# Pumps | Engineering Design Encyclopedia

http://www.enggcyclopedia.com/welcome-to-enggcyclopedia/fluid-dynamics/pumps/

Engineering Design Encyclopedia
Free Reference Articles and Calculators for Design Engineers Calculators » Unit Conversion »

Pumps
Pumps can be broadly classified into two basic categories: Centrifugal pumps and Positive Displacement pumps. Centrifugal pumps have rotating equipment parts imparting momentum to the fluid particles which is later converted to pressure. For centrifugal pumps the discharge flowrate and differential head developed in the pumps are strongly dependant on each other. Whereas for positive displacement pumps, the discharge flowrate is nearly independent of the downstream pressure. Depending on the fluid service, the flowrate handled and differential pressure requirements, either of the pump types can be used effectively. Following figure gives an idea of the basic structure of a centrifugal pump.

1 of 7

1/4/2011 7:42 PM

Pumps | Engineering Design Encyclopedia http://www.enggcyclopedia.com/welcome-to-enggcyclopedia/fluid-dynamics/pumps/ Basic structure of a centrifugal pump Positive displacement pumps have different types as indicated in the following figures. Reciprocating piston pump External gear pump 2 of 7 1/4/2011 7:42 PM .

enggcyclopedia.Pumps | Engineering Design Encyclopedia http://www.com/welcome-to-enggcyclopedia/fluid-dynamics/pumps/ Internal gear pump Double screw pump 3 of 7 1/4/2011 7:42 PM .

Pumps | Engineering Design Encyclopedia http://www.enggcyclopedia.com/welcome-to-enggcyclopedia/fluid-dynamics/pumps/ Peristaltic pump Double diaphragm pump in discharge position 4 of 7 1/4/2011 7:42 PM .

But centrifugal pumps have limitations on handling of lower flowrates. Positive displacement can achieve very high differential pressures and hence they are preferred for such applications. Positive displacement pumps are preferred when it comes to low flowrates.Pumps | Engineering Design Encyclopedia http://www.enggcyclopedia. 1. Positive displacement pumps (reciprocating and rotary type) are preferred for handling highly viscous fluids and fluids with entrained gases. 2. Differential pressure head: A single stage centrifugal pump cannot deliver very high discharge pressure unless it is operated at very high speeds. The operation of a positive displacement pump is nearly independent of the discharge pressure encountered downstream. Efficiency: A Centrifugal pump can operate at the best efficiency for a narrow range of flowrate and differential 5 of 7 1/4/2011 7:42 PM . I general. Fluid service handled: Centrifugal pumps are preferred for a wide range of fluids from clean and clear non-abrasive fluids to abrasive fluids with high solid content. which can turn out to be expensive. it can be stated that positive displacement pumps are equipped to handle a wider range of fluids. But centrifugal pumps run into limitations when it comes to handling highly viscous fluids and they have very low tolerance for handling entrained gases. 4.com/welcome-to-enggcyclopedia/fluid-dynamics/pumps/ Turbine pump with positive displacement characteristics When it comes to selecting between centrifugal pumps and positive displacement pumps a number of factors have to be taken into consideration. Flowrates handled: Centrifugal pumps are preferred for handling of higher flowrates. 3.

Rotary pumps have low initial. but they consume lower power. 6. 6 of 7 1/4/2011 7:42 PM . Reciprocating pumps deliver a pulsating flow profile thus requiring a pulsation dampener at the pump discharge. maintenance and power costs. reciprocating pumps are the most expensive alternatives. 7. Costs: Centrifugal pumps are most widely used and regarded as economical. Reciprocating pumps high initial and maintenance cost. Summary: Centrifugal pumps have been found suitable for the widest range of application and are most widely used. They have low initial cost. low maintenance cost but high power cost. entrained gases. A variety of users prefer to use centrifugal pumps because of their familiarity with these pumps.com/welcome-to-enggcyclopedia/fluid-dynamics/pumps/ head values. The comparison done here indicates that often times positive displacement pumps. Rotary type of positive displacement pumps are always an attractive alternative even to the centrifugal pumps. Out of positive displacement pumps. Pulsating flow: Centrifugal pumps deliver a smooth flow.enggcyclopedia. highly viscous fluid. 5. 8. especially the rotary type pumps can prove to be an attractive alternative to centrifugal pumps. In case of positive displacement pumps. The positive displacement pumps are not limited in such ways. Rotary pumps are preferred to reciprocating pumps as they can deliver a smooth flow as well. Space constraints: Centrifugal pumps are compact and require less space compared to reciprocating pumps handling similar flowrates. Use of positive displacement pumps should be specially considered for cases with low flows. rotary type of pumps should be preferred to reciprocating pumps as rotary pumps take up less space. high differential head.Pumps | Engineering Design Encyclopedia http://www.

enggcyclopedia.com/welcome-to-enggcyclopedia/fluid-dynamics/pumps/ Engineering Design Encyclopedia Proudly powered by WordPress. 7 of 7 1/4/2011 7:42 PM .Pumps | Engineering Design Encyclopedia http://www.