr\'.zl{ \ \ \r. Taf.ffi W@. l 3 . 2).-1*b-. Germanic finds lrom the Sarmatian Barbaricum at the end of the ?-"o-3" c€::I . 6 . 1). 2. . Pl. 4. 2.'i: bracelets with snafte shaped termidals ftom Veresegyhaz 1990. 4). 3). 13.1 t€rra sigillata and co . Taf.ith sockels from Hevjzg] a ::rchers agreethat west_ :re outlined already dur . r .T fibula (type 151 by Almgren) Irom Kenderes (after VADAY 1989.{ f\-li y " -+ . 8 spherical.T fibula (type 151 by Almgren) from Szolnok-Szanda (alter VATAY 1989. 1991.S-shapednecklacehook from Jaszber6ry-Csegelapos Pl.buckles with double tongues lrom H6vizgy6rk (after D:r' MESTERHAZY (after VADA.#{ / n ) 1 Y/E I . but prob -jcted mainly on the basi :-_1. 5 1986. Fig. 7 . r: 2 . Fig.ith big rings lrom He!i: r. 34. ft-]g T@' I t t tLf-\1 l A9 -::'.{ |) t* i 1 @Elffih \IkE$ I -'fi ) g-t{-.

.":i. :. ..":...r \ -'t \1{ .:l. -i..nnlixr"T"#::r. l5j?.':1|1......."jl# "...:T":.je1"..'fi :"T...?l:ff . 1 5 'l l .::j" i"ull.":::'..}.^'!!f j.l.."..i.err r.2-arrowieads .. tbe of Hungarian i"n i.:i.'jff .i ."^..fj..Tr|.lr. n{l...*q.il ' il"":. irffi.-il:.1..i':t'.:?::iil"111 Grear -^d^.ly.l v/€ /'-ti'--. J:.i:'J*:li.'fi sisi//ata and..-1j:: lranian_Germanic contacts the Sarma an in Barbadcumof the Caryalhlan Basrn 241 Fq %-.l'J":iilxl'il./o y 'iil'::l-3*T:'.?^)".:.??:if q rnsocr.i^"#:'... ... .i.r1.. .iJ.l..^ln':.ii-"" "l:'..5).i#jl .i1.. n"'.i.F "rru.--r:rerra .f jg...I"Ai::':i .

sincethe cited public:.: the point of view of this territory. Unfortunately. a..212.'-r of 1957 nobody has been dealing with the question of the finc f Sarmatian character in the Germanic material.. 8) and are char :xceptlons). 7). .probably usedthe rc::s that could have existedthere alreadyin Celtic times. 84). . the Upper Tisza region was crosse: :n two roads among the ones listed above: the track in the directior t Miskolc (SauvoN-ToRoK 1960) and anotherone in the directionof Debr:::r (Finz 1963164. the Ger:: -t: pc.. It seems to us that a: ! same time when the Sarmatian group of the north-eastern corner c: -l Carpathian basin had undergone a serious Germanic influence. 6).:1 of the Upper Tii ' ng Germanic influenc .rolv 1986. I-ugio . -:i the latter furcated behind Debrecen.. 1) (Genrn 1968. this '-:-r has existed until our days. along which a road of '-l direction could have been formed. 4.. With insignificant corrections. Here we have to draw attention to a problan of a sporadic occurr:1-: of the Vandalian/Victovalian materiai at the Upper Tisza region. we car r:: a mostly west-east directed line of break.82 On the basisof recentresearch (Nerern 1985. . 82-83.i 20 50 100 krn strG Fig.:. 3) E -: 1963164. Val6ria Krlcsar ::dan-Germanic contac Aquincum .Miskolc (a branch of this route is the roac the valieysof riversSaj6 and Hernrid)(Fig. similarly to many other areas.' Aquincum . : r 358-359). 4). Intercisa Kecskem6t between and Szentes CsongrAd 1972. Naturally...pulation itself was very quickly . However. Roman objects represent the := basisfor the reconstructionof the roads (Fig. for the modern research. Aquincum . 106) Bologa/Resculum (Genr-rn/V. Far from the Sarmatian territory. from S:. Beside the well k:..r:= This is an evidence for the use of the road for the connections bea. it can be h-:" imagined that these roads were not used in Germanic-Sarmatian relat:. \r. .ologicalmateria. the : --" possible tracks of roads were determined by natural conditions. (KonEcvr 1972.l of .flatvan .rlrn strong stature. (B<ild)(Kor.ro burials with weapons (e.Eszter Istv6flovits. made before the regulation of Tisza.) the majonty of -:-:r objects consists of stray find vessels (Fig. -rnnectlon the northen .47) (Fig. F:. In the n : Carpathian basin the -I this we can add a tr : .Madaras .41) (F re.i: a7) Fig.88 90). Tiszakanyir etc.ur-rnfVaoav1986.Sarmatian" type finds from the 3'd century have been publ.e be well demonstrated in the case of the region called R6tk6z.. At an r' century map (Fig. 4.sarmatised". 5). 4. 4. This :.g. I --::ong Germanic impac -: mentioned.:C belly (IswAruours 1 : iFig. sta:.: Germanic and Sarmatianpopulation.Parthiscum(Szeged) Micia (Genlrn/VADAyl.Kecskem6t Parthiscum(Szeged) Micia (Fig. 4.Their origi .1 fiom the period following the Marcomannic Wars.Szolnok Debrecen Porolissum G. Samatian and Germanic population that moved to the territon J' North East Hungary at the end of the 2'd century.. 4. 5). K6kcse. -:.: East Slovakia ffapudany and Mal6 Trakany) (BLrDrNsKi-KRraKA. if not earlier.KULCSAR 1989.:" In the Upper Tisza region.

Thi: ::. 1 ) ( G A B L E R 9 6 8 .-\.isza regron (with ! : . TO E 5 I A Fig..uINsKi-KRIaKA .Germanic-Sarmatian rela:: --j many other areas..----' z ^ INIERCISA z (fJrrnrn 1985. 5). if not eadier. ::ction the northern origin was again suggested (VoROs1993.-lg. !986. In the north-eastern corner of the Sarmatian Barbaricum -:. the :.:eptlons).::ately. q.:r. V) concentrate along the roads shown . the 1993. influence Thcse strongiy bicont-ai u"*"t. Its shipe suggests possibility the of . :. 3) tf (Bold) ((or. s::: i-.h" Upper Tisza region. :: ogical material oi the settiement of Apagy. this S:rmatian territorY.'*iti. Tab. Fi'e a. .: Wars.2 1 2 : . objectsimported into the Sarmatian barbaricum :: :entioned.: . we ca: . Beside the well i: north-easterncorner i: l:inanic influence. ( K o H E c Y I1 9 7 2 . .{4rh century ({srv.lon called R6tkciz. 4. F: :::r Tisza region was crosse: : :re track in the directio: :: one in the direction of -e---. it can be h:: ::. aiong which a road of -j : s-snificant corrections. in . \{icia (Genrrn/Velev '-:ar moved to the terrltol' ::nrury. However. rng Germanic impacts..A. . from S: ':-i:ny) (Br. At ac ::::rlation of Tisza. ::r: research . was determinedas coming from the same period.lralrian'Germa:lic coltacts in the Sarmatian Barbaricumof the CaryathianBasin 243 ::.: :::: and Szentes 0 20 50 100km aT ..9. ::.::-an objects replesent the .:1em of a sporadic occu:: :: Upper Tisza region.t urp1" ::_-nelly(Isrv.: ior the connectionsbe: . . 8) ald are characteristicmainly for the Upper f. . narnely bone retrains ol:-r suong stature. iarpathian basin they appear relatively concentrated as it was shown - ::. since the cited ----. .?::olissum S::ged) ."T:ni".* : --.Nolrrs :ris^we can add a type of pottery frequently found in the Sarmatian .iNovns 1993..44]. The roads of Sarmalian Barbaricum : : century have been Publ.r of this route is the roac 1 r .:ic times. 4.Their origin is dated as the 3. natural conditions. probablYused the rC:.Micia (Fig.

."-.''! -. . VaEria Kulc!6r haaiat-Germanic cor a( €e€ -1.e F I( .'t' .-a-..i- I t..r . ...t:.rl' ztj . \'. -r{- \._r.'d'- a ---- ..-7 |.Esztet Istvrinovitr..'"''t.

.lranian-Germanic contacts lhe Sarmatian in Barbaricumof the Carpathiantsasin 245 F --.: l/ F tr.* i f . \ ____F .---* -----.'/--) a-) .

. 7. ? ..il. Stra)'find vessels.l-^Ntit:?-:11 Nviresvhiza Esza\: io .DombJrid.Nagyhalesi-telektanva. 6 . 5 .. ""1". : possibly Germanic type: 1 ..Gava..1.."il1'l d"..t- r .i-] rori. Fig.tl I I I -. 12 Nyirtelek ..Bals4 2 -K6taj-Ekhaiom.t"]ltil .-j'e'o.4 r* ..

.* i7 .iranian.Germanic contacts in th€ Sarmatiat Barbarjcum of the Caxpatlian Bastn 24i }U .s i: -.

of one of the main rl or Constantinus.-. pf""i"g of combsor shields sraves. C.--ments : :. : ""f ijffJer. can be iecognised. in its tendency. we cann 1 . : a l i n g o f G e r m a n i ca n . but -" pW"O "f [oad.pr.-uni" people. :.^h-:f tP.11 of the Great }{unga :rinate desPite of the in .nd a lor of garbage: -:erranean. dernonstrated by the... ( r.na shield (IsrvANovlrs/K ' -:could be observed.11*''1"-.. .qu?n:.f this ciemographi"boo- firruaoU'Tirrut*Ad{iszavalkgroupfindsshowsdeepchanges'theGen:: be found not only in the n: "un new immigrating population-. . of the Cs<jrsz Today in the Upper T' piuin uni the closedforest-steppe' r.ipli.. and its border characterin ihe spread.".il.. .r!3 graves..if'"i. 'h: m"at"riat ]l::.luu:.. this area musi have included --:: ". s t o r a g eP i t s a t . lSga or comb(fromTiszavasviri. :i1e oven. materialsl and partly by the increasing r:came dominant i the s: . cirscof ihe Pits an. . mor. Recently.'* *" srrcc"ed"din locaiising the Vandalian Sarm-a-. . in was not customary caseof Sarma--:c iir.rt in itre arrival of a .y short in. thai \:-r- a"rillii..."ri"".alley of river IPoIY an ...iai of the Sarmatian/Aianic newcomers of the 4'n c-: influenced by the Marosszentanna/Sintana de Mureq-Cherniahov number of burials -*. whether it was during the . -:-ning the houses \\: -.again -: time of building the Cs: a territory of key lrnportance ln the came Dioclel::: reign ouffn.. istones coming frc:l . also PlaYeda dele -.fromtheendofthe3dcentury'pc::: materialcharacteristicexclusivelyforSarmatianswasspreadoff: were not prese:frontier.-ures of a Germanic s ' . being a subject graves of the Hortobigy-Poro'-e by such finds as the o"* b. . (some housesa . Sannatian scttleme : wc found a iarEic . etc'' $:"*purrd. : ::i1 recent tlmes we u.^lt- The ri tn. iior '::1aces.. the presence of 1990'88) in the gr: : IsrvAr'rovtrs . tl""...lts or pebbles or:: :yer of smoothed c. a of the so-:: Sio"" tft" middie of the 41hcentury.#bi"g"s. characterised Ny.\ro (or ihree). ad 46 s h . for example. . Atthesametime.:' of the Gieat . soils So' the r: bv wind-blown. "i.i of numerous stuc':Listed above Germanic impacts. the appearance lntenslve' influence revcaling new features and becomtng more at the Iranian popu':: nographic boom ln this period.Germanic" features of the find assernblages Tisza region On thl eve of the Hun invasion. iargestexcavatedsite \i east of the I ."t**: Despite of strong Germanic impacts we.a. ir."t the 4th ce:: fossa system of Csorsz buili at the bcginning of and ". was built later' .:. cng the left bank oi tl : ." .ty.:eri mainlY in Slovakia -rstlysporadic stray fin( .it" probably ii was also use: roie of a border.. associated .. tr : that tle line of the Cscirsz-earthwork.unA fossu system. roai .d the finds from Nyiregyhiza-I-ovaskaszirnya 'pt and :: ".:c settlements."g 4'h century.fi ."u"tut "no-.i. Usuai.!:ebians only from the n: | -... century was sli:: maie. we obscrvea dcr Hungarian Plain. differing from the customary Sarmatian burial .I:T:t'l r"gi".' .thatistosay. to.i" y' one vallum of the Csorsz can be seen :"11.ometres u....l betweenthese ethnic . Tire system . bui we have evidence mainly names of settlements .248 Eszler lstvenovits.i.ot:l of period time on theb."i. :.uion"n. -.huge^.'r . .::ppe fol long centurie ' . -us finds."". excavated Part of ihe . . Val6ria Kulcsir _:nian'Gcrmaniccontactsrn ..t"t"fi"n .?t ":"nu*1?. \f : independently. : this is the largest el --:ary. . ilh..|.: light of this. t]:icn.91t^l-line orto suggest a former existence of an outer vallum-fossa sandy.. the Upper .).! erc. lnto ihe subsoil.pushedwest by the I{un movement' follows the border between-: itseif.

beLween ithese ethnic groups (Fig.. more or lesspurullri tru..:rtr not only in the: ::::.hen covered .::--:iary in caseof Satma:.which js also o typi. just as were tne ..Characteristicand * .:iometres east of the Danube.:1J OVen.iigratingpopulatic:. .r'o (or three). _::afv. re light of this.ong the left bank of the Danube. ::red mainly in Slovakia and published only partly.r. :hat was built later. usuaily strongiy burned.g the reign of Diocle:: -r:: cne of the main :: -: :-: liun movernent. in the track of the future road.-'i.5_6 .valley of river lpoly and at the Danube_bend"*cuuatlor* (MRT l2l.r'ivo b.:. ir :-::.it iound a largc number of (probably Roman) brick lio ston.i .'. .= rro'cs coming rro'r a nearby hilr) obviouslv uscd ibr constr usLroi:r .. :: Today in the UPPer . .:-: rhe Vandalian-Sarm :r. who ciominatei : teppe for long centuries and exceedcd in number the Gcrmanic --lation.:ous finds. so for the present ':: this is the largest excavatedSuebian site known in the terntor. . we cannot be surprised by the fact that tn the flrd ' of the Great l{ungarian piain buriars with Iranian 'te continue "iral r -rminare despite of the increasing number of Germanic obiects found lse graves. Ceepchanges.Suebiansonly from the data of written sources.:nocpendently..:::blages were not prese:'-': per Tisza region agair I :::ne of building the Cr: . -rS erc.: la seen neaf Tisza\:i' .rllces.had a very significanr lmpact on : '' :aiing of Germanic and sarmatian just on lhe border territory sites ..). :. Most of the houseswere .. they . The : . the border betwee:. road construction works between Budapest and .-.cr of smoothed ciay..:rres of a Germanic settlement were unearthed.ri:. were :. tir* ) lnnailan scttlementsof this age. in . ^-^ +L1^f+ L^-i -.:. E. In Flungary we ..r:3rranean. heiwecn hAoa -+L-. :: vallum-fossa line c: -:. the .rritory oi. associated mainly with the euadian material culture. of r -::pPearance the s.{K the gr: 88) r..Usually l or storage plts at one or two of the corners.:. On the whoie te.ans was sPread off : .:isments (some housesand garbagepits) from conducted ::.c.on u" :rsc of the pits and ovens. : iargestexcavatedsite was found near V6. .: -:niy soils. or pebbles(or there was a combination of both) 1..r'askaszirnya etc. without a connectionto this or that housc. . at a site called Cscirogi_r6t.rs 1990.rd a lot of garbageandfor storagepits. . MRT 117.Ihei.:lg*tJ. .r. : .ut ?"otu.....-: : --: shield (IsrvANovrrs.: t-ettiements. !:I rranian-Cermanic contacts in ihe Sarmatian Barbaricum of the Carpathjat Besin 249 >j:j3ct of numerous stuc::! :! rf ihe l{ortobigY-Poros:- :'--. .ry .. thc .rtil recent times rve were able to study the relations of Sarmatians t ._r- . also playcd a determiningrole in the formation of this curture. :: Mureq-Cherniahov: 'r excavated part of the settlernent included ig dwelling houses. :::: basis of the relativell :: a: . had 44 symmetrically situated pole_holestypical for . their bottom was covercd with a layer oi...og tire houscs we can observe somc regularity. Herc. ::::rry Sarmatian burial :: .^ 9).the G:: : . Iranians. So. -.':ng number of burjrl -..: : Decame dominant in the steppeand its vicinity. The system of the fireplacesis very similar to-tir" ou"rx . and also one or '. \r'h:. ames of settlement: ': -:-rd of archaeologica.:ve to assume thar \': :: :n the Upper Tisza re.rnrc the subsoil. namely.l to.:ostly sporadic stray finds coming from field surveys and small parts :. Recently.. they were supplied with one or Lwo gar_ .ij-rnnlng of the 4th c. :tore intensive.

iron. we could see that the composition of the finds-is or Samajority of ceramic and bronze finds comcs either from Roman lmporte: impo.1994' a big iron fibula with lnvertecl half of 4'h centur" r to dlfin" the end of the settlementas the seconci even iater.Eszter Islvdnovits.o-" itug.. consists of Roman provincial material is strikingly rich' It of pebbles fig. tt is noticeablethat the inhabitantsof the settlement provincesnot only decoratedfine war: Fannonia and other Roman but simple cooking pots "! 'was usual in the Sarmatian settlements). etiong-tfte few finds there are bone combs. incised lines or X-patterns We have with thin walls.Tzf II) 71) a-'r foot (lsrvANovrrs/Kur-csAR. their polisheds:: f nere ar-"somc fragmentsof vessels clay (Fi. very spec:= So. 11. but also grainy wheel-made ceramlc:s addition of talc in the clay. biconical decoration. of consisred three compoi::3 Ithe find material of the settlement ian Sarmal and Roman provinciaiobjects' Cermantc.Lemenl bedatednotiatelthanthebeginningo|the2"dcentury(D4nno.several bronze fibulae. knob etc ) about the Sarmatian material composed mainly of pottery is of typical Sarmatlan amount as the Roman provincial part' It consists pots wheel-made ceramics and ruder. raninding of gen"rallyused Gemanic forms and material of knile-' f. 'fhe table.' iron handle of a probably wooden bucket (Fig 12' glass bead with knee fibulae of Germanic type. Rtidchenterzierun key (Fig -fragrnents of glass vessels. and storage vessels:l dominance of Sarmatian cooking. it could be equally man1c.spurs' i 1' 3 4)' the so-. r Determined by D6nes Gabler.Rhein::: fragments of terra sigillata (mostly from the Westerndorf Gallia3) anc: workshops and some pleces coming from Central g and s-decorated vesseis (stamped decoration. explainedby a very close neighbourhood' l Photos madc bY Tibor Kddas. 10."n. ': 30 45 60km -: of sites at the Danube t . 1)..loonnr 1992.r (Fig l0 2r) :rc tr992). Vai6ria Kulcsir -:dnian Germanic conlacts in -I On the basisof a stronglyprofiled fibula the earliestsett. A part of the rude hand-made Sarmatran anc -r difficult to determine ethnically. fragrnents of decorations (torques. a 1ong. bowls and mortaria' several h-: . numerous -: Surprisingly enough. cooking pots made of grey ciay with addition of glazed jugs. iron piecesof t egulas. and.t.I{oman glazed pottcrv (N.i:. the Germanic hnds are the least pots decorated include exciJsluely hand-made pottery: mostly rude also severalpo: dots €ig..

. rude pots decorated ..k n i v e : -:.:.c 2d century @4lnot '. in the S _ a r m a t t a n r b a r i c u m Bd ol. Il) (Fig.re the least numerous.lanc : t I : : ::-: finds is very spec-..l .tne Carp:thrinBa. n b s .t .\\.Iai. Csdrdg. 10.: ': ...n ..rn 251 r.: ..) :: pottery is about thc . DleCIS. .\'esterndorfand Rhetr.: ri:eai rranian-Cermanic conlacts -: iilc earliest settiement.-m^rtrria ccvcrrl h - = . : . .'-..sis typical Sarmatian: of ::liny wheel-madepots .: f entral Galliar.: .llc iheir n^lich. -.T .r . .-:rpie cooking pors . . 2)1 .- -: rrC material of clay (Fig : : . is. .::ond half of 4rh centurr. I _ Wric. :..KuLcsAR1994. -. _ 2 Szddlig€t..r from Roman or Sa= ' _ i. 71) a.. decorated fine wa:: -: . Csrirdgi_r6t. i r o n s p u r s . .': ..: of sites at *re Danube bend.. J _ F6t . -:: hand-madeceramic is :: :qually Sarmatian anc : : . ii e have also severalpot .etf llfrenr .lnc SIOrage vessels - . knob etc.n-^'r= -5 30 45 60 km :. . of pebbles (Fig.

252 fszter lslvenovits. Csdrclgi-iel Fig. l . i0. finds froni Vic. Val[ri: tr-uicsir J-E ]I lr_E-D t r:f l ig.

Csdrdgi_r6t .. Finds from Vdc. J1. -.csal r [ L u Fr'g..

. 12. : ":r :-: qucstion of the ownin. .r ::nt near V6c.Csorci ' beginning of the 3'" -'.unean. remains of a dish a . Roman provin . ^ther fnm nf tmr 'lanic pottery. ::ap of the known Sueb . Csdrdgi-ret -.:e of an also Germanic ( '.. Germanic site can b Fig. -rreiesting problern of : ::onally. but marked a traditio .. -earthwork (vallum anc ... profiled fibula with .fha ^ffipferv ihrr .Eszter lsfienovits. i ncxt site to be mentione . .: of the Upper Tisza re . : succeeded ' -:s ctc. A '.::d. the chror .3nt.. I r' _.rrc features of this si: :iphic observationsit se -..rlt 400 m north of the ::lernent features. Finds ftom v6c. but not in such: . of terra sigillata.ing made by Kalalin Boi .'nfortunately. . .some Germanic objeci -:.the comrnon opln :-eir Gcrmanic neighbour '.:rkeri by the Csorsz. r finds and much less in only in finiir ..: about 20 km north oi ': course of the rescueer. We could also ob :roken spindle whorls e -I this site was not u: IE-I .. .usthave been contemp -: The cemeteryof Szodlig . very sir : 17).. in Sz5dliget. Val6ria Kulcsar ::rian-Germanic contacts in ti-: . : we found a Sarmatian c -.

:r this site was not used as a constant settlemenr. the one found near Vric (Fig.) and placesof firel All ih. -:. We could also observeconcentration of garbagelsheras.. . of terra sigillata.. -: course of the rescueexcavalons connected with road construction .-:::.url Cscir6gi-ret .r finds and much lessintensive in featurescomparing rviri-in.-:ut 400 m north of the Csrirsz F.*. but judging iro::lphic observationsit seems.2-earthwork (vaiium and fossa).anlc pottery. which was built oniv rn tne 4.. but not in such a great number and variety u. * *" _rlO just see it .'. the cemetery.e. remainsof a dish and some potsherds) that rei.some Germanic objects (ceramicbowl togetherwith a bronze -. Oo . remarkablefeature A of this siie rs tnat we . l .:e of the Tisza region.rurn fur". ':ronarly. it could U" with the ::ni near Vd.nO of _ .that the settlem.Thls siic n muctt ' .llnril"d \rerrnanlc tlectn be dltcd to rhe 2 . The settlementut Vac. J.arrimai :roken spindle whorls etc. 24) fibula with triangular foot (Fig.unearthed in 1995.the comnon opinion was that the border betweensamatians ' '..l rromenr. th" p. the chronoiogical relation between Sa. :ap of the known Suebiansitesin the Barbaricum. 14. but marked a traditional line of frontier. I I ' I ': next stte to be mentioned was found during the same rescueworks. orr.e aiso Germanic1Fig.pathian of Uasin255 :arked by the Cscirsz.::lAST*rT!ry Sarmaljan Barbaricum rhe Ca...o rv"tt -: :d.c. Roman Lrnd .r."rrf"ro"n. that is to say..nic features of this site is not clear.stamped ware (Fig. i) (a^o-uro*.. we found a Sarmatiancemeteryabout 2 km south of the Germanic -:enr.-. :::lement features.representthe mosf souilern point .. s J.: . . Sz5dligetis still situatedoutsideof the later border 1n". --:s ctc.".Cscirdg. "orrt*i1io.-atran and .y. l"-"l". ro : succeeded only in finding garbage pits. that is to say.rn jle quesliiln of the owning of the territory rjraws our attention to rhe -rrrerestlng problcm of the ethnic character ol the bordcr region.other form of temporary place of stay.".. in Vu"."ttt"m"nt . no traces oiA*" ing t or. 134)cemeteryo. century AD. Roman provincial and Sarmatian -ut"riui *u.rr.. in ..gi_ret ^Upper i..This cemetery can Ue JatJ io tf." ccnluries D A -:rg nlade by Ka1a1i4 Bodn6r. : 1-7).erto the .an nror^runately. :C about 20 km north of the startmg point of the Csrirszearthwork.r.. people buried ' ::ust have been contemporaries of the inhabitants oi fo" . Cror.cts could :-..-ui "un rne same "of.."*.. -earthworkl .in Szodliget."up!"ur"o "". very similar to.but served as : . in . . t+.of .Dcglnnrngot the 3.'elf Gefmanic neighbourswas somewhere in rhe rine of the rutufe -. 14.

aiong the Pannonian limes.:.sltional role anri .-rmanic(not onli :.atiansanci a group oi Suebians.Empire.existed.. This region. At junction of two territol:'. :ihe future linc of the Cscir:sz(almost the norihern border of : .rere.. :.:1y described by : glcal material of Fig. 13. point to the .lrequently mentlo:: Antique sourcesas close neighboursanci ailies of Sarmatians.nian-Germanicconta .:ed by rnixed pop .:-:e.berr. Fin<is lrom Sz6dliget. the Danube-ben . Csdrdg t{ Summarisingour data gained in the processof the rescueexca. in the surroundingsof Vic therc is a ci the Sarm. bend. 'oordcl r:loseneighboursof the Roman . the lollowing can be assuined.at ieast until building the Csdrsz earthwork.::st) and the mo . the D.no stabic linc cou. is shown by I ::lnanic settlemen -1. Va1€riaKulcs6r :.256 Eszler Istviinovits.

lj . Finds fron F6l.rction of two territor : -r.y . .. rs shown by the dominance of Sarmatian ceramic products at - t."l.exadian) terriiory th" i."rJ "i:J"LScom.. : northern border of : : n Fig. Thii mixture.-.1""'...ble border line cc.. : -' ... : . -:rtly described Roman historians. :: ::ss of the rescueexc: .:T:". or was '.:.T:::^. .rong . .:-r irequently mentl. . bend(Hv6izgycirk. *"tt . or at ieast u-u". veiesegyhiz. by i.:nce."ili"i"J'-.il. "r 9. 14. : :::1" ?T*: euadian ro fact that Sarmarianl!""b-i"" (d..ng (notont). : b e a s s u m e dA t t h e ! .rgical material of the border regron. .::ted by mixed population.-:anran-Germanic contacts in the Sarmatiar Barbaricum of the Carpathien Basjn 257 l -::pest) and the mountainous area of B6rzsdny must have piayed ! -:nsitional role and either changed its owners tany times.1r"1: "..: :s of Sarmatians.i.f "&.. .:" an.the .: : r i w o r k . .T h i s r e g i o n . : y|" .") atiiance. *#. ..lt..:j. : .]="i.rhe presence .

t45-201. Archeol6gia 5. A.. ?ajzsosaenetkezAsek a. Strongly proJiled hrt BarbarIcunt.aiitLtche und militdtis. K.L A hA\)izgji. ':e\r archaeological?ie '. 'r l. (lnj Fig 15.\ KRraKA. i E./KL'LCSAR.EszterIstvdnovits. (Irr) Prot zum lrrhm felalter. ..nyiregyhezi J6sa An.osa AndrAs M zeum .V. V./^/ADAY. szdzadi [rcmn?1 ) iiraves dated by 4./KuLcsAR.1 connnnicer Sar I i ai na .::tlungen im ostlicL . r. Terra sigillatik a Ke[e ljAnak nih'ny kirdlsl Archaeol6Siai ErtesitS D. E. i: apagyi csdszltrkori .''.:. Pannonienund die Kli D. I . B. Val6ria Kulcsdr _. . A nyires i. Die Barbaren ncirdlich . Tefta sigillatd im Bari Budapesl..dan-Getmanic conaac :JCWSKI.i Ibls6-Tiszarridik ie? Jhe ea. J. V. Hroby z doby rinske.tki szannata 22. E.:Jpathian basinl.1 . . Finds from F6t . 356-l( Die spdten krdftig prc rc[atfien und absolute t03 109.lieit Sarmatiar Iiszavasvdrij./KuLcsAR. V.'. .

(ln) A nunizmatika 6s a rdfitudom. Archaeol6giai Ertesit6 95.t)incesand in Barbaticunt.A bafia cun impor_ A:n:k :6.r/sKA. E. Tefta sigillaftk a Kelet-Pannln[dyalszomszbdos barharicumban.ildbeslaltungen im dstlich der Donau gelegenen tsarbaricum des Karpatenbecke!1s].rrs./VADAY.. Slovelrska Archeol6gia 5./KULCSAR. poiitische und militdtische Kontakte.rzarmata Barhtlricumban. und FonlesArchaeologici. szazadi sirok Ti. 69{5.tv!fi tiangular faot in the Roman pra. E.j: _. .rho Calpathian basin]. Jv. 73_85. Hroby z daby rinskej a st'ahownia ndrcdoy y Kapuianach (okr. [Ihe earliest Sarmatian finds of the Uppe. . A nyiregyh6zi j6sa Andrds Mrizeum Evkrinyve 30_32.rrs. 145101.rzarasyaibdl. Budapesr-i SKI. ' Terrasigillataim Bafiaricumz\gischen pahnakien Daz[en. I I l_120.nyok Szeged. . apagli csriszotkotl . Specifijna Nova 9. e:I') probtehe der relativen und absoluten Chronologie ab latekezeit bis zum Fnihmittelatter. lscb. E. T. ' .TLtzaridbk legkorhbbi szarmata leleki _ 2 3. . preiov)./KuLcsAR. szAzadi iremmel keltezeft sirok a Kdrpdt_medencei .. V.:Ts. E. g3-t33. [Sigillater im Ostparnonien benachbarten Barbaricum].V.Einteanderungen. (ln) Prcbleme der rclatiyen und absoluten Chronologieab Laanezeit bk zum Frihmi elalter.Irestkaryaten und das Karyatenbecken .iranian-Germanic coniacts it the Sarmatian Barbadcum oI th€ Carpathian Basin 259 REFERFNCFS : uEJOWSKI.h!n! _kird::e. A. . icraves dated by 46 century's coins lrom the Sarmalian Barbaricum o1.e1?. D. Pajzsos temetkezAseka Dundt6l keletre es6 kdrpit medencei Barbaricumban. A nyftelyhed J6sa Andres Mizeum Evkcinlve 2j_2g. ' .. . Tisza region _ 2d 3d centuty bunals iD Tiszavasv6ril. V. Netv archaeological phenomenain the erhnical picture oJ Eastern Hungary aJter the f. 65 89.rTs. '. t03-109. r:. 27_35. : Die spdten krdftig ptofilie en Fibeln (Almgren Typ g4) in polen. ZI 242. K. Specirnina Nova 9. Studja Comitatensia 22. Krak6w.].larcomannic Sarmatian war.ve 33_35.lrs./KL'LCSAR. . A Fels'. Dle Barbarek nljrdlich der . E.. Alba Reaia 4_5. 9_31. JStrangly proJiled braoches . V. 356-362. lsaimatian gtaves fiom H6vizgydrk]. A nyiregyhdzi :z J6sa Andris Mrizeum Evkdnl.: Paftnonienund die Xlientel-staaten an der Donau. I<rak6\\. [Die kaiserzeitlicheSiedlung in Apagy.SKi-KRICKA. 47_96. A htvizgttirki szortnata Jirok.

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